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Homemade Guns and Homemade Ammo

Homemade Guns and Homemade Ammo


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Published by: BRO.CADENCE on Apr 25, 2010
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, I



by. Ronald B~aJ:Q,wlJ

Th{stlflfJk J$ SGlrd for iJJ.fotmatidl1pqrpo~~s m:t{r. NeilJier -the aUlMrnor rhe' publiSher wilLbe· htildcacl;ountahle%:r-the ~e ur m:wu-se-ojti-ie

informatiOn oon$fiedm -"h_~~ bt'Jqk., .

HOIDeniade. GUilS'Md Hmlilemade Anmtfl! .~. [986 by _-RQ~_~,~B. ~BfO\~ ,

AU tights ~ese"i;~l Nopait:of this boOk rna 1 ~-!l'e]:'if'Qduted OJ SIO:teit in .• 'ilY fwm: wha~oi~Vc-r 'w.l.thQut the priQJF -'Vi~U:en 'consenL of the p:ublisnflr. .. &eYi?w~· ffi1)y qUU1~ bdef ~sagrSWithO.1!il -ibe wrinell

oolilwnt -ohhB -Pl1.btishe.r a~'l!Jo;£ -as JPrqper ~r:edl.t -is g~V~Jt '

PUhIi!l'Uffl;by:' L~;,mpa.nt~: UI1limll:ed P;O. 110x tr9~

Port TO'''-'1li5eli1d. WA 98368

l.oompanics Ullnmited is tl-di\<'lslon-i;],fLoQmpaniI;':S Emerprises, Inc;

ISBN ().~n:n791.39;J,

tili!Jiry 6f ~i1.~f,s_; Qa.ta]ogCard -Ji<oluml)et S:6~~O~35


_ Mft, I '.""."

The _inform{li~:iQfi contain@d in' this- look is 'p,otentiaUy harmful In addntan; h9(n~- re:_Rned I:hemicah' are -,not in their pur,estfmm:" ·and this CQu1cl (;a,l!lS e'in~~abj'ty -land ef'Jati-c performance. A-b.(;I~1~ m~y -or fflay flot;be-l~gW to:m.om:tla,t;tu;r;e

~ he articles d~6.ri.bet._t . .


This bobkrin: RCf ·ly·a\~ C0:tllrJQlr:lie~ -ill.'~rg~l ::activ;i~d ~t is yot:! r r:esponslbiJ~), '~d ode~emt.ii(le ,th:~ ttl~aJJy~ {)~ ybu:T a;tijon'$,. Futther. ~ca:uset I ba;Ve'inOi OOn~ro] over' tlle!i\T'Br~m,"at$bjFl' _ male¥ii~j . took; nI:~IhofI~'I' 'Qf fesjing pfflGedure!81 ,empli@yed'j. i'. ,hereby Qj'sel i{jm ,any r~s:p Oio}!~biJ~ti i~r' ccmsequefJ..ces~c~n.q,Mn·~· h:Qlll the Jjllinicalion o'r c0mptlUndjng. at ,aJlY~, item . d~.$;cnPed in .@~ book. . I eannet. alld, wiU not ;a(;t:~t ~ 1f~~ponS.ibitily fn;rrhis

information and its,' sUOsequCJlt U$~. Thm beok. is sold for

~. t .-', , , ,. ~ :t '~" ;. '. ' . ':.;.~' 'I" 'IO~lQrm atJ,Ohalpil'tp~ o~~y.


Specjal tbank8P ~;f! In o,'~ ~(I SURVIVE tn~az.jne (now GUNS & ACTiON) fOr' pe¥htis~ton to ~~jjnt-m Chapler 5, infor.mat,ion Previ~~~Y ~fu6$h~ -by :ni~~ "A'ariu3J"Y~:Ft;l~" 198'3) in an arlide:;entitred "~Strike Anyu;lhere Amm.o.."

Thanks aliso: til Mr:. 'fwner:,Kirk)'andi 'of Dbde'Gurwilirks, for the many muzz]et6ading· ti,. :aptlearins· in his 5,00 pa,ge DUUe

GUDworkli~ cataJc;i'g. '

The mf~atioq Ql1 ~aJ:ib'eir c:apawliUe'5" iii Qhapter '2 WiM

," • ,< , ••• " '," ", .. '" ., I'" ,r", -To" L

drawn, from $peat!.. IlBIt;J:'a:dJDg·.~a;n.ti, N~m~e, '.Ileh;' utun,

Outdo01 L:iie~" GHA·ml.Bod: by' F. PhiliP. R,ilZt; ,and. fr~ "American Bulllrted Cmtri~ri~'f by. KenW Met&; a regu1ar fe,arnre oi ,G""' .. Dig;est f-.?l' many 1 f.ears.

I m$-Covere(1 t~ .(otrnbla :1,001 1'et9i1~·gwen inc Clit~er' 2;:in ·thre AugtJ!I;t 19BO'issU~ of Amnw. 'It~,appeatoo-'in M' articl~':enlitr~d

'I -., ". r» "fE'U, ..1.0 ' ".y. '. H k.~ :0 c-b 'z .. ('

Rec{;l,! LIt$: - ,""lI-usel" 'Luecfs~) anu;· .. n.,emellh1.!i1· -'-'1" ~o ' ,,~r~.

Tha:nk~ .alse t'OJthe Jnlo~ati" PubliShing' ,Co" (PO·.Box 1004.!~ 'Q~ss.~ TX' '19'7167·0042) 'aniil, Mr. 'r-im Lewis wbQ wru~ Kik'~ti ·tniprPf?i.ed ,~tic 'E:tp'd.i"! ••• J,tcont~i

th . _jJ_ f- '1...+ ",;.:..~_,.. ' ' ' , ,.' 1.:1:,' L'..:", IU" " h ':'::~C~I

e lrW::iil 0 'O .. ~_~ pot:afSlU,iD1· (:m!O,rae ~)~1U.m D'IIIe:,a.c i:U~

sodium c"h1(1rat'll: from tabJe' salt, v~a: ,electroJ'~js;. elaboratW upon in it ~er 6 -co~ th!i..$WQlK.

A similar ttw.ks ,gpes h?' A~Lm F ormldarte!!l, and Mr. Kurl, Saxon 'who wrote 'TI-. Poor Mcm~. J-mne.'Bontl.. ~n it, he, suggest~, -rl~]aimtng pota!$'s.~ 'eWGri1u~ fto:m ffia,k:he •.


CH APT ER I The N~ed For: 11:Q. Bof.! k ,." .. ,', ., ; .•. ,.. 1

R I tles - Sho~su ns _. Flintloeks - PercU;S-$·iol1S- Center' Pi.,(/. - Rtmfire ' ....... B'f-eM Atfici:h - ~.oalrt'g' Bl'(id~s~·~ 80lf AdioM - LeQer A (!ti~l'W .:. P,u.m,p~< ....:..., Auto~~iC'.'l: - .H eQ,d S f'm;;e- T rczjedcJ1:y ~ C((liner F..}:pl~nCltio,n _, Cn.tibet Cap.. ai1ilifies - G,'QJJ;ge",E:Ii"lat:i~tl(}h - Choke - Reooi'l _ St.opp[,ng:· ,,power:

M~kJI'Iir- th4 tflaii;li:du~J P((tfi"~ A§:~#rn,l:i4! - R~mqte Test Pb,j',n,.

CHAPTER, 4\. Va~tj(JIns •..• ' •. , , " , •..• ; , . " .. , .. ' • "" 8·4

p~ .. Dim etUIi91l:S ,.._ S~r:o.~ght~5Med Shells u~ith ·Ri~.· -~ Str'Qli~I:d.:5:idkd; R'imles:s' Shel,ls ,_ Reio[i!l~nl FUn:i$ _ Nec",~d CmUi~'es _ .Reduc~n _, Ar Daubl'e Barire:t - A Mi"z'z;:h~ Lo.~er- Fu;~--.A W...,oden Gun:

CHAPTiER SG:i.,mpowder. '" •..... , .. , ..... , .. , • . . . . .. 1 U

How, it lVOlks: ~ BMck, Powaer'Cms:h~ M,uiC:h Heads, .....;. Rer,f.orman:ce R:al'ing ~ PutasstWTI ChJ'orat'e ,&rSugar _ Sodiul'n c'n,lo:rate & Brit/d, - P,otas~ilW1 PeTf:hlormf, & SWgQ1 ~,SaltPeief &- Sugttr _ thher 6::r~iq:izer"!l ...... , Ada king :& Buy'illS'

SaJ~tet - ~J~dr!!)fysi;{ , " '

" - '~ ,

CHAPTER 6 f'r!meu. '., . " .. ", .. ' . ' ....•... , ... ; " . ~.. 131

Hbuj T'hey Wo,k ~ Sfr~tl :A,hy,where, Ma1~h Tips _- ,Sulfur & PotasslUfn Ghfof." ule ~M&e'llry fulmiJJ'llle~-: ,Sbuf~es .f),'f M~l¢r~ls ' - 'Poilg5~i~m Ch~{!;r,aili! \fl'rom

'~I"", ~LU ,,',.1 Pi" ~_~. . " ni.'~ "',"i~' U':! "",,(}u: n anus :- ',- a.~5,J:Uln ~.rUQ'H .... e

Fr~o:m BJeachL '_ S;o.jliteR.'lf!,g, \tV (frk Har:de;R'. : ed, Primers ,...... Mhj'f~Ms,",;_ S~FfTY!

I P-. •••• :J

CHAPTER '7 ,){jt~~ Sink,Relqad~~,' ., ,. 161

BJ BLIOGRAP HY .. , , " ' ,.. " .'. . .• 1.79


Thilis, book ,wlll tilJ.)i'Q.u ·.)yO"~ ;ta' m~ke~ ~n~t.':gul'!ip,owdt~" ~ primers ~ro@m -eemmcn tn atet;j;a1.'!. N'B krnowl~~le: of ~nemiS,try'~ noceuary. NOlf'is'q fan~:IilJaGhine si1op",Oidinl;lr:y hand tooLi will do.

\tVith this book ~n hapd, anyone wh:6,wdrits;':fir.eannS' Ca'fi' have them _' ~jfb.'nQ nlmus.t~fQf:poHHcal~~~~gio~s~ or ~t.hmc "",-orthi:ness requ,ired,. 'There,w1il1b.e ,peopIti:, (:',am'sI,;U"ej 'wb~ ,Will question the,· widom cd, rna~htg this 'U:dQr.f:llat~n so. "readily available, l'ne&l}h~' ,few, parag:r:~#~his ,a;d~'r~8 ~'eq~eew;s:,

My justl:fiOOt:ion.' has, tQree, ',mai~ pro:iiO\sitl6~" ttr's~", fiir'~~~~ are a. kind, rif ,ioollri01o~'. S'ea;mGl, 'tec;hnd~os¥ '~ lbJi: ,gF,eai equalizer, the gt€i'allibera~(}if. ~ThH.d." "technologicaJ:de.v.,eropmen,t goes througlii;"t,ly.;;k'.in .w~h ~t Ii!"fifs~a'ttc~~vet~ Ordy lateJ" does j,t hecomti:a nberator. '. ,

... r .. •

Let me illustrate. Tuday, ,8 '!i\·o:m~an. ,aitgttes with her husb~qd ,and kicks hin1'ro~f. U:s,>cold, io"sh~hlnti, tip 'llie>th~rm:~st:at. 1ft 'contrast, the wom!u'l oi, a hundred y.ears::ago' Wj.ould: ha'w;::faced not a th~QisRl:t",:bht'\:a ~~ack 'CIt firewood ~d"~ .splitt-i,ng m~l •.

. ..." ..

The: h\(sba'ndtod:aiY' i,s pftys~!1!iny :s.tfO~F ,th:a~ hiS' ,w~te;+jut so what? Ah1Jn~~d years ,,,go,,,tbe w'orpah:<~g~ld baive:n~'ed~ themruJi t.o,spiit - the f'ireWoati.. She .i, no .Ionge:r dtepend~nt. What has .equalized tbem~" The {hermg8il'at. The jumace T ~chno](),gy,


Today's wo,manmay deceive heneU irit:otninking that she i$ Wi.ier or mote enl:ighte.ned than her gr,andmotRerl\ I submit that ,tecMol:ogy m;;J.ke~ -, the. mo·d~. wO'm~ul indepe.tj not enligh.tenm'ent And net law. There fl:)!(l$t be a ~techno,log,ilcaj ba$e$uf.l~Qrti'ng the Jaw. The- Equ~Rigld!!, Amf!mhnent~u[d nQt be :~olr~~e in a j.st.ooo •• 8Jse oo.1tp~1biIltWQllicl. be }~l ~ ~ lerch'! sodety·.,

Wl;U;:!1 a ':n,ew 1e.c~notogyis.. first ,Ciis,cQ'vered, .i~ cis. known., to ornlya· f e,w pe.<!ple·and ,thu.s puts pQwer in the hands oi' anly' a f@'W'. b}, th.e .. sh,ort rUll, techno~ogy en5t~ves. Laterea, because, you .~~tt. ·Mf;a_e~i ... ~ely Legjslate·iW'ajnS~ disItGy~r}', ·Of pn;:yun. fore,IBr'lh, ,s:p:r:!ilad' of ide.all, ~h~ ... l!:IgW"'D]d :tlilohno,l&gy is in th~ hands of' IU'MlY,. ~ o,w~ is in the bands o! many. Andi:n th.e ]ung runt all m:eQ' t and 'W'l::HIl~ri) at'~. mare requul" more f-wee, beca.uc!!.e·

~~. ."

firel¥m 1:e~l::i'O"~,g~ bf(;lUg,h~ an utt:irH~tE!. ·~n.d to, ~he eiJa:s,s s,stem in Euf:QPl, But it, Stst _Wffi1t ~.h~olJgh .an, eli:sl'~ ver ph~: ~\'hemAhe·power re:pr€f&mttld. bly the t~clmo!ogy w.a!u,::ontronell

by onJty a .few peopJIil. .

~:9t ,~~1ej ·the P.ea$,anlls' Re~lionja~50da'ted with M:artin ltl~t qccurred .nearly ·~OO, ~~s .a(n: .. (Luther,. yOu may leGaU. jd_ti1!.t~hf!! P r.ore-st,itIIQt RJfott;n.atiQtii .• ) £l unpC'rw;ri"t::r and, 'fh;,eamlls< t:,am~ tp' the fIDeJd 0$ 'batfle ,cd~:rlng I his, Hf~time:. )),uti.i.ng ··th@: poe~sanbsl RebelIion" ~b~ Cerm;an ·~htCfeS~t1ll1.&lI their, -, armie:!\,· 'Vri;tb; .~fiTe a;rm"s,;,~~.~.n the u.~mn'I,ed, p~s ntits:. '

Th~ relreUtcrn 'Wm\' ~t . dOiwn (In: th~ 'hart r1J n:) a;nd. ,seddom cDl1tii1u.t~lt. ~i:raMli!lltS} w¢l"e.~.S,I~llghten!~ by til.e· tbO,UsHnm ... In Carmar" near ,AI.s,a;ce:Lorraine,. one ean' .s,~IU See ~oday, 500 Y$ar's]ater, a. b.!Jge buriall mm.i.nd w~ef~ p~a$aQf badi~s.: were

be~~ up'tP' rot.' . .

O,ver the ~nO~\'.mg· tl\ir,ee ·cenlu;let., li.~.Hu;H'i. tec;lrno,logy . ~pl"ear(f - ~ .. ~i,a teChun!:og:)t .~:F ~U' kia.&!, -_. ~nd men slo~l~ b~ame il'~~:. Sla,v,fWY -,and sed~om trY e~e OJUIL MajQrit)', rul'B:Was m. The ba8i~ ,~f .t-he Ch,iUlge\ was i&:hnoro,gy.

, . Ano~ e1!\ample, oi:weapoos: ted1.nrology etW~aving people ~s the S'panisbc~nque~.t of' Peru .. 'T~. 'cpnqueroll Pizandh;;rd' leg

soldiers (includlng: 67 on h~ba(;:k),a,te~ blades all round" Jess than 20 e...~{!bQW·5, and! .tlue.!\! matcltluck f.i1l~arm8 .: lA'ith thisrag.tag·band of fortune seek'l.m!l he·co.nqJuer,ed anabon of rn~lIions -c ml o:r.g·aniled·' rir~IiQn wlt~ a 'standilJg amry. MId roads an~ ~e.~ples, =,~lJliI:IJJ~)f?OtI&Ctms ~""~ ~t@re··rl,l.n ~ri~ultur,e. But a n..a:l"JQf) ldtbtlmt lst@:~ ~ at; ':ir.,e'u,ms;,· this i,i wMt: happens \v.ben technoiogy ~s cpnitoU~ DY ·a, ~few·~ . "

The .other side 01 .tlie rom was.·~ Ame:r.i€.iU'l· Re¥aliuoon. In that con8ict, everyone had gMl'UW fal'lfJ:eys ·and., hunte'ill' eU'ld, trappers,ahd .' ~)lbrel',s and pioneet$. "Te.chnoJogy :wa<'ii in the hands of mmy. Whli;n th.e :ma:Sse~ .hav,~ pny~icid pb~\~el equ~

to the rulers, aulQcracycahD,at surVive. .

At same ~vl'll .01 cons,cioI:!:!U1eSS~ the' "r amen of the C onstitution. ·n~·aflz:ed ·~hat. .their new·fQuoo indepeniilenee was rooted.in b;;d1~'I2I!lo'!!f~~ 2e11pecially:fu:,@,ann tgc;hnoLQ~. They tr;i~d ta gU~I;I;l1t~~ ;~he co,rtlt~l,1!c';\'n¢€. ,of dta;t _,'recJtnQlQsY" WI;t~ ~be Second Am€l'ndment.

The rigJit ~~.o: b~ar' am';Jii bas, oi' C"o:.u.E1e·, loon i.rifiinged in countless w~ys'. (It s· ~ a.zin.g, w'na,f contradi<l:ti~ons dile lega~ m~nd CaR I:atib~ize.,l But ~h~ inMgt wa:~ dre~,~ .•. 'The fQundetS'of thlS countrY bew from. wli@[).c,e"cinjl'e :their fre·~m. It WaSdlO[ their i,deals lot fheir .t~Litg;iQn •. ~f:Wr aD; Setfdqrri 'Had existerllor centune.s i.n 'Cmistian!' iE'UlOpe~ If. was limnins hed'1lnology .(kal mad~ th-ern r're~~ not Wligion.

\\'he~ ~ecJ:u'f~tQp. ~sin ~e~#.aJoA!li ~i"a .fe .... •• iilifl .afmyu~ tbousands gm·cQnb'_Q~ a P.I?Il,~,atiln;l, of millj'()'n,. {~ou:s.id€!r today"s sih.JaEG~ in o.PQ]a:i:td~ ChiliB, South. Africa, of th.e Phllippines.

\Vba.,.if ~he ,in!f~r~atie,,,. in thjs,bo-~~ wai~ known ~y 'lhe blac ks of South A Er~l:,a?' . Byt.~tlJ Pol&j~ H,. the J e.W:S, in N az'i Germany? :s.ytlhe, citizen., 9f EI·.$wv,adior? Vtr QuId t~ d~alh squads p:rQwf ·'ScO fr:eji]y? ., . ~ .., ., .

] think n.o£~ I beljeve. that. l~ ,~:v~ bwnan 'beJn:y o~ ~arih UI:llderstood t:he ~com.ent:s QLthis bo:,k ,. th~ Int:'OOSi: oJ ':O'"PP):€SSlOn j whlchnllw lreads.o h~V"~Y ~D ".r~ious ~ ·01 the world. wou~d

walk with ,ala." ;]ig'h:!er f~ftdL' " . - .


Th~~!Je,~ition arises,' of Je-ga:1iiy. 108 it; ~g~ to build you.r _; oW'n. :fir-eaflill? To, m:ak~ yOtlr· own g,oopow,der? ,My ongid .. al ifitem' whe:.n compjIin,g ~.hi~s bae:k~ wartO;- ,ga't'h~r;, up the; ~erFi!l1liruJt ~aw;'! oil ~ he ~OFic:"~ p.r"E!slf!n~· th-emfdw the reea.d:er's' 'l~~~f;]t.

kbj~ 'otlegal te8'~a:i'diH'~ve.ai]~ ·tha1t ifs ll.oldhra:t simple. h also r~v{ial!l' that.w:hat th:t:ave:t~~e'it:~pa~~e.r thin~s, abcnlttJi$-;tigln '10 b~a'r. ·:arm ~.i~' 'n eel ~~'t ,a'll · ... ,;~at, tb:e leg",] PJ'(if~&,iri,n· 'thln~ •. "Th~ b~l~imvi:ng,,':I$ 'Q;n t:!<'c€rpt ,O-flHl Ame:ri,t\n1T,Juri5pnH/~iIlj;:..e·.-=: an ~nJ.:yd~~4it1i of l;,lwWrll1e"n by law Y't,;> ni fur 1al'ltyer.s, h is a stand·art!. t~t~f:<!=,nr~, 'book.,

Volume- 19:i~ 'AQ1ef~C~h JlJ'r firP.rqai\',n:(:'~( 2nd r!:,dJ.t ipt1~ \V~(I.p'oh~ mid' ffrea rms,f Secth)·,tl '42: ,~, ~:e, ab.sotul~r~ght to k€:ep ·aOlilJ· bear ~$ was ·.r~c.(J,gJ1!ize.d b,y ;~9mmon. law'" Fui~el'm<)1;et .the ~'e~QndAn,~Dd:mMt ~:d the. (;b:ns!i.tuUQ~ 01' the Ur,rit?d '~,t~lej '~~ d~;]{iI~g . tl;if ·lj1e d,gbt {. r thli' .p~pi.!le, t?; k~ejp apd "b~ .ms shall n€!t· b~ i~l!Jg~d ~.~@'M .lflQJ:nore:· .~~f.I. thotlhia .right :~halJ n~t ~~~. J1JJri.ng@d '~. C'" '~' .an~ the guara,ng' of ~is' Atm;ln~m~l "js .DfJl..~ o:~J,~r' ~gtQthe< f.~tfe~tb AmepdmeIlt s'g ,i}S.)c bf!:<tlPp-Ii"(.:able·tO. 'the,.~al~s. ~ 'i.h~:6ghi·!to bear: ,a.r:trl~s d..-bes·, not ,a1pp1y.· to priva~e" citilfen8 a~.~ an ,mdiv.i"'~.al '~ht ;gUilt arlte:ed by ~ CQJjS,ltt11Jqn: of, 't!'l.e; U ni~d: ~L1t~. Ao~~b"~ ,~' lS"~¢~'ra]1y '~.otignizJ;i:l< t~t" s"tat:e. fJr' mu~~:ipal

~":"".1 i. _'1' . .] .~.. I 'fit. ~ ,Lt' ." hit' . L..:>·,

)'\,~Uladon w weapQIi.!;S ~Qes nOl pel' se ,0 rena • ne .ng" to war

·af~s !i!'~aHteedi by .f,he Uni:ted ':States' ·Const,Hu~ion.

F'; • .4IL· '. "~, tL'" ..... 'a:;: , -.,., "~ f ~'b»" "J.~.,. . I

,:,.,..~llJmmor~~ll~· Je:@"IS!wa!uOll pl\QV'~s~o~. 0, Ii;€. 1''j,m'l!lnill~

Wif~~.5 1\fr:f eann.ot Be~ l":prlsi:d~·r.ed an icifdri:gem~n.f 6£.. t'he federa:! constitutiouid ,g1l.3ral1l:y of' ,t he rigl'4 t-o ke~p .mdt" bear"

ru"mS".'J· . ,-

The' F O.WIlr-t'€e:nth. A.fu eFidm@ot, r-efer'too. ~Ei .'i.n; ~iii,s' fHl$~~el> had to do wifh gjving' ~reed ~Ia>v-afun (;l.i,t,i~enship csmt'D.S, a~ter' .the CivU \\' ar.. b::say:$~ :inparl.' nNo S·(at-e .shc~U make ,1(11" en~Q1'(;e any

la:w whici~ sfi'ai~, abir~die the. p;ivl)'ege:'i" or jmm!ltlri,itie-s Gicit~ecn;B"

,Of the Uhiited S-t,a1:eii •• :~ .

AmerkI7f1 ,Jurls:priiaem::e:i"S na~l. caSualh-" wriUen. Thtdlo¥iO:r ideas from ~{l~teoe~ ~0 :$ e:nt,c,fice' .and""om ;parar$.r~ap~' to' paragraph' ;mak~s, ,stm!H'!j ln~t ~V'eTY' Se!:1t~ie is lpopjO~' ,apd .. rep~$ents a ·$Yltops'isDf. it ~~ant, .CJ1)U.l't i&\~~ E1V'en ~~~: withffi senten ~ ~ar.tl j~otnote'~,. NQ t!ees~andm:g selJt~nc~s: ar-le, thrown in to n''',~ke th~ (;Qfil'lec~Qn th:nn. qne. i~w t,Q Jht: ne?tt

Although ,e~~fy se·n.wh,c)~. iinAm~rji';.~n .Jt.iti,s;p.r:(;Ul~nt~ 'i1" footil 0 ted j ~ am cru~' betow j"tJ;sl (;Ine ~:tllI ;jH.a:n w.l~h anast~r:i!!k

in the above fJ!!]:ot.i!ilion:); ,

Harris v. Stabe; 83Nev 40014; 432 R·Zd $ 2.9,~ 3{1 ,At! 3d 1412.

TheSeeond .~mf:!n J men! w.a,s; not, ade pted . with. IlV'! individual's. rig,js: llil mind. ,bur' ~s 'crprQt&t:ion'far ihe 's~te-.s.:in the mairU elil'a'TI~'~' 'Qj:' tll~r~·JtitiaOwg-~i~a!t':on ,~gaiiH"S_t:piC:'$~}M~ em:;Toa.chm~n:~s 'by,' thet~f~- " PO:Wf.l; IJiidoQ; ,', 5i~s;, 53'·;NJ 86. ,24g A'2'CI i2-I! ~S'A:LR.:d $i9~ app' dismd,39,.t V;$8:.1Z,;

2'2L Ed 2d 'i4'~J89;S: 'c;r 1.486'. ' '. .

l must 11)IdJ~lt. j,tJaxhld ~n.f!~ ttl ii,nd t'"h,e :~b0v:e-qU!~tes. rin

. " ", ",.:,<.,1' 'I::' ] . -, 1.:.:::'1'· ... :. 1L ,f

pro bably . fJlii;IX'~ 'wovmdi"~·1 nao ,tate l;!i noeie"otf.l:: ': ft.!j!: ~ 0 u!Q:)!~, 11

attended a one 'room .scbo~hou$.e ~n!\ 'w¥ $1-~epeq in't":'ural American v,~lJ"eS". t;;tter 1:11 'Ufe! re<ji;eafcbin;g,t:be:]ami:IY.,tr:e;e;'l~ found 8even~ a~~,~s.fri,t~, ·!o'.:hq:it~ug,~,t:~s· ~tri~l~··itt~~e: A~~riicHf1i' Revolution. They pr:l}.b~hl)· 'thQ·u·gJl.t lll;ey Y;;tn;~ (1rg.l1ting tc!, guarant,ee. me-some basic human righls,. 'They mu;'!f be .spi,nning

in their gra Vt"'!-s. '

Thel'~ ~re' ~htee:' J;>rQjbl~m:s [n my. redtitl!ilJor y on the le'iiaJities of makinz y,'our01wn f:i:r~arms .. firs.t, the same;, l~ws' are

~~.. .1

interpreted differently by ~£fefei.:1t people. (No,te tile above disciJ&sion on the Second Amendment) Second, the ~aw may

~ .' -

change~ Jif tnertbHe,Jl(}iU !.~~k1is. And ~w~~ ~ari;D~5 by,~e'a~lS'" o::;~1i14k~r~.dihgg. wbic~ ha:Ve ~e fQrl;;~ Q~ ,[a,w,~

, (}veJ ,t.he: a;~iS.l the: CQ-pus baY:e adupted th!;jt~~q~~.[iff!. of. ':'>st\:rid '.in:re.rp,re~~ijon.'" ~n regam. t'IJ !t;I',hcn:in!al tia"w. Th:iis. m}1!ans~ ~hat :ac ~fSIJ!!l! sheuJd,n.Qt!;re· held. a'tcom:rutarible ~'~U' a ,mffi'lrrna~ ~d withotbt· h~vj~!J[~t ~n~t:i'tetkat ~}te ~t -w,?$"in.d~~~ qitni~~ The" on!y ~aiY to: ~tisl!.r~; ~!~lequ.a&;rh~dte.i$ ·~o mt~pxel ~h~ iaw);J"'lf~~ liier,aUy.

you i\nGitbe;r oom.plh:Ja:lin.g.' fa~b;n·. ~ the Bureau pt· A1cc.dJgJ •. 'fobaoco~ .ar:ud: F.'ir~armS" (BATF) ~ th~ f1(JI~ n plays ·.in ad~~st~pg ~ .~atienalF~'em-~$;A(:l (Nt A).

'the NEA was ~FJao1ed in, {'93'4 as. k.· >Ia,w. l'b¢' NfA m~ke~ j~ Hil;ltg:iJl lro ··p.~.ie';$~.'~Ih:Q!J;f a!!;p . ,~CBF.I~)i!",.: c,trla~

kinds of f]re.arrn~- m;fl"~hiWl~ 5~ .QWed;~ff ~,O!~",W'!·s:, . ."ete~ l'b.ese al'~:~ef,~~t;d -to ;as,\ ·~e:1lp.qns: .. n' T_h~lSh;ttiQn~d Ht1Bar:;ms Ad alse ~¥kJed ~h>attl;Je' aAT¥ w5JuJda~mims~ef these~W.s,~ It i,sup t;o t}ledjr~eto.~~! the· BATF' bil, d~,de IN.hat constitrut~"an NFA_ we~.~. If the ~t~Rr!!t~qn "cnang:es.!, then w'hat is· a legal Q~ iU~~.f· ~1icYltyl.?hilD.ge:8:'

The same ·ki~ Qf,~uestiQR5 ·.~~~p~blem:s- ei~~t ip~ r~.~tk):,;n to making .gU~~f. nlu~.powdt:t i~stllf' i;S .. siDJd. ;~Itb.~lll!f<: r;estrktie:n 'insPQrtmg '-gll'oc1!1" stOffffi. •. Theing-~dients wUl~ wmch b) make l.t~~e- ~blp >s'oJd. W~lh~1!jt 1$t;tjd:i:o~. 'AU tNs.l~p~s:~t it wou1d be .. ,I~g~_l to.nt.a:koe J'Q.UrQYo"O,.

Lees· say Lhat y.(nl.~. tl-i'e read~f "W;Wrtf tn,. kf;l,O<w 'i[ ,it~·,:;: [Illgal t~ make Y(H!r IJw.nJ~Y!npcn~d~. ~h¥~lJu$l)'.; if Yf).'tl,ttInd ':ak:w wl:Uh~; ~ol'b,~ l,t,. theJCI ~r s mQ,t me~~~. ~. ut~ ~f. Y~JJ d~JJ:;t.i;~d ~~.e,~~J ~ ~t there IS' slil~h ill! ~I a~~ ,.y~", iil_~:B;,g;tiLl. bpUnd by]~ w. fi:e:tber',X!::J:l.'l fmL~' .It or net,

The dilem Il)n~ ,;tj]ts; If 'Y~u '~~!l~J.·fin.d Ol1:Elt Wow"i:[~t;yoo :~'QW' j£ tbere 18; ,oiill.d fltpt~r!>jf 'yfJ,u.'d!qi~find ;o~~··h:Qw d;o'·you·b'o~· that it'.s the.mo'8l r-eceti!l Ofle:-?~'T~ese. 'are. Mery thor.1lY .iq~e:$:ti~n:s- ..

Unforlun:ateJ_y:,. my. O~ '~pel'l.Ii!HoOO· is t'~a't d~1!l m~fe.;·t}me .1 spend cill!g)gi~'i'in ~ 1a;W' b!Qok~, llie\~Qte q:uegno~.l·:Gom.ii! I:_tfJ' 'W ith insle'l.:t· 9:f ·.an&W"ef'~.., T@ ·ilui.s(;Jec it futt&~r" (and .1'. ti~'tl¥ recommend tnat. yo'p .oo)~ '~I R'e'a~1i: by-St.ep~eh -£Ua~ !(Nolo rre.si 19:81) :i~ a!t{e~~Utrntl?l.acc;e tOI sf,ad. Ma_y.l say that you havebo~h "'m,y~.~~l~.· ~lts.,rn~ ~\·~~YQ~.~ru:,es':in advance.

.~ iii


I'n'slm,plest li:€!f'll1s, .a.f,i~Elann ct1n~igts' ot·a.bart-:BJ~,a pro'ie<:ti!lf'!! i!lnq adiarg.e i?l;'~;n,p~w·d~,. 'J;.he' pr~~ctlle;lbulllilt.) $J~ t~r9ugh. th~ air and bits, ~he~a.tg'et. T.h@ b.ai:tel ,aims;·'th.eptojet:ijl~>~., guideg, it -:- a.nd·· ,t:raps, :tbe lexpl~i\'e ·"force. 0, libe gUnp'llwder behind fh~ buHet GlJ~powde[ proviides ,tb~ dt.iving ~.~rrce fot th~· bullet.

l~ . v~ry.· ~·a:r:~Y go"",,s!.. tbe .b~[:~ 1'f. ~'S'slnlP[Y .:t.i tnJB~al ~llb'li!l el~~~ .at~he"iiln.d' IQ tt<llP the ei.=liplQ$~v~. !Q.m~.·df the giwnPlJlwd"~r aRd. open' at the other to le~.thebunet escape, 'The· ~l1$lde' slD'fate af tb~ 'tubewa.s . smooth. 5uell gullS had limited acwracy by tQday~s' stan~rds. ' . . . ':


An und,entandlng of. ar·chtilry helps . in understanding, firearms. Tn.1i;! ~,eat,~r!l, on the b.ack·ofan anq,w are not attaEhed ~ijl~llI~; .. 't·~)·)lqaft. ~~cr~'~1 are W.Q1Jnted',·a( ~n, angle. Wllen lh~, itTrpW is. ,&hot} aD-.l1li~in~ ;p,~t~h:e,'~f@"d feathers. f'oT~e:s ale' ~rQiw. ~o spin w.l~lle In. ':fl~~M, simiiar· toB,:, foOtball spiraling 'aJbuut; its: latElf'al' ali;J~. A. :;;;p,jr:~!!:"~t;bBJ.I, ,or arrow,: nie~ l:nUili" :[6 lhe mali, ihiJn clci@s;: a.n.on.sp'Widing.

projed:i1~. .. •.

H-·"· k' h b 1" ' " ". T' II.. • " ii"l~' ,.,

ow to ma.@ .t .. fj! '~.n~ s:put! . _ EJe ~wef"lS m .' lUling . -,

spiral grOQ;ves' cut .into the ~nsid~ or tHe' ~ bflr,rel. Tile g):bQ~es, bite into the $9fn~ad 'bul.let andgiy;e it a tWiSt before it e~it.s :thB

muzzle.," ". ,

."" , • .••• • :J • ~. ~ • ) ,,_, • _ ,~ • • •• _ J ~ r" .,~) __ ' '':I!~: _ .

GUll'S :wi:th Jr~l.!1g f,:?-t u"l;t9lhe;.~r:~~:a,:ro- ca1l~d .'J:~c]~. G:.uns

wi.th . h6;rrel~! . \i;rhic!l ate si"oOdi ontHi\' ~ns~~, ~'Vidili!~e' ·,n~; .. r,~J!n~g has been Cllt, w'ere: on:c,e·· caJled:'< (~~nt'.i.oo:uhbOres .. )1 "Phe,.nruy

5moothbolle·~~!ti;aae~!iJ;day aT:f!'~·sb ' o~"J This· name.i.ln~ii~8

L _ '. r ..... 1;~!> "11.:',.,}~" ~ ~Co' ~.c'U'- '::"'u:!v d' ,1 ' .' - I ... ~. , II:.

the use m . Sn~t' - 's.'~ ,p~e:b '. '. ·01 a .smge pro,].ecbtfl.

• '. I', .' -;"' ,-.,)' __ '

F actor:!{~"n1la;8e sh_otgWis', Woaded;: Ylith ;'!inllt Yi~ch I;apidly

• ,._ , ... ," 1- • ,_;-., - • I.. "I _. ',.

disperses. inlQ a large:·'di~me~:er circle, ·l\\iiU ~an;y -with k~ling

power ,o~Jy to-·50· ~~ds. Sh~~:llllnsJaad~a. ~\~nh gl~gi' ~ ill, sir!$~

I f' '1' <, J.l' . '$d' ] I]' . ) L' ) - I I,

ump '0" ~au m;it~a_ Q:]'~ 6t~1 - are a:e!1;U!rate' ~ '?i~ ues i,l.a ·iUlliy

a. hun,drli!d~ yards~ r(il' 'ilGCur11icy> riflers h~'-m wh~e '~~ot· '1:1,1]'5

- • 1:-": ~ .. ~. ;, :,_.. :i':.,' • L' -!f- ~ '~ -F -): • ~

I eave €Iff, Ord:jn.~t)' ~QrronlJ;g ;n$Je;s 'ar~ .'ij:'~~' to r a1

hundred y.ocr&, .8:o'm~, cali~:e:r$. QQt.to: :;H10 y a;r:dsj; AAd"siet~a;li~ea

rilles gnd si:ghts( B'ut ·to: ,:t. tho1Usahdi y,.:n'ds.·· t, I

•• . I • "'.. .

Firlllam'l_, ~~~ . ruS.o; I,':las~i [fed by t)le' ~o'~tt- a.nd~:fjl¢d me:cb~hfsfu used fOlrepeat 'shots:

A ml;IZ:diB' (oft~.r lS, a ,gun· wlliGb, b. Ja~ciIedl ft:Omtbe):'ti~~te; The· gl1 ~N>n.!4~'r.. ~i ~~tAe~. l~se" in a '~Patate corita,ip.er (u~d poured d'6wn. 'tJhEi muizJe; The' b~net is.'p;ushed, cWwllib.e muzzle also~ abd' se~t~d en th'e p6W,d~~' . ~fB'e .. U.a.4ing ~

·muzile Joa.leris· a' falrly time oonsuming. ,affruJ:" J t ta'keS a skjDed s.houter some' 15 seconds ··'to get . off, a' ·second s:hot"

Ina'.Dulzzl'e lOlaO!er. llWle end ,flf fhil:.6.arrel is.lI,eale..i OffWlth it ~(br:e~b. :P].Q·9't~'· 'Cullif!f:fWdeJ. i s :t:rapp:~d b,e~'~'~n ~t.h€l hf'ee~l; .. p1u:g and fueb~.d~t: Two dflfe~e"nt ,II,tst.ieJ:lri's/ate usea~o i:ntroouce:'fire

....,.- -'x r~..._.- ~-_ -'i:=i .~r, ."

1(1- the, gunpo,wder' -the' flintlock;sy stem an.d dlC.perc:Ussion ,cap sys~e.m.

u e . r'ti. . "li~_·t] _1- 1,i' '. f S·, t ~.. to , '] . . d "'.

J'}' I fl.a "lun '.O~;, 91 plt!i~e' OJ,' ran: ·Sd)ne· IS, i;l.ampe: 1fl a

·.sprm~hloa.dW holder.:\Vlieil. the trigger .~spuUedl' the runt §trikes a~a;i~$t oj pi~e Ql steel and a .s6q:v.?~ of ,~Par~. fansi. "Qnto, a smailllpan. which. ~hQlds. a.' :pinch of gUl)powder.

