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HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY The last theory to be discussed for diagnosing a system is Herzberg’s (1966) motivation-hygiene theory, commonly referred to as his two-factor theory, Herz- berg (1966) identified higher-order needs relating to job content that can raise performance and increase one’s total work output—motivators, such as achieve ment, recognition, challenging work, responsibility, advancement, and growth. Herzberg also delineated lower-order needs that referred to the job environment and context—hygiene factors, such as organizational policies, working condi- tions, interpersonal relations, money, status, security, and personal life. Herzberg found that employees who were dissatisfied with hygiene factors had lower per- formance, Claus and Bailey (1977) conceptualized this theory, as shown in Figure 4-1 (Herzberg, Mausner, Snyderman, 1959) Herzberg's theory is usefull for the nurse manager in identifying insights to the goals and incentives that may satisfy needs according to Maslow’s (1970) hierarchy. For this purpose, Davis (1981) compared Maslow’s need-priority model with Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene model, as shown in Table 45. Heerzberg’s theory, therefore, can be used to amplify the diagnosis made using Maslow’s theory and to provide greater insight into the reasons for the diagnosis. TABLE 4~3 | Argyris’s (1971) Immaturity-Maturity Continuum immature Trait Mature 1. Passive Work attitude 1, Active 2. Dependent Dependence 2. Independent 3. Behaves in a few ways Behavior 3. Behaves in many ways 4. Erratic, shallow interests Interests 4. Deep, strong interests 5. Short time perspective Concern 5. Long time perspective (past and future) 6. Subordinate position Position 6. Equal oF superordinate position 7. Lack of seltawareness Seli-awareness 7. Awareness and self-control TABLE 4-4 | Argyris’s (1971) Immaturity-Maturity Continuum: A Continuum for Diagnosing a System Work Attitude Immature Mature Passive Active Dependence Immature Mature t 4 n r T rr t q Dependent Independent Behavior Immature Mature i 1 n t T zt 7 T a Behaves in few ways Behaves in many ways Iowerests Immature Mature bt 7 7 Erratic, shallow Deep, strong Concern Immature Mature a Short time Long time Perspective Perspective Position Immature Mature T z a Subordinate postion Equal or superordinate Position Self. Awareness owmature Mature FIGURE 4-1 Herzberg’s motivation hygiene (maintenance) theory. Source: Herzberg B, Mausner 8, Snyderman B. The Motivation to Work, ed 2. New York, Wiley, 1959, Reproduced by permission, MOTWATORS HYGIENIC FACTORS (higher-order needs) lower-order need) Job content Job comet (can raise pertormance) (cannot motivate but can become source of disafaction and lower erlonmanee Achievement Recogrivor Wart Responsibility ‘Advancement Growth PERFORMANCE, ON THE JOB: Supension ‘Company policy and “ministration \Warking condtions Interpersonal relations status Job security Salary Fesonal ie TABLE 4-5 Masiow’s Need: Priority Model Motivation- Maintenance Mode! Selfactualization and fulfillment Esteem and status Motivational factors ‘Belonging and social needs Safety and security Maintenance factors Physiological needs Parallels Between Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene (Maintenance) Theory Herzbers’s Work itself ‘Achievement Possibility of growth Responsibility ‘Advancement Recognition Status Relations with supervisors Peet relations| Relations with subordinates Quality of supervision Company policy and administration Job security Working conditions Pay “Source: Davis Human Behavior at Work Organizational Bohavior New Work, McGraw-Hill, 1981, p 60. Reproduced by permission