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Rotary Kiln Maintenance

Seminar

Kiln Alignment

Kiln Alignment

Alignment Principles
Internal Alignment
Hot Kiln Alignment

Alignment Principles

Kiln Alignment

A kiln is considered aligned when the


center of rotation of the kiln shell at
every support lies on a straight line.

Kiln Alignment

Two Support Kiln


Note that a kiln with only two supports
is always aligned, as there is always a
straight line between two points.

Kiln Alignment

Horizontal Axis

Vertical Axis

A kiln can be misaligned in the


horizontal or in the vertical plane.

Consequences of Misalignment
3902 kN

3597 kN

6491 kN

3067 kN

7048 kN

2815 kN

10 mm

Misalignment changes the loading on the


kiln supports and causes overstressing of
the shell and supports.

Consequences of Misalignment

Misalignment can result in all


of
the
load
being
concentrated on one roller.

Internal Alignment

Internal Alignment

Internal alignment is normally used when


assembling a new kiln. A line of sight is shot
through batter boards marking the kiln centers at
the shell section ends and at the tire locations.

Internal Alignment

New kiln sections usually have steel spider


bracing with precisely marked centers. If
not, wooden batter boards can be prepared.

Internal Alignment

The kiln shells center is found by scribing four


arcs on a target card tacked onto the batter board.

Internal Alignment

Drawing diagonals at the arcs


intersections will locate the center.

Internal Alignment

Removable targets with marked shell centers are


placed at each tire center and shell end. The
theodolites line of sight is marked on the target and
the offset is measured.

Kiln Alignment
Top
Clearance
Tire
centre

S
Kiln
centre

Note that if there is any top clearance present, the tire


center is not the same as the kiln center. Alignment
calculations must take hot running clearance into account.

Correcting Misalignment

Roller
Adjustment

Field Joint
Adjustment

After measurements are taken the kiln is


aligned by adjusting rollers and field joints.

Correcting Misalignment

Moving both rollers horizontally will move


the kiln center by the same amount.

Correcting Misalignment

A2 + B2 = C2
Roller adjustments to correct vertical alignment can
be calculated from the relationship of right triangles.

Correcting Misalignment

Moving one roller horizontally will move the kiln


center horizontally by half and vertically by one
quarter (approximately) of the distance.

Correcting Misalignment

Caution! Moving a roller on the piers


immediately uphill and downhill from the
kiln gear will affect the gear alignment.

Hot Kiln Alignment

Hot Kiln Alignment


Advantages
Measurements and corrections can
be completed while the kiln is
operating.
The data collected indicates the real
conditions as the kiln is operating.
Alignment errors can be corrected
immediately or during a planned kiln
outage.

Hot Kiln Alignment

Mechanical Hot Kiln Survey Method


Laser Kiln Survey (LKS) Method

Hot Kiln Alignment


Both methods utilize a variety of
measured data to determine kilns axis:
Diameter of support rollers and live rings
using electro-mechanical instrument.
Temperature of the support rollers, live
rings and kiln shell.
Creep and clearance between the kiln shell
support pads and live rings.

Mechanical Alignment

Using a theodolite to establish a line of sight


along the kiln, the horizontal distances from the
line of sight to each support roller is measured.

Mechanical Alignment

Tire centre

s
Kiln centre

dleft

dright
c
q
cleft

j
cright

Using an optical level the elevations of


the bearing base frames are determined.

Mechanical Alignment

Elevation
Markers

Elevation markers on kiln piers should


be checked to see if a kiln pier has sunk.

Roller and Tire Circumference

Using a precision measuring wheel and


tachometer the circumference of the roller
and tire are measured.

Roller and Tire Circumference


Magnet

DIGITAL CIRCUMFERENCE OF TIRE

A magnet and magnetic sensor record


start/stop positions. Circumference is read
on the digital readout to 0.1 mm accuracy.

Mechanical Alignment

Line of sight

Using the measurements, and knowing the distance


between supports, a kiln centerline can be constructed
which best fits the existing roller positions.

Mechanical Alignment

s
dleft

c
q
cleft

cright

drightf
j

Laser Kiln Survey

Tire elevation and location can be determined


utilizing a laser theodolite from ground level.

Laser Kiln Survey


Kiln Center Tolerances
Horizontal Plane

1.5 mm

Vertical Plane

2.5 mm

Laser measurement provides the most


accurate method of kiln alignment.

Laser Kiln Survey

Laser Kiln Survey

Laser Kiln Survey

Laser Kiln Survey