'[;he ]=!QW~[ ,fg.fitt~.!l an.((I the:. tJ~me f~~I)}~S, 01 g'I;Il1pPWd@[ J?ath '!:hr:ough a tln,bole drilled m. 1!bt!J woa'BaF thre '~l'1e1t. ThiS' is the w~y.· lr:IJ. ~bic~ tire. m~."pn\lo·der ehar~l! ,i~side .the ~e) i$ .ig_nh.~" Tlf~fj:Jln'g Ii~qu~nce'tb~ .~~.oa; ru:!!li~e~e arnaun~t Q,f time .. T.ha h'iller )spU]le~,;. som, ~ims an.d~pUiMePmg~Qccut5,

,and ·then ,Uile ~gun goes b~;mg. - .

,- ~ -

An improvemel'd. 'on, the fl'in •. lock w~ 'the. . "per'CU$s,ion" :igl'.lltipn syswm. With. a p"er~u$S"io.fI IRIilil. fire ~ more reliab~

. . 'd "'t". Jh,· ' . . .1.. .. ..:.... - 'Th", "'. - H ".... ':'

~trQ ' y'6:~ ~,Q-" t :~ m;all1~: ~t~~.e. J' if P$I:'C\,l!i{J(!l,fi cap 'ti~,~ l}ll:l.aJl

m~(,aI ~o,i1.~u~wbiEb. cun~ Ia.~primanr ~pLos1:v~ (th.BJt ~St an e:qi]omlVewbi"ch .. is s~iti\',e, t~, {,riction and ~hook.-.a!i wen' ~ sp.~~},.

A ~cQ:S8i(:Hl, !tBup.is moun.ted O~I41·lolp~te~~ an~ struc.k W1l1il .. 3 sp~g~ ]ciaden h3:rPmet. The' ha~~ :iis" :te1~iis:~d bypwtirrg'the trigg~r. The, perrus~~oQ. cap 'lexpIQd~5;' apd predtlces,r,a hot flame, 'The,n.ippl'e res,embles. a .grea:se-,6tting. It is threaded on the outside ,~ntl· serews into the:.barrel. 1r is .hp:1lalYl':on 1h~e inscid,e . and c'arnes' tl1e' t1.;im'4. from t6e~fc~s,S,I0I1 c'ap.tb the, powder ~halge;

P€rcDssion {gun$,havernote' j:~aQ,e ~ ign,rllou than lintiQi;;i:i:,;s bljt, heca!llSe :·th~y: both lfJad. ,t?hr0u(h :~be. rnuzzle~ the~: are eqU!a!lIly- stow I~ r:eto~g.



,', . ~~ t< •• ~.~.1

"·Cent.er j:jI;>el! !'i"'n't,riBg~ use'a p!1',Pnet w.hich (S, ~~y Siil'n_ to the oM~.tim'e~t'rn.ssion.· I!:ap.. The:. pnPll1!"t, [Qo~:~ike: ~~ }nat lOr. button Q~·:}me,ie.u 'oJthf!" c.anfiCdgt;: •. ' VirHfi'l the_ trl!l~[ ilt :p,un~dij the 8~n'5 m~g.~.,s:tJike& ti'le .. ririmF ~lilch C9n·tru"I -. a·lm~ amount 91 Ju-inuuy ·.exP1faQve . and . .ignites, lihe .<main. pqwder charge within the" ,'~hJ.!:U.:

A litlfn 61'i; ~arlridge CGni;~8, no p-rimef;"Capl, lfistead~ i,he primary ~to~fv,e; is" tm.ned Ut~h'~Jio;Uow'i:lm Ot th~ lfra:s~··

• .,. .J" 'r . - '~~..,.' JJ ~ L

shell, Thfl glJn'·~- ,w:~l1g' .' 'niii,he$, iiQ~ rim{·i~~g fh~'plj.mazy··

explosive, and d.elol1lati:n.g ftemain .. p:owdel" 'Cbarg,e.

The ""Qruy l.inllb-e pns made toda¥ are . 2:2:eall:ber ~S",' 8uj~abl.e for ~all game •. fa; !ilH pra<:~a1 pureoses,ri[oftfir:fJ sheDs ca:n:nqt~. rel~a;~'ed. 'Fh'e '~11 i~lf"i$ ,dainage~_ il1f f~illg.

All ~thet ··rifle ... ~m~rs ;Md alllJio~ sheJJs ~t:!'cent~rfir'e.

Cente(iire s;h~ ,e,an, ~'e reload!!d becap~e. :Qo(y'the pnmer.is dented in firing! not the shelfcasing_. Thel.,spent prim,er can be pressed ogt: ,aft{-L tep].apet! . !j\'ith ,a" fresh .Que;

Some ~hdl§. h~y;e "~[rp$:' t·, Ot~~'UI ,d~ 'n?t< 'See, H~fl' ,2'~ 1.

Rims and i~.G:]( Q~ rim~ ,~rid [rQnvBs·w,'~ &EieU c~ at~. incorpo'):a:~e.d.in i:'h-~~d.;:,artd(J~e deSign .~~Ii)rid.e·)! ttl ·~.q':Jormrr(f~a1fe thegul'lts':'~tr acl~on . and. roepe'a!t snQt m.ee'hanis,rn.


Figure. 2-1

The cart.rj dge- on the. r(ght has tI rim. The one,.on dl~ left dQ.e~· not ,and ~.'l c,a.lled ·>',n.mt~~s .. 0 80rh are .30 ·cali.bel shells.'

.si~g:le ··5'hol EireQ'i"ms

In the early ·day.s, 8jnglesho~. guns were called '~lbref!chlOadmj8t· - because ~~eUs, W~rH ~iiSerted in the rear of (he.gun -_t~. disti!ngu~sh. th~rnlrorn~~z~ loaders. the btf!cak adiim~ tlie rolling block,and the boll: ac.tjQn witbo~trepeat shot capabi1i{y are, the basic desigp Io)T~es of single shots,

Br~ak actions are hi!ll.ged .in the middle·, 's'ee Figure 2~2.

The:}! i'hreakj~ in half, i'lI1lowigg.lhe cartridge .·0· he loa.ckd into, tn~ br·e~h end' ql "h~ baRel Wh·e.m d:p,s'fj d, th~ cartridg'e is; trapped inside tbf!g~n. This- is a. very strong action, High PQw-ered African bi g g.ame rrUesare. very oflen break action guns.



The rolling block is a breech .oadingsingle shot, See Figure 2~3.Witha l'oJq'block, the &,reei Jug whiCh blocks'the br@H,r:h end of the ,batt,e! .retracts into the ~tlXk wh.en 'a lever is activated. T~e lev~[ a1~o' serves as a trig~ar.;!i:n.la:rd. l1n§ is a strong action.

F~8ure~ 2~~l

Th.e rollins' blfH;:'k oct ion .

The bolt· action (s~e Hgu re 2-4) can offer repeat shot capability as we'lll ;n. sihg1e sh!;l~ GJl.p~bjity. U. a spr~~g·lo.aded dip is .wOOl I@ holdlhe foUow.up :shel~ I not only ~Si the old., bred shell estraeted from the '8Y1T:! whel.') the bolt i's o,ened~ a n:e'w round .is aatoma:illGaUy IIi'i~e.rted in· tke cham.oor when the b'oh is. dosed. The belt ,aG.ti:on i~' tKe 'slbwest 6f . the rep~',Mirlg adian designs. but is also the st:ml:'l,ge,s,t, most jam-I ree, and most accurate. S·ruper riflei are bolt action, .



The ]e.v:er adiion is the saddlef-1n used' by ,cowboys in Western mQ~'. It-is flatt. with .. 110 prob'u_slons" .and $liides ~a;&,illy in and. f1ut oJ\asad~~ ·~sc.ahb~nl. 1l>e l;ever a;:t;t.i.on is riot 8 . . strong a€tion and ~t is chambered In a1l1y the mrldeT c-afibers ..

If the .ij.(tior!) ~ operated ca1mly and lmoothl;y, .repeat ~hob are very fast. [fl baste. Dir panic, howeeer, jams are common, regardless of brand name o;r ·cal.iber.. 5·ee .Figur~' 2, • .5.

With .apump acli.on., the .for,egrip :portio·u. of the ·g,.to.ck slides back and :forth ·Jik·e,·.a .slide trolJlbone i After firing" puUin g ~(;k on the ,sUding foteKrip. "I!j@ds the spent shell. Pu'shing: forw~rl! loads the- n~t. sheUintQ Iile chan;J~t.

Pu rnp actions. have f~tf!r 'l"ep#a,htihot c,apahjJity U,a n a;A:y other designae$.cribecl. iSQ. far; are c~aperthalilsemi" autemascs; and·at,g mO[.Ef ram.iretll. They have: ~. disadvantages. of 1Jc,or a~cul'acy (th~ .fot~gJip tends' to w611hle as you ~im) 'Md 'Il·f btring n~oiliY - ~e: iotegrip rat:t1es;and. this is not a great' bJes$ing to. the stIR hunter 01' stalker. S(!!@Figure 2-

6. -




An autom·atr.c riRe' is .one which ,e.ject!! lb~ pld "(}e.u! carlrid.ge . . and tben .inserts a MW, ~sh cad::rrdge 1n the firing ehambe'l' with no m ani,pu~ati:011 teqiJ:i['t~d iOQ 1~e p"~, .Ql thi;! Sboote'r. W e think ofalltrimilit:i~ \¥€~n!l, as: .mod'eml hru.J:i 'the ftr~t auromatic weapon used. by It mHitary olfg,aniz.ation was 'employed' by the Danish navy it. the 'IS80's ~ a 1ll1lmilred- yf'!irr:s agot

\V~ih a I~.senlj-alli'omatic'·' rifJe, the- trigger must be pu.lJed~ released, and pulled again, for each ~peat :sh'Qrt. With a'iruu autorn ;;I.'tic?' riUe~ tJ:tJ,e '.gl,::m oon'tj Rues ,to fir~ I r,Otmd after rotltl!d, as lung as y,ou hold ,ba.ck the tr:(gS':er. III f!'ve:ryd.&y language. both types, are called "autematies .. ,to

WiMh oth.er action types", the power required bo eject the old shell ~ ~nserJ the new 8.heU i:spmv.jded by die ann o!the' shooter, With ~. ~u:tom atic~ thepo'~r r~ir-~d" to wO;f;ktbe action is derived by stllaling lipme of die ':fOI[(:e being .. used to prepel the bullet.

A holeis drilled sid,eways into the rifJe barrel. When. 'full! gun is Hre.d and tbe.huUet .. is halfway to the .muzzl~ ~t paiig~s this' hole and s:ume. '!Ta.s 'es~peS,. The :Pf6§~~ oi th~ ga.s 'es,ca:[;I~g through the: hHl~, jg ch'rurrJ.ded to tblFQW nDt~ bon- otbe'l'lvise done 'b~rtJH~ MIn. of ~~.e· shQ.ole'r~

The MVaJf'J,brge of aeautomalie YI'MPtilrt fl!. i.a-s~ repeal! shoh ..... ith no d:i$.tr.adtion to th~ shDo~et. H.e calli hQi<l his aim on the target' and Ctll:1!ijtl;UB" toO, sno-nt: 'Uie dis~~ant~e$I'are cost .( automati.,es are ~ensj\'e)., refu:!.bijity (au.tomatlcsar.e complicated 'mechanisms 'and sometirn~. jam), anA strengdl (the most PQwerOd calibers are not tharrtbered inautom,ati<:~)I.

See Figu re; :z;. 7 ~ .


[0 a fad~ory.made .gun, 'the space whif:h exists h~~,.\reen the rear 0.1 tbec~l:ttd~ andihe' front o.f thebt¢e:cb p~ug is ,eaJled ~'heacl spa~,e .. "1".Ii Ilhe. head ,!!!paee 'is exp~j'Ve" the expMcl~llg gu npowd'er ]nsid~' the cartridg~ shekb.es ~he cartridge case un t~1 it. breaks. H this~~'ipe~j~ d&mage to the gun trust! ally Jleswts - and sornBiimes, t:o the~ shootet'~ as well,

Head. -spaee in!ri~ses 'as a .gun w'eafs. Gunsmiths have dummy c,aftridgis th-ey can use h, ~heCk ·the be:ad s)nu~B n; old guns'. P'ast·,a ~rtain point, too much heads-pace means ,that a gun. iii; not 1!! af€ b:)slli:io,t ~

To ti'l1d.el~1;Md why, think of a: p:ri:tefi~,hter ,punching his opponenf'in 'th~:jaw. lmagi,h.e, his g,l(,';;e ~lng giu~d' f:O the cither man's ~aw. He c,oU!ldn/tget off miu:ik df ap'lJQ.ch-~f ni) ,sla.ck existed: Bu~ rf his, fist had tw.o inches of ~'run:ning ,starl/;he could - do SOI1U! real. <:ia:mage.

The same, principlehol,ds true in ·6re~mls. ]f the c.artr.idgefjts loosely (11 the' !flJtli'S ',chamber " the surge of pr;essut'e can rup.ttlie the sheU callin~. and give. ita tunning~tilrl befQr~ it slams Into the rear wa;lll o~ ,the. chamber. In the bomem ade gun described in Chijpter: 3, th~ bree:ch p~ug IIc.reW_i into the rear of ,the b!1!lr'rfJ and e]i:rmP:ates h'e-ad sp:a~:' .It auto:m a'ti~any c;i)mi;u~nsab;!'.s.' for differen·ces, in tim ~llick!nes.s ,wear hi'· the .g;Ut\l" .and s€l~o;rtH.

A 'diHe~nt kind. of helad space can ·e):isf. in nom@'Inade firearms-aed be a cause for concern; hewever. The mismatch 01 diam-eters between. th.;l Qub,ide of th~ ,cartrjdge and ~he inside ofth~ barr,el so~times ·r.esUlt'S in c;l sloppy fit~ The best PiO~CY iii, to test #re. tQe. gu.n by remote 'firing~se~ 'Chaplet 3, figure g. 50) pnQll' ,tg' h~d!"heJd firing .. ltsboold be test ty~d with a more PQwerh!:il IQ~~ tha'nwHl be ep1.RI,!?yed~n eve.ryda.y use.


11 yOt1 rQ]] ,ill m,arb~e ,across, a table top" ·a,s S(lon ,as j,t roDs off, the ,eclgf;!jt s'l:~tt;s, ~aJmn.g tow.ard tJj'efkKlrr: The faste'l:',}',ou ·roll. i.t, the further atway from -the: table it ]alild~'vN ~vMthe~e$, as ~oon Clsit is airborne, gr@ivify slarts acting upon 'it

The same' thing is true ofa bulet l'll!ftvlng a gun ban\d. Ai soon· E!S the hul!let is airborne, ,as sooiJI·as. nothing is''under it holdi~g' it ~P •. i~ begi:ns ,to fan .. H ~wfai wi.ll.it .tra,vel befoff! it hits the ground? That iis: thegun',s, raIl,ge: The range C$ be extended by 'a.i.min~,~her .gun <s]ig~H:v up,wMds.

~ f yeu aim tnegun SlllghUy up~r and!!! l$le.lY;uUetwillb" a\'~~ in ai' long arc. ,A.t :p'Qi.l1t'bJru-..k lMlfg~~:he Eu!!U@'t wirU btit the center of a. oonj.s·J~)f'e. A l a ~h'Oxf di·~t.aj'{ce~ 'the bu]lll!l' WlU .hit .albave t:hH bul1~!!-eye. rhis ~s because )'OU have· :~m€d the 81J..D upw~nli $~ghtly to begin with.

The bullet v.ill finally reach the l.op of its iI'I"'C and begin to f~~ A:lsome, diswn<;~ ,i1"'O'~ the. li~u.ge~ th~ '~unet w;iIl again ·stnke ·the te,llt,er of the bil.lIL~·e)',e+ H'l~now Falill'Og to earth, As tbe. ,eli st~nce IfoIn 'the go n.' is muzsle ~o tb,~ targef increases p'a,st ~is PQm~, ea.ch. su,ccess~ve bJJln~t wiU sliike. lowel' and lower on the' target. T his ph~.fiDm~il is' ~ru~~."tr ajedQry'. ~~

The~opic ~~ calibers iscorillusing., Y 00 might think that the bigg,er tb,e caliber, th~mor~. pow,effu,l the gun. IT ain.t nec~!i.ari~y :S,O. Although ihe' ~al:ibm'does denote the' bullet ,d~armeier." you cani have. asm aU bullet backed up,' by a l&rg,B powder charga.i}f' 'a!~ge bunet backed up bra relatively small ~ge. The' fono,wPtlU: is. ab'aa:ic list '01 riA.a ealihers and a description of their c;apa"b~fittes.~



.22 Rimfire .22 shorts are' good. 10 50 yai'dll on s mall pests such as rat$', squinelS'J . crows" and $n~ke8. ..22 'Iongnf.ie cartridges· are. adequate, t<) 75 .YaiI'Qs., :22' sho-rts. can be stabilized ~,jth a 1·'24 riffing twist .. 2 2lbng tiiles. requi re oil 1·1 ,6 twist. The h:ni.ge:r the buUett the' sh<llp~r must be the t ""1st.

.22 Hornet Intmd.uced. by Vv'inchest.er in 19::H). Good to 17S yards on varmint-siZed. gmne (fQx,es, turkeys),. It is too, ligbt a caliber lor deer, The metric designaflQilli IS: !l.06 x 35R. The rifl:ing tw.isHs 1 = 16 (that i~ one ~u II 'twicstior ,each s~x[een inches of barre] l.;ir-g1h),

.222 R ami:ngJQn ] nt:r~duced in 19 50. Good to' 225 yards on varmints Out$tandin.g acCuracy to ZOO}, ards, Rif!jn g twist, is 1· ~4.

.22:3 RemillgtQJl Ad,opted by the U.S; ml!Jiitary .m l'964a;s the 5.56 mrn, An ex,eeUetC!:t varmmt c-arlridg.e·to 250 )·ards .. Metric designation t~ 5.5'6 :;( 45mm. Rillil,1:g twist is ~~l4.

:22.250 Be€ioin as a wildca:t :cartrj'dge ~n the ~.·93(r5. Wild.cat, means ~:hjme"I,uaded; nl>t c.ivail:able,' in f~~tory ]oads., it \\ras'., . . 250 Savage C,a.!0111 necked down t,1j accept ,.;I; .2'2 ca:l:iber bUllet. Now av,a:l1'abJe commercially,. it's a Vi.'u·mint- cartridge with an. effe.ctive range to 300 yards .. R~mng twist is; 1,·14. 'This is a high VI!!JocitY',, 'HaL .s·hooting load 'YH~h .8 ~oud !l1uzll~ blast, The supercharged lUM: results j fII fast barre] w,!!!.ar.

.2'20 Swif~: lntro-duc;ed in 19,3.5. by Wi.nch~ste'r. Effedtvti! r&ng~ to 350' yards;, h. was ·llhe· first ~actory cartri,dg,e with ,";l mt:l!Z:;i:;Je velocity 9f (:.:ver 4000 f~t per sec,ond ((Pi,. Rif\i.ng twist is 1·· 14. No dUe is made for the .22'0 Sw'i!ft'to,day.


·2'43 \-finchesfe't This. is rep.Uy a .30S\Vipch,este'r J'leck~d. down to take a e. 2'43'~ diameter buJlet (6mm). In the wind,. it is, superi"or -to any .22' ,c.ediber \'uLlet., Good ~,o 300 yards; big enougp lor d~r. U~Ii:drec,o.il.Rilling t,w~st 1~9'., Metric, des~~~il:iofn is 6 ,.5 '1 ~m.

",250 Sal.toge Introdcced by Sav'ag.e: Al'lhs in 19 ~ 5. De:Jivered 3000 fps, muzzle velocity. Good to 25.0 yards.Po])ularity declined wah- the introduction of the .243Winehester-

;·287 Roberts Designed by Ned· Roberts ~d'_intrqduced by Remington 'in 1934,~ G{uld to 2-5'0 yards: 'and b~g enough '~01 d!i!Jt:-r. R~tJin'g I:w.i~t of 1. ~ 0.. Popul,a;rity 'walned with' the'

irntroduClioF! 9~ the. ,.:2 43 \Vinc.hel!t~r. .

.'2 7fi ~\l!nchesfer The" .. 270 is ,ft fl~ke.d:d:o.wn .30'·06, case, Good' to :i,2-fi-yan.Jis. W~tb hand loads, it):~ks near the top lor lon.g range 'a;c~:Ui!racy. \\litb heavier buUet weights il \'i'iU take aU N~r1h A;hu;~jrican h~ ~ame .exceJl~ tlJe Iaf;ger bears, R,ifljng twist is 1-10 .. A cQnbmdel!:' for b~~t alhound bi.S- .g,am~ dne.

7mm Ma(.Hiiqr The,'Spanish m.i.lj~ilry cartrirdfge of 189'3. VeJocity and traje.dory characteristics are' [e:s:s than the .270 but kilJing power 1$. 'far 'irl excess of lbe ,,3Q ·$0. '

.30' Carbme Tha . 3~O M ~ Carbin~ w M de\i·e~oped. Q)' the Am:lY irr .~ 940 as a gHb6t.i~,ute fo~ ~ pistot .As anfle tanridgeit is neither ,,'err powerful nor aCCUf'aW . .It should not be used en game larger than coyote. Use'fu~ r'ilnge is 100 yards.


.30·30 lntrQduue.din 1895 for use in the !94l-Winchester lever ·action:. It was, the -first s:pb~ng; cartridge loaded witb s'D1Q,keJess powder .1 ls popularity is due to the gun s which are cha~b~red i or it - f{~~ light lever actions that. are well balanced and easy t o handle. Adequate on deer teo i '75 yar.,ds. The' m,ebic de:s~nation is 7 .62~ Xf 51 R. Rii~ng twist is 1-12.

.300 5 (lvug'e I etroduced in U120 for US e in l':he Sa'\;' age 99 lever action. ]t h..;!.:S llearly thee power of a .. 30·06 but has a much shorter C;;t$-e, th.~ :Ien,ding itself. to actIon. 'types 'oth~1' than. bolt action. Declined in popwru:ity witb the ][]tw.ducticm o:f the .308. Useful range lS something Jess than aoo yards.

.308 W,i.tl~he~'~w· Civi~al'l version of the 7.62nlll't NA T.o cartridge, Be!le¥ ~t':f'onn'artce than a .300 Savage and "ie-ady as good as 3 .. g,O·Oq .. ~ t chas, the' adval:'l~,age to gun desi gneEs ~f baving iil, short,in". case than the .. 30-06. Rifling twist Is 1·10.

.30·06 Spl'i:ngf,ie,rd.A .30 caliber cartridge adapted b).~ the U.S .. Anny in 1906. G enarous case capacity makes: it a versatil e cartridge ior r,ek>.~din,g. Hse&:d mllge to 3.25 y:ard:s,. Adequate tor an North A_merkan big.·gam:e f!-l\i,cepf gril2H~ and Alaskan bwwn· bear.. RiUln'g t~ist- is ~ ,·1 n"

. 300 Winc:.nestt?r Magnum .A belted. magnam cartr~dg'e introduced in 1956. Has iIlat. ,trajectory. When sighted in at 25.0 yards, is 2 •. 9""high at 15.0 yan::l!i"·aitd 3.5" ~9W at 300 yards. The 7mm magnum is slightly 'flatt~ but not as poW,erlul. Speci.al target rifles have produced outstanding accuracy to 1 000 yards ... U seful r angefor hnnting arms is 350 yards. Adequate fQj'aH North American big game .except' the' ~argef'

'IL R' :.11'" , .' < <, 1 ·111l. .' .. ,

uear. . J~Jlrng tw~st .~S,· .HI.


.303 Hr,itisn The British $enr:i~e I(;m:ltidgeadopted in 188.8 and used throJugb K(Jn~a+ The. :Shell i~botb rimmed and tapered. The bullef is, .30 caliber ~ but thereae .end oJ the' case is .455· incheS, only .OCU ].e:ss than a ,.44 Magnum . .This is a ]Qng cartrldg,e ~ik~, the .. 3.0· 06 ~ith. balllhibcs sim ilar to tOe .300. Savage. Meh-ic ,deaignation ~s,7,. "f ~, S7R.

.35 R'emingt~Ht lnl:rodue,ed in 1906. A competitor of.the .30· 30 .. Has better stoppingpoweor tllan the. .30·3ft The" ,rilJirng is typically out 'shaHcn"", wears comparatively quickly" and aceur aqy suffer!!:.

.. 3 7.5 \V~ru.ch~s;te:r A . r,ec'ent lntroducti@n by W.i nchester, A competitor red: tlie .444 :M.arlill.·

.375 .14 &, H M,ag.,u.tm lntiod;uc~ D;l HU2 by HQUi~dI & Holland .. An A&ican big . game rifle. unnecessarily powedulEor Nort.hA-m~rica[l b~ game- •. Unique ifitbat it shoots .dil1erent bullet w,~ightl to ~he same point of"impach Double the recoil (i,I

the, .'30·Qlt . .

.44 Mg:gnurn. ] ntrady eed as a: pi.stQl cartri~~ ~n: 19<5'6'~ ~no'W dla.mbered ·indUes.l:n the $~lJneclas.sasa. .30'·30. or .35 ReruingtlJn~ ~t l~~better .stoppiniC pnwet than eit her~

.444 Matlin Introduced in 1964 for MarJinis· lever action. il)seM. range is' 1$0 yards. Can. he thought of as: a .mueh be~led.np .44 Magnum~trom aperformance po.~t 'Of v]ew.

.46·70 'GOl!oe{rim.E'I'nf U.S. military cartridge from ~ 8'73 to 1 S92-. l~ h as a slTaigbm .. case and is: rimmed. 'OriginaUy lbaded with b1acit powder ~ it, has it large case and can be, hand ]mu:l.,d wi.th 500 .grainbu,l1eb to 'BI point where-it approaches' a .458

Winchester. Onlly h~W 5~ngle shot and bolt action ri.8e~ are strong enoug_h for this. The old "trap door" mi.litary rifles wouM burst hom su ch pressu:r-.es .. Wi~h factory loads, d~ect~¥e range is 150 yards.

.458 WJn cheslet M ognum tHtrD,du.e ed in 19:5 6, Rep]aced th e .375 H & H ~s the most powerful corranereial load, Also has the most H'l!(lQ.i.J:ack@ted, 500 grain buHets are ,avaj)ab1e £or rhinos and. tank!!., RiRi.ng' twist ill I-t4.: The' carb·jd~es are bek.ed.


9inm Patab~ ll~m This' isth:e 9!llin Luger' cartcridgead9pted 'oy the G erm an mil itiMY in theearly 191)0' s~ I t i 50 u sed in both autometlc h,a~d..gufis andsttbilJaehjne ·gu.nrs. not 'i'or .,s€;rioull . target co~p~.'dition. It is not a POW.eiffull.oa.d:. Theshelldaes net have a rim.

.38 S&W.lnttoduted in 1.877 by Smith & W'~.'ion. $Jig;htly less pow~rful ,than the·. 38 Specia,t A straight, rlmmw case,

.38 Stredal IQ unn:g the 1899 P'hiil!ippirui: C iimpaig1'l ItfJethen· standatt! .38 Long: Co~t _w astound inad~~Hl(e., The .. 3S, Specia] repla ced il and is tile m ost ''''ld~ly lI,t~ed pi sto] cartridge DIal] tIDle. Adequate for varmint 'hunting. Straight" -rimmed case.

,,357 'MaB1:IU'fn ~a.te~ from 19:35 .. r~i1le the muzzle eperg,y- 'of the ,3B S pe cial. Straight, rimmed c~~e. It i:s chambelle.d in.

some rJ~s,. . - .

.4.1' M a,ftlum. Between ,the .35,7 M Signum and the. ..44 M agnem m bot h pedorma.itce. and l"ecoiL

.45 Auto R~m .Dates from 192.2. Rerl!UGfld popuLarity since the inlrodudlQ~ of the .44 M a snum. Sbaightj rii.u;n,ed CUe. SrtiU ttl an ufadlJr,ed b.y Re'm~ngton ..

.. 4~ A CP' A~opt~ecl by the U;5. Army i.11 1911. _It~s used in .4S caJibf!l:' autematic p~toLs. Has ., strajghl; rimless ease.

.. 45 CaIf .Straight, rimmed case. ]n usn for a hundred years. Preceded. the ~4'5 ACP as the u.s. Anny service !:~tridge:. Used. in l'evo~ve rs,

If pi pOL:uld u f lead. was spl it inJo telit ,equal lumps, and I hen a secondpeund olr lead was .sp~it into, twenty equal lumps, wmch lumps would be. .Iarger? The ten"oo:.tne-pcnind jump$, of course.

that itS how .~h:otgull gauges· ·arce determined. T.he lump.s a:i€. formed into balls, and the diam eter correspond in g to ten~.t().lhB' pound baJls is In'g-ilug~, The smaller'diameter cortesponding: to 2U·t(l·lh.€ puund lea'd ban!! is 20' jira!J~,e~

The ordinary gauges. are 1°1 12 j. 16! ~ 20. 1" en ~-aug~' sbot~s af,e u~ed J".".Ir~~~e. 'f w~Jv~ glIuge. guns are the mo's<t popular size and. lDesf fo,!' gen@ral prn'pQse.·;Stititeens O:aJve.faded in popu]~uity - huntersseekmg. mon!' power havegQ;ne 10 the twelv;e; fhose seeking' lightwei.ght ba:V'€ gon~ to the twenty ..

There isalso i'I .41 0 gauge. The. 410 decsig:naU!()rI ,is teall}" die caliber or bOf·lf .. diameter ~l'! inches and is not based On die. $8i.me .ga~.gjng !i)' ;tem asother ·,sboiguO'~ ..

The .. 4 ~.I) ~s. smaller in djalt~eter th,anany 'Oih-ef' shotgun. It!! c.apHcity Ito hold both pow"der and slhotis lessthan otheiF gauges and it ~ompa,res poorly iiJ! range and. Slupping ll(;I<"l,,~e!i'. J n tb05~


p1ac es where deer ~untinJl' :is. restricted to, the lise ol shotguns' loaded with s]ugs.! the .4] 0 !s not allowed. It lacks adequate stopping power .


T he p~rpoSff ot a sh:oi:g1Jn i.!! to throw a wi ([til, pattern of shot The wider the spread, the more lliJrely you are to get some shot (1.11 the large]; Human o;ab,lre being what il: is, .• no .1>oo",fir did someone i.nverit a way fo throw a wide pattern Df ·shot than som enne ~J!H:! i nvented a way to restriel the pat tern .

The method devi~ed to ~ncenb:ate the sbot patteen w as! ~. con8tiid themu~zile end of the barrel - like a hlund:erbus'.s. Ul r everse, 'jne effed ~ 'simil!~r to a nezele on a ,garden hose ..

Thereare s.eve:raJ degrees of ,ihob.orconstridioo, They i}re' all r.1trid by th.e' percent uf pellets mthe load they will place in 8. 30 inch diramclerc irele at 40 yards. A shotgun with no rn uzzle constriction af aU ia. called cylinder bore. It is s.imply a .str.~]ght tube.


Cyl i:nd.er Bore ']mpr,o",~~ CyHnder Modified

full Choke'

30,.35% 411·45%~ 55% 70·75%

"Vhichis best depends on what. you plan to use it for~ A fu.LI choke is n~c::es:Siity for Itmg waterfowl shots, Cyli:nde:r bole !s bes~ for door $!ugs lHilcanse any con~triclion at the ffi!.'izz!e \¥:Ill distort ~aoclJiracy. For .generaill- upland hu rtbng . ~ [abbits~. 8quirrel,:!i~ bird:s- improved cylinder i:s b5t. hl apjnc,h, they aU work.


In. ;common I anguage, recoil is c alled .~. kick. ~, The same exp anmog g.allf!!!i. that. p.ropel the buHIrl dQ'i!.'Il the gun barrel als,Q pro'P~] the ban:e1 bac k.w ard away horn th@ bunet (th.anksto. th~ breech. ];!]u~j whi¢h stops ~he gases £rom escaping),

,",,, ~t: yOiU ~9' lay ~he' gun on a tablfe and remote fire· ·it.~ you would(ifl~ thq,~. the. - mas II a;nd .~disttlince the ~ moved_ backward was equid toc the mass and distance the lbuUefmoveB forward. 'Every action hall an equaJ and opposite ~eactlo~f accorod:ing to Newton.

'W her! t'he wm is: held in shootia g pasHion! -it 'is restrai ned from ~r~ve~in'g ~dtward by your shoulder,; The, thrust had~ iato your .should"er- Is ealled r~~L The fO'rnnd;~ bel,~~~ tens, how to cah::ulate the amouniQlf·recoil. energ)rfOT any oom.binatiQnol' gun "'~gh~; bullet weig,ht! and powd er charge, This is nOlt e'ltaatly fl_qUru ta '~idt l'ei;:oil/~' however,

For e~<,'lmpleJ a 'foregnp which offers .a Hrm grip ~orlh'€> shooter can reduce felt'rncoit c:o.nsiderablv~ TJhe shooter can absorb a. lot. ~r rec'oil wi~ the hand that ~s holding theforegrip; tbus S~fV1M his shoulder. The amount·o.~ energy absorbed is ~he S.iUIl~~ out itf~ls. I!i ke less,

Orie' pO.int W'oJ'thy of' menti.,?Jl: whel':!*OQting!. hold the gun tighLto your it:l(}U~er. DOJl?~. give ~t a. runni.h'g·~i:*ut bdor-,: ~f cenneets, H you do, i1 will T,e-aUy kick ~OU.

T;o Jigu,re recoil :vou need to know the: wll!'ight olf the gun and the .... 'eight pf 'an comp()niElo~~ which wjl:l be-li:redl. For.a rifle, this is the bU&t w~ightpnd the weight of the powder charge. :For ~ shotgun I . if is the ounces of shott the ,gra:i"n~. ,of pow.der I and Iit~ weight. ,of the wad. factory·made plastic wads weigp.abQut '4a Qr.am~.

(AI1POO.x B/C)Z' 'a4~32

. 30


A= \-Veight in grain!! of fir·ed compunents (bulle, wei,~ht + gunpowder w·eigM + wa.d weight). T q c onvert ounces to .wains,

multiply the numh@r of ounces by 437.5', '

B ::: MUcZzle ,,·eLoc.ity in feet per second,

C :::;; \~l~gcht oi the gun .in pmn)d,s.

The fo,]lQ\''''~ng t abl e is based on this formul a ..


Gun ·Wt.


.222 .30·30 .243

.44 Magmi.m .30-06

12 Gaug.e .,375 H' &: H .458' \Vio.

7 6,5 6.5 5,.75 8 6.5 9'


50 .A50 10Q 240 180

Various 3,00


4: l~ '13 17 20

26·28 44 "65

"iIBuUet weight in gr.:cins with standard facbjr~r powder c,h,arge,.

In ·the days, Hf black powder, greater :gloppin~' power was· achieved by increasing the size ot the ehunk of lead thrOW" at the target Today J .swpping power is, achieved by prQPe.lling: a small-sized piece of lead. at very higb ¥docity - some.'imes more than iW'ioe the speed of sonnd 'atpomt 0 fimpad.

In the eld, k~w 'If~I'Ddt.y days, thB foUowing fador.s were. re ()ogniz,e~as havling die b:igge!!;,I ~im.pad. -on $topping power: buUet. d~Glme'le:r~ veJocity, and' bl,lJIe! w~igbt. BuJlet diaweter was a k-ey Iaeter. Thai: is why a .44 Ma-gRlI.tffi (~hkh is really a p istel carlrid ge > h asnoticeahly more st>6pp.in g power om deer than does. a .30·30 .


Shack FactQ1"

Guns w1ii_,eh shoo t large dianfeier I h-eavy bune~s have. poor b-ajedory ,eharaded:stics ;If yoo beeF up the 'charge ,of gunpowder to ,extendlli'e "f"ang'e,. 'you mn~rease ~he r~cp~l. For this l'f'!"aSQ~.~ higher sp.eed c'",rtr'idges were ~evelCillied, . ,I twas observed that U1triiil-Mgh speOOlOOJleit~ fs.tdkitl.g the' target. a~ Mach 2) had! muCh more stopping power than ex pected, The WO\lnu caused by such a. bullet aJfeded an area. 3040 times the diameter of' the buUet, itse~,

The only formul.M- [ have. been able to find onsropp,:ing power relate 'to QIkJe,r ~ low v~locity ~oadrs, Foot pounds; or ,energy don'tiiell the-whole ,stQ.ry either. (Energy = half the mass x the ~uare' ,of th,>e velocity,.) Comparing ,only fcot, lbs, of ,eriel'g}r' would lead one to CO'llclU,de' thal.ire ',3.5 It'em.in.gt:Q'Q., for exam.p]Ehh.a,s less st·ClP,pin.g power 'lha!l1 ,01:'1 .30·30. - and ·thi~ eondusion does not Si!}uare with oltui,ewed Jad ..

I have combined .~nforrna~()n fromseveral sourc-es into the' foUowin;g formub. Velocities' and [()O't pounds oj energy can, be obtained in rnallU:tac(uT,er's brochures hand,edout in gun. stores, The formula ~signs an arbitrary valae 0·[ 100 to both. the .2:43 Win-chesler 'at '275 yards and to the ,30.3(;) at 175 :yards. Both are the, ~g:hteJit -calibers, ,61t the exttf!!fIJi! endQf tl.,elr ranges wh(~+e tb~yb$.'Vie; .reliit!b]e k.il!1ing POW!;!! on de er, Ot,her caliber.s are r anked up and d~wn tro'In fh~,

:~ 700 ipm & below 1701~2000 Ipm 2,00.1 ~,2 251 {pm 2:258 & above

IJJ 1.,25 1.75 2.0

H)Q 28 .55 74· 71 79 8U 83' 87

1'09 119 12.5,

.1~O 150 157 177 192 244 29"7

.,22: long rille ,.22 Hornet .222


.30 Carbine. .2:2·2500

.220 Swih' .357 M~wn • 243,


.35 .Remington .44 Mag:n!!oo .210

.30.3 British .30·(16

.45·70 GQVL .375 H. & H .4S,8\Vin.

10.0 .


Stopping :powt'1r ~ . 688 x the' square root of (A ;II: B X C X D)


A = BuiJ.et wei s_ht in grain!!.

B =: Ve10city in feet per minute at point of impact C = ,Area. ,of the hor,e: in .squ_e ~ru:;he~,

D .;: H ydros1a,ti o sbock ·f acter .




~ : chapfuTpresenh& how' to _f! B. 12 g auge !!hEl~gufi. from :3/4-inch plrpe.~ Chaph~'r 4 comaif!~ d~ail$ qJ-.wh_ijt size pipe to use for vaeiou II other gauges, .and ,catibers.

Figure 3.,.1 shows an exploded vi~ ol a sirig'Jesnot shotgun made from pipe'! 'The parts have letter identification andare gi,'eh below, The' bala:nce or .~is ',ch!i!lpter t~]1i5 how· to :m·ak'e ,each P<W1~. ,haw to'·us,eq:.ble the ~, and how to test fire the fini$Pe.d ~IJ. No speeW. tQot~ ~. req~.f!d outside w;hat is to be found in the Jl;:u'dinerr.y'ho:t:n:e wo.rkshQiP- 00 rneti!l.~ lathe t'!i,' req,ui~e~, no -m~I,In:.f .Ura.;;h'i:n,e~ arid .f!.o: w~]der~

The p.ar~ shown in Fi~r-e 3-.1 are;

A. Barr~

B. Muzzle ~am_fi (buy),

C. Lug

D. CoUar

E B ·~L p~

• I .·ree~n . _ug

F., F'iJr:ingPin

0.., Retaining Screw (buy) H.. Hammer


1. Pivot P~n (buy) J. T:rigJeI

K. Stock

L .. $prm:g (~) M •. S<l':rew. (buy') N. N>ail {bu.y]

Fl.8ure 3·1

This e.w!'oded plew ·shQWS !<llach ~art l'u,I5eWd whh ,(+ J'eUer,TJ1e te~t teters to .eQch pan by ihe. ·same let''et used. 'hef,(~.

"I"'L D~ .. I rJi·· .. '~~I 0'- 'fL,g ... A,"",,,, I,: ... t~'~ • ne oanl'€!!:·· H ' . ~,. ,',h.· ~ ., .. i . Of!'.;)if'

'The insid'ediam~1tilr o,f Sio-caUeiJ. ~!4.ini::h PiPe'. is .824- ~nche:s; The Ol1:t"8 ide diramcler 'Of a iL2 gauge 'sbotgun g,heU. is . S· m 2 inches .. The .~o dy.bl a i.2 gau~e s hotgun -sheil mU thus £it ~e:ry nicely insid~"a 3/4·inth pipe, The tiro oi the shot sheD. is


about US-inches (.8,75) :in diameter and pl'~vents the shell ~rom falling comp.letely into the pipe. S~'I'lFigure 3·2.

i _l.

,.SlfZ 1....-1 ~___....lI..._]TU.a._·/J


FiSUt"e ,3~2

'The di~t~1' of- a 12g~uge sa<otgun sJil~ll is .8 J '2 fllches-; The' i'l15 id~ diamefet o f 3/4-ilJ'ch tup,e' ~5 .,8~4 i",ches.~, .

Hardware &tores ~omrnonly 9-eU 3/4·inch Plptl in se:veral standard; pre .. cq.tlengths, For p~po8EiSi- dra 12 gauge shotgun barre~~ 24 ineh~s long is best. This is the length assum.,ed throughout the rest of this· chapter. A IhQ1"ter baRel will spray :shot ~n ~;OQ w ide a paUem to be. ,effectiye in .hunting.. Andt of cour~~ thf!, gun you In ake wiD be: a cylind~r bore. (5 f:!f! Chapter .2 for a discU:$SIi~n ,gf ~ch:oke,;''') A· bar,tiel king,er thalli 24 irn'ehes wm not increa,!i~ th'e' p~Uetll clensity '19, ,a/QY noti(;e~e f:!xtenl but wilJ mak~a far dum.r: 'firB_8-ml i" .s~wingaindpoi~t. Use only new p,ipt! and inspect it carellully fm- crack:s.-


Fegan 3-3

In the cel'loor is- :s~u.!l'ii_ ,Il eO~QwQy ':s~(:l:ion o.f -,ripe, .5 ~:ou:.'i:AR the Up wlHch ~r:i.!i t be ,rodu d or med away. On ~o,p i is ,s;h.()U~ (In a br.asil,lll! 1211 ftcr' in -un elec frEe, drill, use.a to ren'lav,e.; th,e l~p. The. piec~'of p:ip€ .a~ the bottom has had :the lip remolJed and ,a 12 gaugeshotsun shell' now s:lides'rn §n-U:;l~lllly.


Pipe (:M.. be :riutw~tb ~ hack,s.aw ~9f,~t:!l'8,~~ but jn.ah~rd.wc:irtt ,st-o'l't! ~~ is .Co<QlWonJ!I!· rut 'on a ni~chi{]f! which works, on ~ .. ~.;wie -~1'!i.nelpie. 'iil~ a b.i~ cutter, T~i!l maclIin~ hlla.ves .a 'l~JiJ;r OQ- the end' o~ the bafte.~+

. .

·1:he·~7'C1l'l buy wiIJ pr"<?bablyt"~nt:Hri '5tl~h a Uih it. must be . ~amedQvt. 'Th~ r~~fi1.i ~~~;..,]~\: b:esl 'i),~cnifflp]i~h~Wi[m:t a h~ndhe1d -e[Bdnc' d;ri1ill ·and g grirnilillng whee!! o.f tbe .a:pp.~priat:e :s"a~e. A,$SQ'~e.n.ls (J.l, '1:ilDlt;ap g~indin\g whreels C.OHI!f!· pac-ked inpl.astjc bagJj an~ ar~ ~lddn dis.cQ~nt ,depart~erd~~q~!I'. See' F~igure3.· 3.,

The n~ll!Ot ~dpiic. i,s 'tW:i thw~~:d:~ o.ne.a:tih ~nqDf r~e p1ip'e. As ~t

· comes from !he. 'stnrCt" your pRet;;utlenstru '0.( -pipl\l wiJl ~ave threa.ds~ ON; ~1a:c:h e~. How-eve!;,.-.· ~al!i1 'd.ol'l~ ',need' ~ads ,em ti:le 1'Q!J~lle-,e.~~ - and: lthe~htte~id:s':o:n th,e l;i_ree\':h.,e~d are bjfl·~1:tof.t~

As it ,COmE,!!! £Wm the '8t.0~e, th.~ "l~'l':e,~ded po:rtlo~ d..n e:i;lC~. ~ o~ ,th~ pi:R~ is 3/4:inches; lOtlg~ Ybu t1e!E)d, the '~rJl;~h elid th.readed baci·a 6uilll 1/4·jnches", You ~ probably g,etUle .. '~"ltra threa4s turned 'righ~ at ·the· hatdware '$~m'e .where' yoobll,

· fhe JI,Ipe. nan" e·xf.lh\\i1~ti:op ~~re.~Sim [lr~.,~" t~~. :th'e;m Y,~1Jr ~_n%l'e

· is hUjJ~l;n~fa ra.ct JQr,hjs.,'i~~pliutk.,an!d th!! e~h·,ffuead~ a:r~ his idea- you~ve "nOi idea wh~ be· wants,the-lIT.

Soine.t.imes .a s~J]; nalWW.,ll ,~~6[:e '"in ndt h;;(y,el~ ~ae~n~, wh~,cl1 .. c,1.:"1:s~ threads. V qu ean :bu'y tlul nee~ls.s:my'ffil;nd 't!illJ]s, &Qm S'eillSr er i'r,om a ha.r,dw.qre o~ p~lim6irog supply (!jrIDdu,sl;r~al 8iUPplY Slt.P~B. R;u~ ~gQ prepat'ed ito, s;pentil :SDme: ~Dh:ey. 'Tirle, are

l1"Qt ohe-ap. Sef\!Fig,ure 3·4. .

The e'x1ra thriBa.d,s OfE fmiCfiS8ar'lO', hOYleVer, Y ~J!J.cahjt do withmut th~'m .. 'T:h~ ~mple:te'd ~ei con§ig;ts<.~f a -p~e:ee;o"f 3J4. m.c;h p~~, .24 inches. ·.]ong~ reamed QU~ on. -each end, wj~h 1 "lj4 m~h@s' olr tln--ea.ds on (llHle {lIthe twO' ends.



0..11 tQP i$' srhQ.W:i1 1(;1 ;t,hrooding: nl(lchiill:i:l ~~ch (:IS:- is fO!ind in, h(n',dwar~ .sf~s;; On the bo,tUlb:l- '~5',$hQ:wn a bOOd'~hj"tldp'ipe die Q nd ~e:nchS:[:lcb U$, Il .plu m:bet nli:RhJ' ·OW'fI. A ny,QliI.e (}on buy them, of ctmrse, .but they are no tesp.edallg clleap.

The Ckilllp' (f~r~ ~m the pai'Q lifet)

This, clamp, is: usEfCI t{!~:asten ~h-e Inllzzle e(ld D~ tJ1re bauel t.Q tbe~~swck.~, U. is: j,imply a ;S~lnl\i~8 steel r,adiatj;)t hQse damp .2 IJ4indw$ in di'~meter. Itea.n ba.·pure.ha:s€,dLat an'a1Ao'piart~,

store. See' F'iigure 3:.5; _

FisrU~ J~5

n.~ )~~iJ 1J~e,d to f4if~n th!;1 m~z~e. end 01' -th~ ootJ:lll' fa· 'f:~ s tCiCO l;il;i an Q r,ai nt;lry ardorJ1o:tive rll;&{atOf damp;,

To!, L" ,( .. 1'fC'. ~ ~, . CoI,L. '.d,' '.,,'\

I.,ltel .. ' till " . ..:_ '.> 0'11 me' pa;,·".s ,If.!i!~",

The' ~L:lg 'S(;':r~s .into thli! c~na;r and J:a:\~elU 'the bi¢edl end ~t

th'" b" ;l ~ 'h ". ~L' 1[' "~ t b" 'lI '"' ."' t.: .. 1,_" . f~ , . L

~ arre" llJl~. e .. ElL:O~~, . n~ys 'g:_e ,...",oJ Ulc~l~l.Qng. ~t Ci:lnufl

!'(ma;rn.u:t;actur:~~· bysaw:in . off .,he.vru:e"aded portl0n qi th.e bolt. USti! ,ano~a~ 5/16 ,bolt which w~U have 5/16 x lsNC: tbt~I~ld~,;' NC n1~~S NiltionaJ C~arse. Thill JlS 51.MiOs for D, ~ thr'e:ad:s per .~nch, Saw oHand disc aid the. portion. n~t needed. See Figure, 3Aii.

'Th:e Collar C'D" (I,n the pr:zrti ,lwf)

The collar ,is made from a'sttHU pipe ooU!pllilg. Two kindsof C oupli ngs 'are av a.i~ab]e (see .Flgur~ 3·7) ~lUt only ooe!jg·jlllitablie: for US~ '~.a collaf- tt.e steel, ihre:aded- straight.t"hru "type; not the type wfuicll is, threaded on each end.


rh~e ,j]t~ too,o b.ltJes·. oJ' c;otlq:1' d;V~ ilakb:. The~yp;eo.ii ~he r:ight is n'VOl'tl cammOl!, -but the one on th:1;l lfJft._ l:? tlle l>l.uuJVQlU i.Il . .nrit~ J, al!ow.'i lor s,plid cont<lct beb,ce~:·the c(ll:lar ~n.d 1he barr,el a1 the rei._r.~o.,$fpoftion. of the b4:rtei where 1h,e e-xplo,silJe'forceto. btl conwineil is the gTeaJ~.~~~ 'You 'also- wam full thread· engllgement :for the breech p"lug~ ;u;hid'l the sty le ,on th~ r~til dQes nol' provide.

A bo~ie must he' "driUed -arf,ld. tapped in. dte colla,![ to r,e~~ive lh~: lug'(pai-t i.C"), To derermillf! where ,~o ,d_dU(he hJJ~ej d~vid~ th~ length of thft ·coUal" 'int,o twQ equa] p~; then .cJ~vI~e one. oE -the halves fnta'two equal pa'ri,s. Using·a prick pUnch and hammer;;' make a dimple 011 this. "quarter mark:" 'See Fi,gur~ 3·8.



Drill a he'~' at this sPQHo be t<llpp.8d fOr tali! .51 1 Bth.ineh Jug (patt ~IC~'J. The .eommt si\l~ ·~U bJt 10.u;,Se ill ,~tt~ g~z·e f. Lett.er . siz.e Fis .257- inch.r.s in di.ai¥liI~h:!t" .T~e .clOSeSt, ff,a.ct in l1"a~.sQ;e_joit ~s- ;i'~pl~j/4~l~~h o,~ .25() ii1a~s lrl '~li:~me~r. ror aU praeJrieal pmpf)iSH~a lJ4~i'[')cli!I b.o1£:wiH work 'fine.

You do nCl~ drill. it 5/ i&th·i nc·h· hole to :ta.p for; a. 5-116-inch bo~t, 1 ~ yoodidJ the' bl1~t '\'I'dtdd"lw -jn :a;ncl ou~ '.of the hqle I.and thefu[e~ds' ~~OuM ngt ~g~. each .o~h~i. Y'oI.N,mus,t dritl ~m lllldersj~'e hqls 50 ~ h;l. lliafVtl .li1jfllle, metail tQ J~ion inlo l"h:r:el1!His1., What ,srne: hole t@ dri.li far willrat ~8k@ ,bait Is standard i ntol'ln"a,IiOh tfJi ~ac.hlris,t:% ha.IlJ~.ho(jk:s. In liais.- c <!,~~, I ~ilV~ dOfale

.th.e ]o"(,.kin!il" up for yOU,' ,

Tapthfd-tt\'i mtri t~e hole just ~rill~. u.se: ~., 18.'NYC ta,p~ T"his m~.ms (j~t; .' if did w~th ill~ ll),g, p~ tlcr<l) 18 ~ead~~r Lnch, l'Natmnal Coa!llse. The,nB1dm:whi:ch is usf::(ho-gnp t'-'e tap dlJri rig thefureadUlg 'Qp'er~n .1s ~alloo~ 'lawp'wrench. 'fhe tap and tap wretlJil1~Dg~~ri(!rin 'a. T"sbap~ to,o,l.. .

\\l"hen. lijpjji.ng th:re~', ~g,in'~ pu~bi~g d,g~'ti H~mtr ~ turhin;S" in -a 'cku:·kwise d:i:rediaM.c. Yeu,wi!U f.ee~] ·the t{J.ol bite ~ntQ the metal. [ve,l'y l'ew wrms, s~ep amd bi3lCk JJp h'al.f ~mrn, l'hm~r bF@!ks ~p ~:~t:; curl Qfch1p wh ich 1$ Pe.1!ng/protlu:ced 10 th~t it. wiII fa]Jl~Ies.s1jo· ';:'fway' .. A ]ong~( o.ttii,Rg·cfiip Qait.l l:ia':,Dme ji;l,im"n,~d'between .the J>C:uUing ed~ of tlu! tool !;loathe new threads berog f'orme:d.t. ho;tching,1(g)p the jo~. The lug: ... art ~'C') s~ews into ,the bole i:ust~aRp.e.1r in the ca].m:, See '. re '3'-!~,

~:~ is ~opr.taJie .10, pa.use' at' th~s, poinJ ,and clis(;~ssthe hu;:u,,;tion I.of tfle-hl.g/ wMch .isl ~el'Y' hllp€lrtant. "'Every fl'eti.ofi.ha~ an e_"l!J;a[ an'"d. lo~;rposillte: lela->ctjtlJij:~~ aecolldirig b,)N~ton. Thi!! m.eafi.s 'that ~bill'fi the·~Pi{!wd~ht'itl ~ ,gun. '~expl~esi:t the same fQl'c.e w~]ch, pushes ~'he bWJe,t down the baNe] pushes lhe~g:un baJ;:k mto the sheul der of the: shootlm-.

Or!H~ ~t.is £~:skm1,ariilly eJi\fllaiFloo. A di;t;:t!ncbf,)~ is f\!ee~sa'ty.

Thl\!' .i_e fQ«;e 'whicb sends the. ,bullet dl'i1'WR 'die .barrel pl!I$hes, the p,grr.e2 back- ajgain.st 'wna~~er It i.S IJhiait f~fens the: band to '!he ,tock.. J n thh; design ,it iithe 5/1.6"- in,eh lUiS'which does thait.

Many other de~i,g-Ils .exis]. for example, In t~e ImJ)rmJ'ised Munitions H.andbnoh TM :31AllfJ., JSgu~d by the .U.S. Army,in_ 1 9691 ~df'ill.g is used. 'U.I' fasten the baneJ to the 31lock. Several laYe~.s Qf s;lt'in~r 'are wrapped iHound the barrel-s;lods cornbmatiQl1~ ·Jaid 'oil from mU~lL~ to br«:'!7h es if' dene by a [e'v.d~win.d ba~t east'mg' reel, and ~e:~yiJ;¥ ,sbenack~ boetw~p,

each layer" '

Personally, I :much. pre.er the, IDBt-allug:.desig,fi. shown here, b jg mechanically .morep,osi:live· and,i, t trunk, ,sa~er. We: talk about a gu)ri '~ju,Q:l!pm.f!I~" wh~:i ir:s fked. But tbebarrel j,umping _ vertically .:_ on the s~oEk whe-nilie gun 'is '(ired is not, a concern. You do not"'h'avE!' to fasten th@lban:el,down to pre:.venl it from jumping up_ Wfu;lt yon d,er h:a-ve to worry .about .is .tb€!' barre.l b'a ve'ling backw:&rd When ,the gun. Js, Ii r~e~r an.d spearing, the'shooter ITII 'the eye .. Tt.e ]u:g ~sitihJsl1uwn her'E,dboks; ,to m~ mQre-,rugg~d than .somef.adory-ma,die' or,eamts:-1 :baye!,seen.

If you dicl.f!lot fasten the barrelto thestock, I:mt ~n,embl'~d the guP otbff~,~e .;;omp]et~ I . wllen, )'on fu~d itthe btdld w{lutd travel forward arid dlf!! bal'Fe~ b~fKw,ard . .F;~8teJ ~ha.n. the blink o~ ,an @y'e, last~ than anyman,'s,reBei.Xes, th.e Iti'a;uel. 'wol1M z'od1r! bac.kw~·ahoul 20 Iaet. [fs.'not to~ h.atd to i'magin-a ~ pieceei ,3/.f··iRPh..pipll·p~ei',c.ilJg the ~~er's eye SO,cKet - the eye he used to SqU,lllt ;dO.!o';'n 'h q,!r:r~l an~, aiHn- and bur.strtl.li

through the ha,c k of .his skuU; .

Does, that piclur~ give YOlllpa:.os,e lor ~boughJ;,? ;G o'.odl With ccmmon 's~6 and t are, you can :rn.ak@1". peri ectly ,sefYtct;!3bllli fili:-e!arm. n yo,l.(I p~~'ea a~ap-d~bi howe,ver, you maJ'~ wetl do more harm. to· yGurself than ybu jI(o, to youI' mt~ded target.

The lug is !;I,. ~eJl ingredient in yow' own s:afely.. .

. . - - ~

7.'1. B'L p.lr (HE' J~ ~L' "I' s: \ _ ne . ·r;eecn ' Itlg' ',- on IRe patti' 'l8(1

, .-

The breech plrg ~!! tbe .. heart n£ the "whol@'mechani.sm. It is ai!sothe b~est to m~ul,actu:r~.

The b~ecli plu,g' performs' tWu baslc~u:nctiDhS. - ~rrst! it holds the shell in -the barrel and blQ'ckg, tb~ re'~r: -ell.d of the b,artel. Setond; the. hole . you dril.l in the.';breeeh plug guides, thefi'tJIl1:f pinto the lufuu~t 0:( 'the' cartridge:

From which end of the plug should you j~rt todrUl? Figure 3·10 iIlu.strates why it is ~ha{ yeu should -star!. from the round end (that is" th~ end which CQn'.acts the cartridge), n:ot the square end.

S"_:I qA', ft - . ,J rrl'ATION



12' n.B,' ,rl


Fig·We 3-.10

5 ituQ ti~m ~,~ ~.; ~h~w,o;'wha f it is :ydu U;~l'!f - ~h~r Ii r;j rrg .i>in btl f~ armed straight through the breech plug~s oti'ta,lorw end' (()fI'~a c~.s Ihe 'trtrtl"idge primer ana the ,otile-fend is centered an fh.e rear ,of the breech' plug. Situalion -e:« legs desirable, but.


w.iU work" One end contacts, the prlm'flJ't which is ess,enfial~ but r,he other end ,is not centered -on f,he rear of the lJ'reech p lUf~ This m¢c.mS ~ h (I,t when. the breech p!ug Is screwed in. ,rh,e rea r of t.he fi.ri.h!I pin ,-from the ,Jul:nmleir'S pp.in.f 01 ~Iiew - will somdi rnes - be 4iJ,2' Q 'clock,. som'€t!ltIe,:; at' ,3' o· c [DC kJ e~c..

S·· • ·~··C- n i :L H Jil·1. L.1. J.t- t

.i'tu.atIOR - .. ' .' wo,n t IVOn1l m 1l1.l. N~h'HJlugfi·.,tl'il.e· i",sar ~a orhn'!'

li,illgpm is dose ell()~:gh to beJng cetUe',ed to f.iI ['ways' be wi1-h in. r~C'b: 01 the hamme'r,. thE:! front ~'ohhe ·pm doe,s not 'O'"t.ac~ ~e: cartridge pr,im.et. If you drm t·fte 'fir~ng pin hole: /'rQlf! the s:ide of dn~ breech. plug,whkh centads the r;artr:iJ,'e, the worst s-ilua:li~n you will end up with is Sit~arion ~IB/~

Siiruati,on (j ft/' in. Figure'· 3· 1 Osbows what ii:: is you warU to end up w:i~h: a £irin,g pin whkh tZonw,clt:s the,~.b'idge; prlM.e.n;m O'l!I~ ~d and which is, centered on t~~ square end as well. Being· centered on the squase end (tQal.~j the .rear end), 01 the ~]ug ensures 'that 'thegl,m's hamm.er' will mi!l:ke-oon~:ac,t ~,~iI the iiring p'in when tJi.e ~ ~s shot ..

Srtuati;ol:l ''':B'~ shews that even. ~f you drill, Q'ook,eQly" you can still .pre duee a workable fu:ear.m i I you start drillin g an the c~ui-ect ~nd - the. end which ron~ac;ts the cartridge. Ths sketChes~a~e ~:agg~rEd;.::dl·o~ €our~~.1 wnuLdn1t ,B:itp'eel anyo:l1ie. to reaDy drm as~ cr~:)Ok,edly as is s.hown-.

SiltuatiQrl/ .j ie" Ii how,s whal can ha-pp:en 11 ynu ataiE1 't6 drill lrorn d,e square end.oJ the plug: and also d.rill cmflkediy. The: end of the firing pm does notcontact the car:tridgeprimer ami

the ,gun w~U nOt .fIre. .

The breech plug mU$~ be so]id~ to avoid e,XCf!SS head space.

See F ~gure 3-11. H ollow plugs are m IJC h more eomrnon in ~dinMY .hardware st.a:re:s~ but :scilid enes can be 1(1un:d. U -, you dln't I~:u:p~:e tbem in @rdillar)r hardw.are stores, yOU! will fi.nil ~beq.l (f.m 5liire~: in p.lumb:ing ~.u:pp1y 51;l]ir~. Plumbing supply stores wil1 'SIE:U ~o you, -but at a high price, since they cater to pr·Oifessio.nal plum bers, Do- it-ymJl',fIieHers ,are not. encouraged,


Be prepared to spend five dollars f(ll the same item. which would cos~ you ]e!isl:han one' doUiIf if you GOldd locate it in an ord in ary h<l!rdwa;r@ starf,!.

f"w~r,e 3'-1: 1

f-I 0 ll(}lL~ pZugs" sueh as. ;the Qne. s h o-tOnon th~ left j an~' @'as i er 10 lind than solrd plu~S'S: Al)oUdplug: Is wirnfyou need,-however.

The: "legilimatet! use :o:F ,sDlid plugs~ i:n.ddentaUy., l'S foil' steam hru~s funS-team h~t .~pp]il:::atiQ~. For common water pipes., hoMow pJu~~~ will sciUi ~e. If y.d .. i'c~ri:n ot locate ~ .so]id plug ( I t hink. you sl:m!lld. be aMe h:l' fiH the·.e:. a¥l~Y in a. hoUuwp}ug WtrJ. suJdei' or lepoxy-gh ... e. I've n.ot tr:ied' it. but I don':t see why it. w(luldn~l' WOJ'J(.


Assu:milng ymll/£; obtain~dl a ,8Octidplug, 1he £.lut !I,t·ep in malWlg a' bre~h pl\Jgc is to· Me flat th~ surfa.ce which will contact the rear ,of the, 'I;arll'~dge. See, f'iglmt,3·12.

After that; the o~nter oJ the plug must be located. To d~ this" a jig must he.rnade, Thereare ether y,:ays to do it if you, hav~ sccess to machini'l,ti,s tool s, bu t, trus is -the :!!iIDp1est (and most accurate) way] ,c;owd de1!'i:se for a heme "·o)"'~l!hop. A l',is/j incide.ntaUy, ls lit de'li'kB us ad m lQcatethe eerreet positional relati~flq:. 'oot.w;e'M a, piece" >I;l.E work and !ill 'fool,

To make this jig, start w'i~h, a bemd ,ab(lUt 1/2-~nch thick.

Cut a piece ofno.ar,·d square".fi...-e inches on a side. if )TOl;! cut the piece of 'W'000 p'etfe'ctly :S<iuare" then dr:aw two lines,' ea,ch, connectiqg. oP,PQ$ite ,cor:ne.r~, ·tbe ,ex~cl c~tet o:l the squllrli!:"wiU be located wheJle the two" Jines cross, See Figure 3·13"

F~~gm-e, 3-13

The.,j'i'g which i~·used' to locQ:te tfic· ce;t1r.er'uf the plug ts mad'fl' from n· p~ee.e'!f.l« wfJ.€.Id' }/2~i:t1dt fhi"'k an.d filJe 'in.,ches square. Connecting the (iUllgoTlia~ly' f)pposi'f~ ,COTIJers .of !~.e squQre locates the oonter 0 f the .squwe ..


After locatin.gthe center of Ih~. sgu,are" drill a 15/l6·ind~. hole, using the .square's center as {he. hole~s center. Wh~ dril1ing ~ hapkup the wooden square w:itha piece o,f scr an lumiber SQ that the 'driU bi,t won! t ..,.; ander when the end ol the cut is reaehed, B~ki:ng. provides. t~e lead-screw o£ dre bit with

somethin,Q ,to bite mtn. See Fi·lf:!1r,B.3:-14.· .

. F''P're; 3·14

DrfU d. l5jltJ·;nch hole ~'hra'U'gh !'fudJoqrd;. U!sing dl~ ,Hl'fl~ej,~ 'ce~tera,5 ~h.e boJe's . center. Eh:"d'l. tip tlw: s:qblflr~ lvith £I pji"l(~e (J,t scrap lumber S:O the lead screw (l,ft"e bit has: someth in,!!! h)' btle ;into.


Ne~tiscrew the breech plMug into the hole YOIl have just dr:illed untiL tim face of the. plHg js':fl.ush. with the surface- Qf. the board. See Fig,lD'lf! 3'-1.:5. Faint f-heface of the :plug with na1l polish,

·Aft.er the nai] polish dfies, retrace ~he diagonaL CDE"f\er,·tttcomer lines, this time saatching them onte the painfe,ds,urSaJ:e. Where the lines lnb~t'secl is the ,center ofllie SQlI are, the cen~r oflhe hole, and the center of the :P~1i1iI'. See Figere 3-16. Cla!mlp !he-plug in g. vise .. Gri'p it b~r the tang - thti: square portion ,ell n tAe rear' of th,l1!: plug - so a~ not to .d~e the threads. Where the :scratched·,k. lines' intersect! make a. d;jm~e' with a .prifik pundt S,e~ Fig~,m;; 3·17.

Figure 3-11;'

Re~ri!lce ~he romer-tv-corner l'i:n€5', .scmtchiflgtliem irito the nail po1ish. Where the linescras~ ~s,'fhe center ,01" fhe ~lLli·


Fig&r.re 3-11

Dimp,le .the. center of the breech: p "u'g with Q prfc k: pemch -or center ,punch.

D.riI!l ahQle thr.oughth~p]u g as shown in Figure 3~ 18. A drill pres$Ylill give the' bes:t-re~ubs, 'I:mt <II' .band"h~ld '-driLi may be used. You ~.ight hreak a coupme' ('Ii dtiUbit~, or l1,Jiri a. c~pkloi plugs' by. drilling, crooked heles if a hantil.heJd drW is used,' but it certainly can be. dtJ!ne. The 'siz,~ hole to drill <tr9 makh the 1. 2'd nail you !,',:i:U use in)' a firing pin) is S/32--itlches" .


F;gUTe J~.J8,

Drm 11 5/32.inch hole through' ~he! 'phiR •. as sJUJwn. A drilL press :W(J:~ks beu~t! bu~ a hand·he.M drill will d'C) the job.

The l'Ie.x:t sbepis to drill. '3. h(l1e €ms,sw.aY:i throu,~h the. tang ~o.f tbe 'plwg. The' fl@W bQl~.e roust i:nteneet ~e' fiting ~ji']] hole, E_stimate th e. ~nt~r,l!,ect)tln betweerdhe tw 0 holes' (il' ee F~ 3 .. 19,) and moll,!Ck withap'i'ick pu.n~h. Vi' here i~: neW' hole, should be;, drilled.



FifPn'e 3?' "g

A .&0 l e -i~. 10 h'il" dr~ lkd ef\OAswags ,th.r.,(i~ghr'he, S q~f:e tang' pf the ,P,[l'lg:.· . The' netO ho'le i~ >to i71tEtseC't the.' li'dn g pi'n: 110 Ie. Es:tittUih::\ . as s:.hotfl'l. where the,in lerstdi"tm IV ill be and mark u,i#h.D. prick: prmch 'ilC cordi ngly.

_ DriIJ iii. hQbl! ~U the,. way thr6~;Qh tne. t,ang ,of ,the. plug, See f]sure. 3'c~{1, Omy br~~fDf this. ·new hoJ.e'- n~ii!d~. threads", but t~e h.oJe .i!S' driUedaU the way 'througb to provide'd~iuance for<tbe tap. The.corseet driB sii:e' in use.[_s humliJm- sizl! 2'5. A hadicrnai

5/32 -inch 'drill cain be 'Sll bstitutoo. ' .


"'gUN 3-20

- ,

DrtU tnt! ~f.e; ~ II 1h~e u~.ag thr~u'g'h 'dn! tan:g. Tld>s,. pTo~i4e~ d.ear,l1 nee fm the. tap.

Tap lim-~ads.illm:1) ~!h.ehoJe jU$t drill'ed. S~ Fi~re 3-.21. U$~' ill 1 O~24NC tap. A s:crew is d'U~l1 ins.etted .n:.til) the tapped, h~.ej. The screw win ,ad as a. retainer Wt the, fmng pin and prevent it f:rom -falling out oJ the breech plug wh@o the. gun· is loaded and 'mm jumplng out when the gUfI' j:s ·fired.




Ffgu_'-u, 3~2l·

File' th.e··~·headddgeS't fr,Qrn" Q. J2d oommo.1l. nail.

The FirinlffPfn (p~ 'I~F'~ on the p'Qrt8: list)

The .fjrmg p:in" is made from a 12dl::o~mon"ai1. This li a,n ea:sy.b;~find s~eandfitii" the 5/32·~nC.h bo~e :Y;9UftaVe dr,iH.ed u;. the b[eech·p']~g. y,i)U~ wiUprohabll.y· han to buy ,a whoJe POiiIn'J of flai]ii, ai.ru.:e they are Rot usually' S;GJd,b),' ihe'pirece aljlym,lJr~. ~~BQx'~ na1ls_ are .skinnier or thinner than i~~mm.onn nails. You want l2Id eommen, not 12d box. Wh,eFi asking in.C,l h.ardware s;torei 12d :nails are sometimes called uqumher 12 n.ail~!' or s.im~y '~twelve:!l.!I


The fir-st .st~ ill m_a1ti~g: the firing pin is' to 'fiJe aff what I qilll the "head ridg,es;H These ,ate small bUmp!!, of meta"!: left o~'er from ~he manufacturing sb~p in ·the fadory when the nsil head. w,as lCl:rmed., A smaU. tln'ee:corn~ed file \~'urks w,~n to reltlov~ the head ridg~s. Se€' Figure 3~~3.

The. Ilext~ S~~P isto mt the:" :~i~nJpio to the i;::on~ct J~h", This is, tl.e length .of tfuB blr(lt!m plug plus ·118 of. an .. blCh .. rile prOpol;r length:.to be eut must ·be cu s.tom measl:U"€:di against each iodmwdual breech :p1[Jg. See F'i:gure .3-24. Clli;[Om 'rnea5urin:gJs, nec~saty bt!ca~~"pJugs" are ... ot aU m~fiu~act.U'red to' the s~e length and~e~f1 if they were, filing·the- end Ha~y,'iou)d desl:toty any uniformiiy Mrrucb existed prim tn that. N okh the nailwrtL.a file at the <::o~ec;,t 10 cation . and . e:ut j~' with a h"ae.ksaw,

Fig;m:e 3-24

The' ({ring pin mV-'!t FOimd'ethroug,h ;th\: b;l1eedlpl~ J'/B·mcu, Ma.Tkw~ere 1'0 leuf wJth a- three-cornered fIle.


N ext, mark the area on. the nail where the EJat is desired. See F~te· 3·25 .. The f:lat :ls ·th,e pankln on whieh the retaining screw ("an on thli! p,arhl list) will rest. The nat has tq belongenough and iQcat@d such that ~he: fhing~pin is allowed fon travel from ->u fu;l!ly T@"trad~d pDsition ~o ,a j'"(~re'~ position - with the

r;etainin.g s q~W i.n.place at all. ui>Mes .. , .

Fig,uri 3~25

The flQ,~ ~t?~i,gn 'which -the reta,inmg.s.cre;W lighdy res:ts-mwt-&l;l r.QR-g' en o.u,h: so' thai 4'Ui~ fidnR,pJn h;Q~: fU;l! -tmll e$ ~ fto ,,", fulJy retraded fo ,n fired pos [linn.

After' es,tim-.ali.ng the flat's locatioo,file the flat. Make it ,about haill~ the thiGkness' of the. nail. R.aund the end. of the nail which is to c_o.ntad the: can:ridge pr.imer and you have if completed Firing· pin. See Figure 3 ~Z6+

'~Vitlh the, 'cqm:plll!tioll1 of the barrel, the coUru-'j the bree.ah p1ug I and the- -ihi~ ''pin, r'ot) bav,e' a~$~]e 6tearm oj] sort's. These parti alene coWdi he as.semb]~, he]~ and· ,aimed. by one rnaa, ali1d the. firing pin struck at hammer It)lo;w by a S'e(>ond man, Engli:sb treope-used s1I1ch "h&.ldguns~~ - as dis:6nct imm

Fi~e 3~;26'

R£lund the end Qf the fir.ing pin, whi'ch co~tad8 the· primer .. On the left is shown it ,Qomplet4d fiting pin. On. the, tig,hl' "is shown a· c9mpl~t&:l .bre~h p.iu, .w1Uhb,Uth finny pin (lnd tetainj~g screw (tS\8et,n b C~d:

guns;' mo..m;tf!d on .;::a:,l'tmges - in,the yeart369. OnB man heM the <~t;uibtfj or \Janel while nlfil second. man applied & red~hot c:oa] to the ·vent. Such guns had no stocks in t.hIsearly phase·QI flTeamJ development.

Th,e Hammd (U!to ,on the' PQi'ts list)

A good .~aou~c.e - ~ m 8t@,rial im the .hammer ~s angle iron from a. hardw~ .sto~e, II this._ils:. Whal you; use buy ang!es (they ID'1! u1!!,u'ijly ~~a ill- pain}thal ~,eaSUfe' 4 .inch.es ona .side. T D use an anlgfe' for yQlU' 8un'~hammer, you mU!i:t sIl'aif1!htef! it out 'squeezi~' i,t -in a vil,a i$ ~ good w &y) and put new bends wher,e! you want them. See Figure' 3-27.


fipre' 3-21

The first 'Step in ma,king the hammgr is J,o stfoighhm. t~e llr}ghi iron (c.orner br:an~) sugg,ested .i-n the, led' QS ""OW ma1e~ri,a[ .• ;

Sa W o,fi both ends, ruthe .amtl~ .;m» dfsc~d th.em. SeeH~e 3,2'8. the hammer-to-be is :neXit beHJt.~n~Q a U~s,hape~ As, the tilickqelliS! o.~· iliegunslock wi!.! be 1 1/2 inches, this. is tlTe dim~ro.siont:l?at t~ hammer musjts;tri;!J;l~. The,refore, ]ett!:le center section of the U -shape be 1 7/8 inc hes wi:de-givirig. some clearance on each side' o~ the stock - a.fidsp~it the,,,,


rernaifting' I~gth. bel:wem'li the t~To legs of the U. Mark tbe straighteru!;d. ~'Rle .1r.QD acoortlingly and bend] it ina vise, After bending; i.t sho~d lOOk like Figure' 3-29.

The h~.mrn~j bwu: ro ,~hape. One .{"i!' .Will alWlIlYs ,b,~ .fa~~~it ,seems; Ihrih lhe {)~tl no. maf;ter hQqi 'c~t~liIl !tau. ore in the marking ,and bandi nl>

In 'spite Qf your'besteffQrls ~o k!l.f;q) th~ legs ohhe U 1000u,aJ,m ]~hj t~y :will never come out tJhat way. One leg witt alwa)l!.\ he'skrler than the other. The ends of tbeleE$ must be drilled~ ,ta a(j.cept ~ l1Qft.whlch wma~ta~ a pijv~~ D~i1l,~ 1/4~m~h h~l~ close· to the· end oJ ,tlie SlK~,W~st- kit. S~, Flgpre ·3,.30~

It. mayse6ir! 'sill.y to:. saw off '1fJe, ~rlime't~9d;s ,of l~i1! 4fig;ti iron o-qIy to drill new hol.es; However ~ due, ~o the l,ad. tEuat 50m,~ angles are made with offset, non.e,{!nteil'ed hoJest and the fact that. the two legs crumti*, be ~D1t to come oot with equalleng~ you ar~ better off .simplly s.awing off the predriUed, ends, r aihet than tryin g te make use of them. Y QU'tl see'.

Now that. you have a driUedhoJe uearthe- end of the Shorif!i ~e!h. the FlifiX[ !bmg t1C, do is· to, mark ,the lOil:tB';er [eg for d;rillliJ!1g'. Make a_:djmp,le U~' a. ,sharp,ened 2'O~ n~., Your prick ~c.h. i'S prob~:bly nQt s.lender ,enotl,ghttl ,go throu'eh ~he 1/4. incllhole In the shQrter ~(;!g. Everythlng _neros tn· be as. p~um b and sqliil are>. as' possibl~. The ,area d.es~";ibed by the U and the 20~ ,nail should be a rectangle with 90P oo:m,ers. See: Figure 3 ~31'~ .


F~an.'r~ 3'·30

-a.-, • -~

Drill u 1/4·;itl'cl1 holre dose to ·the e,nq ,61· fh.e ,.5fLlirt:e$~ ·kg.

- ~ ..1 ~ -

.F"rpN! s-s 1

Us {l1g a sharpened 2'Od naU'; mark du:! roca~ion fo,r the s,eco nd holel cs s;hown.


After marking', p,a.t1i,allyres.lEtajghlen the ang.l~ and dritl n 1/4.;inch hote.':in the s~c()lld, lo~!J@ir l'&g, $ee f'igure3.32,.

Figure ·3~32

PariiaUy r'e$tr.(!!l'ghten the U~ShfIpe: 'of the hQmmer Qitui drill: th,.:"!' siecona' hole.

. '.. .

.4Jter dTiDing~ febend the U so that i~.once ~in has squ!Ue com,&S. Tbis, is· .its f;inru·sMP:e., L~dy~ dIU] .a small holet 1 f t 6· inc:h in d~ameter I neal: the edge df the lJamnJeF.. See Fi'gure a~ 33~ 1'1ii~s hole w:iij ~cei¥@,the~nd loop ohh:e S\ll,ring which p.uLl~ ij,e hammer CII"aiNst !he . firing ~. The' hamm~ is nqw cornpleJle.. The pn.ot pin ('~r pn the part list) ~s: S~n;lp]ylil I.I~. inch. bolt", :2 I/.2 inchesJong.



DrilL a 11l6~i.f,li;.hno.le c~ose t&.th~· I\ld:g:l!' and dose to th~c(lrnej' ofih,E h,ammer. This hole haMs, the· end of the spf~ngJ as Sh9Wn. A U4-Jn,clt 'bol't serves as the pivot ~o:inl' '0" the hammErr. Was hers ,equ~ lize In E. spae:e b'e'~uieen tJn(_ h.ammer

and. ·tbe Sltli::;k,'<' .

The T»wpr (f·:r' all. til e pads lisf)

The tri.g~le'r ~s optional. The~ gun CajI bi:!! fit.ed by drawiog bac.k the hamm~ with the thurno 'and releasing it. firing with·o'1 trigger is quicker, of'c.Qurse,. hecaase the h:a~mu~r is atreadyjn the drawn-backpositiion. and heeds . only to be re~ea:sied. AJs'o~ hoWding the hammer baCk 'by hand. (or~ by thumb, il you. wiln for'a ]oo~rp.e~ of time! wai~ng,_Iot: ~er8quii'rel fo come back out 0" hils. hole; could be v~y tirmg.

Tb;e<t~,er is.!ttade .Imma 1/4.inch ·m.a~hiile. hol.t~(n,\!l; itlchf!a.'·long. pJus· a washer. 'The. wash€€renlarg~ the <!Hlrfa.ce which engages, the hammer .. ,oS ee< f·igul1e 3~:34, The distam::e from the hott head lto the bend sh(nd~ be: about an inch.

F~rite 3'..34

1'h¢ frigger is m~d~; from a mqc:h~;nH &q,U and "w~h,~t. It ~strqi~; ·.:o:r ltle~ bCH:,k i~e h alHm'er [n .area.d!l· to-tire posJt~on <a5shown.. Installaii (lin of the triggtlr is lin ey€-.!lalled jab,. ~~:(tt ti"H~~sU tmTIents< (Jere' T1Qit g.i~~n "be"bau5e gu.n.s- nro:de· in l:h~:s fas'h:iOtt ~~'ffd 'nn t 10 'i:Ni ve~y: ~Xacl, Tll i~ l~glJfe. ShoU1s ho u: ,t:l:ie trig~~r w'O.'Tk:r in Princi;pfr::.

TAe· .Slo rill, r:~IC~ on tll.epads listJ

'rh . 1_ .,. . d 1 .. • f g.l·j d~l ~ .. k .. . L* h- ;;

1.' re "Sio,C:K IS ma: .e noma p'leee"o .. s: X. e : ~llm 0 Ifil'wmc liS

3Sineftes long,. "fhg di!memUi()~s (.ne·~v.en in Fj~ -3,35.l'he di.fDtln!!iD~ '~f-.5 3/4 :inches is ~l.own on the' blitt~ PPl"!tiQQ o~ the' sIDd~- b~:c!;tiuse.j in re;aJj~y!, ,thafs<w.hat ~he wiidtb Q~ th~ so- caned J'l * 6.j~reaUl' is. The -lIo·called:2)::' thidmes'1j is re·al1y I 1/2,

itlcm:s'. .

F~J1e 3,~5

The sJoe.k .1 s. one piece;. ·tnude t'ro~ asoHRd',. ·~nd~. {:tee board, IEll:he-" hfiiltrfi"u;,'.o.O:d or ;'lQI:tip'lJoa w.iU U/~r.k:..

lfp(ij~'~tbl~1 b~Y"$elecl~~quantY WQ;odL '$cl.et~ (j,uaHty "is· 1 [HJ"% l~~ot·fr-ee: It is, us;e€l for $~,Hih appllii.c.M.lons as s'ta~t treatdiQg~ 'Softwood. is okflY tb ,Us'e. .1 t.is 6;$:Sri :~D locai:.er, '~asy ~6; W(jrk;"Y;;.ii'~!. iaiod sfwn.g ~no~gh' f9!" the job,-H:afd;woo:d.ill used in £~dHry~ made e:UH:$~ but "51 w.ffiQUlt t;e. lOo-atElj di f~icult~}o .work wi~hf 'and wtH -make the gun'qUlte heavy.

Get ,a' piece of> 'Wood which is sound _, net pw1ky j not checked. ()l"dacg~d,~et .'! ~,"k]'u}~~l'i'~" as'p'~~~?~. y o.~ <ijra~:e to use yfll:lJ (!wn ~~t Drudge!1l1·e.nt Ifi@~ U.ve w~t.h· t~e CQ'MatIJeIl"0BSi

The :flooti€!n ,oJ s,tock lIp~on Which i:he,<barr:el rest~ mU;~t :be groP'V~ fo,f' H&c' ,entire ]f!ngt~ •. ~ M ar:k a line dacwtJ ,tb€ cent~r. l'lmll~chi8tl in:tm~eaci:h'side:. See F~~.3.31Q. DodU g~ ,a j10b ,U you, ~~', even tJirj_~Bfue ·~~wts 'Wl~l '"tim~. {~n .,al1 pr.olhabil~{y) ]oo.kpiret~y]:agQ'!ild. 1'he 10,ok5 wiIU imprl:l<v~ ]n~hf! .~ pf.Qduc:t OOCiil1JSe Ine bM~1 wiffil b~ .bedded in ,e~oli::y ~Lue whichwil] ma·ik the jag:g,e"d ~.$i!1g lme.

Ot1:.er' P:a:rIA:

-_.- ~---

The ~ernaiFrir«. parr:l;-s are <~I purchased :and used' as is, TIre 'spr,in; . e'Vll- ont~e: parts,' ftst) nl~s;t n ill ~'e el'l(.rogh tene.ion to. detkut~elh:e cartridgre ~~et. 1. ,ca:o't giVe. y;~u ~"ap6 last rules. Such companies as WJl Jom::!!, Spring Comvany of

The collar needs to jit ontlQ the. barrel with the same 'kind of .SDUg- but nQn-bindi:ng; fit between the" thr~ads.

In as:S.HmblYt find screw the coUar ont{J, tlie:-barr.eli. See figur,e 3- 3 7 .,W or:k: it on and off until it, will. go ,an as far as neQesllQry.

FiBU'I',e 3'-3.6

The sediaR li)f stQc,k u;p.on 'whkh tlte· -, bgr.nil u:;al rejfmtlst be grooved' f~'r ,il.5: en'titAf! ieR'~~ ..

CU:I.(;:innati and (:enmry Spring, Company of' LO:i Angelfls sell spring.! ,thrQ~i'h..lo cal hardwa:re: stDtes-. U suaUy the litbre: will. have iii. ,di$play boar,d with'· a I arge sel~otibn o.~' .spr"irigs. to look at .. In a ~abinet with many drawers win be springi for sale corresponding II;) what. is,()(IJ the di.Spla:y .,boar,d. 5.eleet;ing a spring is a trial.arid· error prQPo5iltion~

'The :sc;rcw ("W···(JD. tll~ .p~, list) is used to bold ore.end .of the spring;. Pi round head, 1 ~ ·X 8" screw is .s:uggested.

The .nail ·windt· is 111ed as' a srueh' ("'Ntl il]!ntite .parts ~i~t) and ~o hold back the hammer d u ring~Q~di[l g:is .. simp,ly a 1 ad nait



The barrel; ooJI.ar ,~nd breech plug mus~ be fitted with. some eaee, If PQ~' j,ble" when y,till buy y,nur p&Jril·s. tak'e the firne ~b SCf'ew tbebree-ch p:k~ 1nto ,the e'ClU~· and the c,ol.lar ,o.nlo . the barrel, Cho{!,S'~ a breech pl~~'DQlLa,r combination ,that serews fogethete~]~{and cleanly'; where ~bep14g ,ta",'b~ ron .ij],h)~he collar for th€ .iuJ] depth ofils (the' plug'sltlhreiiids.Jf s.uth ai:iUs. ll!d~ possible to ffnd and. iOu.)' ready·m,adie', y'ou wiH hav,e.to rhake the par~s fit yOUiueU', aided by some pi:pe wrenehes and muscle.



liAs .far as' necessary" is far enough to' have 1eHover {not th:readed. ,~nt~)" the batr~) the lhi'ckne&s Oct: a. 1.2' .gauge she1~ rim pll;H th.€! fun thread d:lilptb ,of the m:eooh ,plug. See: Figure 3· 38.

fipie 3-38

The ',em of the b,arre'~. t(:lhich 'r,e,jz~:i:!'Jes ~&~eo llar mus r rile thJ'~Ct.d~d 9.ack fi1.rthe·r~'han the p~ua t $/4~ij] Ell '0 f th.i~·,a~d'S 'Whi.c~ come' from th€ stere, The, eoU'or mU$t be -wqtked -on ~"e' ba.net m1!ll thE' fu,fl depd~ IOh'he' 'P,lu, th tleads~ P"OO' ·the t'h ic knes s ·gt ,the: shotgun: s h:eU dint is J'eholJer. YiMIrW'Wl!' 'Ill of the :p fug: thread'5

engQg,ed. .


The breech P~U!l must b@i forced into the: eollar in the same. 'way,. h· mu~.t be run in and Dut untiW it ean be'screwed in full depth. with the fingers. 5!@e Figur.e 3·39'.

F,iFlP'tie 3' ... 39

Work tJj,e plug ihtalh~ 'COUO.f' ~.Hdi! ~f will $Crcw ~'rnGi9thly in.

and' IOU t to the fu U depth of ,j ts thre 0 as. .

Aft~l' the ·collar .. baire~ and the c(jJ]ar~bte~ch -plu.g ¢Qrnbination~ have been "seated" by r~&~~i'i s'cr,~wing$, and un&cteYo,'mgs! Hom assembly can begin. Sc;fBW the c~J]ar ,onto the' harr,e{ until it will aca.epL a 12 gauge shil]~and siiJ] accept the l::!re;ech plug ,s:,t:re\'l'oo i~ hill de~th. See Figure 3~.38,

It is thtils.h:e.er 5treng~h ol t.lre·thr'eads which hold$' the br:eeeh plug· ~n plilCe'wbJ1l:n the~ Q"tilJ;'l, .is f~ted. You d oil"t WaDt. the breecch plug. to :pop oula-nd hit '}'Oo, in theeye, YOl.:! wa,nt aU the av ailab]ethr eads engaged, not haH 0'1' two·~hirds of the

available threads, .


Fipre ~;-4()

1M3 s hoit.¢.r ·th·!:! ba:tJ:1.d. CQll'llf ~ dna lug: p,S'sem hied ,,' TbJe h,,;g hold:s "t~? ie{rt ~I1JP{d1;e bc:iirel Qm~ ~hll! ~t:ocJ~. !Hs. the sfr.en;gtll of .th.e lug whi'l:b prevenrs ·the bd;rrel from bei118'P,ro·pi4fl€·d· bt,tekwG.Jds LdlBn dn: ganis fire&

Next, ae.few tb~ Lug ('IC' on-thepariS.IL.~) into th~·coll.ar. 5~ Firgpre· 3.40.. A hole must now be mrulJred .. and driJJed ~n the' st,tk:k to, recei¥'e 'lbEl: [~g. La.:}' th~ baJ'tt'!l·Egllkr~rul'c:on:dnni8Jtion· ~exl1()i th&cit6Ck an.d 'se~ how- f.ar tQ fhe-ftont-nr [·eat th£ h.ol~must be:dnUed. Marklbat" :posiH~~~ ,,~~;t'he '~ide ofJh.e~~to~k. See Figure 3··41 .• Gt'!HteT t~ebOl~ in the si;dlil' to--side orientation. Drill a 5/16· irt~h bp1e.

P~tthe l~g. lhFougb' the· hol~: and boJ[ the auemblytog~the~ ..

Ne·xt" file a sbitUow notcb in bulb banei and;·s~oc-.k to Fe.cei'!1'e the muzzle d~mp CiS'; on the· pans· list). 'When .seatedin the notches" the muazle ,damp. also re~tst~ I along WIth the [ug., ·th.e rearward th'i'U~t -of the harrel wh.en the gun lslitte~d. S.ee Fig.ures 3 -42 and 3,43.

Next~ bed the gun barrel in ~poxy~h;re, I)~mard.1e the- ba.ne~ hom the stocll. deanthB' barrel with. 'sandpaper; eeat with epaxy the V . shaped gr'9Qve Pfli:vlouslf cut the length of the st-oc;k; .reauem hie - lug' tm-ough holii! in stJQck; damp OJl muzzMe -and lel the·g.lu€! dry.


lD,.CAT'E f~QroJT ~ To- SACK

R'ga:re 3-42

The muzzle' damp restsin e t10kh flled-in.to ,the gun barl'eL.A co.rrespandl·ng notch is 'med i'11:to the bot1om 'Of the-stoch.


F:ip,e 3'43

~he barrel is :laslene.dto. the 'sta,['k O,S s!wwn.· mUZizl'e damp 011 oneendJ lug OR the, other.

'The, n~job is to mnst:aJJthe bamml:'l'l,. f~r$t~ i!lSert the firing pin into the bl'Feocbplug and ~~e breech plll:g into the cellar . The hamme,r muaL be positioned SQlha'~ it wiJ] hit th~ fi.ring .ptA. See fi gure 3-10.

If the firing pin is oH ·CMter. the fact 'that the breech plug won: t.be $.c,re,w.ed.in t(l' exactly t"lIe ~~e position ,each time I~.an cause the. hammer to' loc~aMom&y miss the, firing pin, JA extiellle ca&es~ this, can be cerre c ted bye modHy:rng the .hammer

'a$ "shown in F~gure 344, . - .'

Ass)J,mmg'.that·fu¢ Hr~8' piA i$ csati!if~wrily centered in t~e breech plug". you:- sJi(lidd pos:i~on the 'h~tmner ,~uch that i~ (U engages the .fir.mg pin and ( 2 ,t has, ~ts piv at-point dir~c.t1y' under the firing pin. Mark the piy:ot- poi~t, dlil1 (\ 1/ 4·,i nch hole througfI the slock. and install Id:ie pivot pin (lll'" on the p~rt-s

Lis,t). See Figur,f! 3-4.5. .

T'J:U:.e:e' thil'igs. remain to be done before the pn is r'eady f'Qt fest: firifl:g'· A ~pri:ng m.qst be ~n.stal1ecl tQ ~. ~ h~mm 6r' inliJ! the fillng pint. A trig:ger must be indaUed (opt"i;unal). .A I\d ~ safety mu:d.hli! ~n8ta1med.

foOr the ,sprio,S; you have a.I~a.dy dr.ill@d it hole in the hammer tor~flive one ended it. See Figure 3 ·33,. The 0 ther



FiSf.I"e .3'~44

The hamrrl~r 'can be mo,diiied tQ hit ,a1'l alf·ctmt,er fifing pin.


\. \


F,gUre 3-45

ThepIlIo!' PQint of th~ hamm~ shoul'.:J . be' directly under t:h~ {iring p.in.


,end i~. W:npJJ., $ecured to ·the stocky,il:h a ·s'crew (~~M"~ on ~h~ parts lisd .. Adlust the spri~r teolj'i)nby moving the screw,. trial

~dI e)TQI. ·5~ :Fi:'8l»:e. 3·4:6. .-

FWD-te' 3-46 One ¢nd 91' f.hiill .spt'hlR is heJd' in. the hQ!l-edrHfed' in the harntner~ Tfre. other eni{is he~d. by U U)DHd sc'rew~ screwed ltil'O the :dm:,k~ AdjD'sl:· :fensioH by .moving th.e toood screw., How much Uitrl!s:rbn? £no:ugh 1u make. thlil gunfir,e.

Fig.rue 3' .. 47

In P'EiilldP'~~ the' trigger is moy:qtoo as· shawn. tflpm:c:~:!ce, s orne 'C'Iltl.i ng and (iumg anar.r.y i'ng w iU have to h'edo~e to get it to wor~p .... operly.

Al:rigger is inSt:a1]~ h s~()}!;~.in Agure 3-47', In the inter'Mt o'f ,Scd~1 you shouldl,;it walk areund th~ wood& with th~-.gtJn .eoc ked and , llier tngger:· 'eru.,ilSigOO.. 'Vi aiting be:,ide' 1n~ 'Woodchuckhllle~ d c'~; is, a. dme:uul!~ star,y',

figure 3~ 4 71' shows~ in ptin~e" .haw·the1trig,ge.r js r~p,{Io~e:~ to ~or k, In pracl:ii:C;I;!~ Y'Q1l1fh~gg~w.iU have ,ID -be Eua:tom 'f:it~oo~ with the stock notched. or. cut away as appwpri·.ate. tt depe~d~ on. how dosety y.QU fQUowed the stock· pa~tem given -in Fmgure 3·35 an:~, on jus_;t wh.:eret Md at \¥hat <'i.!(lg]e.you. dril.1ed a .hote· in the sitock to receive ~fte trigger.

'~JAl;l.. .t.oJs,~ItTeb HE~~ A ~fE"fy"

FigQT:f! 3.-48'

A satetll. ~ s.imply (l naH ms.ert:ed in, Q J.!'r'e-"drmf:!d ho,le - can Ere used. to ho,ld the hammer: out of the' way 'when kUlldirjg. Af.s:Q!;, du~ ~mnn14t 8I:w!J14n~r,be in hard ,wntaCt with the fir,i~g

pin; any more' dim'1 ne'ce~:O r!" .

. The purpose oi !he' safety {sell: F'igare 3.,48) is to hold the bammer out of the:. way while you reload .. A 1&0, when w;llkLRg a,)ongwlln.at lQaded gun ~ n.ot huntiing, ~U$t watkmg; imm the ~ar to the. wlJlods~ say- it is not a good id!l!>il ~o .have diJe hammer in hard GOFlta.c.t wilb the £:iring ~11 and ~'he firing pin in harQ contaet '¥'lith the cartridge prirrler ... Should. you stumb]e and. drop the ~n j for exam ple, or set ~t duy..'l'II tor crossa f~ce Ilhd have it .. laU Olver." it couM quite possibly discharge .. SURPR~SE!


The oom:pl,e~e,d gun is '~how!1 -in HgJitte. 3·49r• It is now :reacly fOT·tea~ ijj.j,ng. "["'est firmg jn¥o~ve)!, tlj!mp~e ofj~ oEthegun. S,@(! Fig!ilR "3·50.,0.0 tttlt hand fireihe ,gtInOhal'i8r. ire ~Jllil,:gu.lltwhi1e' b.Q\dlng i,t in 'ynur hand_,$) 'untiJij, has ~'m r.~rllott! 6ri~d at _]w~ th.::efi, tim~~ If ptlssib,lti~ usea mor,el' powerful lo.iJd in, yUIlF. t@,st finn gJhan YQ~ intend ~orroutine use. In.s:~ect ~he gl)![}, car:dulJy after t~t fHinQ' •. tt a 'C~&ck has .d.evdQpedj the ~ is ,not. sal-e hi. !;I!:!e.

Fffl,flf'f!: ·3·49

Thel iiRl5&ed [[realm.

Rtm:\e.m~e,r't fh~e are .»0 guar:an\~s!, t ,c,alJn ~e~ Y01!1. what ~~. hole tlJ}. drill an,q wlli1.;at Siz:e ta,p to use .• But ,I.can~'ll,ook,(:)v.er yom:

Sh01.ddlM and see that y~ do it correctly. Youar~ the '[IftB selecting' t:he nTHlleri)ati. Y OQ .<We. !the QlIe pu!img' thep&'~' itQgetb-e;r - sloPjlilli or cse'ftdly. YQ!iJ'cd.ll rn.al~6 ateriable Jif€olrltl,. You ean also make a deathtrap.

Figu~e 3~5()

A. 'ttst s;et~tt~ {'Q7" renn;;rt~. fftittgi• Th.e~liImmer.lrS ,heM bClf1kby ~he saie.tY. Th¢.·~afety irS tel~g.~d·.~y ,puWng';dn _(l' wJ.,.'Te ~.trac.he4',t'O U, O~n;iUul s -sfti ":g. ,$lfirig,s h'~ tellies; .and .I.C:~~ n - the nr;Jiil-·$fahd.y ffn€l.l$y ,lets lo~se:;' it wriU llie fflllhough: youwer~e.p[dJi~g ~nQ iubb~t~ ,~hd~.Ai I1'Q e. h:i~lt~,~HI,(jtdn t:h¢ fa'i~. a~ :f~Q AI PH~ (s na~ :lp,9 ~dfeeiriier. rlot~ lltQl twai 'n~ U~ w~~lrafn !h~., .!l;i",nf1'om b~in~ pulie,d !liver ;sidew~.i whefi you puJl on th~16J~i"~.Nor'e th at a block .has ,~e.a:11 ilo~iled @n ~(J l1estrorR the gun hamlra:veling backwards l!oh.:en·t{ -;:8 {ired.'

.. ~ "-."" - ~; ~ . ,::' .. ""




Chapter 3, show s how to ma ke it 12 gau ge shotgun from 3/4' pi,pe.. Other gauge's, and calibers lend,. ihelT.l{iely~! to ·sim:i]arr treatment: Below IS a chari: whicill'gIves theactual inside diam,eler (ID) and oUtside :di,ameter (OU) of-'standard pipe


Back jl7.l Gtan:d:p~"5 day, 1(8.'" pipe' had; approx~~lely". a.

I./8~~ lD,~ t!4/' pipe' a 1/41' ID'~ and S'I;) ~o:rth. r'Of reasons we. need not ~Iahoti,'lt'e here" the,nominaJ 'pip~size (tl9P~ 1/4"~J etc.) 110 h.mger cD'ri'esp(l'fl:d5~D tbeJDl~el.ID7s,. OD~'S, and w'amI thkknesseshave been, standafldizoo, however, <indore ·shown. ~n, the;chatll 'belQw. The OD is 'comtalllt for aD wall thkkn.esses oi any given5itle~

WaU thiCkness d~ignati,ons of ~tandard, Extra·Strong,. 'and Double, E'xtra,·Strong have been. used commercialilyfor many years. "Standard"~ is wha.t you will 00 douht ~md in the local hardware store. Yau "'ill have to go to a pJu robing supply house .i'Of 'the heo][l,(ier des~gnatjoJI!"S. Sta'~da.rd.. is alse cde~, S.chedule 40..E1itl:a.Strong. is, alsn riUed Schedule 80. And Double u.tra.S~T,ong is also calle.dSchedule 160. There LS no apparent logic to much 01 this, It's just thew ay thffinSi are.


A.meri,ean. NaJTPfUI,l Slllndcud Dim,ensions ,,{ \Vdded and Seaml,ess Wrought Steel Pipe

Schedule 40



1/8 1/4 ,3/8 1/2 3:f4 .1

.405 .540 .~7:S .840

I.D50 :1 .:315

.068, .088 .091 .109 .. 113 ,.133

".269' ,,364 .49~ .6,2'2 .824

1 . .049

.118 1/4 3/8, 1/2 3/4

, '


.095 .119 ',l26 .147, .1.54 .17~

.2:15 .3102 .423 .54,6 .742 .,957

·405 .. 540 .6'7.5 .840,

m.Q$O L3l51

1/8· 1/4 3/8 1"/2 3/4 1


".&40 1.050 1.315,

.188 .219' .25'0

.464 .612 .8,15


l' f!.·~/:~' - s.e- .(, n ,,·t a"I>~ I·",-.L.le ~ '.

• f'll·M. mf! n~ , "._ " ......... l ... L'<~ .•

2 A··u ,I·.··. •• L

.", H (nm;ems 111m3 (Ire rn srren es,


cliarl~iW.iU ,beE! (lP"rjJ;.:til11:4tIl~Y the~;:lime ,a; the J")~C"!il of Jipe.you. adu~ly pur~se ,- thei,Q]:.tera:th,le 'word irs: "~Ji!p:r,Q;,:;imateb·.n

Sir'aight-s'ided ~heUswith cin:.,!1 win work tfu"e easiast , in. homem Elide .. 6r;earrns., Bel!1;1<w .~ aliisting of .sb::aight· s.~.d~d rimmed. shells. T.he .diamet~t's-carfbecgmpar~d. tof:te pipe d.im~ASiuji!!l

giv.e:n abil)v~:.. '. '.

A wo:r:d, .seems ~o he ]~ ouler about (ba ",,·oId. aomi n al, As you· Ciit.ll ~oo from the ab6'll"ecil,;,i:rt.,· :no~ ab'oul !i'o·dilled l/4!P prpe is aduaUy ill /4};' - nQ,I thf! oilltsid f! dimnet~1" Of H'tf:! in.$iclediiHne~e~ (iJ'l' any cha:rader~tk-. In fact, Ij4l' is. tbf:!: "noll'llnalt dlmens~on - o~ly. N omlllna1 11l~&ns '!for taJking purP9:5;~.11 Whefil y~~. go· iO~Jhe" hardwaT'tl\ ~to;re ~a ask for ~J4"; p~p~~ the sal.eisma:n lnl~s,-wh~ty'@umean~ and you: know W h~t }rOll JJFH:laln, and y ou w?ll~k out 6f the 'Store with SO:ffi.1i!i socidloo 1/4'" p,jpe under yilfil.;U' i§:rm. But 'Ll~' is fue .rJominaJ. dj[l':l!8osion only., Notijil:Yg ;?lbOlUl th~ p~pe ~tlUaJlfY Jneas:ur~s 1/4'~.

T hrt ather (lOnce:j(lty OI;J: l'leed Iro unde:rs;tan.iI is that ofn'tD]IllF~:ul[:e"~: Ndttbl!i!.gin the w:o:rid ]s mal1!~fal::tur~ed~(l the: dilil€:~;5ioncalllecl £10:( in the bl~print (exc'epl 'by 'filtCM~lltj. NothJn,~.

Perhaps, lite rn¢ml you"re -s:.I~~ in ~ .youte.ad thi:;;'i,s [? l~t $qilJiin:~. ls t hat ina inside d.imenstof! or 'the outs,ide cl]rn.en~]'on? If y~U m~il!..s,ut~· ,a! f1!q,Ol' I,~yel thM-e'S, the: th.kkni!!ils of ~~e b~seiboat.d ti::ll- be 'o~(tgide~e~.! I f Y'~ wee-silre tiigb,er: Q ~ tftew,aI]" the;ffl.:s t!hepaint thit:koe~ fjn the w·a[~ ~o alh'")w"rDr. The ~~~jf ~ thick~[ ,in, som.e$f!Qt~ .tihan. in-·others,. My tJoirit i$j the '~ 2-ioot dm.m~1bn ]s" only uh~.norni~ ditnemtQn.. The aC~\$a[ dPnensiQIt.~ l.:2:'plm, or m{ t1!u., wm e amgunt~ T_ltie "J1l_us, Or. minus" ~a(tm is the toie'f3i1'1'ce,

When lJ4~~' p~pe is manuf:aduredl it l!i s'4Ppu~,eJd to"be m~d6. 'W ill:! ,;J.n~ Inside d,im:eAsj:OFlJ of.36 4 ,nQhes~BuE o.i course 'It flever :rrfe.as;u f~." f:hflt e~ad ~'rrfm.n:'~t Tb!\l ,alloy of dl.e m'ei;;t,lvar'res s[ght~~tl~Gm lot to lot. Th~ toolingwitb whiQh the pipe is inaaEl' wears Ir-Ofll one week .to, the ne:d:. The. -speed with wM~'ih di!Uere,fl~ 'ope(iiti!lf)!l run the jeq!IJ~pme:nt varies. These ta.~UI}.N~ !l,rtl, ,ta~led ~''l!.ariable:s,'' And; ~<t']1w. j::;h~gt\:ttlfe ms]dl:!.dilttel1l~ion ot the pipe- c.bang.es.

.. The (JQjnt is, this. "You are l'Isi:n'g water .pipe 1m a .gun barrel. \V aI:~t p~pa is made with .sl:oppier- ~ol,eranc:es"lh~-thli):se' used f'O;t' rnanuftj.d~rin.g ~ .1im'HH~. The dirne!l~i(}r$ giv,ef! in the ;_above:


BuUet n;t;I' ~'224 .3·75 .4~9 .458


.22 ffimfi(fl .315 W~. .4~4 M~1tm .. ,45· 70 ClovL

Shell. 'CUJ

... c.2,Z~

4 ~ 'A. ..I .,i'Fj ~


.S05~ 14~8(l~



.506 .5.] 4 .60~,

.3515 .3$.' .358 • .158 .. 4DO .43:3 .433- .454-

t '


.3Sq :3".~rO .3:79 .3;(9' .4341 AlSo' .4$6

,AU"I5~. i4, ;;' ~~ ABO

.40i;) .44@ .440 .44Q ,4:8.a,

.514 .5~4_ .,5~6 .5mB-

:~U2 ,,156 .103 .4J8

,.815 .g12 .1.15,6 .5131

1,2' Gaug~ 16,Gaugl]! 2'0 Gauge .410 Bare

* indic:alf$·tapet

1B,~s~d~ (I'n the,:, ~~ov e::chart;;;~ a .2:'2' nmfiifl' t.armdge would fit in 1. f,Pl' 51 chedi1.J~ 4:0 pipe. In fact," i3iS' -~he.. .r.:;JmB~'a8afe the


Q'.'~. un -'e' '" !j;''1 .. b·o·''~ ~>} . ., 1 1:1.' 22 ~O"',!!o:-rifle. and .,22 M~,a,!t\!~im:

,aGLIllJ ~ !':;'oI:, .1.7 j ., !.A'1;,':t I •• L~ !!~I!:!I~ ,., '~'~' ,;.-' - ~

CQ:Uld all. be fired in. ·i;lJUrru·mad~ from such pipa,

In the. ,em. o:~ a rifH~irtl ~t is .the; tlrilt not a. prime:l'f w:hlch mu~~ be~~htid~D cause ·lgl1iti~. F I)H" 'tbe.' Jiring pin_til c!J]JIt~a~t ~he r~Jm,! . it mnas~'be '~Qcated a£f (ie:nier in ·theJareotHm p[~:g~ Se~ R~e, 4 ... r . When: the bteeeh ~(!Ig is .screw:Bd inlQ1~he ·c{JUaJ~~ lilting pin, may .end. ~p in the-6 l'l!~ do-de positiQ:n~ !he F 2 Q~.dock, pugilion.! ,Ol"SOWOe i,"it~rm~i,a.l€: posfution e- The hannn.er ,~ust b.fl Widili! .enough i~OOO.nta:ct the :Jiring, p~ ,In. )V·hat~er PQSlifjo:nll'~""i


A .3$,S&W., .38 Sp'eeiaJ~.;ib~ .351 Magntl~ aU ha¥e~lli1:t dian:leten'!~ha:iw-il1 {j~.m 1f4'~ Sidle;d.uJ;e 4,{1 J1:ipe. HOjw¢v,er,~ 'In t"i,ad(l 'eas e the pipeR'lust· be ~.rg~ed 9uL to ac.cep~ t~ diafl;leLer of the .. sh:EiUcaslpg. See Bgut~ 4·2·, A ·25Ifii4~Y l·ractiQnal dr.in Of,a ]etter s~e W ,iI@L G!.l'tithe bit ~iz~ ~o. ~e. Drill t9! a depth ,o.t I 1/4"'.,

A ,.fB Magnum . .bullft wfU Ht in 3iBe Sc.he4u~e 80, pip·e., The ,pipe _mus~ be. ~drmli!d O'ut t0aJc.€ept the sh(lU'Ga~~ See ~igUl'e:4- !t Use a: 7/ av' bit. and drill to a. depth Qf 1 114\

/Zrp:re, 4,.;2

WI;(\'l,some~c-aUbers" ,the bullet dia[[J1(J!f!'!J"wm f~l; ~1l!the: pipe bp:r' fhe :s1i'el:l.. aiamete¥w.W not nil! n,ec:es-surg dror~nce carr be obtained b.y d'rfLUi!g out dr!1!,pJPe 10 '~o the appmb:rrat# c!i·qmet~ a.nd-·fieptk 'rig 4rTi1~ 1.", thta 11'~ttht,ollpaints '(0 'tJie" pott"lnUa l'eonUi"'t tJlcledniAce.

The .375 Wincltlest~. wil:l m in 3}87' 'idredulLe 'SO pipe. No· dr)Uli!l.g :js·:q~e~;!!:l;I,tY.

Th@ !4!j"Si~~alJ .. 44 M'a!~uJD~ A5.AJu:~R>imt .45 Ca~t"and .~uo; l~ti11! -shotgwl will .;di 'li:( iwt 'B/8J' ,~(;hedule 40 p~pe .. NPi dntl1W1g 'is req~lr~~ Tne,Ai1"4 M.~l:in is a slop~y (il in-:tbis .. $be pipe 'i:!'ljid [ 'W,ouldl feMmmend. agairnsl ·~ts u~fe.'

THe ',115.70 GQ'vt, bullet wit] h~ la 3l8~'~ SchBdule4tl pipe abd in 1/2"~ S'~hf!duh~ 1-,6Q. pi~" .BOtbPJPf( S"iz~"~quire -dti[11Q,g

~.- _ .•. ,'.' '~'jI 'I r", ,- - , ,.-- -,,>:;, ~i" _ - "~~ .~:-

wub a 3SI'64 bit ["0 a depth ot .2, US for sh .. d] ~$mg



s,f:veroU s'b~ls .have .,S,thl;U·ght s~des' and woukllen.de.fh.en:t9elv.es, ~o the type .of 'flreii;I,TJU ,d~scrlbe-d' i.ti C~pter3exce~Jt"~J t~ ~aGk .rim-s·, '~IRiTPs" can be addedr ho~weveti by·the U$iq Qf :retmtltrtg rl:n:gs: •. 5;ee' F~ 4-3; It mal' ·b~i'[receSsa.ll' t<dHeoff" 'pari ,rill ~b,e retaining ~in,g!'ltl"l:e!plj to.,ofbtain deat'~:"n'ce wilti'n ~he.

gurn~s .~.,

The ;-3Q Ml Carbt~ ·aitdI the .32: Auto are hOith .!!braignt-· sided.:shells that ~iU !·if.int& I/~f' S.c;hlld~le. 4.0 piIfe'. They . .1!!(€" botb r'mil~8"8) hut a. 3/ B:~ rretaini.rrg ring. ~ be.u:.Sed i6;$p')~.e ·~ba.t:


The bUll,d ot the .. 380 AGP. and of-the, 9mm: 'PHiraibe]lul:n wm·· Ht .. i nTh! 4',i S¢l:,.e'd~ule :4J!lI_··p~p.~: . .InJloth in.st~n~es, fhe .p:~pe'musj'1; be drilled ~lJt with a 13l3::2'~. ~t ~p '~J~~pth ,gf 0"1"iei~(;p-t~. acce,~. ~he "sh~L casing. USB 3.{:8'''· r~aimng rings tLQ ~ea~. ~i~

The .45" A"C(i~nd th-e: AS Wjnch~~er M<ljgnu!p wm lit"i:R: 318f', Sch~~liJle 40 Jiip'~, N{! diil1irn,et 1,; l@quir.ei.U se 1I2~r. r,lrl.ahlin.g ring~ for ~n'fill~.

:R rla:fnifi8 fluS!!, ~nd the speeial,p~i~rs witll·which to irnst~[ and ~emo¥e· ;them. can. be QiWained at"" 'an 'aUiCUTIidilVe ',SIlPPW sitor"e. The !liz.es' i.n-dl(l~ted helle 'c,an- a-tlEllaRy' "b~R~~ o.fl:wilt~ith~ ~jn;e~r( a,nd Q~il~t tequiFli: . 'peda~ ]:I1iets (;;r§tI:rl'l~ng; yen ha v~ fair:1bt ~trbng .. fin-g,l:l('S, of c04fos'e} •.

By, e;,J!lployin~ 'p,i)lereducers,. it is- JK)S'~ ible . t9 use netk~ car.trid life's tn ~he 'typ@.' o£ fir'eaim ~.eKdbed lIJ. Ch.apt~r3·.. The n~k rifh~r than, ~be ri'~ "hoMe, ~ th~ . cM~tidge in pla.ee7 The;l'fi£:Ol':e~ ~Ildainin.g ri'ngs are'not :neCe"$is~y ~'Il"en '~'rkrrl~s!li 'shek. Be~aLJs;ega;ps .are i:nevi,ta,bl€! between tha 'carb'td~ .and fbi;l'chaml1er h91~ lit ,many broken :.s.hdl,cijSBS and edtad~Dn prob.l.eITl5 Sh(lUld be exp"~~.re'd.

FiIlQr'e 4..4

US'i.n,g adapters ior necked co:r"tr'idge:;" ~~A ~~is 'the breech plug. ~~ B" [~, thE!'oI::O Uat~~C ~ ~ is :the ~prtd dge ituH. ~ ~D' ~ is: die' nipple which must be,.t~1tfilomC:td ~a length fGr~ac_h c171ibet and sheU siz~'. "E" [OS the reducer~, the hea,rt,of fhe who'le'u(fait. '''F'' is. the Sipace, 11 ~ind 01 hearls.poce" where (l potenii(d blowout of ~be ,shell easing l(Can. oc,cur. "0 H' ,i,s. .tile barrel.

When using the. 'folle~'IDg dir~cti,o.m~", refer ~~ Fi,gut~ 4·4 to ~ee thE!·.'I):'o~e' .beh'l,S':'p]6iyed. by- the> camp oaent in question. Tilese. diredions deal with diam~e.rs1 not ll:;ngths" It is sugg,!:,!st@'d, ~hal the ri,ipp,le be3~' tong ,ta 'start" sawn ~D ap'PrDx~mate length." i'!J!d filed Ito ~ii1ish length - being assembJoo a:nd disassemb1ed as' needed fqr trial m,easurero,enls eac:k -ste:p'oi the way. In each case" the tuUa!!' an4 p)~ required is'fue '~,ame: nominal size as.

the large lend of the red1!loor.' .


for: .222, .2~2 Remington: M~gnum".223~ .22J Rendllg'ton Flr~?~U (p,istol fhe~l), m,1!! .1/8'J' SCh~U[e ~o _ p,ipe for bar;el; 1/4 Schedule 40 nlPple dinned,Qut wJth a 23i64~! fraeti:onal,or LeUer ~e W' bJl; aDd ,;1jj l/4!' lo I/~r! redtmet.

~~'r . 2;2 :P:P'C~ '6mm PPC~, .2'2(J S w,ift:u se 1 ta,~' S,chad1dB 4'0 p,jpe, f()r"b~f!]'; 3!W~~Sc.hedule SI} fliN=!~e,driUed atilt to 29/64"~ and a J/S" fa 1I8~' reducer .

. ~, 22',5-' 11/· h " , 111/'0"' 5" 1L_...l' ,',

nlf,; .,," '. lo'~ UlC1 es;l~~ use Jl, a( . CllelaUh 4~ JI:ipefor 'banel;

3/8 ' Schedule 80 rupple;. and a 3/.8:tl hl ~t8!1 redu~et.

,F-or .22~'25Q:u~e IJB" 5,th.edu~e; 4.0 p[pe~ fdr barrel; 3/8~~ SJchedule 80 nippJe dr,iJIDed oot ,~,o 15132"'; and. ~ 31St ~,O 1{8" t'l1!d\:Jcer.,

F~'r. ~5D S~n)€ige:' US~ II 4'~- S:cJhedu~e 80 'pipe for barrel i 3H!/~ Schedule g,{I nippJe' drilled o~t, Ito 15l3i~; .and a3/8~! to 1/4!~ irli!!ducer;,

For .27ci \V~ncheste~J' 7 x 51mm. Mouser, '7rnm Express Rem~,~~on (.280 R,em.):, use ll4'~ g'clJerluiie40 pipe for bMtrdi 3/Sn S~~~llie 40 nipp1e.; a"nd a 3j'if' to ~ /4t' 7ed1!ir~er. (N QJe: th~ .2?O Wincb.est@r 15 it s(?Ppy fit and. [ re,c(l1urnend against usmg It unless a small ,powder' ~harge is' emp&o,yed. The buUet Q'M bepul~ed from ,~.~facl:'ory-~oadecl sheU. fotex,ample;. nalhhe powder, ief:fiovedt,a~d the b_uUe;t re~instaUed in th~ !!hell.)


Far .30..,30' .• ,.32 W;illchestet 5pe·d!'.!.lt lind .30. HerrEft (pistol sheW: use 114'1 'Schedule 40 pipe' fOf barr·eI; 3/8/' Sch~uk80 nipple; and it 3/8/'~.o' 1/4" l'ed:u'cer.

for .300 SaOlagi!!~ .308 "1li1},fieste:r ('r.62mm l\lATO), .3:0.40 Ktag~ .3(}.(j:6, 8: :r 57m.mM(luse~~ atul 'B"r~I06: 'Use 1/4,1 Schedu]e: 40 pipe for bw.re'l; 3/8'< S'chedute 40 !i'iJpple;: and ,~

3/81' to 1/4'1 t,educ~r. ~ -

For .303' Hn'ti:sh: US~ If4" Schedule itO pipe ior harrel; 3/8"

S -h _.1 J 8t'1 e, I d~~:l d . t· ~-. '13-'<lJ"JI~i ",_ ... ~I . 3'/8- ,', ~.~ 1/-4'i

c_!~u e '. " mppe . UllLe 'UtI' I.U _. '.::J~; .:;oha ;l, ..... 'w ....

re-due: ell' .

A DQuble Barrel

.A quiokl'(liUQw.;up,-shot is otlennearly as varuable to a hunter as the ~,irearm ;tseU. The s~ngle-ghQt shown in Chapter 3 can b~ c;on't.~'ted ta a double barrel wHhsome r<e'WDrk.

Thesecond barrel is mounted on tllP of the first' barrel. The lvio barrels .aw- fastened 'wg,etber. by"a iih~' putilon 'of bolt, H~J\ea;ded on. h"oth e~; c·pt1nEf~ting the twa l;oUai5. _Ta .. ~,~ tb@" b-oHt· which I ·am terming· a .,j]u.g/' as much seat~ng depth as pos~le·~ illS necess~1)"'m grind aIIa't. spot en-the threads ,of e&lib·l),~rre[, ''there.ll).')1: u~,a:ti.ng d:e:ar ance 'Jor each-. end Q~th~ ~ug. DQ.jnig ao.makee for much trial aoll·5E!mbly" disaSsembl.y~( gmd re,assembly. "the ."step,s- foll.ow!

1 •. On a. smg]e S!Jro~ alread¥ .(;onstruct~; .mar.k l:he:coJJal' wj,th a pri,cik p~nch wher~: the, coneectin g :Jyg'is to faSte~. The second barrel is to be. do top ,remember. .

? Re!11(1VB the_'coUar .from 'the single shot Drill ~dta'p f(n:, the connecting lug .

.3. Re-assemble the collar and barrel so Ih at the shell is seated properly.



4. Mark' ~h>e ~reJ.l t~ruls wi·th.fl prr~!Zk: plJnrcm wb~e: 'a~ nat spot]s: tt> 00 ,!VeluflJd. on thE! barrel 'threads. See F~re.4.5.

5. 1\ gain di~~emble !;be cnUal1m.d bane] and ,grUid &. Hat. !!pot on. tfuelbarel. lJlweadiSc. A Hother way to emare ·.cl_@ar;ance iOif t~ t!nd.,o~ the cbJ¥l!1t¢tins'~' i'l:to use at_.~at::~~ d~meb~r hit. and diilill. <J. sh hl10w cotlnt.e~S~n,l!;: hu,Je. '5fl~ Fiji,Jre <4-G.

6.R~'·al.~emble the' barrel and. C0nm 'sri that the. shdl 1S. 8Ml.;:d properly ~~SB1:hat the ~~p!ped~ugha]~ (i:n~~lIp~itb' ~Ilfl flatsp(}t.

1. Mak.e .,il ~ecpnd bart'el·oo~t··b:ree·ch. pil.JQ' 11i:$m1 bJy In

wbieha· she~ ,carl be pi:';peir~l'S'~t~. --, ,

8. Mark~ Wi:11,.ari,d tap' a lug hole; ~t.en dls",s~~.mb]e .olld Qrind c]~raneft"for thfl,.etld 0.1 tbr6. JI;l!i',simiiar to W!hal.'wall. dpne on the :firg~ hartel.

9. IRe· a-ssemMe the' secoed haerel and co]~ar.~rna-kil'l:g Sttre the 'Sheil ';;eats ~.o~rJY,]lnd th"t: th€! ll,1g horneiiJines up wilh,tM:

fiat sP~.'·' . ,

1 Q. )Aea's:I,IJ'lrand'cut a lu.g.. '~fl]lar_ thKJ~rte'Sse~ varY ~ sti 'no. single di~~nsioo CeJJ1 lbe ,gJlven. C1!l:t. iii': tittle '()ver, .. Um:g ~h(lJt dis-,aslIll!mbJe . aJFld re-.:as:!lem b[~as ftBeea-8ar1fr tnmmir:l:g the W& h~!'l~ ~ ¥~~nliMe .

• J,l ... ;J'!:'~. .

L 1. A:!i~e'mbletbe~ .--secpnd ~em to '~he ¥Un as ~h'?Wfl in. .Figure 4· .'l~

1'.2 ... Cut iJnO dnn apjwe Qthardwood .as, 8JhoWfl ~n Fi~ 4. 8. The cl!i.s~nee. between the ,two b«(;l;ti] :hobti!· eq)iaLs th~ thid;!!~s. Qf Ute' t\\lO. ,().O'D"affl at' ~hll! '~~i!1" eSaph~ ~a;tie1s .• When dr9~i Ii.g 'ih~ b.a.ITti.I.PiQle!!, back uptBe 'n~d"'lll'DQd ~being drme~ with a. piece"olsc.r ap te. pre·yeni'spJ~Ming. l1re>' s:mal1bo]~s' a~. the;. bouom 'M1'l 'lor wond. ~{:rews wroch ;f·alsten lutoth:e ffiiid IClf the·

fore.grip. . ..

~.3 .. In~ert hotilil baJ:T~Fsthrough·the 'har,dw9Qdl;lJlJd £as,ten intQ, th~ .~nd. of th~ £6l'e~ip WIth 'oo~: s:cte:w~ Th at ,:ror,~ JU~ts' .~:s Oil pi,vot ancl ~qu 'eM wjg~~e~ the. b~rr{lJs' ~a;ck and fQ:rt h ~[Jti1·lh~, <n;~ pifofl'et'ly aligned {paralleD. Then, put in .the~c'IJnd.-sC"r:e",,>. SIZlI;! fi_gur~ 4-9.

ngut~ 4-.Q~'

A s,li~li~ hole, (nO'~ lJe~:iet:rpf:[n§Jhce --.'i'id~tpal.rJ can lie ·J'i"m~ fOf ,detll',t:!1'I.E'e: h:mite&-l Qf: grinding ar (Uing: uflat spot.

;; _" .

14. The next S~~P.;Is '~iJ ~e· a 'h~$" Nr' 'l~@ !!f:~~ barre]. I nr$tan '?l: kl~~ 'p'i~at pin,. ~~tal1 bath, h;unnter~' lOll !h'e. same pi:nct and spaee fhem 'with wa$hms as need~d. AUa.:;:h <ill spring t!l:l drive the slecondba:rnme1 on ~hElopPGsi'l:e ~id·e 'o(l.~ the !Uti :£rpm 'dl¢._$pldng-:which drives Ihe'lilsl hammer. See Figure

4.Ht .


Figure ~~ '1'

T~ :1:W0 ban~1s ate iobu~d by B:t.re~hlg-thent tog-etheJ viii the threaded l'ng and the' t'at$,ed hol~s. in :the collar.

Figure 4~8

Th1s driUe,d·Qut pi,ec;:.r.:. 0; h~ r_dWo.l;Hl g.oes on lhli? muzzle. QnEi burrel ~"tieS' th~oUJh \;!Qch Ito le. Y GIll! «rill" making Ian Q·lJe1 .. a~. under d,iJ ubie' b.arn;!'l'I' nO.t Q s:ide·by'·s~d:e" TIe scre'ltJ~s. ~g'o' into the end o,{the.siock: Tfu~: .We: b betLQoon the 11.00 barrel hol~s "l.5 equallo the tol<lr comb:iQea coUar thickJ.l'ess at the r.ear 0'1' the barrels, spad~g the' ~curel5 apart aJ thai. end.,


Frgare 4~9

Gettin.gthli! bon-els" .l!.IaruUel is ~ric:ky bus i riess. Insert (l·ne screw; Ills·,shoWIl" lI;n,d use .it as a ·pitlo,t, Twi:st th.eoortelS'back ml,d {odh W'llUi.,they me pa;raUid, thg;q inif'Il,ll i,h,e s~c·.(Jnd s.crew.


Pigure 4-UJ

Th~ rear end of a, home.fI!l:QJe d'ouble. T&eootfom IIilJr:lmet has

been bent as requi.red to, contact the liri~g ·,pin. . ..


15. Brac~ r, tbe ·doubLe barteW as .shown in ,Fig.u.re 4-n because, as described 800 far,. onlylhe li.lg:e,onnedin.g the coHms reslSf:s tllt'~Jb~dQ¥alid tb~:t i;,}f the'.~;p ban,ef when.it ~s f:ir-e,d" FQl 'urth[~r' re:1n.fmt~t, the ICoLhrr's '~llld even be weldtd t:ogether"Thg d[lubl,e' baNel l,s now ~omp]ete.

"wun 4-11,

Biod:n,g to r,e:sisl th,e 'reanOaiJ thnst.:oHlie top t;.arnd. (The lUI befit'e,~n l h,e col'a rs, ls lhe on ly other gun port 'perfotmifl g ;this lunction.') "'A'~" [$ the. ~hr~ad:.edporti&n of th.e end 0ld1e bawe.l. <tB'? ~s' g .di~e qjq ,oo;rlqJ\ cut,Wifh. p, h.:aek$(uC'! hete' rDefl, a:;'i' a le~tamin.g. nut.. He "'. j,s, the 'u.r~gQa ,pi'e'C~ 's hown, I fri,f';iRure, 4· 8."iY~ is a: metal, .'ih'ap~ to:s;wn,ing :thello.rrel down hl the !i.totk. HE" is the .WP. bartl'll if.seU. j~Fj ~s ameitnl ,sfrap,which su rTO:IDlds, the· JiUlllduwo d $pa.CJ€t croo is $G"l\lwe4 to tnie, .iitqt'-'t. I~C ,. is f;h.e· U]OQd'en sloick.


A muzzle, loader has ·se¥eral things be recnrrtm end it.. For one thilf::l.Q:r "al1 cartrid.g'e-tYRe' gu ns: ~rt~vQive, around Q'ne- lI:bing ~ the c,art~.dg~ .. "Fhiir F,iook: e~p]ain$: h.,w ~ 'OOiakf! gunJH~wder and. primers .and ,giL'Jns, thems~l~·:es . .Blit wt as8Ii.1me·~, YO}I,ij ~~'e .at1he very least an e:mpiy sheU: casing to reload,

And.U you ao have .an ~mpty lihen casing - theheat't o,f the wholeaUarr' - {·hen :you need 'a bune~, 'lhE; right size:~ a. primet the .right siz,~J. agt,ln ba,r~l th:e :fight- dialinetm' and. a gun with the ri ght~sizeH dum ber b;; he~d the $b~lt AD 11:n's; can be. sidest.epped wit,h a mu~le ~Qadeil"'; The, ]1irke. Y,QU p,ay for

incre;&sed ,'SPnplj'i;:1ty is 'slower :i"f;lpeal: . s@~s~ -

• • '.'.. I •

I recorru:n@'nd against- bu.il~mE' a rruaz2!le loacJet: from pipe· with OVflr'~ lJ2~]neh bo're. 'It )I~M.S, ~gme ~at· ~D ,large diameters the ,tlikki1"@s~ o!'the tm8 c~,i~ too thin; . [1eiativlc ,to t'he area 0 f t~e bm~ it must. bridgle" 1.0 be .. completdy safe .. Remember, test, fir,e everything by remuti!!' firing befcil:e hand~

held firing!' -". '. .

To ereate il:, ml!:1i~~ lQa,der., inst~ad of USing·the collar .and breech pl,~g .a"angeme~i~hQwp m~Chapt'ef s~ simpi)r' s,~,rewt:h'e" colJiar .fuifth:er onto- tbe b.arrel and c,ap, o~ the b'reech end of the barr~l as. ilhown • Fig~n€ 4· i 2,

" ' ~ ~ .

Next~ drill a hole in thecefl!ter' elf. the cap, 'tap, .it ror thr.'eads I and ip~tal[ iii, !iJ~pple:. j)B'ectiQ:ns, f()tmak~8 .a,'nippl~' at\e: given below. The nippte 'is hollow and J]cJdg. a. ~rclJ~s~on c~ap. Chapter 2' desesibes hOiI;!,' a percessien gun works ..

SAFETY rrEM: A faclorry.made ln~llzdf! foadf!r has the, nlpp~e mounLed. on tbe ~td~of "the barrel Even, so, J have been hi.tiir.i lhe '~y@ ~~fh fragme<nts f rorn ,an etploo~~F!etru,si01'l cap Md i~ ~s "(I,t pie<ts;o;u:rt. The del!itf;l1l~$bown her~,JI;uIrS ~e I!h:(;u:::fter'~" eye 'trvl!m c.~!ler ,t(l! ~he caiP'~ Wear s:ufe.ty glasses Wh~t4{h,(l otfng this arOll

StZf! 11 caps are .the mQst eomrnon imd ·lhf:;e.Mff$~ tlo obtam; One (;ornpanYt incidentally I 'seUs the Forster Tap.Q\.Cap for



about $.,15. \Vilb iti you can m,ak~ yom ewn size 11 caps-'from beer cans. They can be charged!, ifccording ta,Che ad"lo'et'l:isin,gr with toy .gun cap$, and matte "a cap that is superior t.gal1ytb-ing yOU! have f!\'eli' used, h

The'ni,PP'ie whi~h noJda the ~ap -is" tm'e;aJi:~d Olil one end, to scr~ into 'tbe 1;Ir~ch of the gun" Tht! ta:p isize needed ior ~he most cDlwtJ:on nipple js 1/4 A',2BNF. The OOI'rect drin 6i~ to use is ,<Ii Numbee 3. ,The dDsest fraetional driU ~u:e is, 13j~t'.

A homemad.e nipple can be produced as ShO!Nn in Figure 4. 13 ~m a 40d Qaiil.. Saw.oU thee point-of the nai~t tap tbre'ad$, Dn~o the e~d, drm nut the cefitm-""'~til a 1/U3l" dtam~ cut, to, Jengtht screw ~he. nipple,in.to ,th,e pipe cap, w~jcb can then 'b;e: used as a ho1'del'lj€lnd gwincllh~ end o[ th~,nipple u'JdiJ ,a number 11 ca, l!li ac~~pted~ .

. I • _ ~

To load a muasle loadiIug: s~olglin, first,pour -the,gunpowck:, downth~'barreL FnHuwthis 'w;ilh iii ~T;'ad Q,( newsp,a:per1 'tamped in place ~;itb ~ 5L~f!der ,dow;t1(tarnro:tt). Just' like tamping dynamite; dorh lean over .thB.raml"od while tamping., ['0 case "f an accident; you don't want to be lIpearea by the' ramrod,

NeJ(t POUt in .the-·shot 0.1" shot. :substitute (silane"1' BB1~~~aJ!l, bearings; pieces :9f ~ait. p,hi!.C:·65: ot ris:1'l1Iiri_g smker, ere.). The m~:zl-e is .. held pointed skY\lf~dstihmugh ~~ls' ~pera:tiCln, of ecurs e,. so 'fh.·at~~e ,~hot doesn~t run. out. on lhe ,gr:ou1l.n. Last, :in.ser~ another w ad Il~r tn.f" sb~ to ,hold. it.:il'l ~pl ace. T a.mp ,thi,$

8,ec:ond wad ,1n. pia,ce with the rarrltod~ .

T.he prindple 16' be obgerv,e~ is: UJa:~ .the, :wad over t.he PQwder is thick ~d the wa~oyer the shot is fhiQ - just enough to ho'id the' shot in place. T 0JJ '{hick an over"shot wad wiU disto.rt the pattern, How thiCK ill wad ov,~r the p.owder? T.h:B spaces iijken up by the w~d $l'd ilhe-,.sh.o,t sooU!ldbe, equ~l

C_eful~y :remot~·,le!l-t f.irt! ymu"m~]~ Ipad:er bdore hE!Xld firing. Test the. ar:lu~ cdmb~in.a:tiDn of po.w:d!I::f .wml, and shot you plan 00 use. in the fidd .and· then QtJ'not- exceed 'will,at you ha;\i'e 'tesl,ed.! I fu:;reai:ing. the am{lun~ qf sbD~ ~o:r e:x amp:ie, win


increfl;se ~h~ Pfessillre"Vl' hieh buJld:s.upinsid·e dl~.gun 'p~ha;p~to danger()i1.l5h~!vf!lsleVel1 if no adclitlQJ:1la~ ~npowd.er is used.

Au eveh ~etter :way of' t~.'lthi.g is to dOH bJe, ~hen{lrrmalpl)wiler charg~ .airld double the JIQit;ma~ aJTlO\lrl~. aJsbot UiS ed. The n:i~ple can ~rf!rno~ed· and. a f.l,t~·~~plby'!(d te ignite,the test eha;gl;!~ D.H:f!!!i:':fion:s\ .formm.ona: a ~~e are 3iV:eJ'.I . .bl!!]o:w.

01~ win dli!ad~n ho~ IWnpo:w4.~ !5ftP~rim:~'f~' Thu,s(~ .. if'")'i{!u:r gun ,is, a~I'Y:i ~['e,~'Ne"w ,c~J,thr~u~ ,th~ runp~gtin "~o. bUrn (1ft

anY·oU, -

A :pat~hoo ~I ean be f~.d ·jtUt~addf ·~bo<t. Thia,,-ls. the m~]e 1 oadihg ~iv:aJem 01 a Sh:OitgJ;ll'J~ilug;. r f I.remember-·m}' RevO]";ilion~'~· War _h~to~ff 'i::mrec;Hy, smO:0~:~ b_!;lr_~m'U~ketS firi~gJ. pa1~~e~~ -l:i.l~ W"~Ie.., r'e.",s(:jJ13jhlyacc:tiftaJ~e. ~9· nlllariya h1!.u!li:lr~ yiircls:.

A lead ,balJ .js n~;eclecl which ~s, slightl2il MJI a[ler i·~ druameter than the. ;baf~ ef the, INn; the' .owaW" ch<H~' is, tlfst -poured. down tt:le barter" fh~o.·~ W~'·/. 'd.Qf~ .PptQb "iSfd~~('lle,O!. ac;r'Q~~ the tn,uz~¢.~· rh~ lead haJI l$', I, PH fue,~~ltdh I;!:rtd ·.pltsj:ied hlt·o, the b,OI€ ti.nti .if" isJ~sh ',wi-th the muz,zle. TheJit ·sho\.'I"~d besf:lug, not 0vBrlyqgnt. • The ~eteSS cloth is!;:!::]t olf Bush witb die mlli1:'il~. La.s~flY.~ dlie' ban . [s p~li:d dGwri~he~ b!!lr.rel ·with tft~ tamroil an"iI~e<il,t1l:d'on-~ rfi~plti:Wa~ii: ¢h~lge. Thepate~ aita as.a ga!!kf!"t .and h.oldsthe g..aS~8 ·.produced by fhe' gunpowder behind

the baill .-

. ,

·Whf':n a. .p!akhed bali is Jo,aded ·]n.a mw;;z]e·'~acl~t:j th~1:'s~ace r~quirea ,in ~. bq~e -:6:1 t h~·gun is the ~e~er o~th6 bal JI~~S twIce 'the lh~ckfle"'8 of t!h~, dl;;l~h -patah. Ordinary pakhes sold for use in. Ml:lZd@, .Ioad!ers a.r~:--,abo!J,t.Ol ~~) kI Ih'l",,:kness. Many d1U(ft:ent $iz~· of baJlis and ofmrJld,s. to make bans are of£ered ~oi: .;!I~i:ll~ Ban. pltu:;; palbh diN.eils1GRS ~ap be compared to (he pillp@ dirn:n~ns~ii)ns.· gt'l!l€n at tl1~ beginningoi thl~ .. chapter.

.. _.

A n1i1!.l!2::de load.@f.c.iu.! be' ~esl f.ired by remo'lcing the mpp]e 'and i nsertin g . .a .fU:S,f!.. 1'l.'.Ii, !llew ~ha't the ba:ueland. endc:ap


as~rnbly un. be 't~~ed fQr ':i!uffjc:i,enf s~l;}gth ~fom: the gill n is' ~nf.tffi··a,~'5embJ]ll:d. AI! ol!i['1ie <san. beUSl'!d to ho,ld' tM iUn!!it~dked barrel during. thlS, pw£edur~ .. 'Stre Figm:~ 4::·14.

. ~

A fus€' call be ma.de~ by soa~jillg a le:ngih, oi. string ]i'l a~ mi:xh.lfe of . .gul1(1Owdf!!t.and wat:fl1', then[~tl:iag lhe ··:sb\i.~g; th:cn:oullidy .~[)!.' Any of ~~ gu~wder ~;edpe!sgiYElA. in:

Cha:jl,terr .5 w:iI1 W9:rk; Jinli!. Ii. ~a~pOQn . of. halwafl;:l\.il ;~ea.tP0Qn. m! ·~Iunpow;dli!'r ~. ilfl.d a I ength €If string-' are aU1(OI:l need.F aehHy,'·'

made gunpnwrlerwm not djS,_501ve ~n lj'lat~ri~'Oweyer., .

Such a fuse WQdrs w~[ fJn1~ when "lotfaUy: dry, .Asth,e gm~pow'der t¢ClPe.·!t gi.ven. i~ CMpter 5, tiilnd b~ ·abS'orbm.Qi~~

. ,. ~


from the a~mosphere!, it ill 'n~c~ss~ to r:h-y lh-efuse carefuUy and stOte it in ,a' watetptuof co,nl:runer s1Jch as aW'atciproo~ match brix.

'[9 watierpl1.()o'f the fUs:el il ~,a:n be diip¥;!ed in w~, CPI;l!I:tI011l p~t.a£Hn i~ briu:l1lil \\~:hen .;o']d, hg~e:y;er; iJ:1'ld will f]~J,l: ·aft Tber~ is a pro dud c,aUOOI DUXWAX: on ·Iite nl~!:kel:, wbi'eh ,stay:s r,e'a:SD~~My 'flexibl:~ ~ven whell c'OJd. ~ I;,s',purp,?s,e,is t!l d€:a_n the r~1l!~:s~rt1ll1poflJtr>' . ~qd . duck~. h>is sold ~.~~ ,Ciibe]a)., BJ ~ Uti! Avr:.'i Siclney~ N'ebra..ska ,6flH50 AAd by Stromberg!,s., Pfne'

Rwel' ~ Mimiesow. ·564:14. -, .

Homemade ~!I'~ v ar:y wide~' in how fiia!st t,h~' burrt. 'play it s'a~e. .Alwa¥s· t~sta ~e:n~' 0$' ~u s,¢ .<lin,d c~~u.l:~te· the ra.t~ of' bUm, llie'1;l 'u;::;:e ,ein.o!Jghfu~e; ~Q ,gi¥e, youri~11 p,llenty ;[If tim~,~Ci 'ge.f ~o ·s~det¥.

A heatzypi,~e of:y !\I.pt wiD .~~~ a ~O.:H* r:~a.bl~ fu~e than a, IDighFwf!!1,ghtpjocf! .of glr.mg. A']ihm:Jg.h the !!if:in:g w'iH 'bn:rn' t]o€t in ~lif!' @pi:i.n air, wfterlffiterdt "C1u£h~s a.:roli..er Qbl:ect lttends,lo:go out Thf!Qbi~oHU@ucl1e;o <;tall' as ,aJ:l~at sink and: absorbs s:o .much heat~' mRI ntlliJli1l., fu what fhtl Jlist\ PJlJduG~~,' lhalt the temperat1lJr~ dr,~:s:t@ below kindling point a~I(:H~:fu~· sputtel:s

- - "-- '_ "


A ne:a.¥jer fm'e pl',dd1.J.{2~ 'fl'l~@h.~al: l~d h~~'Q¥;~~c()l1n~.this te~der-icy'. Only ,exper.ime'r\t~,tion w-iU ·t'e'1l yoy,. 'what Y;~~:wks and w'hat dfJe.s.n!L'Yh!ll heat .sinlk. p:l'iindp]e is eSReci~ly wornSOJlle at the- point ~hefe the' fuse eniers ~he 'g!.l_M 'itself .. - I fit ,g.oe.;5 out. any]!i[8t:~t .:it w'~ pruoanly. I:)e "!:he¥¢~

U a _fus,~' mis~lrE$~, d Qn:tmn OiVEl'f ~JltE!dia,t~br' \':indp,Qke .,ritnJnd to s ee wJlat went wt"orng~.W ai,t fl¥·e· mh;l1.:-bils;. ~JOl"e' tinvestigatrnng~, jrnd as· ,YOM would. w~th an,. rnis~ire; One more

time,> be tar·fflIul! .

H~;I.m em.ad.~ iu:se:sare' tempe,l';;rmenta:Ji 'ai :best. ] ~ at all Pil5~b1ft~ use {lfadory·~ade: fu~e, '1Qe :standard smzeis·3!3,2." and' i~ w.at~:r,Dr.oQt Such ms,e.i"lre l1~~ by'nll1;,keth/3!fld firec[,~u;:km huffs anaarti:,avaiJailde flQm 'Pioneer Inausl;Irie~., See 'Cb~!pter 6 for the address;,


· We ~eEd to associa,te H:rearm$ with the. ~ronase~~g fhatonl!y ",metal barrel coruM withstantll !he '~E'xplosive~' fo:ree Qfgunpowder. 1 h:~ve S~hpU.b.Ujb,e.d ,dmedl~"Si, howey~" d¢Sc;ribing ll~w to m~~e ~ .. ,22' C;~h,. Zip, ~.n, ElntkeJ,yfldti; w~od_. - barf~afld MI,. AdmifiJedJy:; th~ b,am:el was wrapp@cl wjth, wire. for r:einfotl!~tmt, but, it .wa~ only a·1 ~~·sqll are piece 01

hatdw~odto &<tart wlth. " .

",OJ '. - '. ' -

I caQ.. 'fn:'il'i~Qn'i'!t!, eNlrelfH[e:ly ·primif'ive fjrlilarm t~t ;Ml!pJD~S, no r;t:letal wllatsO~y,er. Th·~ ~JiU'1'e1 tOq1d h·e .. ma~lfdr·itlm: ~d~ile'd G!41 basebAlL ha~, AU wooden b~ ate sll!l~s@ned:bar~~~, but mc.kco,.ry U! the to~s~hest and wou1d be the b85:t clIDi6e.

Instead. o;F wrappi!ll Bwith wire ,;(0'1" reinfnr:CeHI~ent,,~t\: -;;ouldi.be' . wrapped ."w·~~ r~Yihjde.,. I .ull:riJerstand tb:liid w'boJi\<hu (;11: mae I's cif!'e of'the, ,fot1;gh~t t~a,th~r!$ ,gqmg. ]t~ recommend~,d fbJ's~hoe· s~ring~:! fer :e)I:~l:

Tq.jll:$-t t~\!"h:idJe ll"9ID w(2lo.d.chuGkhi{:le"Jlt-Slt ~kin tij-e Qftu-ik, thf!1l S~. all ~a,t f~m.ii'he hide, rll!mp'\i'e,:theh:aii:~ ~"de:s'cr:ibe(J b~nw,;: ~ tlltintQ _a ]clnq" ),;:o\"l:1;nu~~sS;li~pl' Soak it ,in wat,er ov~fii,gbt ,windlig~fly ~ ar:olfln~ tbe! ·*Qo.~~n banel y.·hi~ we,~, ,a:pd ~~W to d:~y, and: s hril1kmplcace.

Ton£moy~ hairf.rOm. a hide ,C{lv:el; the hair with a· 2"'thidk layet. !;It, wood' lll~'es1 ~];ien 'win~ w:a:ter ~the' wate:r and ~~.'; rea~t 00' p~UiOO: Jy:e)~ .~d .(Q,U the hide up, tightiljr~ hair. "Sicl~l ,I» ' Covew it with .~:et. clpfhs~~l ije.a:vi~' [Qll!.t d ays;.then· umo:U iraaQ

,sc:rilille off 'the'· h~ .

A wopd:~n: ha.m;!,J ~u:s lki11~. out and, wr.app.ed wi.th r"awhidt;!~ ~oade-d .~8" at mnzi~e' .I.oader, ·fi~iHg ;ston~sc ·for (!ihQ~~~rnd!!·irl off with. ··aIU!'ifl,wOiild. be a :firearm ~mpJ0Ying' nO~ mefal a;{}ill;

Just an iflti!j'estiQ~f Mea. r rn o.ot t~CoHlm:~di!ng it,bu t I dOflc~t, s~ why Itw:oid~'t work A1Jo[ig1f!~· (lopJd have ffr·e:ann'~if Ul.ey wanted. .SuCh ,a ·.w·,e'ap'Qn wo.uJi! be immliln~efro:~ metal det~dou. The 'only problem J loresee is g~Uing t he tar:ge~ t~ stand stiill[k:.ng ertou'ghto 'I:T;etashot .off




Wh~, !nCfSt of us tnmk ,of ~rip.oWder, and especiallt homemade gunpowder j. we tbink ol old-fa.sh~on€d black p(n~'det. Wfft dO"~~~ r,@ruiz;e tha,l bl~:Gk p6wder waR ooU€·d!'l!b;l~kt'

be@\'i.'!;e tWlt~rewe<~~ wffi~~ p.l)wde,rs ~ ·tlfe It)~rk~. -

BJack powder' (~~ white- POW~erj.~G1} was;-''ler.y€orrl1:si;v,.e:'W steel, wh~~eas m.od~l'.fi, £adl3u::y~m:a{le g~njOWd.e,f5 arrec::nttt. b·iil; fo:r dis,- reasen . thal fad:0.~~ma:de pen.vde~S'~ produeed fwm failly 'e;ll.oti~ and danigeriJUs .. m~~e~ial:s, ka,,'e·"epla;cei;:l t.he- old-

I::lQift RQ\~~derSl.' . .,. . .' .

- ~ •• •• I

Butft6,n .f:L< peflormM!;qe. p'9rn,t o~' view" black ]lO\\fd~ ~NtJrked quile wd in .fJre~~. Alid S'Q, did many (i f ·its - to:mpe~~touCl~ sl:1bsf~totes. \i\that I'm provicl~ng. 'irrlHis~ chapter are five su[per· s~Q)j!:ile'gJ;I¥!.;powdf:r ("iecip!Y~., No kflowl~dg¢ oi cht!w~s1r, is req~1!!.ired bu\t~'"a~ a1;'l'I~ays1 I do 1i!r.g~ you t~ 'lo]Jo:w l:ihe'dItee~i"Uns;;

·arr~ be, .carefUl. .

Tile thre:e:· ~tale~ of maUet a~<~oLid" .Iiquid,a.n.d g;a~. Man, sd]i¢~""'ill. ~'tl!m - t:o'~ g(,tse;I}.L!,s st..Me :Il' h~ed suf6<tiently. As a ga,!!! they take lip .fal'm.ore wdr:>i'.t~an.the;y do .,Hle·a C;I,mpW!!Md, concflftbared .BuHd..


So it IS with .gtJtlpol,lj'dew. n Is 1mn6d ~nt(l a ,g~s by its own: burning .. · .h ci:>nta:in!! a :Gombusllb]fl! .subs't,anc;e. (fuel)· and. an. u'OxJ~~eJ~ which suppiies .oill:.)·gen~o the ,~om htfltl.on p.ro<;:e!!'s ..

- . ~ _. ;( -

M 'the ~~QWae,r ~l.U'r:J1S mtQ' 'g~ if need!!! Klamm expand a."~. SJ) push~$ the bull~ dQw~ '[tie ,1l:Ul ba:rrelahe·;;.,d (I f itsel r. Wlth()ld·i~sh.ion~'d bli!~ ppwdeil .Qnls abo,ut hla:li ,~he powd;er -tull:!lE!d to' gas., The !'i)~hel' half remained soJid aad wa'S seen as .sm<>bf·particl~ls,. W~i~.h modewfI; ~jsmo1ce}~;si;~!"'p0wderj neal'l:y aU the powder '~um,S' tQ: g~. That is why smokeless ]:)"ow.iJer iJs more

pow,e'dUl than ~~ck. .. .

Th~ 'diifl::r!,l:nl2i~ be:t~:fl!j!:H ~ low ~P1(lSive, a,nd a "hitg!}1 e>iplQ~j\'e: is.tne-.iflnglJfixJ.t time .ll takes for the :solid to torn i,nt(l);;a, g~s,. With a. low n:pI~sivi! (used in. ~n;)~ the 'bUf!lip!pi;ltli! is :s]~w ~nolJ,s'h t~:at tli~.:b~tler.t.s .f,otce~ td mov;€ dilw:o ~h:~ ~r.rol,~ab~;;td· ·!li·f d1e

~ . .1' ..

ex,po;lim:l1ji.g gas.

Qg. the. ;othe:r h.a;n~Ua dUe ~dge W,et~~c.ddentaUy' ~IDad~ with ill '." "" e';ll:pl@vce ~.~ l1!l,~dm b:nl'lbs1r lihf: burm~ 'S1I.lnpowdm- "kn. ecX,plim.d S'O trisl lha:~ tluf. hl:1.Ulilt w.aul.dn/' lb~\ -a?Je to".g~t ClUJ of th.e~way and ~~'f!·~n"woubli. ~.>;p'lf.lde.'Th~hig'~ 1i!>~~Qmy}e<powdelw~Um~ cha:n,g~~ rror:n'" .ijsol,id to~a 8'~"OO:u1! al;tt~ my ell too hut to. be ei:tbe2= ,5 (;life, or us,e~l'I[ "ih f:i r:earffl!!o.

Tile r:ecipes.in thi'$chaFtel: macke 8[OW bumi~ lo:w @xp[!))S~v-es awId, in th~S setis~~.: ,are "safe BJ.lppowder :Su bSltltIlll.e:s:.

B]~ck 'pow,der~ hnJntlght 'lotne:c~ttt!"tion >Cd the We:i{f~rn wmrld' i:n._the. h200',g by .Roger Ba~, ~$ ihe gr.anddadcly of them all, Th~ N~,d:pe i~'~Jl]e; but. moo:u~actur\l¥.on:·,a h9mfi !I!;::ij,I:!i:i:s- ndt. Bf.{t;auie. b]aC'~. p'~wcl;er' ocrup~@"S ~l,leh ,a h~gih p1a.Cf! i;n Our' hlstory; I win gh'e mor~ .s.p-aoOato it than .It probably d@!!er~'es,

A n 'd~.bq:t ate-study-in. F ri'.HCe in tj;ID..e 1500 "5:.e!!l~bh'sheclL'he, ~W!low.ing to.:rmuma: ~D be' .the best. for bi'ack. powdfirused. 'il'll fireiltms~ ullwtet" 75%; c~aroo;ll, l5.:62%rsWiuT, 9,,$8%.

] [2

As arpf.actieai matttt, this recipe. can. be. ro'un~dto. 7 5 ;15: 10.

T ~.e'~ ~t'ce.n-tage!iar~ - bytt1ei~ht", riot v:o:l .. ullf!. . , ..

.t·ile fnl~o~]~g i~, a .il650l'tpti\1.n '(:Ii how btac,k ,p'oiwdel' was m~dll Cl}mm'et~ i:nJ)y i It is intended to shaw how diffiGld t i~ ~.~~., iu~ld ~·oo rnak~\ shooting}.quaMity b~a.dk lPi)wder 011 a. bottle' SC"mfi': .•

fir,st, ,~be l,n~edient!l -were ~ll'Jpen:ed ,altd mi~J~'~ ~f hand, D ~rnp~ng~kElpt d.li)\vn 'al\ly ,c!ust 'wh~iChrejultedf:r,am the ~g ,Dl,isl el;'p,lo:5iol"ffi happ~even. mgr a:h, ,e1WabJU;f1ot.·~ menliiQ:f! gm"Ipocwdw' JaclDrle'5.

T]1,e ingredi,!ttJb wese then'iincorporodedn by being rohd. und£1;r. \S~OI1@' :whe'e1s tQ)' thie~ hours:. The: st9n~wb.eB~ ·~'eighed· ten. ~OI1~~ This! "'-a;s e~.leda whee!] miG. Ct!1l''si.derahl~ hri~t ·WZlI$c ge.netca~~ ~H.d. wa,t"~r·w.as adfied iiS' nege;S!5ary t oke.e~ th.e mlxtuire mOl$L

_ 'f.he}'riix,t~~ .\IV~ 'then < p!f'~sed. A~ternate: layers ·of .aJti!:Wn1ilrn ~]abils. (~lurmil'l1i,l!fl1 !!S·Aoll.spal'kin:g) and.~p:{lw;der w"'el'e:plal:ed. ml ~, hydtallljc; p¥¢s§, at l' 2.00 psi. l'b~, re~(dtio,g'pres~' CJiJkea

'we'fe . 7'5l':.<- :thieJe and ;tWQ feel~qual'e, .

G"ranukitii1g a_r c6l:'l1l~ e·alne nl~~~nd W;~lS tire r~kiest oper:a.tktlJ .In bla:ek ~wder .producl1OD. l'becoifru:ng mil] was.

~ocated at a. ~istan¢~'i Qe"eT '. ~che:~ whi~eru~m:,g,. ~ .

temOEtl" c~troUed.The ~ss; . werre ~he8. beitvh~en :1\0&.

i'lm:d {IT ijdoothruillgfu, 'me6b.anic~ly· shaken. sereens, C".aJ"s>e pie~~"~~ete nil'c-<fumed aRd rescreened.

1; he. po'wdef' grart..i~e5i. we:rt:' J10lished .~ rum,btl ng ~na. r;e-v,g~\\'~ng iWO(;l~en ba:r.re1. The .pDWderr was the~ dri,ed, ,gl~ed (~:':a .f·,et;ar~8'O~king up hlimidit1r)1' ~nd .,scr:e.med ro)' .8ae. Grii!!"ding, in bbck p:ovrN:ile]'. :tefersto RJ'aln s~e" not q!lJlaJiuy.

~< t~~,ipr".bl'acik f.M)wdel'~ Iis·ed frQm :a:nclen~ times:; reS tp ~n. . a . ~t~e p~I:~ of pow:derQIl a Ra;t, oold sl:.uia.oe.. .-,\:. igoodpowd'ID" .~~ bl.l!rn~1l a £la:sb ,and. Jea~e nopeaels 0:£ n~s:Mue. :AI. )'\@si,dU:e indK"a-t€'S.· .the powdler was damp <,at the lime ·of Mle <!e~t, thai l'he ~o:w,9~.[. h~~ .b~nl :w~t .a\,$~me'Hme ~ the P~I'i 'm 'that the I~d[entl ,i;tfe not wei mcon>orat.ed.


If you tnt to make black powder at home, the best w~.y to mix the ingr,edj"en~,j!l ina mortaeand pes,tie. n~membering to keep the i.ngted~ents mnisl, If you patiently ,grind awa'Y for an hour or tWQ;~ Ihe;rl gra1e the powder thrclugh· a piece of wi:ndow ,Scl'eEH'l artd' d~ . ittl YQU. wwl,1 Pto:~~c,e a po~r, grad:~ ,0'( ~Ia:c,k powder'. Wb~n1]oadled in Y·Dur12 gauge: ~t w'iU sound.l.ike.a .,2:~ al:Jd~ dent .C!; ti n can at C'lo!l"fi:!ra:n~e.:

T here's . a boe klet c n the. market entitled CI A Fi~IJ Expedie(ll Pre'pa.r(Jtloll of BIQ'Cll P9wders. ln my e*p"e;i'ienc~. it dQe~n't work. - it. i:l,··,unk .. There is no wayen heme scale 'YOll can incorporate the itlgredients pmperly the way a wh:eeI miU does 0:0 commercial scale. If y.oureaUy. need gunpowder~ 'm~ advi,ctd~· not to was~e your resources b'flng ~o make ,the black ~.ie,ty·.,

Probably the Vel'y s,~mplest way 0,1 making ~'unpow,der i,t;, to ,crush up match heads, SafelY matche~, wiHworkf 118 wil1 sl:rik{l anywhel'J~" makh@s."with the sensitil:e tip porl;ionreJIJ(Wed. The 'lip parti.on. i.'S. too 'S,im!iltiver b)1J J.as,t ·.b.uming, tOQ ,I(l,se to bej~ghigh expllosiv1I;!r, for sar~'B WI€: as; gunpowder.

10 '~manu {~(.d\trer· ~rlJ}owd~ fraID m~tc;h head'S't s,1r:ia",e or p,~cl the ¢qmh~!tjb]e: ~atei;i;aJ DU :tl;ie: ~ach ?' sev·e(aJ matche.s. ~n the case 'Q~ $,trike <iU1fywb.ete_.tna~.cheS-;i first, remove the. IiR portion, The tips, can be saved. for HS~ in prime:]'Si, as e"plained. in Chapter 6. Be careful removing. ~h~' hps from strike an}~bere lTI,;ilcli:res.. Y Ol:.l would nqt feel~ tee c)ev@t irE a tip you were remo.vingflared up and feU into a':pite of ofher$ prt;ivi.ously removed ..

.A fber the: makh 'head ma~eri al :h as been removed frorp. the march s'tkk~ ,sim-ply dice it. up. Mlt.O apawd,ef wi:'th ,(:I :kriHe,;( Unli'ke' aprifl:',ia ry ,explo,s,iv e. w~:th ,is" :l!e.r:l!!lt:ivB 1:0 both fri.eti o_n ar:fd ~hock, the &anger ,of a·cddentalig:n:ition. with this materia~ hi very small - if yO'll w rut for sa~'ety .makhes tnignite fro.m banging them together. you will w~ita; long time,


The crush.ed·up match head mate':i'iaI.·~sgunpowder. It can: be ~oaded 8S is mt10 a rifJe cartridge and fired. 'SJlunds too ~iJ:riple to

k d I"?

wor, oesn t Jt,

Tbe:re' is, ~eli~ mean or ;,rkick."" in a firearm lnaded ~ith m~kh bead powder. cJO~paFed i,I)' fad~r.y ]~~d.s. This mea ns that match-head powdler is, l'eS:Spower.Mthan fa:C'iw'y'loacis and afl

be saJely slll1s:t~[1!.It¢'cd On a .one-to-one volume; baa,ii. .

• . •. ·-I(

U. S·. ArRJ>" Manu al TM 31. ~ 210 on imp,rovis,ed weaponry says that 58' makh. h¢ad.s- (dlat is, \VIlaI' ~ leb of a. saike anywh~te tIlatebaIter. the. primary tip ha&, been removed) will

be required for a .308 \\linchester ,c-arltidg-e. .

The loilow·in!t; C'lut~:~ ',show!! ~ow m:arny match he,ads are req~mt'~d 'f?T '9th¢r ,c~f~b@lj!,. ]!;ak'ulat~d. 'Hie r'~quir'~~t !:w'o: waY$:! first~ b$d 'all _5h,~O cij!sie 1lo]U"n1J;e pr~fab~d' iroIP· the ss match heads, for a..30'S Wrnchester ll1ldtli:ated above,. S·ecoM. based on a substitution r:ate a£ '1. 5 mai~ heads i;llr ea';,h grain of 8mokelea.'!>· PQwd~r 1) s.ed ~n iy pica] )oad.s:. lrl the interest o·f salety tne-knil!!sl of.fbe two' values app:ears,. be~Q'w:

Num.bero. 'Of Makh Heads 13:










" ,

16 79


.22' Hornet

..2 22 R er;nirig:toti a?3 R" ... ;;,.;t~.

oj!'., <it ; . etri'lng,!..Un

·.243W'ine,hestar, .30 M 1 farbln~ .3~,.,30 .Wiil,chest~

.,308, W'in. (7.62mm NATO) ,,30·.06,

.,37-5 H&H M,agnum .44 Magnum'

.4,5~ 70 GoyL

.4,58 W·m{hester


9rnm P'ara:lbeUmn . 38 Spe~]all

8 15

.357 M.agnum .45 ACP

ShQtgtms .12 IGaug'!;! .. '~ 6, (j,amgg. ,20 Gauge ,4-iO Bore

'33 '30 27 1'9

A cQup]e.·iof in:cjdental points. A fieYo' box ,of Diamond 'brand strike anywbere matches contains .263 matches. Also. }~O'U WOIil~t .get more p@iw'~r hy over'Jo,ading th.e shell casing witn match head powder. H you put roo lJlu~h !'.;if this. po,., ~er "in'to a pi!asiiesMtfN,l'l, Jhel1~ you w<1n't getmofe pene(,rati'Dn, - all "Ii)u~ll do i~ .niitl~t the- plattk: c ase. See Fll1fLn"e5. i .

n a. 12' gauge 10 ~d wHI )liundur'l,l! it tin can (mc~ as ~ c{)ff~f,l can - not ,~!il alurnioum l;e:Ver,&ge can) using #6 ahot at :2 i) yards,! iii: can b€~ 'deemed a k~Ui~.g load 'forrabh~t!!,. After some e:o:perill1ffiting! ] developed a fI,ye-pomt· ttlling l!:Oa~e'.1 tis' bas:ea op:.baU· a t'ea:spooll of pO ",·der' and nne (JuO(:,e 6f #6 shot in a 12 gw,lge Sho.tgll n sheU.

';15" Rat~g: will pUndure a tin call at 20 yards ~'4M Ra:ting~ healv}' dents; qn occasirmel' fra;'cture ".3N Rating: gignific,ant recoilj, dents

i' 2,fI Ratt~g: a 12 gau.ge w.in sound .lIike a,,22

"1 H Ratjn.g: wad willi land '~n fronJi. o,E the gun or may nat Jeave. the boir.rel; meltingoE the pla,stLc she]! tria)" 0 eeur

On: this:~scrue:! crushed up m.a:kh heads. ra~,e. a ii4:~


Fi,ufie' $-1

Thlese m~:ft~d shQtgu n s.nell c:as~ti~~ resti rt~d tro:m aW3m.p:ts tlf) g~t !1lior€. ~~ oomph ~~ /f,gfu' weak ,g;uilt.)(~~~def by adding more powat!t to the' ,r,ood. Past IJ certain :poinir !I,IJU don'! get mote pow.er, just more melling.


Potassium Chlorate a.nd ,SugaT

This r~cipe, yields the best gunpowder ,of ~y in this. chapter. ,Based on 'lJ1e above per~Otmanc:e :ssa1~ji~ rates a ',15:"

"l.ts; one oos~dvanla,g;:e t~lide; .f.l'~ e bg_&n~' ,c-?]"['[D;sive:,; (1, ~ua;L"tt whIch aU ,th~, g;unpa:w'lfers m this, ~hap'ter ,$hare) ts that potassium Gh~0f-ate ~s 'aeme","hat - difficult to Q bt~n. 'The charac Ieristics- of po.tass,jum 'cW:Ql' ate a:nd ",,-here,' to ohtain jt are discussed in Chapter 6. For."naw~ it iilsi!!lf6,(;i~f to, know Hlil,tlt

is a ",,'-hile p(Jw'der. -

To m'llIW'gul1pm .... der :by this, metbQ"Cl, s,irnp~}" mix '~Qg8th:ef' equal volumes {'I~ potassium chlorate' and ordinary whit~'t,abl $tiga,r. And tbeti w.hat? And then 1;tothinrg. - Y I)U h-all-e 8unpowd~.

Bdth I ngredient!ishlil'U1d be dry .and free'iiJf Ium,ps~. The fa,$tbt and !lafest ~il!;jtt~HU!!thod,1 ,ktlfiw 'il. t'O Polen' ~hfi! ti:1iixltm:e b:aeti: and forth fro.m, OIl@Sa.UCflJ to i)nother. Pour it bac'k a~d forth 50 times. - Use: ~]as:s or plastic (nDA-llparking) s'aueers, """

I have seen recipes that cantor melting .. sugar and thenadding PlJla5~ium cbkl.rate to the"p!;!,rliaJly. ~QC)ded !Jut stiLi m~t~' ~ug;lll". ] strongly te,c,olf:tlm~!ld ag:~in"!~l.~f. U YHu~~e_n,ot had a frying pan of .'gun.pe,~·der+ .;;ateh fire on y.Qur.ki~:cbe:h,

steve, dum YOll,",..'e ~irnpJy ndt hv-eti:, .

- ,

" This reg~ lS ne~"rly identical to thi:! preceding one. Thes.tlIUy difference is that sodium chloratel:$' the oXidizer Insread of pota,s!!~yrnehloi'ate.

S i.l1lpJy m,ix hl.gethetr e-q ual volumes of sugar· and sodi urn chktra.t!1'!'. Th.is' powde:r rafe-!i a. "5~~ on bh~pedo:rrnancf!' !!Ical:e. The :r,ecpmmend,w3 melood Qhn~iI!:ilng ii$ ,to pour ~he :i.ogr,tldf.ent , from· one sa1l]lcer toanoth:er.

AllhougtJ ~he performance of the sodium eh]or.a~B midure i.as good as anY,j sodium drl.o'rate has the drawback Q~ being hy.g:wslcop.i!c. Thi.s means that ,it ;picks up moisture fro{Q,·the


atmosphere'. -And{aS you no doubt already. know, damp gunpo,!;.rder doesn t shoot worth a dam.

The chemical symbol for $,adi.uln chlQrat-e! is NaCI'O". It is· a white powder .. D~r;-ection5 fo·r making ~t at home from t;hJe'salt

- I . s.. ·h· L.~.

are gIven ater 'In t !is, c~ld'pter.

T.~ ,~~ld'tilse, '~m Mer.ciaU), I .sodium dw[or~a.te is more' fred r 1tvaJrabJethan tS pOJasslumchlori'l~e. That i$, mQire chemiCal su pp~y l'lou;s't:s will sleJl tt to pr,i.vate individucil$ lhan wi}] do so .... ;th potessiurn chlorate. The Iwo ~ngrt'!dient~ Meint~r~ chan geable ,in most recipes,

Due to the hygro~oo~ic probJem I (would Qot expect -8. box Qf shells Waded witb . sodium ,ch~otilte powder 'ip'Jast mote than it few day.s bef~l',e dud:!! begen t.o appear. Shell!s can 'b-e'protetted somewhat wi~ha coal of n~il pol.ish over ,thepdm er and candle wax on the over-shot wad.

, The ~mjcal Sym.bDJ t;Or potassium pe.rehlor:ate is .Kao4. It 18 a w~ite'pl!',wder. PotassRuu pet~ol'ate ls made br heating p~ta~su.lInchku:~t~. The. pctassium ehloratk decompnses, Yleld?l Ill' oxy gen ~ potaSSI UJ1'l perch]o[t'a:te,. and PQtaS'5 iu In chloride (c6mmon salt).

If you mix 2, parm p6.tltssium perchlorate ,aod: 'one. part. diJ:Jle' s~gar~ b~'. v?lLu})~ -a gUIilJlluwder resultS Viitb a ra1ilig of\t'4." A slmple· :JlllXuig or powders tS, {itL that is. required.

Potassicm pef'chlQra~e caA· be .n..!fch~sed from MetreU 5 dentifk. See Chapter ,6 f6, the . address.

Sp.ltpete:r and Sugar

The. che~jca& symbolf',of sal:tpele~ is I(N03• ~t is ,a whit,e' powdar, It lSi also c:aU:ed, potassiom nitsate, ni:b"l[. nitre j ni I:rate' of potash, .;md Petta! stene, h ~s'th-e oxiwur used in oJd·bme:

Mack g.u.npowd.er'. . . - - ..


n sahp,elerandsJ.lgar -are simply mi~~ed tog:'(ilt~er as pbwd~r:gj\' th~y are tl!otincorpora:too itlgelh-er w~U en,oug}, ttl, w.mk a,"l:

Qlanpowd:er. r (J better incorporate .tbe i'!lgredients ,they a re cook~d down to'sether I~ke l:udge (;:and~tg:r~~ulat'ed by mbbi~, throtl&ha piece; ~~f' window .$,<;r~t_l~ th~ndri~.

In .a .i.w.(!';epiil[l" . ,comhllJ:e~ one ~:tIp ~I,lga-F" on~ ~IJP sa]tp~te:r j ~d iy.~o b~P\'! of water. HI;1!:~t w~th ~ [o¥i Ha;m~, sti~; 'w,itb ~ wooden (noil'l".:sparki ng') sp.:'.Ion, and disiiOhl'€< the in.gt'edients in th(l' water.

B,rin~ 10 a ,low boil. .c p'o,k like l.ud ge . [{ yau have· a.ca,·ndy Ihe:rmom~,tef i cook to 280'0 E, I. i y_ (iu d.QU' t ~_veaca&d~ the'IK!~mel~J; c'(}\o~unUl fu~ toIT!~h'!Qc£. is' s-e~i~,!foli~ in:st~a4 01' fu.:{~d..Wer~·:ym.ll ~Q e~ a sr:naMhatchl at the point· ,Qf .belng. 2!dQ.n~'~ IDe '~tutlge'.'would gad:fer i'IJo1t!nd the ~'pClo;a as' y:ou stirred. Try a Ima]l ~aitdn: and', see,

W'h:ll!n d1tme,. pouJ :Il ollia a ·fliltt sl!da~~' 'and J'Uo~ it ,to Q~l.

When COQ], b~ !:he: PQinI ~t is> !li; I,onger ,su.c~y j b",ut Ui :;:td! m®sl afJd 'soit, mb piece's of l~ a small go.b at a tlmti" ~bmush ,iI pJeelt. of' wi1'ld~iW screen.

C:at~ll the' ;o;n\!uJe~ or '!WQ:r,tfTnl' o1liS' Ih~y 0Dme th ~€1 u,gh the ~!i;f~ef'l in .a,shaUow·cillisn. Th,l3y,call be~dri_@clinthy:~4jillShine\jn ~ food ,dryer, o.l:'.in an Over:a,. \of]t}] the t€!mp:~JaturB's,et a.s 1·l)w.'illl if: witl ~go ,( about 1 5(6) an~,tbe oveN cloor opef!l. Vi h~l1! dQi:" i.ta

guDpoiWd-er. .

]f. baJ.:k at lh.ec,O!okl~ .,ta:ge~, YIQU .,"ooked ~h:i!";'£u.dge.,·t-Q:U' leng;: h:L'U'dj gla.ss)\" gIDh!1l~~ w~~ r~~'U It These ~l;I:n b~ {'TLJsilii~ bJ-' ~sifi!g:.a hammIEr heud .!IS a .. g·rJ"nding p,esHe on.a non" 5p~}'!kmg, woed el'l b:l'~ad beerd .. Don:t pnlH'ld w~h the n ammer; ho~.d· t he 6.~'ad,io;yo,Ur hallad and grmdwith :it."Sift through WW.d9'W ~crtze# a:iter ,grinding.

Don't lJiy' and hurry 1He: cl.ryhl,g p(~ci@;is; 6¥ incr,~as~lJg the Clv~n temper ~tU:te+ The lQP layer oI!.he. p.UWdB:r:~ t:lo.~eg,t t'O~he he~j "~m,start.t©· melt.. If that happenStyou~gun~wd.eir·:will,

lose .SQIn€: of itt pl~az~. .

Gunpowder' '",,;!;I .~a$t almost. iml eHnite_.ly ~f k'ij:I]i!t 4'w'ay fr,G,m bght. 'Iand heal. [J eXpo sed ·to light. or. hea,tj it willi deterl.prat@~~n


only a few:mooths.. HUIlli.dity~g "impo~.ant;~·to():,~~~eepj· ~?U'i' fX>wde.r d.ry"! ~ a slogan f~om ,pionfier days! but ]~ .s'tiU .app1les"

This powder is lhltas p€!werfuID as tho:s~ pre-wlou:s1y'Jis1U€!d. AU 'Ot t~e ~~gar fi'JJtxtu.re~ gN~ s~ tar 'requl~ill haU .3 tt!~i9.PQ(U:i ~ 01 gunp OWdff' a,lid one Olc1{lC~ of ~h~ to.:g]V~ hl~t 'rf.i;~MltS,. !h~s recipe ~ saclt~et;eJ' aad ;.SUiSl:ill - ~.!\!q!ll![1e8 . .J. l ~ 4~Baspoon:ll of powd~r and ·~n ,OUll ee ·af ,~hot. [vert s.o~it· 0.n]y rare,S a {~4 ~ "

T'he,'se recip.es· aU' fQUow ··.the prlncipl~:l!E liavm~ .an' o~id]zer mil4;oo 'with.~ combustible. Th!;l.combti:s:fi¥.l!!i' have ch:o$~m' in e\!'e.r,YC:i1liS@ is common 'white table sugar .. ~~lha~. ,cha'ngll:.'!i &rom one . r.~ipe fa. ·fhe neXit: i~. the :ox~dil;t~,.

ThMret.icmly. we .. ·.sholulcl! be :a;bleto, sU,bstifute 'soai~m nitrate (NaN'O]') .lor p(t(l.~sjuin· . Rltf9itein tbe~&I!.p:.et~b:~~:ar r~~·~. I.", practice; b.oJW;~v~~ the l'~~"ilg:e'~ m~de ·""'ith :so~tlUm rofi'ate lS gummy .al'ld ,(l'an~ tbe. g:r:illnu]atoo.

Patm;!!1Um perma!rlgarnate (KMoOil') snow@dproItdSe' bU,t pr.qdUG'ed a syrpris~. Jt js·a,.gr8.y,ish p0~a~J'~t.rnms.' br~g<ht pur'p!]€i·'i'f ~~~;t:eri,s' aad~. A,g':~ .s.i'mple.rnlX.~~re of PC~'~HrS .{~~~~ is I $ug'Sj,f 'and pot.w:;J!.lum ~~gooat:et It lCe<su~t~d m-a : ~ r~~ifl'g;" that showed pr.om]s,&~ ~.mt~ ma/ny' j fonoLrnost. (l.X'idil:zteTS wqen s,il1lply m~ed ~~irth '.'!u,~aJ: ~~,¥'e a ~'1 ~~ Itatin~~ .

To b~Jrer inCdrpora,t.@ ~ffile' ing'.[~~.n~s: ~ h'ied c®kih0 t~m'as ftldge~. "] put sugar .if!l. the .. pan. . I .• ~dldM . pota~~ium p'em'l!ang'anah::~ I added 'iN aier at '[he ~i:nt., B;do.r~.~ re,at:J)ed the. steve-~ hClwe",e:r, 'fhfl ffl:lxhJte began W$fiOutaneollSilly, boi~ and smok:e,. 'it 'aiI.ltuf'ned '~o a. b]a~~ as·h. You neyet knqw ...

To: .saV:e y;ou··'.frilernliS-M,-e 6f ~perim~l1it~g,< ~hB Jonow.ing· ox~di~ei,s ~'.at~'~I ',",' wh,n1 mi}Ced or' coo,ke;d w'j~h s't1,gar in' all, ra.tiro~ ammomum mtr,ar~e. strQuUJ.\Iim n~tr.ate~, bar~umm;kat~., guanidiHe Il~t:ratei bMiu.m p,erpxIde, and p01tassiumf bichromate.

There are hUF.ldred,s· If Rot th6usamrl:s ·of 8PlrlPQlj!,~derredpeg.· in p:riht. . SOP1~ have serious dF:~whacks .$u.~h as h~CD~irlg


ooilabl e oyer time. Also, -altiliicrugh the ~mmul:a may be si.mp1B, the 'lTllxih,g (I r th:1il irrgr~i.¢n~ 'Oftffi .l$.n 't., Some'fhtu!~s' the crni:1i<ihg ~~ch,niql!ffl _ -is notgi.v·ert (lr-l;eQu~n;lS ·comme:r.dal machinery. r n c:on~as~,'thre i'flr~ulas' l;iv~n m~his ch~pt,~t are sim~~f . .¥!d, mO.$t j~p~:t"t.autl.f" lh~YWQrk!

T heo~l1:tieally, H;.s· pos:sJble.lcr ·extract 8'a~lp @ter tt&H1l b'l)th wi .and . r rofi'l wn:p&' a~h~ti but m have.' not h ad. m~UChiSUCGeSS wi,th 'il, SaJtpe~el" {u::c,u;i";s~' naturallY in ·tbe s0'il'in Spai!l1J.,. Egy:pt, Iran, ~.nd i a~ iteohlcky, Tertnessee raod the Mississippi. Vaillle.y. 'Soil which: "contams: humu's. ~ weU rotted ~mal a.nd v~g~tabJ~ It'Iqth::r- i.s: ·~Q"·Qrd c(tndiclofite m.~tm-i.i.l,bui~ ~s 'to; whether,'_'!>I;q~J . ,.alipeJ~r '_ can . a.ctgru[1r bii exJra'Ct~.d,. qri~y _ oa llj a1wiU ~e~L

I' ]ierf:Qiftrle.d_ ~ €l.!!, p-eT.i:m,eflt b'J _se,i::, 'If the; fol.lo"'-img'·e:st [,actlI';HJ pr~~~M re,01l1Iy; wor.kfO • .J adcledMS(i!Jt~f!1r::r ~O)ilillme-s.oil~hi12hT had pr,f'Vi oU$.ly d.eitermined til) be ~Ne.n an"dwatS a blete t~cl~ 11 ~ ,of w~t J bad aclded ..

The Pl:g'Cie8g'jg,·to ",.(I'm b0~iinfr ,,;(aterdlr~ugh fhe'.lojl. The hot. wal~r dkl~'(lllve':5~he. ~"a.ltpe'ler ,and <;arrj~ if Q'woity. The wat&r i~ trapped".sal\~,ed .acnd ],@UeQ: ,d.ol'/.n;. thus e:onc:entraIJRg .~hfl ani,o unt of s aJ t~tei' .in lt~ VNll~r. NeJt::. I .a.k:Qho I isp.cl:u r~ ']P~O the water ':an.d t.he ·S-aJtI:l€:tt;r cQ~' '~u l ,of ~,01]tl:ticm.. ~.m:f~a;d &l ~eil! ga: d~.r ]iqlJ/~d cori"iiii l1i flig? di~slI)~Ylj;d .saltpet:e,r, thli: w al.ad alcohQ~, m[xm're n())W J:l'as a clo11j;d_y ilH:!dimenl (-llal tpeter) in the' bct~om. The sedilUit;nt, is' !'!J!!pMated lWQl Kl"e, waler' by

filteiiag thrQJUgh: apa;p'er' fiillt~~., h .,. •

I ( you w t);rot. t.o tr~rthe pro!,=~~~, ~lrie.<:! kilC:~ell Ji.tr~wer W!tQ ,H ba!ld,ken:hie{ and pul t"hl:: $tt~iQ~t QVe$', "a" bow,l to -tr <lip tIDe liqjl:dCil wh~chw.i 11 run .. QUIt. Put. G·ne ,cup of soil (or wo od ats.hes) ip 'HH~. str,~iner and po~r 'balf i1J Clip' oj ~mngw.aret oY~r'fh.e.-i~:oiJ. Plcik~:plhe (;ot~e.r~ <d tb~ lian·dk~rct..Uli; gather it upwiflb bfue ,soil trapp:ed .iMme! and :8q;UJ~~f!: out all the ~iqt:rid .. It' 5- hott~ut, sMid!tng acoupie of hre·acl W:r--apPIill'$ QVer your hi;l;I:lQ$.Jor

"' ~. , . _

ins1.J~ation wHi .h€'~p.

RepMt ~!his phJc~,s as 1Tl2inV time!'i ~I!I yo.1I1 wa I1t ·t.O .a.blain. a\!l mvthliqdid as'·y:olJ W ant" L~tthf! liquid sta nd .o,vemi"ght. ] n the


moroiing "it should be clear With a layer ot sedjmffif'in the. bot1om. _ SiphOln Qif~the 'dear liquid. m:5~ard the se¢lm@nt

)3,oillhe liq.u:id-d:own'tQ a;bojJt ~a1f oj i~ Q~ VolUim~. Coo[ to rqQii:o.ti~lT!p,er:~tUre. Add ~eq1l1ilJ\fQlurne 0:( !rubllir.!g: alcohQ~ or whi.s~y. A .;:1oudl,ymass wi!lill ~Om1 in the b"dt~l,}m whi.ch_.irs th.e saltpciet.P'om "'em~~mie Ihmugh a 'pil$!eT firter. La,horaJC'l'iry mte~s, d,airy, mf~, and coifetl Ji]l~ can ,all· be lUseq. The muddy lo'o king 'se.diment I·eft an the' li~,et is. the saltpeter.

] tried yOO;lous, '$.0. using thili pr,ocediur-e ~d o:bi,i'llne<J rlot.hin:gat ail. '.1 'tned hard.~ood ashes and gBt i}/2 tl%lI!!tp-oom ot :muddy 'lWdim~[It :f(,¢,fm g:eve[[l CUi~ ,o!E .Mh!ii'!!l,. Tbiis- mtrl!f.ld. Qut ~o be 8;' i.n~rl ~u b$t@imec'tiliirati, e~Nm aj;t~r ~iofl,g, da)ililied~ wKen made ~tQ ~j IWnpowder '" col!1ld:rlt. be lit with a. match.

Cla((Hi,e:3If:ion is done toth~A(gu.~d before th~ 'akoholis a.dded.

The. purposej:s;tgremove the impmiliies, a1itd.I:e~ve.the, dissolved ~aJ~pe,fer 'behi'lti i,n the liquid. T qn:dra:rH,~ add. egg_ "Wll~tes wtble ]iqu~(l.. 'St1t. H~at.to; ~ 7:SC@ F~ ~Jiing '?I,c~nd.y t:h~ometm:, 'fh'e egg whih~ cooks and traps 'the dirt~n i~. If thet liquid is~he$l s~faj~,ed (hrough a ·hand~r.c,h:iei I the~!g and dirt ~ trappBd <;:In Drfe 's:~de,; i1he, waLter" and ~,~_C!lv~. ia]tp,!d\I?!' ruD. tIDOJ.l.g~f 1.£1 th~ Qth~.

G~'U).d 1U>~k. ,C6'n:sLdeYmg the high le._vel o.i, fru.striation e:lipefil~C€,d when kY~lllg to extr.adi!<altpeter j it:]S I:ortu n.a~~ Ehalt it ¢:Hn be pl..n:-chased: ~~th 'lle.ry fili;]fl,t;rOti bl.~.

theI4egilirnate'!j!1!!~sofs:ait;peter, 'Include :thelDrirdng 'and '~"wolti~g of m~~ 'am,d jt~ ,m~~il)~ use as a di.uretic. 0 n~, brafl:d ";arne pl ~altP~ter' !:~~J ilic .$o,ld lip ~g~toresJ i:s.~re~c. "ftis. distributed bf the- .PUllElilaCC' Ph~rnaeeutic al CO". I Division of Klll.i:ipharm a, ~n:c., EI,izab~th!-. NJ :07 2Cr7. Salt.pe~r can ty~t!o: be, parc::~sBdmai,lo.rdm· {110m the r;hemrc:aJ comp~nies, .~l3ti~d in C:b~fer 'Iii.

P'llIop]e "~ho cure m,e:at. ~l hqm.e' use :saltpeh~:r:t!D imp_to,,· Ill, ~h!fi me'at's aJppeara,nce. Thi.sds the sarnf! pota!!~ nitrate, .which natural. '£o~d ad"'Qcate'S ~ppQse a,!j' ,a h;;lrn:UU] 'a:~'d].tiv'~~ Wh~fl ~~'ed'~~" ~ diwetic: the d,~s-e IS 114' t~.~poon h1 a litlillie water. I. mention. aU tbi:s·· so th;;lt yOJ,!lJ Cij,Q SQood like y;ouknow whaJ ym.l'.l1e laruking 'about when you go to the drugstore.


Saltpeter tS also used by n.a'spit.~1:s. andin..·.-titutions where it·is added to cafeter.ia.· [o.od to retard the male ih.m,at:e$ Jrom 8'e:t'~ing an e:r'ection .. OJ!::our:!le~ youii' dtug~t .miigl1t 'think you a. J~ltle. strang,e iI th:l!i ~& the reason you ci~e :ior want ins to purch ase i.t.

Saltpeter lSalli,SO sold inna[dw;ue ami fatm supply s1ioresi for

O b .:I .' '''D' l"]' •

it tree stnmp lemov·-e,r. ' 'He ,ra:D~ name is. <eKO. ,1 1:5

distributed by Dexol Iedustries, Torraace, CA 9050 1.

Making .s.oJiQm ,Chlorate From. ,Tuble, Setlt

Sodium chlorate is a ,strong oxKiizey and nan be peoduced

fra In corn I'nQn ~able salt via ,el~ctf.oll/Siis. ." .

. .-" r I • . . - ',. -

Crys,tEd~ of- connnpn tab1e' ,s'c,dt (Na~l) ar~c;omp'r~sed oJ. :!l'-odi,l,JIT1 (N~) _d ."Morine' ((:1). The ·8qdi.'lJm atQ:mS'cai:r;y a.~ pesifive (+) charge and the. dllorine atoms' a neg,ab""e H chmge. Atoms which beat an .elecbicel charge' arecalled iOIls,


AI. baUe~y pr,ovides' dlr~dcurren;t (DC} which Ilowsone way, .ordinary' house current is ,abeJ!lating curr~ (ACl and fl'OW!; tirat 'jn nne d,itee~ion~ ,then in the oth€r. Fo)'" the ele.ctrolysia. proeess ,to workf DC current is required.

H 'Ihe; tW,Q po[~s pM ,a baUery we-fa p~aced: In .saltwater, the sodium, i.ons (+) would be aUraded to and tra ..... el ~D the· n:eg~tjV'¢, pole of the b~tt;et1:. T"he chl.ol'ineiorn;., (.) wo~"ld b'avd to '.~ positn~e' ,pol,e;

Ther~ are t,Wa kinds ,Ill '~lJnductor'S: t,h~,se wMch d,e.compo~ in the'. process . .of carrying elee:tridt¥, and. those which do ·not. SaJ~water will condUJc{ eleCtricity and is t~_e klin.d '91. t;onduct(),f

which de.cOmposeiS' in the process of doing :;0. .

As the sa~t d~nmpQ.iH;:8 mt1o' .ita component pans ··o.f !i~dium [a metal) ani.J.ebh:n:ine (at gas h th~ sodi~m reacts w~tb the 'water to formsecl~umbydroocid·e (NaHO). The common ni'm1~ f\a~

sod~um hyd~JIl.jdeis car~lsti'c seda' or lye; ,

A seeond reaction Qccur.s betw"een t,he chl,Qrine, p:teviOu8].~' Ilberaredf. and the sod.urn hy droxide I newly formed. The


sodium hydroxide (N aHD) " the chlorine ({;:i), and the; water (Hz.O) combin,e. to- Form' sodium 'ch'loftIlte .(NaCJO;:). !he .1e"ftovet clJJot.ine bubbl.e8 ,(:)U~ 'of solliutlon at the PQSdlV~ lermi" al as. a ,gas.. T~ ldtO\l'~r hydrogen 'bubbles' oui at the neg:ati,ve fermin.at

\¥bat ~ ha'N~·.)U;5t deseri bed co ntains SOIT.!>e of my own theor, a.bo\1ft·what bappens" A.Jl~r pondering sev'ef~ll chem]slry 'te"'ts,~ try~ng toHg~ r~ it out·;,. I finally f~Ufld. 9l'1.e_ w~t~.~dm.i~tt~~ I: ~l the cathode hy.dr,ogen gas, l'atner thall. m~a]l.i~ sodnrm, IS proou.ce·d, though just what happens is not fully undersreod."

ln .any event; h~dro.gen gas is g:enerah~1iI and represents {he one real darigei' tQ tb¢ .. pratess. Hatterr char~ing ~S" another kind .of e:1e;CtiQ.l:r;~i~,fo~!!~ yielding h)r~nJgj;lnga's -, and .ev,~ry~ g;;urage atbmdant-'ihas .a fa'~Q~~te .ho~ror $~or"Y ahout .~xPl?drng batter.ies. B'e ·un:ml;ed.! Good v;~t~Qn mu.st be p,rovl,ded U'I, the e!o8ctiolysi$ ·:.rtt~a 'fInd sU1Qkirig,. sparks i Opli!:fl. f1am'e ~ i;ll'),d arcs from eledrk mQt6:r.~ ""~Ijmihateq •

Th.e-.con~P9Hent!!_.or the dedruly;sis· prg'tes-s, area source Oif DC el'ectridty, .an <J:podeA+ b~l,'"mioil)!,a c,atJhQde '~- t~rminal}. a liquid medium '(caned f!Jedr'olyte) th,r.ough ,which the current tra\'els beh'l~ildh~ anode'and the eethode, and-,a cell or ve:sseJ

to . h~ta ·th~· eiedroIYt~,; . ".

Th~ :c:;@U·rnu~tbe ,oI n.ChiH;:on.due~ve· material. On :s~nU scale

a. ·f(sh.tank; ]11,a8 tic ~lib, fir ;ceram~'c (lroell: wm do. On I,arl{lir seale, a (Oin~re:l:~ box 'piilInt,ed on the 1ns,ide :w-ith ~po;.:y paint can "b6: ·~c'~';strud:~. The cell should be sized such that the electrolyte Clan dfculate iree'ly.

A hattery· c:harger' 'can be .!J_sed ~~ a5'IJUlfc~HJf DC electricity.

A .rhoost.at (mmrn'et .swikh) i"s aliso neede~ to regulate the 'amount. of c!harge:t bei ng fe,d irrl.n th~ cell.

. . ,

The e'Ledtolyte (.onsi:Sls of l/,2 cup ~alt; 3 q~arts of wat.er; and ,2; tee;spoor!s ·o.f ,dilute ~~p~uri:c ati~: (:tha:t ]S hbaHe~ .add - it can .b e dsa wn_ ti:~ril' a. ;C,c((t" ba~t.ery wlt,h all fiyedtbpp er). The ;tdphuri~' 'acid "lakes the e~ee trolyte ,8;. bet~T cnndu.c(or of dectricity.


To convert as much as possible' of ~the salt to sodium dl~orare. 1800 aJ.t:Ip' hours o:f e]eelridty must pas,s throu gh' th.e sojgtion per Pollnd of salt. Halt.a ,CUp of {i;al~ wei ghs 4. 5 D~nces and thus wou.ld fBQuire 506 am_p. hners, A. 4,i·amp haUery 'chat'ger w'Ou1d have to run 1261.5 houn:·to prQ:Ce.!i$ harffa cup o'{ :sah"

MealJy, the Cl.:lt'rtifit pressure, at the ruwde'Sholl:1ld iDe.30 ampS" per 51q.U.al:e f~t. A 4· amp battery ~rgef is. only 13 %. of 3:0 i:\mps alld, tber-ruore: the. anode only needs to be 13 % . of a square foot, Ol"1 '9 !i'Quare lnch,es. The 'cUtren! pressure: at the ca~hbde '5hou~d be 50 amp's pe.r $'Q1.1~reJJ}6L,A '4_-iJJllP charger !il:mu~d have ;a . calLudE! Qt II.S 'square ~nche5,

High currerit den:a,ity Jmprove~ tbeefHdmcy and the s~fld ,of the.> , reaction but it ,atS'tiI rais,es th@ t.emperatu're 0:11' ,the ,e[eclraly:t.e~ T'hj sis a 'trQt:]bJesomear~a Eor home Dpe.r a;tiqn.

For best ~,fficiency the eJ€:C.l:!roiyt-e should be maint~tied at ~ 33Q F. If you are clever enOli.gh tong ltp"'lbth,errnosta~', the bat.ter}' th~~'er' c9;n be J!;wilchw oR at 13'8° f. and back on 'at, 1270 F. (Of ceurse, ihi,s, intr,odllces the probfem of keep~ track of -ho",\! IORg the. curren): has bOOn.lJowlng jill the ,celt) Op,_ srnaU scah~, it ~ probably b~st to Sacrifice ,effjciency and Tun a. conl cell. A large anode, and 'cathodein relation <to th@ arnpera,gte wi U t't:!! uLt in coo~ o~mt~DI:l" as will [f'l.C:reasing tke' dis l:aJrt~e between anode and Cll!!th!lfte -e

A edt 01'1 horne-.8"ized15G:~le (See ·figure ', 5-2 ,and. 5-3) Can ~ con~lru.cti!d ~ ramlow'S·: mak.e an anO'ai9 of. lead .by m€lti~g 21h Ib:iI. Qifishmg s.i,nker;s in. a 7''- diall1e,te:l'ahmninumlry pan. It pmjlIDl:f! l!ddef.ing torch, works well. The lead Ymn.'tstick::ro ,the aJuminum, so the lead I 'Plmcake? , Ea.D~ ,out eas:i~y when eoel, M ake ,8 second lead disk lor the cathode.

Use a twogailg:n crock {inside d1~eter= 8.5'~r} for the eell ~l:$eU·. 'Put .a layer of ginS'S m.iUhJ~'Ol'I the. bottom Qf the ad.cit Md ].a~"a: .~~a.dpancake' Dp·tbem. ConDOO~ the ~b'v~~ermm:~ oi tim, brut~ c.h arg:er to ·this .panCake" Tbis .• ~. the anode' ~nd should IDe the bottom. The chlorine gM released .a~; the anode-



will naturally M8e.~ ·~o mix With tbe sodiWn' hydw;Jj;Klc bel;ng fonned at-the 'eath.flde above it .. An "ear" may be bent up, ii netessat}!. to ]1ifQvJde' a' ,goodgrippin,g ,p]ace ':fl;lr the battery

charger's da:rnp. . .

;$ p'a~ers Il'UUt rtQw ~ J,lTQvi.ded hetwile.n fhl!! anod,c and the. cathode. These !'We{) ~obe' ,~me m~h. t6t~kaR.d of non. corub,~ctiw mateliW- glass" ~placsH~~ etc, EI.ectric fence imiulat9ril·.d1i]dren~~1 I:))ocks" ,8nd·meaicip:e wti:es, ~~d on their ~kles oH~ gpocl. pgss,ibaites. Lay the t;)athode -,llie secofl:d lead pancake- - IOn top of these apacers, Turn IJiP an. j,1 ear ,It ,if nOOe5'ilary}iQ ilHa~rIDth@ remaining charger damp. Theroe . . sbould· be .a 'fyll inch of; spac;e betw'~~f.ldhe lOp pafu::ake.a'l'ld the clam'p :aU:aehe,~ to the lower' parn:,ake. Cutf,ijwa:y. a. po:tliron Q1 the t'BP, pancake"as necess at<f te ,cre;:d:ethis -s: space,

,Suspend . a.~hean~m~~· (lVf!'J' the. side Qf ,t;he ceU to 'keep <uti.cli, 'n,f the temperatw;e. lyla~e' up the ·elec~:ro]yte by, putting ~e salt and w~t~. in ,a" wid:~"Ploulliedg:an~ jar. Ad.d the Ib~ttery acid .$~awl:y' .• (Alway'$ aqd add to';) w.ii.I;t~ - never w.ater· to "acid! Tros, isbeeaase gre,a:t heat-4s·generated. You don't need a~la sp~Uenng a~9.ut~.) Stir vigOrou,8~Y Yiitb a ·wooden· sti~k {!lo:m~thing 'tlte ~cid "';'on''t ,a.ttack) la,r fiye minutes fp

th&rnugMy ,di&so!ve ~he. salt. '"

Use a hatt.:ery 'ek~t-ge:r wlJi'€'b, has. ~ buiU·!in ~aJe: or dia:l~tiI yll).!J.'.~ S~e the ~~)ufiit of €.ui~tent, 'yOtH~ire ·:i:rrputting to thecel~. Bclng, ab'tealmonito]" i!:U~t¢nt input 'is ¢~trem~ly im~afit. Hook 'in: a, fijlt di:_mn,~t $W:itch~D t~ ba:ttE:ry ehargel" sOL 'you can Rot onJy monitor' whai~s gO]ng on. hul cO.fitrd~ ,it fl.lUy, as w~n.

A 600 waU ;dimnrer switch has, :Imffici:mf. <;apacity to handl.'e a 4-a.mp d:1Mger and is' t\e~diJy. av;ai~able in th€:' lighting i;lIOO ~amp· sectien 'I:tf di~'p~rtment !ltore~. Install the d~mmBi switch '(in 6'Eities> til one, of 'the ie,ads," going from ~be ",fiarger Eo either cntfuddJe "or J:ln'Od:~. AmlljPllgb thes'Ca],e 0 n a 4-amp chairge;r goes' to 6 .~mps.:oori't o~ra;tE:' yt>ur: thittge,r h~yond. 4 am:ps., Y 9L1 wi]l' bum QUt Yllur charge.r ]j ,yt:Ul do. Ask, a man wh-o knt')w~&.

Catefu~~y monitor: the t!ru1'i,per ature- dUring" tl:J~ brst day. [i it gets too hot (over13So Y.) put bigger spacers-.ibetween the


anode· and cathode" Or turn bacL:the amp, being input, u~ing the d~rner S:wfloh.

l f YClU dmlt" l:irust yol,lI- appar atus to operat,e safely without your v~ilMt pres ~noe~ yDU can turn j~ (Iff aind on at wm. For: aU pta;dica.ll pu~oses this i$ ,8 non- reyeti'~ible ~pt~(!es8. The !lod~l.I:m chlor ale you a:H! :maiki.ng won't 'rev'6d back ro a:altwer Just be,caus!e it sit-s! aro~d overnight The .I€ey i:'rt'(j p~ss 1800 ;;t~ hours Of OC 1Curtilm'~: thtlougp ·tiJeeJetb'otyte lor ,etJ.ch pound of sah- all at once or .n· a hunrbedmtaU steps, III akes no dii Uercel.'lce.

Some of th,e' water win be ,consumed>m the electrolytic 'pro cess. If the (:,athooe thre~ten;s t'liJ beooine u,nc:ov.e:red. 'add m'Or~ brine splulioD. Oth'erwi~~"do~'t.

After five ChllY$ {126.,Sbob.rs" 10 b~ B.K{lcO turh oU II:-he charg~r and l-iU:elf l.h-e: ~eruo]yte tbr~ugb a,. piece ot dgt'h. Discard any, semment in the ceJt. If ·the wat-er.·ils aHOIW~d. to evapo,rate, the l'~$idue will. be, abeut 'tiO% !jodi,urn chl,Qta~~ accor~ing-to th. exper.ts - pure enough to use in. guhPOW~e.r ref'!·jpes.

Intm-e~:6ngJy enQugh,. :tmtaui:um f:.ld,oI'H;W can be made u.slng ~hl,s s arne pro c,ess' if pota;ssium chLodde is. used to start !l .... ith imtead of table salt. (soclium chlQride)~ P.(Jt·aS$lum ,chl.or-ide is .sold. by vil1l,li~y all. chemi cal 'sll],'ply haus'eB to prr~at,· i:ndWvl&~!! whereas, i1otassiiU'm chl:Orate: mia.y .rHi,l Glip'P@il:I' an !he" priCIB J~t at: all. Potassmm c:hlrn'ide:is·a!stls,Q]d in ~J()ce~ stores as s~Jts'UhsHtu tes for d.iet~s"



Ammunition is the A chinles," heel of fir-earrn s. 11 ou;nr.mlnHirin sales we·re to - 00 .r,~trid.@dl guns would be :~eJlidered useless. Not SOl you say, i'Of the pe.['SO!l1 who,~ads-hjs, own • .No? \Vha·t aOO. primers? PrinJe'ts are the AJCh.iUe.s~ bee] of aniniunition.

BuUet. matemd lean be imp;rovised.. And gUnpowder t as ~eell in the last chapt~t', can he·. road,e from .sct~tch. But the, r,aw materials from - whl c h primers are made pose. a far greater problem. Mercury hl]mi na.l;e" antill1Qny' fiulHd'B" l~a.d per-pxide, pili:'tj,c ilcid~ lead iit"2lide, and nitro~nfli'te arl!i! not ofJ~{h~. shelf i1em,s .m )fUM lm::al. ,dru.gs tore or anyw h~ else ', The:s~i mal!leri als are difiicuft to obtoonand aarngerous to manufatlhrre. 'The two mclflod:s given in this: · .. chap~er. re:pt:esent the'only prjmer matenal~ [ haYe been able to find which are both obtainabJe and reasonabJy saf·e.

To under.stand I:herelatlon.ship·of the primer to the test of ,the· tarlridge compenents, cornider hm\'l"Du would ~uild a fire 'in your firejp1a,oo. First yo-u would _light a 'IV addled hajJ of l1Je'wspa,per, Tbm you wayld. add' some kiq,dling'- t~igs.~ .wo~ sp]i_nters~ sH,av·ingfs. N = you would add SOlO.@' hne~y split hru'dw~ ad; ~ tas:t1y. tbe great,' chunks that :y-au reallywented in th~ 'hrst pJ~.~,



BU,tlding a fire..is a progres:sive actiVity 'with e,ach sfepof combustion b~ed on the preceding step. Bypassing d:.e iniermerli.are :st~ps - leaving out the kindli ng and. so ·forth - ana applying the rn~teh. d:i:rectly to the yu]etide··log .is, a~t ta

have d iS~PPQintin€l reis;l;Illts. .

T he. princi~~e i s,the sam f!: in e)!;plCis~v,eS .(th@: progr.essive ·~~eps are called El'~.Q$wetr ains ) and til fireanns. The combu,\llb:on· which takes. place in a rtUe cartridge is- a t'wo -step .rlfair. The. gunpowder w hi,en ~ 'explodes" and drives. the bullet down the barr"~is 'not .set off by 'the impact .of the gun':! hammer .. Rathel:" J it is ,jtseUignited by 'the primer. The primer contains a "primary explosive" which is s@nsitiv~ enough· to' be .set off by a ;spring-loaded blow from the ,gun.~s ·hammer. \Vhen the prm:.e,. detonates, ~t sets off the main 'charge·~O'f gunpowder wllich is ~ I'~!I econdaryexplosiv:e.}~

WMtconii:cler~HunS"are i[lvoly~d in making your OWl] primers? for· CIne liiing, thematerials mustbe ohtainable. lhs fairly diffi(;utt Mfir t.ht! oramary .hou sehol der to· obtain a .source: of ptimar}' explosive: . .. , - 0.·

Nel!;.t1 th~ primary exp"lo,slve. must be se:nsitjve eno\lgh to do the iah bu~ uilat,ivdy safe to ha,..dl,e. NQ. primary explo'slve 'Is safel' They aw~ aH~ br defrnllion~ sensitive to .fr.ietio·n, ·~hotk, heat" a:pd 'Spar.k., I t is just .q Jo~t~e~ .of· th~. U~tity' ·ypqare ·"".'JUi.n'g. to a.sSUfr;u& 'wh~n- a:nsw;ering the· ,qu~!t:ipn.(! 'tiow ri~ k~ ist,o@,

risky?", .....

Also, the manu£act1iJring steps must be-simple :enoJlIlgh to. be, accomp]iI$hed with ordiinazy tdensiis 'and' meaiuring cap~bi~ities. ,[,he .. prot~!I must be (aid)'· spe¢dy. The~ ~ild. produ d. sbouJd not be corrosive to the firearm. A:nd~. again, "the ~{i!sultingpr.im.ary expJos,ive must be slab[@ enough to be handled! ·$to.re~~ and laaded with reasonab~e 'safety., hut s,ensiil:iv,e enough to fir,e. re1ii~dy. A ~£I!OgJire Qr In j.s.£lire ddeats ~he. w hQI,e p1Il!tpo.s·e.

. Obrious_1y, RoO perlect m at~rial eicis1!1, and, c()mpromises mu,st be made. The more limi,tedi y our re:8~OUrc€rS ._, time I laboratQ,ry


equipment. whatever - the'. more compromises niust be made. Material availability is pr,ohably the_single o,,~etl'idingfactor. C ortoslon co:nsid~aliOns become a nicety;· not a necessity, and 'can be.mmpr:bfnis~d. SaJe:b" is also c·ompr6rnised~ whether. we. care. tOo' admit i~ lJof n.o,t. Letj.~ i~ce.it, the 'S,8f~st thl~ to, de is·to buy Yiour· ammo at ~he store., U you make your €Iwn~, YOlil ,are compron)ising' :saJety. You carllt have, it· both w·ays.

An accep.,tab]~' limi~ oiris k is, what we seek, T Ms chapter presents, diredi"oml for making primers \\ r h~c;hi ~Q me, are an acceptable c(l!lnprowise Qof all the above fadQrs: ,including p€rsonalsafety. r have.made these primers, They work. They do have risk~ attached - as does everything lnliife. You must

judg~ for y outs.elf. . .

u you inspect a fired prim er whi€~lll.as been removed from. a center--lire nH.e ·Sifl.~Ui y,ot! w.iiU netice .se:treral·~hjifJ.BS: it is shaped Uke a .m.ini.atwli! cup;, it. is, dented when~ it was .stmck by the· gun's firing pin; it i.Qnta:iiu~ a residiie, Im:t fl'orn the primary expJosive,flo'W burned· a;waYi and, .imide the CUPt .it contains a sm~D twa or three legged piec.e of f!i.let.!d called an ;;m,ltil. S,ee figure .6-1.

I rr your ;j]Jragi.n.;iti'Cil;!, ~n']a:r,ge tb~ p~.inaif'!i" ulI1tiJ It is' the .;size pJ a coffee cup., ~ magine it to be, (If thin brass .. The J8.ldreme tip end ofsmk.e 8nYYlhere R! atches is a prl"rnary explosive, Imagine match tip mated~] had been di$.solved ·inw:are[, poured into," the brass coffee cup, like.: jeUo :in. a jieUb mQWd~ and ~owed to naurden.

The coffee cup is now· filled. w:ith one giarrt Hi atch tip, If you banged the··cup on the table, woUld it go oM? No" If·you: hung the' cup, Q_n a .a,tr,ing :illtd strudc the' bottom ·'w~th a. ha,rUt:I1oIU" - b~d;~rd e;'pugh to dMt:the bo.tt_Q,m- wOlJ;ldthe 'm.a~ch blp materiailignite and burl] ? No, it would not

.But take.just enestnke anywhere' match tip - the very tip portion - and lay ·it on a blacksmith's. aJ'lvll. Pound i,t, one


blow" wi,th it meta~ hammer. \ViII i'tgo oil? Yes, ~'herl cruibt;;d. bet,ween two metal surfaces. it will 'eX'plode and sound like '8. cap gun.

Tih:is~ nl~, ~ the function ofth~ ~anruinthe primer, ThE: primary expio$iv'f! .m,U,\5t be 'QUsh:eQbem:e~.~Q ~t~~ 5ud,HI;;H in .ord~J' to Id~onats. The.ingtdie !lbaick waJ[~·j' @i the·primer cap provides one iur:fa.ce. The a!llv.il prlSllv1des the other,


I' .

I '; \

\ \

\ I

\ ,II~"

~. ~



.1't:~!,'Ll =:i"t CJP" -

An~lls come l"n: dUferent sha:tJes. ·bill afl p-erfarm the' "!ulrU? fimdj,[lln t'n. ·die~r·i.met. They pm ~:ide a su,tfiu:e nga~J1sf whJC':h

the p,rimary e~riJ,sh.l'e c'rm.be t:'rttsh~. ' . .


The gun' !dmng :pin strikes the back Qf theprime:r I d.entingitl and crushing the trapped pr:imary e~q:Jr1osive between the p':r~er wall .and the anvil The .primer wlil ndtwor~ without the anvil, Wh~o. the primer is assembled in the sheU caajng,. ~ 'shelil cGI,gtng itself preve'flIt;:; the anvil fr9rn be-ling pu;sh~ eut 01 ~~e pr:ime;r .~li]p by the .irrnPI~'u:;t. ·of the i'iring p~n.

The modern . strike anywhere match (see Figure 6-2) contains ,a :small quantity 'of phosphotQU!) trisulfide at the very tip,. T.hisis a prim ary 'explusi:ve, sensilive to both friction and im,pad. When. ~e, match tip is Jrt, it ignite:s-,. inrurn,. the main

oody ef the ~tch head. .

"srn.1 KE /ll<JyWHFR.,E! I. MATCJi "'PA,R:A FF1"J ~Tr.ub


( "SVrr..t1:S,LE:


I\IJA.;J 'BODY OF ""FRllJ'lie:,~)

4'1,AT:C.l4I ,MEAD

(S'VITA8~ F~. GIhJf';:ll.l..l'tE'~

Fi~re 6-2

Thr: :Hp pottitm. ()l~he cornmon sUib:e allrywh~r,e ma'ch is a Pti~fy ~l(l.!iive, .:md can sUrclces$,(ullg be (.[sed D1. :m-ialers.

T~ pho~pl'umJtis tri$tlI~Eh:le ti,pI (the' white pari in .D i am(l~d !brand ma.oobe:.5l; theJigbt blue part in 'Ohid Brue Tip) is .mpm~ant becsuseit w.ill. serve in primers .. The rest of the' strike


anrwhere' mateh head (the ·~.ed partQf Diamond matches.; the dark hlue partQf Oruo B.lue.T~p') will serve as gu~wd@r but is nat m;ccti'Dnsensicti.v·e ,or shoe k ;Sens~tjv~ ,to a suitable. d~e Jor use as a primary .explosivein primers .

. H~ fr:Q.m· nrl~tg mlltc.be~ win not w,ork. ~t:het. ThflYa.rre B.lmply not !!ensiuve enough to frictiDn ~1!' sh:ock.· .for use' jn Pti!~leJfs'. .

1'0 'rel oad a. prilnm, sharpen a naj,1 ttJ a tapmed ,~lender pam1 and press 'out tllti pr.imer as shown in F~un~ 6·3·. T~e nail must be thin enough togo tQrougn the Rash· hoWe. See F~r€' 6.4.

'PItr ME 12.: 13E::·!·A.;"tt:; ~ss'&l> OVT


Fl8Pr~ 6,,3

The.sPlJJj:l primer o a .rifl'e cartddge can be .pressed out otth.es~eU ens mg with a nuil and il vise, as shown.. The nail must be: s,harpenea to a lung, tapered .j)otnl tlO go tftm ugh the fl"il'sll. hfd.e. df thes:h~llcQ.llin!!.. . ..


Fi:gurf.f 6 .. 4

The- gener.ol (lna~om!'l. of .a· cllrlr[.dgj€. Note the Ilash hole thra.~gn .which the, -n~,i~ mu~t go to- twsn out the ol'C4 fir~' prime.T.

Se;cpnd!\ pry (Jl1t.the anvil and sav,e .it, Thtrd, uSlli'tg-a bh.mt'ed naill: reraovethe dent from the: pl'im@r: ~up as. ,sh.own Lin fig:u:ie 6.5. Y QU' are now ready .tn pack th.e'~rimel" CIJ]1 with ·prim.·ary .eXplOSive. T I) do !I.Ot you must first crush some- match tips.

F rom threeto Dve tipi aterequir~d per p"rirMt. Primers v.ary in size (lar.g·e· nn~ . gmaUrill61]arg~ pJsto(, etc.) and the amount of materi:al d ep{lsited ,on the. tip of th-e match du:rmg m.a:J1u.~a:duie- is fiot perfect Iy uniform horn one m atch ~o another. the ciQrr~~t amounI:: to use is ·e.nd~gh to fin 'tilE: primer cup l.e"I.i:elJh,dl with ern shed ma.#e~ befOre tarwlpi'ng or -oompr'esg,ifig it'


Figme ,(;;.,5

To s:trracIgi'l:l,ElJ'l th-ede:lIted' prhnercup~,pJ(fC€ Oli: ('1 hard surf'Q!ce and pouTHl lhe dent ~td fr~m. the ins.i de" as hsh,oali1i!" uti:ng eI.

bIuf1 fed· 710.i1. .

Scome commgJlc sense safetxprocedureB are in order. A lWilYS wear; safety .g!ass,es·r for ~ampme. AJso!; from time ,to rime, - a m~!c:h tip will burst inb) flame whiile yon are i n th.epf(:ices~· of cidting i~t o'lf· tlbe .ma.tch head. Wlum that bappens, as .it wat:~ tt 1'5 irnporiarrl thal onJy th~·o~e Hp ~p1tes - [that i~ dOE!Sn;~-faii!l i~tg a pile o(otbi:rs· previous]}' removed.

To O1!lSh, place tfiref! to £hoe tips on a sheet of paper [I)n a hard surface, Make thre@i piles. nn one comer, k~ep the tips you


have .not yet ·started to crush .. That's your rEl.w- material. In another coraer, ke,ep the crusned·li,l,p powder ·you ba;u~· just made. Thi!ll's YO)Uf finished' goods. The actucd ,cru$hin~ ~akes plac_~ in. the cefitert one tip at a tiroe. That's. your 'wor~·in· Proceas. See Rgure6.fj..

F,i(lliFe ,6·[6

To. 5QfeliJ crush !'»(:ifcJl tip~, use three p·iles' on Q sheet .01 p,o.per:. One pUe is for n'Ps not ye,I' starl.ea and one is fo·, tne final .tJtodu~t. The fhird is where the H.pJ;- are b"e,i'n:g' crushed or ch{Jpp~d. fine{yc. OM at a ,t;m~.

[n crushing). Use tbe wUi ng edge of a ~n.iffl to cut each tip ~n h.a1f,then mn q~art6rsl .. then di,ce to. aftne powdf!r~ .FJ1om ~time to time a makh tip will igfiitef especially on the' fust cut. wh.en the

pieces, a~. !;diU'laige; If" you. work with thre~ piles - 'ral'l' m£tt~riaJ, fJriiJsbed ,goad$~and work-m-pro cess- lliewars~ that can happ~i1 i~·lhat-bfle tip ~~tesan.d bum! a h,o~e 'in-fhe pap'e1~, the' other' w<,ify to dioi;i, (2'il,lshmg'seveia~ tip~,'~t 9Tice;, $ ~$kiri~ for trouble.

; Use .sin~11 pi~c,e-&_ 01 .. p~;p~ for f!,ll1!ll~~s,~ ~,CO('.l~$;, Md p4~~S. \N'hen d~alinl! w~tb a :very. ~ine p,owd'er~ s.omeip:r()bJarns':w1f~ be' e~l1unl::ered 'withsta:tlc: e]~t1bldt-y. SQi~e- indivjd,l1a11_ particles wi]! b:e.roElp.elled·imd YUH ~:ill h,av~ -10 cha;~.e the~ am.ptu:lfg ;i~t.k th;eQ1 :!iliP:.

BU t1]n~;'prim~~ t,u~, 1~'V:e1 JulL J).iep: !i~' th~:rea, end aLa wOQd.l\m~mat~h ,~t:kk t:c. pa€k down t~ pnmalJt . E!xplosiv.€', 'S,ee fi,gme:f5~!. U~Y:Q'll don't. use a 'fll:~,dlStic~,:1uS~' a non-m!t:I.a1Ji,{1, . . ~~¥I.·$p~k]ng.t~~p€1: as. ~s.~~ .. ~t~H~. ~Tai1l~ ,Q)~~tlf alfi),st;, I;b~ pusb d.own wlth-lfilcr~~J[J g ~.m A],tbolJg;h-~fu.e pgwdery~u are tamping is d;r~, ~L~an he (aRd :must bel) .comp:ressed,too.,~he .pt;'ihtt: W~~i:l- ,non~'-f~Qljt when t~ pl'im.f{r ~uP' i~' ~~ped ups~~~ d:ow.n ~~d. l«[lp!l;d bLgh,tlr.

'"PRJ ME'e:. 'C~JP

F:~i'~T.'e 6~7

T1J:e. ·r;msh.ed···ffl£!Jci' tips ~repil'lck:e~ in tea the p'd:rmlf"i:u,p ,u.slng lh~ t~;~'ri:!rJd rif ,0 wo,?:d;e" match s!t!';;:k Qr at,h~r nGn--ir'i~ta:U~J nmh'i.paik'lng lQ.rnp.ing t'OO!.

The primary expl.Qsiv~in factory'-madep:ri.m e~s is coated with la\iql,1er 00- 'sea~ aut moisture. Althou,gh a da:b of l1iaJil polish does not 's~im, toint~rff!r1@' -wiithignitioJlj I don't 'kn9w ,bow €ff~tivelt irs ill s~ating ,out maistlU'e. \Vould ~t last· ten ~1ieijri!i There is no w,ay ofkFJoowing, $h<>rt of waiting ~~P' years an.d

~esting it -

T <i,I >leasserqble the primer and c arllridg;e~ the anN'i~ is pi aced n>l]1 in the;' primer cu.p &9:00 wlu~r.¢' i~ came, bu·t in the primer pu.tketilJ the ~artridge ;G.a!s·e. Sfl'~Figl,Ufi!: 6~8. The am"i~ is placed ~~c :lheprim-e:r pockei Then ilieprimer c;!.!,p'· ia- pJae~d In, the'-primefi pocket byha!ld",st~ned \with fin~tl-r pussu:re:, and s~'a;l¢d 'with a. -visy ,aa mown in Figure 6-9 ... You nQw have a. primed c::a:rbidge cast'!! ..

-r. . ,AiJ'i,i'fl:,.-;;", ""i?Y~I;:~'~

(~s~'I-,Jj'\ r'~t":(;;-


FtI..,,~r,I 1'1

'HqJ:: <,

SllE~L. ·eJ;:;:'I,I.,(';'

~~,'r<,1r :"'f'. f;ilb(; e_ v'p··, 1l;t J,li4N'D


Figure 6\.8

Tlte prlmflr~and ol1vll Q'r-e reassembled tniot.he she:rIea'Sin.g as snpw,ri, The Wtf,\i! dQesf:;lot go irdo [be p'rime" cup~ but in~o the :sh€ll.c~"S'!."g hkg!,i d[ltl;ln~ H The pr~€T c-vpb'!itart.,,?dint'l) the pri m.erpo'ckel. by .h.Gnd.


Pwut!e 6.9

Alter stal"lirrg the prim::er cup mto th'e pti'Tne:r'pcn:Jwt by .hand,. if is ~e'a~'~;a b»·"IJS:t.nR an ardum:rD t:'rbe~aa !ll·}IDwn. Don') sq ue'eiJ ec fpa hard a rht deform. the"end of fhe shen casing w,fi kit [s to receit~ t.lle bull.d.

.A ~hotgun .primer is ·sUghdy diff,erent S~e Fi~e 6-10. Tb· anvil m!J~t 6I:'at.~fi!.:p]aced. in the eftJpty primer ,cu.p.~ itslays in place on Iy by f.t:1.C!tion ._ and ~henthe .crushed m:atc.h hiPs are first .s prinkJ:edmJ thefltam:p~ [111" -ar:gy~ it. RfiSlqdjijoni ng 'a,

·sh.otgu.n, pnmer i;~ more dHfic:ult. than is' a tiREl ,primer. .

Ii you \'J!I·e .a primer made .irom match ,tips in your gun, yau ml!.lat clean t~e- gu'll~ft:erwatds. The' residue. from just ~n.e: match. . bp j~ ~?,'lfemeJy ~orto8.iVie. Were you not to dean the gun; within a, week -the bore would be Co abed with a thin lay'er of rust





Ilj ~ __ TA~P

[I /" ~ .

d ~ ?l2J MARY

EX 'f'Losn,l~ I\'R_O 1l..u1) ANVtL-


. j


- ---~."

Figure 6-1Q A $'hotgull ,ptimtl'f fs d.iltetenf frorT! a rifle· pr.irtter-. WUh a shotgun, (he. ~iI must be felt In place in .rfieprirner cull (aiter rem.Qving th.e, dent) und the' primar.y "e,rp'['ilsil.1t' packed in around' .it. "l-Vhen rea,5se:mbling; the .'ufeet"',of ih~ anDU must

f·l!S,t en ,rhe .~ batteJ"!/ cu-.p_ ~, .

Potassiurn cWofateand sulfur, if mixed together, form a primary ~JpJo!!ive: suitable :fQr use in primers. The reeipe .is simple, fhe equiptflent nee,ded for niea~Hdpg and h]endinlil is sim p~e, ,and the mare.ri'a1s, are f·aidyeasy to ,obtajn - compared to the m~tel'i'aJs :r·e.qOOed for other primary exp~l1sive$. 0 n 'the' m.inus side, ,the mix.hue i, h~arroou:s (which. is trulil, oj C'OU,r's't:, of any j;udmat:Yf:,xpl.osive), there ,ate· cert~n pt"{l.blems; wi~:h-gh.eH ]if~,and it is, eorresive to the metal in yQ'U~ gun.

first, the ingredients.. Po;l:a$srum. chlorate (the chemical s:ymhQI is KC]OJJ is it white powdeT .. It diss;olv·f!8 in. hot water.


Years .ago· it was. used ,as an !.Intiseptic. 'for the. skwl:l i;IDtf as a g,1l1' gle and ,could be purchased gif the :shelat a.ny d;m.gs,tol7e¥.. Today; it" is diHioill ~o lecate, although its sale is l'II.ot iUle,Ilfa:l,or, .restnded in an, ""f,ay .. U can be pun:}ta,sed m.ai~ order, and,6im$. 8di~g' ~t til' ,prI v:at~ indi~~a]s, a·r'e Jlis$ed ]at~j" ~1'iI. this ch"aptel".~

SUlfur (alScf $pelled sQJphuf..j tbe (:h@midlil ~ywbol is'S) is w pale ye1J.9-w powder I. lamou~ tg·.. its: raUen ". egg .~mell. I t ~s producedL in ~ev.eral grad~!I;\! ahhoug.hthe ,sm:aH companies who; caber to firecraeker buffs and high schooJ chen.istr_y student~ make no . Ilumtion oi grades, '(irade A .isl!ntended j!or use m bla~k p~ow.der:" Grade. B is intended for use in pyrot~(;bnk, compositions" GtadB C is m~:e['lded for use in pfn-ners,. (Ye~s ago, !l:-om~ oommer·cial primers cOIi.I,taibed,· suHur .. None; dQ to~lay.)

S ul~ us(.'d. to I~H!~old 10 garden, sup.pJysf9res· ·to make. tM. roil, add around hJu'eberrybu$h~es., :~ t has \S'iri(:'e been f<I~ph:IJ~d by aruminum s.ulphate and can' no Zongar be (ound ~n. gal'd~n supp~y . stores, S~,dfur is still much . ~sj~~ to" loc~\e~ th~n is· pota~\S,il!1m cbl!'or-a~ell hcwever, The kind of ~.u!lf1!1T Y·QU want~Q<. US6,.·ni prii:ners i,s,powdered .suHu~ ai'":~'fut HQur 'sam'i!lthing). Whait you du, not wan,t to use is ··fJolt\o-er:g of sulfur'."

ACC~FdiHg tQ: the dictionary'!. one of' the deflniffiom 'Ior ~'dowe"r.·;r is, i.i·jgely d~v~ea. po~der prdduc~d by conde:ns~tio;o or :SIuib~mati on: Flowers of itUJlfur is . &LS~ci .. ca:lled: sublimed' su1fur The point i~: that using flowen .of . sulfur in' fhe. primer mil.:·h.n:ft win yirud an unstable, unpredictaMe, ro(p1osive. COnE!ider ~he foUo~ing ,quo,re . from Hiih.LourBaom! by Philip Danis.evich:

"The cQffl1binallon of potassium chlorate .wi~h A'1;,.wers of 5uUur; .. 40rm extremely sensitive' 'mi:l!:.ru-res, "",1nch ar:~ usuaUy a¥omed~other thaD .•• in verts-man amouo!;S.,. ;{knver:'i of $UI1Ui' CQl'ltaih .. ~1.iIJfuricacid; ... The ;~u]furie acid .... .reacts with the poias$'iur.n 'chlorate ·to foem hi.gMy unstable,. and explo~ive chlario acid .. ~(wbich) win eventually el\'Plode and


set oH' 'the remaining amount o'~ the mixture, spontaneously. This, sensitivity call be hn~'ered by .. .the addit.iQ(l. of. ;2 % sodium biB~b,p:n:.ate mixed ii:,. c,;;,ullipu!lly. T.b.e sediurn bie arbonate nt'!ub;ali~ Ebe (.!H.dfrnic) 'acid ~pre~nt and. thusf!IinJinaoos. the ·threat oj cl1~or.icJ ~9.d. H owm~~ moo,ur,.es (l,f~bi~ type shoulld n.o:I be 'sb:n';~ 'or IIong periods of lime •. in large. amounts,"

To minluul,e the risk .. then, use pouldereJ suUur. not ·'.Io·wer.s ·of sUuur.- . To further ~rum~e .any 'risk1 my recipe call.it· for bak:ing~ soda. (whjCb is the. common n.ame ior sodium. bicarbona~e). This is to neutra~ze 'ady suHuri!c acid wb.kh mi'ght be p~esent even in powdered sulfur .. Risk can wan.~ reduced by m!)t. nlixing: the i.ngredimts· tJ.1ii.getberany hntf:n~t', ahead of time tb~n. is. [I].e~;6_r:y ..

These conside:ratii)l1S ~re: impPrtruit., unJe,ss. the ~dea of a pocketful at {lhO~D sbelJs goIng ofE sporr,Rmwu'sJy dOf!:!ln'~ bother you. A& you might expe ct i ·a,u;lhoritaDv;e assessment ~,f the risk is har,d La- oome by .. I beJieve yon ~.hoUld consider all .of the a .. 'alalld~ .info~fn!anon before deciding ld u$et Dr not use, a po·tlis$Him ehl-bI'at~s~fur mExttlr@ ...

From Tne Pt)(JJI' M:c:in's, J arnes.B'OlId by Kurt. Sa:,XOrl: ~, ••. podassium ehJ.ol"atew'i.lJ aJSCl. detonate spo~lan.e>ously:> btd n~et l·mmEd~ate"'~ ~with suHur.,t (jt~Ji'dS ]'t:dil~)

The beek, Pyr-o,_te;r:;/my by George ·W. W ~ng~rt ~ay' s: "some dilen!ical;s; .. Ily apart ... with-

out. .. difed ... heat. One· 'Such is po~assium ,cM()rate~ .• Th.i:, is due to thli; ,fact l:ihat its.

acid cemponents, vi.:$; dIlori,I;: acid~ is' an. unstable Eompmmd .. , onlly a !!Jight ri$ein ~;e~:pf!!l',iiture IS semetimes :s.uffJiident. t'O

~ring about an explo.5.i(l'I'l. Int,he pre;renc:e

.of. ~:W1ir ... wbich I:hrougil oxid.ation iiomt~!;(i~ ptQduces minute qtlanfiities of

suUuric acid, ~bis t·endencyirs very str~ng.

f Qns@quently,_ compositionS' containing these.~ubstantes must be·strictly avoided .. "


_ From ~he IIl!ProlJised Murtitiolls Black Bqok~ Volume ,3: ··CAUTION. Dn not store th:e mixed ,explooirve (potassium cbt~tate aRd S,u1ittrL mo~ than five day~< before usj~,g: KEEP THIS EXP.l-OSIVE DRY AT ALL TIMIES.,!!

F roln Tite Chemi"8Uy 01' Powder-and Explruives by

T enfle)' L. Davis:

,j Sunhuough:l not. be used in a;ny primer compositi on.". which con tams ,chlorate' unless an ~RrJ-add isp:r~s!ain[.~ (HaUcs miioe) In 'a''" mOls.t ,atmo!lp,hif~~ the !i~furic. acid" which is i.nevitaliJy present on the 5u[fnri ·attacks the chlora:te-~ liheratin!f chlorine djtlx.ide wbic.h EuHnt:r-'aifa~ks thF suU_ll r, :prQd~,l!:ms:moie: su]fw.ic: .acidylJlnd cau'5.in~ .aseH·c ilWy~ed sOllF i.ngwbich tlilsuhs £WS\~ in ttJe p',rmH~.rb~Dmmg. sl'o'w in its' r-esponse to t~e bigger (han.g fire) IlLnd later' in, iI;s bec'9rning ~n.t;!rt (nri~ fi:~}. ~

The:s.e Iast t'i\lO .quotes, iRdicate a new pl'IBbJem. The mixture may sour and the eartridg'e primed wit h. such a mixture may 'be ·a. dud .. S01 ile:corf!lillig l.q the .avai:laplee,xper~, 'two €~I:t'eme,s appeal" 10 be possible. At one .~tJ\emk,; yom c~i1ridg~; if 5-to,reci for any length of t ime, may go on while sitti !l'g on, t'h-e shdf. At the (Jt~ftf"~Kb:eme, t~ey m;nightoot go 'oHat all

Both ~:ponl:aneoM ·com.b1lJ:stioil ,o;LlJ.d s<our,:iug '~ s.heU-l'fll' prohlt?ms. Frari~];, most' boo~·~ ddiijlme~ntioMe"H h er one, or these problems. \~lhal they do mention isthe danger invl'J-lv.e,d in the ad ·of mixing p:I;lLassium'cMorale and .sulfur. Shelf life never enters the dlSCUssiQu. StiUj to me ,at least, ~t se;CI]1S

importil_Rt. enough to. discuss at some ~englli., ...

~ n. an efforr' tores.ol'Ve the qu es ti 1)0" J w r'ote [0 \Ves,~e.C h Corpol'.atidR (vihicht unrortuna~;ety" has ilflC~ gone, out of" business], Thli!}' spedaJiz ed in. pymtecfu"1.ic chemicals ·and. adver'tjs~d in tbe,i'l'ca'laJogz Ii if _.Y OU. need arty .help· ,a~.: all, e)tb~ technieal, gef!!e:rru ~nf,o ~ or heJpw-ith yourr' Drd~; p~e,pse [CaD

~ , us ...

The E91:towing is an exceQ)f from tlll.~'r reply: "Theanswer te yourques.ti,on is: that .. tbe longer you have them (potasslum

ch]ora~e'and suJfur) mixwa_nd.laymg around" the .greater your chances for having an ru::cident, such as spjllil'lg. ,dr<Jpp:in:g, etc:;

E ..... eo 'though I hadai!iked spoc~{'i,caDy ~bcnjteiu;:h:1 they made a~S()lut,elyng. rru;iQt:i.OiJ of either ';8ponLan~G'W:;' c~~b:u.s~tion or s oueing, F.mm their point of view~ the onlly danger seems to be th-a,t Ihe ~o:I'Lget. you. have t~urmidur;e srtting arolu1(:1~the gr~'er theoddls that YOIl wUl .knock it off the loti ai-the reh:igeiato'r.

To sum up, It appears that 'there'ate 'risJk,sj that we peed ,to take' s~ep:s to d¢~, with thellt~' hut" that tMy are n,at se ovetwheh:rlin~t. that we need to mQ.rbidly dwell on them nigbt and day. One ,o,f the .suonges:t ~otes ~v,esay8·'that fiti:xhke5 centainln g botb, .p.otassiu:nl chJo,aJte and su,~rur should be ~~striit:Jy' ~~~d~'~ HOM' w'ould, that ~ame ,author~i~ d~rect:i~'fi!i for y.ou·to .stare gasoline in !iHU.D" gar;a;ge:1 \\1hat wouM he have ttl- say about ~opi'e wbo ilimuked Vi' hHefiIl:ing a gas. tank ootheiJ' law.n mower? W'e lrVB With. risks ev'ery day, but. '50m~ common ."i!i:n$e·rnl~s_ wiU reduce inO'"st of ~he:m to, ,an acc'eptabfe level,

The fo][owing ]~t coruaias. jus't such rules tor s,ulJurpotassiam ~ch lorate mlfJ!:tur,es. Tbes~ ar~ not the' only safety lldes'j jus,t. ~"he ones ba1Vmg' ~ do with sbeLf life. There .areothe·r. saJe~ :rule~,d~aling ~'itb m:lxing and ha~ling+ ,r slru,ngly Ill~e goa~a f;a,llaw tllem (ilW

1. Use on.ly powdered suifur, Ht!:!J€f flowers of s.ulfut.

2. Use the purest: grade chemicals av,aaable.

3. Make sure, tnat an antacid such as:' baking soda IS included rn the M.i x.mre - ,2% is recomm~n..ded.

4. K~p the m~lJurw- dry.

5. Don't mi:;I; the ing:r:edienh. any furtbew ahead. at. time fhlm is :n$¢f!S,s¥y. .Pive d ;;tys ,is the rn a~hnum I.eh,gth .of time rec 0rn.~ended fo~ staring either the mixture ibu:df or primers' contalrnmg the mL;lfhIre'.


In tbe case ,of shells, which have been pllmed'and loaded. ,a,rid siUi~l)g around past the five day limit,-what :rou $~o_ul,d do" ideany~ is ~o p~~l the bullet and gunpowder from thesh,eU and detqnate ;the prini,er .. What you -'re:rrUy_' do., ~I'f ceurse, ~is yoUr' deC$~0:n. But, to be sale, the primer shll~ld be detonated.'

There i~ Que other' logr,edient ~ntOt y~ mswrS)!,.w: namely, $JouOO .glass. 'V\lbtHI. reloadiQg, a primer I .it ~s ~mFlQssibJe 1.0 get. the- anvil batk-ii'll~ the p;l:'imer cup eX'a(!i[y ih@ way it was, ",-tun] it carne &'Qm th~ liin;.1ory. The space be~wef;ln tl1:e anv.il and tb~ rear wall 'Q~' the prim@T_cup wm be larger Hlan it should be. A.n abrasive, sueh as ground glass" can be -added to the recipe to ,gj v e the- fire~-!,sap" piuehing effe.::t between the partie les '0'£ the mixture ~o" cause -detQuattion. :M any of~.· Lime',ptim:er i¢dp_es 'cflll

fOirGround gl,ass, as an ilf!gredlent.. -

I _fir~t;aL~ernf!ted to Qbt:a.mJ.'.gro,tIlJ'd ~lasiby mhbirig a bptde on a pi ece ~ sandpap~. i realiz ed that 81ft from the samdpa:pcr came lopse\and feU 'int:o the gJ,a.ss _pow.der. In fact,. I rea1izll!!rd th!3t the' gri tfrom the: 's~ndJila~r was -just as good Jor' the intended purpose as was ground gIatHi- ~ and It~sier to. cQm~ by., too. "Simplr rub two piece-s ,oJ ~andpapeJ 'logethe~ _, rou8b face to rQ ~gb face - and ··ca.plY-r~ ihl;l i ailing grit. A · tmediurn"~

gr.ade ,af pa,per works bes t. - .

After. aU n"e' iOf,ego,lll1.g di~us!liQn ao,d w arnirtgst, Ul~ ·r.e·cipe i~.:!Ailli!l quite sm.ple. ASl1'laler amount may be mixed if: the ratiQ betw:een. th·~, ing.J;ed_ients is maintained,

Potassium Cb1prate Sulfur

Baking. 'Soc;lOil

S~mdpap¢r Grit-

3 tea.spoons 2 teaspoons 118 teaspoon 1 1/.2 te aspoons

All SOlllC~ .and authoriti¢~ agree iDm One thitlg~ OU1 act ~ t mb:ll'l,g '2SuUi:l;l cm:d .: Data'!! S:ium chlorate. i's' dntlglm)~3 ~ Pe):sonally, [ believe the real danger is· that the recipe :jL~O s~mplJe -and t:h~ b]end:ing is so simple that people I (I se res1)ed for it. A f.an:c.)' laboratory S€lt~ u P with lots (If gJMS tl!bfnga;~~


bubbling Jiqujd~ and bad smeUs ,and toxic fumes commands l'esped. T y{CI simple powders, on the otlu;!r h;md., that you can hand le- ;ji,epar~ttdy with no risk, th~t,_y.oji can mix ,at. tile kib;:~1'11 fa ble~, and that lo.ok about, as, dli;l.fngeroU!S as cinnam on and .'nJ~,ar~. ~~F!~t oom:r?~~ t'esp,ect •. Tra;ied!y C,8~ _ _r,~ult. T;his ~s a; - BANG! - pr]ma.l"Y 'ex~]o.slve -you are d~~ng w]~h.

P;O!tassl~m chIo! ate is ~e,tim'es' seen ~m .a crc}"!liMlline form t(:lther th an .Q$. a PQwd-e:r. The aJbov'~ [I?¢ipe assume's the powdered form., Cry.shil]me potassium c@o.rate can. be crushed into a powael'" but. the crushing must. be done between- a wooden f:iI:J[Ij~c' pin and a. ·wo.~c;leri breia_d bo~rd - 9T s.imilar non- sparking ufensjli; .. Be car·efut to ~dBj.m up: with'a damp doth an,r residue left beh.rinil. (A'nd rinse out -the· elothl] Potas.j!i,ium cbIor,ate M.d. 'sulfur ,are, a . primMY ~p~08lV:e Whell. ~ed tiOgath~r. O~,:n'tJ~a,_ve;_'~~a'~s 'oi"o,"e.;~ 'g:~t mi~ed with 1~a'ees of

the other. '

. The 's{d~t _way" n ~lJnw of b::fmix.1h:e ~bove tf!tip~ i,s IDI)011[, the ingredients, back and forth betw-een two s'heets of paper or between. two saucers,. '-See Figure 6-11. The .s.a.llcers need to be: of nQ~.!!]l:aik.ing m.atepa.1 S"udi as glass Or plastic ..

Place the: :suUU[ ,~akin,g' stJda, and grit <}f:I one sheet of 'pap er (Ql' saucer). ThEtf! _ add' the- pO't'asshun d-dot;~,e ('!iVHh. ally' ,explosive mixture, ,the o~er isadd.ed ]as;f). H Hsing pa:Pef· bend it: g~glitl~ tCllform. a ~gh and 'pout tJie in.gn~d;ie~f'8 onM~ se(,:ond. .Shfd'; Pour b:~ckarrrd fQith ;in l:imes-, until Ute i:ngredi:imts ate' th.oto.~l]y mixed. The grit ii'ever WiUb ecome uniforrrirny mixed. Just qesuf-e some' grit is included! in 'each primer ~up that ~'olJ ·fjU. Set!! Figure &,1.2.

Use ·.smal.l pil;ic¢S of- pijper for .sroop~a ~ jill~t -a.s. with match tip prim ers., pr~iJm1]y discu sosed. Also; tamP- Q~ p~ss tre mhcture into th e _primer cups' with 1he rear end oj ,i!; woo-den m atch $tl.ck~ jU8't .a;s wi~h the"m~ch ~p' ,prirnen.

You win find~hrat the Su.~fim~potm!5:rui:ll· eih1Ol'ate Tn~xtute w,orlt pack inhl tbeprimer ,cups as. weU '$ the matm t~ps do. If :V,QlI' :pusb dOW'1l in ~tbe: center of the Q:uPi" 'I'll,£: P9w~e:r you .are' ·trying to- compreas, squishes up arouad the edges, It. can be

very frustrallllg,. -

tl;) -
...r:. c:
E-o ~ 160


the so]uHotl is. to p'ackas much to wit~ the match s ~,e,k a'S' yO:'l.1 can, ,~he,n l!I~k in .a.s mu ch more i\lS pP,~ sibl¢: w~tb Y.p:Uf. ~:ing~rtip: La:s;tly • ~\"''lint ~Qme nail. p.Ql~h G''iler '~he ~wd~r .. , Sm091:h it, out wilhyow: fiAF€'rtip. ~1,'s mef,s:\'!1' no dqubi about th at. Let the nail 'Polisffi:) dry before a.ssemb.li~~l the pnmceri"h the,' s_heU casm,s: w:id~ 11.h'e~ a!1~·~ ..

. ~ .. . . ...

SOl,ne, .s afe;ty .t~p's; O~onf! ·P.rim~ i1!'t- ij; llrp.e., \Vhe~ y~ :CU~. f1njsh~, W:tth 'it" .Sre.~ ift~uw[l] a iItis 'ee' a~~~ for dr1Yig,g,.· Wit'b

your fil1!gt'i!l:,pai~ "(not with i'll Utt!tij! " h;;l!Ide.~ sctapt:'! ·all r!l~fd!l~

from, the outside' -of th@! .:fl,.rImlM" eu P wililJle tbe ~. poli:s.h is still ,(lamp, ~d soft. \VQr~ .0=]1 .ij; I argeI];Q.q.metctJs!;u;fa~ ·a~,a have you~ mi;lt~ri~llsPllJshed back at ~1iQ~ & leng·~h. . ~'rim ef~' are' norm iiilly eQ!!U;icl!ered thrlJlwawayiferp&... .J f ~lOij;J ~a~ pt. to' rt'!Cy€[~- .o:ne'~ ·exb.aeHods' and. l)";reeaurl:ifJn'S a:r~ necessary,

'To'oov8fue Ollif!' pnnn::r: yau 'at.e wor~ 0[11. at tNem'Oll)ent gQ olf ,a,ccideb.tdy lllJgh~' blJ:i"ffl, yoq, but it.. ··~bly,"WorltbJind. YQu '~YCG1i1~~ght ~Olisid,er. we:~i"ng~i~:fel1y' g ,:01';;ijl;u;\s~) or bUnl d@w,n Y'OlIt .h.~u'~E), "B u,t 'havil!;g ~lIlego, uf£ and ,se~ un:, ,iii OOl'lcw., more, or f~illl inti,) a dish at, pr:imary c~pJi£lsi!llt: t~i,at was ~~90 me~~ c-puld ~:e dj$~ter~

Afli9'th~r thi~g. -, l'iglding" and. mam.p~~'g·: ~~~ 'tin)'" 'prime!"

CliP :w~th 'yoU!t fjitgel'!!{ .is ·'difflelli]~. Howeve1'~ daiit.ute· twe~e,r~ or. need:le-nosle· .p,liers';t:q}· grip. the tiny cups. '.C:rU$htrn~ th;B":r;nix1ur~ ootwoon ~Wi:). wrAaI ~ltr.faees~ is h0w~he m.ixb.:1Te, IS de-tiQWat.ed .. Yojl wOluhl ~~l Ym-y (PciliSh tlN~l1Jdf!~Jt· ]tPu~) jJ' }i9'u pi""l=hed. s~m.f!,g;p"i:ned dUst be,!v.·'~en :t~ .p~~.r jaw' ar(d ltie {lutsia~,cit~h4'! prim,@r cup .and. set -it oiK

Dot.l'~t ,us.€! m-eta], cp:rd.alnef'!i- lor gtora.ge Of :;m:et.a1 :Mcieng,i1:s J·or haru:i[ing.. Use lIlnl~ n9Il' ~P<l!i,k:i:rwg, no~"'fJl~taJ]U~' 1m pli;flll'eJ)!u: ~, dQrflTI I:ike the .idea ·of ,gl~a,s)j. "s~Qra;gltf.c6~lalnet~ e1~hlfr; The UlOUight of g,litis' ihr:~n:el ,do~:sn'l ,~m .n~9n. I iJljink pJas:1f:icl!l. best. ,Many ¥itam~I:lS, k.u\I~~, eeme pa;eked tn 'PhlS~.C Jail'S whick

~·u d' .. 1, I ~ ". . ' • '~' .- f >' .

~~I!U' . e" n~~~YL(r:S~{lre'.-'Y'PLJr, P'rlln:i~~' :eJtp.~Q:Slve' cor pr!H)~:f.S,

Ass'lnn.bnnG· Hie nmstled prh:nw itl. the shel1quling t5;,'da.~e e,xalilW 'f~' !!,~:e $ it w,a~ for rn~tct. lipptintHs". S~e- f'i g.uni!~ 6~ & a'od :6i9'.· PrLlnt\r51t1sing l'ilCitas~ilJ,m, ~,hli6I'a.leh$re torfQsiv~ ~p YGiur .gun; The: :'!iam~' admonitions ·.a;bo:"l:Jt cJeroiIilnR1'Dnr ann that I 'gave in the: soctiO!ll on 'matc}, . tip· primer$: app[~ here,. also.


The :suUur·po.t:ilI;5sium ch~ota'l.c!!!, r~ipe given. ablil:vew as deve1op:oo by tr,iaJ. and. erf1or. It worh. ,[ have st~Hed th.e mix:ed ingredf:en:h;. fOf'tlViW ~. mO.Gitb 'amf fuund ·tha.l (a) the jar did .not b~owlJP ~WbH sitting: ,,!D the s.hB1f~ 1)nd .(b.).the·p<tiroe!!s ~~iU fil'e&. when .I~a~ed with ~"'~~ecf'· ma.~ooa,t SilO, J-muil: cot.l~$'th~tI1m m~~~(~,fo.rta~lewhen f(;lllow:ing~he fiv.80d ~y limit.

Jb~l:ev~thai tlUs,m i};tm:e ~sfaidy risky to. U.!iB - enpar 'with w,iring y;om: house 01:" .r~cing .trIotoe:f{l,s·s· ~i[ I!lIbl'"ing in tke @Cf!a~. YDU .~~ ,kiD }JPur"s,e,U w:~th any Qf fbe8"f: ~ctiV(t-l:~~. Sut it':i(not iW~e~s~ry to dci ~.~ I 'vie' given S,OOlle. oo:mmO:F,!s~n!l~ .l.'Ule.$ I:@ FPinimi2l~ "any da,ng€;f..W hy not use them l'

.At ~hfi~ ri!fk of. cifl~diog' some"r~adel'~{ an. ethr,d~:)uke oomi'::iil (;0 mind wihkh .. ay lHusitrate, fhe paint. The peUOE ~dling tbe i~ke 'pulls hii~ "h~t!d bac~ int@ mis' shot sJ~v€ umHJ;tot even his. f ., ·,w. Then :dangling i ... g~efrl~l1gJy·emptY W"if, he ra.js'l thts?'~ An5wer~ A .Pola~ neJF.IoIi.tions 11!'X.pETIi~ 'TOI me, if,you. walk around with a c0wplf!'OUi:ngel:s ,m,s!!i~;atte:t lODling ~r-o!J!nd wlitlrrithIs, ,stu£.f:, j,t d!d.esn~ t .p'I'ClVe yuu.1re :m.~i'(,ih:o.[ t ~V!El~ y~rea PD1ack d emoli:tiiQt:\S exp~rt.

Ti1~ ph~mi{laJ $.ymb91 Ellr. mw~ur~ :f'ulrninateJs, Hg{OH C12: II!:

W~!! tHe' ~gil1taIDp,riniin g U!a~ria] ,mUle. d.ey o_f!Jilt.o<f centedire cCU'ittidge',s, and "Was '1\\ddle!y' u&@d Inrthe· r8·~. [t:was cDt'I'QI$i!jlEl hl tlw· gun!! ill whi~h ~it" was llired 8:te!d had t;he aiarditia,l1al di~im.~ri:ta1:e£fedj (in hrass shel1 ca.sing.s .. ~f m~ them 'furjdle~ rend.ering ~hem unfit fOr .~loadmg.

F'ortbe .. inrprovisingr-eI;gooer' who wanb 'b:> 'make. hi.s .0""11 mercury. Iiirlmm;ate, nitric acid is r'e([ui.roo. Nitric acid 'its i.a:idy danger(;,~ .. ~ nan:dl,e~ diffiCJJ]~ 'to obr~i,nj, atJ~ 'st![bJ ea b:l mapt :shiPPing Yesbicti{Hls i f p~tchased. m.ail QfdBt.. It di)!!isn.D t :come ina .p1ain ;brown wrapper. It comes wida.bel1s and. whtSiII~8 ..

The. ;recq,-e [ormaking_meretH'Y fU~~:aI~B is. ~vel!l, bmow .. rc{).f tbQsewho c'ar,e ttl try ~t! PleuQn'l\1iily, 1 dDa?t Tltie idBaJ(jf~fu.b.liihg &[oijnd w.kh. n:ibica_Cjd at th~ .ki.kheQsi.nM stM~~ mc!l!~ but. pf'D~bly no .cuss.ion (If prJmer-s iscomp1ete, without mer-ouTY


fulminate. $~mUm' dirOOfions t.O thlllse giVen beJQw C311l. oo-fo~ in . ma;n'y ~]d-time. chemical fbrmu]ary boo'kll in th.epu~[€ j~bta~ as ·wen 'q$ in. .enCJ.alop~,dj,asJ'

Take '~-e'l'<;WY ~ l;OOpartJ, bywe~ght; ~. to it m,tri~ ~.ci.iL, 1'000 PMij: 'b~~~~hL The' ~p~c.m~: gtacvH.y of t~ nitric ·add sh~-!l~ld, b~' 1.42. J:)~Oh/!i! ~h.e metwry i.n;to the a~id byEh.e addition ·of'. ~tWe· heaL h wiD bubble ,and rum G'r-oon.. Vv'he,n the s'Q]uliilll,l1 li@ae,hes t~ O'~ F.~. ~Jci'rJy ~tn" it. thirfillJJ . \~ glas·$l~n~.ell into alcohp[; '8 30 p.a~ hy wml;bt T~8pe.·. . ~lllviJY O£. th:e· a1.eohol· aliould b~ .13$. R~ fumes ,,,,ill hegi~~[l olf firstf funow~d hal'f· am. :FtOtl~ 1ater by white fUrrn.es. Fivf;l min,utes',;after the'\lI·;JU~e-~fume5.·. stop~ 'add -:jo~:'~~ned 'w.at'er and fi]~,e'r ~h~ mixture ~hr.Qugh.' f{lt~' ~per; Whi:~, pr:e,a~ilia:te_ Cry&t.alil!' .~ obtained wbjch: fife: the merew:y" ruI:m_IQate. W.asw.. ,fh@ <::rysta1s sffi<er.aJ times, ~~. cald water. ';'e:st-lirith-fitmu;s paPr~'1;9 bies!!lte no a£id l'eWahuL.Dn :th&JCO;iI;gbtv-{ijI,tt~pl\!ra~ur~ ';tooer:212Q F.). Th@ ,re~'uLti.gg. PTOdud fS t~()% of th~',Qr;,ginal wei,ghl ol~h-e,


The, iol~.owiil;g~ tmfipa:nl¢il'wi11_ !'~1]~o.~~g!,~lU,rn chlorate, m.ai]oraer to pj'1¥~h~.. M'V~dual~:. Th@y pH$!. J[~ 'wl~ilb~Ii{'" Alth~,~. I Jlilve conect~.d, a Ib~,g_,Bst of: ,ehemica1 'Suppliers '(I wrj~e to eyety ~e;{lid. I e9rn~a~~')~ 'enJy thJ!,~e;_hv(la:re:~ f!twU ill bUSrfie'~~" as,' w¢,n .~ - .S~ftig' PQ'ta!~~um ehlof)ale fo prj~ .. al!i! limdividu;aJ!!.,

M eR~J] Sdentifi(; OjviSfOrt

( .~. - -r '<""" - .,

,Edu,cation.all, MQtbl~~~ lnc.

, ,

1616\5 Butdalo Rm'I!.cl

Rod:jJ~st~J!NtY 14624



Oi~ls~o~ of M.r~rR, En~rl!lrijes, lAC" ,:Bpi se

N~lU,lat NH -03[t61

~ . , ~

H ag.enow l-aber.{jJtodes 1 :3'O.i2 W a,$!mn~~n St. U'amrowoC', WI 54.221)

~ ." _. .

,Pom$~'f~1!Jm .-'fd:iLOF.Me .cart b.e.,~Xka9te'~: f",g.p1_ ,eiU~~r. ~atet¥ .~ a;t,che5' m",: from 's~±k;e anYwherecm_,atrn filS tbaf 'h:9l,v:e,had tbe; ti'p portion rem0ve~, Ma,iah heads [li;ont~in ',5~fG' p€ltas~iW'l'! ~i1lma"e;,,_ in a~!fi~on tp ',.glu~ ~and other' ,UiI:f!l(~,blj!;nt§.,

R;"s~ '~"" .. ,k, fbe match " oV'~''''''1'O'bt in ·wamr,Statt witll,

r').a; ~,~" I.?~ , . ~~ ,_. . ~ ~~'~" 1 .. ~ , _

hill w,~t.et. Tlle .nex~ MJ;J~, '~'e m~~UF~'\oIi1tifi an ~g be~ter.

"ih~ ,p~;po~, is,t~di$,oh(ea!! m,u'Ch. poJasslmn chlolr:ate~!I, pO~'$~ble ~n' the:wat~r! (As I~rng, as. the, mix-fur,1ll .is' ,wtd', -aU Wat'Ri1fgS a'bout m:ll!tal ufens.ilS'- 'Iegghe;at~r~ I, for e.;amp]e - ,l'1onlilt appIDy~ Whenw~tt the m~hJre is h~m:le.ss+ ~'H'en clry{ ano,liher-stoty. )

'\Vilen dis:s~[ved m water., the ,pot:aS$ll;IT!l!l chlo~ahe .is. j>jin so;l1lJti()h~~ iA the' wa,ter.; A S'Q!luti(in IS dii-J:eren~ f~om a nmixtlJ.J.e~' .in. tha~! with a Iioluti~n"the com[lQ~ent. p'art$ "canrlOt .. b-e, mecbO'(.lflically sep.a~a'ted. .Filtef~ is, an e~ampl,e, of a mechani~aJl' 'pro EilSS .•


As a p.araUei ex;ample,~t .sugar is dissolved in coffee' it is in &Olution. If the coffee is ,s1t,ained through iii pap·er filter I thE! sugar comes th:r:ough al:ong w~th the, coUee': The coffee is still sweet after filtering. Sand ml.x.ed 'with eotlee w ou[~ be' an ex.amp}~ :of a ~ture:, U at mi~li.Jre of cQHe~ aind sand were ~trained thr61i:tg~ a JlElp~r fih.er ;.the CClff'~ wiQuld gQ.l-hrOll gh anti the s·and wcu.ilM. Bitay behindr trapPf!d inlhe Fihe,:r;

The ne~t step ira the potassium chlorate recovery p:roce.'rs ~ alter beati ng with an eg~' beatet., is h) BI,ter the match heild and 'Water slurry. A cotton handkerchief w<;'i:rk& v.'~L1 as ,_a Ii he 1'. Lin'e ·a fl.,l;rinel wlfh a, ha!idke:r,duel~ P'I!lUf the mix~un~ through. and sq ueez e out aD the liquid. Y OIU want the,. pot~ium chlorate, dissolved in the ·wat.eY, to go' through and the oIl'tner impuri.tie·,s.:t .~

stay bebm:d.ltr~,JjJ}e,d· in the,fliler.· ,

PO:Uf d:re li,tq'Uid mh;i·a_ ,d~h -and let th¢ Wiib11 ~\'ap-orat:e~. Tke: g,lu@'bum the rila,lch h~ a.lcing'wH~ thf!'other ingredients"",:m s.ettle"Out and s.tll1k lo the bottom Gift he di sh, See- 'f'irgundi,·J :3 .. The·~top Jayer of thi'l residue will. be palassi'illll'! chI6.rate·crS~~ls" They cen be ieraped off (using it non·mefru:lic" tlOn.~parJcing scraper)! ·cru~h~d, and, used jn ·the primer recipe ;given earlier.

p,cdasruu'll'! ehl~ii:.a!t8 c~n be, recoYEl:red- &om comm[l;11I household b~eacb.. The Clorox ']a:bell for ex,am.ple, says- tt contains 5.250/0 sQ·d:ium hypuchlQr~te. Th_at~s t~e stun y}~'U wan~.

You also n~ed.~Qm.e potas.s.iun. chloride, This.. is available fr·om H~gen>ow, M~rrell, and Pioneer as well as ~Ing sold a, salt suhstisube {McCm;mkk's., Nosa1t, ete.],

Add 63 ;r'a!tns (~hat's the same CIa; 2.2 ounees] o~ potaSJium I:b~oride tQOf:l.e gallon of bleae h and bii!.~t th.e soillutrol'l to a b oil, This i s as~mpleproeedu rei' but if you hill ve ever sp.iU@cl .any hleaeh around the' apartme.nt., ju:s:t !:hiDk 01 the o.ttentioll YOll. will get Irom the 'neighbors if you try boilin g !I orne,

Figgl"£ 6·1 J

This ;pl1nta shmvs,at ;the boUom., the ron~fied match h~ad shIfTY; JUSt lUi n qti ed onto. the b.o,ttam 'Qfa glQ:Ss (lIon·· sperl'1ll inv C(I iJki~g EUS.J~. .At th,e. 'top, is apiJe gf potlllss.i urn c,htotdihi ',cl'1i·5i'al~ :ic:r~poo 'Off with dl€ wo~~ (non~s;pj)lrh"'ng) SC1'Ilj!h?f'_ Under the· dried,o:n; ·cry-sJI11s ~'s a· lay,er' oJ s·ed"irnent. TMs i'S' SIIOWIl" ali well '15 (l·s·PQ1 where thB'sedimeht has been sCTrlfJed d,ellwn to lneglass . baltom of the dish., TIuJ!. ,e:rgst,als scrape oJf eascily,. feavin,g the .sediment behind.


Use 'a hydrometer to cheek the, .!lp@cilie gravity. If ,iii .[abor.~to-:y-type .·hydrometer is- e~plo!led. lhf! l'¢~ding'sbou.ld be· 1.3.;; if a hyd}!oln-et.u·'sucn·~ i:s us~ for ,w.tbiJpobiJt: batt~ries:is ,emp]gy~~ t he .r(!'filding shoUld read ("fWlcharge.;t'

80J;I, ~h~.:s,oIQbon until tbe.J -,~·.rtlii~i.!1g ~:~ r~aeh~~ ~:h~n. 000]' it in a r:~ge:r"il.bJf. I),ofl/l &-e~,f!' ·~t. The- wea, is ,tha:~ ·.by bollirrg a.way the wa~el" 'you are creanng a' s!.:llpersatth·,at~d -8!(dJ,ltiio,~,' Then ,hy cOQ~g~~"crysta]!i wUJ' Predp~t~:le 'Q1lJt. Fi.~er ou~ ~he' c~Y!lta1S, :and. !!~Vi~ ·the,m. They are- lb~pcitassium ebiDl'ate., Repeat the process seveeal fimes: boiJ the $orutioAlmbl the 'specitk: gravity reaehes L3, then cool an:d filter .out the

crystals', -, - . -'

Nf!x~ mjx' the <;:rys~s wjth d~sl::iUed wal~r·.in flle 'r,alio of 56, ~r,a.mJ!l of pQ!ta,s:shun chlonlte to .100 milEI.lit,et8. ~ml.) of watet" >lE.9n~etted ta UJ:L mt!!aSIDe,,' 5,6 :g;ra:m;ll equals 1:96 ou:n:ces 'ij;rl!l1 lOO m], equals !li:x' t~ ]jj~ mf;hes.. Tbe f!xa;_ct· amou~f .is· :not cribical, of' oour:8e'~ only that therdtio be '~ainlqi~d.

Heat ·t~e. ~o']ut-lQ,n :Qt potassi:urm chlOrate cJy·,'!,ta1~ abd w;j,t~r until it boilS. Allow it to wo~ .• tben fil'te;r t~crY05ta)$.and save them. Thi.s step. is ii, pmi6cation pn"re~'S:, Dry the ·lJrY8.tal~~ crush them" ,and you have potassium. crrJo)',ate, In a useable

form. '. - .,' . ,

~otass~wn cl1~O:~a'te'·,i:tJ.11 al~g be pro(ue¢d 'o~ 'ho,me's.eale by ~I,ecttory;s:i~ fr'pln po:~!!ju:m ehJ~ricl~, ;$ee. Ch,a~er 5 F:o)'! riletalfls.

bas deve}gpe,d disappea.r.1I.,a:s iJ by. m.a~(:1 and the metal will 'ag;ain bend ,easily .

Primer ,eupSj dented by the gunts firing' :pin and reatraightenedr' can become workbatdened and .craek, .Their Jif~' can he' e~t,etid~d Jby heating them w~th a PJO<piiUl~ ,sol.d:~rin,g tQ.roo lmtU they' glow ,,a duU red·.and then a]Jpwi1igYtheri1 to csel $lowly~o -raam temperamre. J.f dQnt!~ this, should be perfatmOO! be/ore the dent made 'by the ming pin is s:~r aig:htened.


U your gun midir~ (t hat is, H you pull the trig,ge-r a~d the ,carl:r{dge f.a:i!s to go 'Off) don~l epen the gun .or take the ,eartn4g,e ,o~t irnmediatruy:Vl ",if. fiVE! minutes bEllont :r,emoiving the CaTlridge. B€ !careful whl!i~ you afe: pqinbng the. gun 'whH!;l"you ·are waiting. Ai soon. as,. pds:!l,ible .. a-£1:En' r~ovhl~ the c;",riddge from the gun, put it to soak in a can of .ok! mo1:ur oH .. Tbi;s' wiU. deaden any . cartrj.;lge.

A Clo.m:g ThD~gfat

Th[ou~out this hook I have avoided ,editoriali:Z:'ing., On 'the topiC . of. s~fety,. howE;ver ,. ( ~~I 1 .m:U&r. ~omment. This ~ perhaps the' must 'important. ,cha:¢cer~ tWis liD ok, Certainly the . ~n#))ii:n atimpre$entediis· the most diHicu1t to. obtain.. But jt is aMio the m(J,st d'$!gef.ciu.s·di.apte~. iwm ~t.e p oint of-v~eM' D~F the. pers.DD doIng the- experimenun g,

1 n the. course. of my I.i.fe. L have', supervised a. cr~w of men in ITIy.diad;,s contracting business, ~iiught school, raised teeJ:1age children, and supervised.a s.tan of professional engineers, And, to thi.s day;. il never ceeses to amaze me how much human. hlltinss resist· f'IJU(]w~ng directions_ It seems ~riJlindiv(!> in.gr~il1ed till hUMan nalnre, nEat your 'Carrots,. 'They're good for you:~ YQ'IlJ Im;ow lhe ·nlspon.t;e: "l 'Ili'orh!' A rm~, folided ,a;(;:iftiS5 chest

W,eU" in t.mif,t:a-s.e I haveglven yO'!ll ~Ciml'!!, j.airlY,· poowerf.u1 information. But it is. P9t:e;ntially dange:ro.uS to.yQU, the user, fu with life ~tseU:, ihere ate no ~rantees. You Can be .. a Polack

U yotJ bend _ ,8 paper dip back-and-for,tbt bad(~and .• f91'th, it '",,·j~1 gradp::~Uy b~Ome brittle_ 'and break. Tht.s;pheno.m.enon is ,caned 'fw~:rk ha.i-deningH and hu 19' do. with the: grai.n sbucrure of the metal, An metal will 'Wo~k harden if bent-or 'stretched or ,defQrmed",

Met-al wh~ch has be~'worked hatden~d eM be ,sof~eh~ iHt ~s b~ted p.ast it~' pDlnt "'{ l!'ec.rys1~alJizalio-n agd, alf(;1wed to cOQ-1 .s,lo,w~y. Thi~, pj'.{J ~!!S ~S" caUed an]\l1!wmg. The brit~enf!8S which



demoJjijan~e}l;pect~ ~f Y9UJ warif -a!r.!d I can't stop you. I wcmild 'eet. bad~y iL'!om~ne ;gO( hUrl! but 1 fl1!'eJ. c.{]im,fQri;able, m my .own mind. that i~ won.' t happen hom fQUcrwins;lihe directions in tilts h(}Qk~ n t will hajJi~l'!n~r(}Jn nri~ (oUoVl'mg the di-e~i()n$.



• - =' ,~

An Q\f. the: tl;a!fo[:fflatio:n ~n. this book is not~t much vaJIIlI:e~f yQU .dflri!t~ know hQ~"'·to put I{ tQQllrtne:r •. He:nc€:" ~N.s· £iR& abapter 'OWl ~!n,~,lcl£llg ..

A l~'6k 'at the r~oading: k.l.oJ~ pictur.oo it() a, sp~iting' g'eoos ea;ta1a:g;is ~tJJough f~r 'friglitall a,nYQnet n,~lr lo,Q~, 'ye:r.y' m)j:'stenoNS:p c·omp'lilZated:~. and inlimtdatlng. It 'a&so look"t

;._ ~. __ t: __


In ~~s .cliqpt;er> I 'Will atte~pt t() rend~ ~he ',top].;:, as :s,impte' as p·ossibJe angslWQW how r,elpad'inQ: can be do:newith tire most ~doiidvfl oE to ols.

TheoretitalJy,it ]$,pos:s~ibl.e .'b~ rel!ll ada .22 mfire· !i.heU.The .;ru~h¢drim 't's ~Il"aigh,~en,red witb a.pullch. U si.,g at hoe' arlmt'>s brtfsh~ t:h\e insjdie of the ],(UUow rim i~<p-alnted. with a p,<1I;s.r~ m~e' n:Qm a. primary exp,losi.ve· (see Chapter 6} and w,art~.


MOl""e than. Glne'coot mZl'Y be necessary. Ih.ec primoo sheal.:; are)·tihen drield (i ,!;usped: drying ·~S'.ihe k~y t-a th@ suecess 0] the wh,ol,e. pfojeptl! g~nP'9wdei is 'a:tid'~d~ and' a~~t· im~ted: .. It looks ,goo.d' -Oil pa'j)er~. b,ut m have nevru"s,~n it clone' s;uooes:sfully~


F'i.a:ure 7-1 MlQwsihecO'oopol1l:ents "f a. o~ltedire . dfJe' lcadwi,d'ge. It ron8blt~ o~ a; brlUS: ~.heU, a, primer, pU!k-der~and. a bu~t .H,ow to)leloru;! prim,ms is dise'!:!:s~d ~1il'tChaptet 6. r,Oi' ~~Q:tl@ IO.f {hieS di,t~cus!!~onf'w~. wiH ClQn.sid.erth,e, prim~r· a non.~ ¢!lvisihle"!'Init

FfBW'fJ 7-1

Ctl'i'tlP.D1'I;ents· of 'f rille C:U:(Jti~. From le ft :001 rig 11ft th~ fiuQ l; r.J1i$em,bled. ·{·m&ia,~~ th~, br{li$~ ~keU ca5itt;gJ' the lead.buUe-t (in rhr,s eGls,e .. a hall·Jacketed .bnJ~et), .(!!Il. emp'tg slneU an its· sia.? showing the "pf;imer tJ,(iC~t'~~ Q.~Tlm~r:~ ··art;d. a small ~paf of:

gunJ;lowd'.tr. . , ,

Th¢ firsl·-t~ing ~hat' must: be (;10 ritd"nr rekiadin gi~ t((ll remove the s..p-enit' 'primer rr:o:m the fu:t!!d. ,.'!i-hell. How to do this, has. airf!ady been shown in Ch@ptlBr 6~Figure' :6·:3.

NltX.t:, a frlf:Sb priU!.er ~$~nsta]]ed in the brass>shel. It i:s,;starledi by hand. ",?<ith fil'liger p:resstl:ffiJ the!1. seafied·th.lsh as shown in_

Chapt@.r6~ .t.igul"e 6~~t '

P owdw is 'then adJded lo~h~ ~rimed shell. CJI:8Jqg ... HQlW'rru~ch ~Qus,e depelJ.~~ Q~ the powder emp]oy~d. For powdel made from lllakh heads, the amount ~o U!I!f! . til 8h0'wO in Chapter J3..

For ~hr~(l! olh.er hOllillemade mbf.t"~'!res (sp:ecj~ical!ly p·atassili.un ch]of:at,e-s\lg.ar~ 'sodium chlorate-;sull1:ar, and :P'Ot:aJ8!!iiil]Hl Pt!!l\t;h]o~ate"_~ugllt) :the {lJmo!J~l to use hi ~. U: .~~Llg;e to.acbi,~e -. a lciUln:~ loa'd .QliJra.l;ibit..sf,s 1/.2 teaspoot'JJ. Th:eamountt{l '~g,e iri othm calloota is ,sho,wnbetaw. .as quantity j~A.~"

For thesabpeter-osugar m!xtw'~ j t~. amount II) J;l:S:e, Jn .fI, 12: g~ug:e is 1 l./It te~spo~m;: and Ifle amount to UiI€: in edber calibers 'is -sbo!wn b~Q;w ,a.scjJlXiiint'ity I'B. ~~: nn. !!Otnf! in!dan:c~, the ~uimtit¥ oJ' ~~]tpeter-sug~ miLt ca,Ued:£orm,ight ~*c'eoo the' ~h~U tcapadt:y as: this ~s· a v.erj: ilu]ky pOLwiJer. [nlhes.e ~nstanc@$, $oimply . ]{(a:d ,to the '.s.h:eU c1a:padty.

Far' factor}" powders, ]Qa;d' atl,::'cording 10' guidelines publli shed. in ·cl,)tl"enliori'aJi!'elo~djf .. g ~~.. .~.antlf,adur~SS\l cbas Speers, Haim ?I.dy~and. L~:rr,ail pLlbli~sb ,,~eomplete .reloadi AB' books" They are ,S(l~d. il'lgun. stores"

If J :wBt~ in a ilffie%:perate, .sihlatiiel!jj ,~n,d .olu.t~Jy had to r:elo,ad with fact(ltJpowder: !J!Od co.l'lventi(lnalj,ptAbbhed rd~dms mfof:JJI:!3:oon "",'as net ava:i]abl~ 1 wmddu5e quantity ~'~A~'~ below. [' woul& ~lsor~Dba Htl~ ·,3J1Y su.6hload~'be{0r~ shootIng:.it in a hand- helfd 'I:irewm a;[!!d ~ ., stl'omgiy urgi~ yo~ tQ dQ

the 'sam~l See 'Cha:ptet 3l f~ure 3-5(1. 0

Rern.em b~ (':,

QuaJi;djt~' ;~A~' ~'the. V<:ill;Jime ,of powde:r t~ use when a 12 gaqg~ t~tke$ 1/2 t~rSpoQU! ..

QIJ:W:J!~ity ~!Blt= the volume to u,se w[wn ar 1:2 ga.ug~ ~~e'S. l 114~ea:llp(JoM .

The. 6gure: given. iA p,a_r'mltheJ.6i§ is m.h.e~(:leri::~~. bU up lW'l'l~' c,fa 1.:2 gauge load suitable for the calber in q!;l.es,tlcgn.


.22 Hamel (39%)

Q U~R~~ty A: l .~ /4 te.a~pci.Orl.'!: .:fIp·lit mto 6, 'p~s:

Q:u anti~y B: i./2 1:easlPQ~r)!_

.3f)·Oi6 (~4%j

Q u:ootity A: I I (8 1r~!II;HJns Qll~tit_y Hi 2 3/4 teas.poQml

. 2:22'~emii1gttM f7g %)

-~~ ~ ;,~

'Quanti~y:. $\; 1 1/4. ~4spciansspl.it. into ;3 ,parts

Qu,~n.tUY' B: .1teas.p,Qan

,:375 1:1 &: H Magnum (2.64%)

Q U:~I:l"titS' A: 1 t~a_s~Qn + 1 '~14 tearSpoons JipJit

- into 3' p~rtg,

Q ua!"!.tity. B: :3 I! 4 leasp.OOiliS

.223 Ii! em ii1I!1~;(i'n (] 1 $%)

Qt,ai~Rtit,. Ai 1/2 i~~,p.QOnt 1 l.J4 b~.aspoe'o,silHt ~I:l!to l2' Pijwt§.

(JtI;ijfI'l.i ly B,; J 11.2 leasJ)ogn~

.4'4 Mag,flUtn (9'7lJh)

Q'lrm1lht:y A:.~/.2 t-easpnOIl. Q'aantity B: 1 1/4 teaspo{tns


QU8X1tJ!y _J\': U2 teasp{JoFl "'" 1 1/4 ·te-ils:PQo.R:!Isp]~t ifll:to'~ p.arb

Q'U8l[}tity 8: .~ ] 14 t&a.'Spoons

.4-5.70 Gav!, (230'%)

Quanti~.y A: 1 liS 'teaspoI'Jlils Q Ll!a!t1!my .S:: 3· teaspioon.s

.Jot! Ml Car&irm (,48%),

. ."

QitaJ~tity A: '1/4 te~~n

Qua.nlity· 13;"1 1/4 t~po oWs split [nto~ .2' .pad~.

.ss« Wttlchesfn {"~::39%)

Ql.l!an1:li~y A: 1 teaspoon + 1 1 /4. ~easpooM .spJit: ]fl~O 6 ~~rts

QI;l;afJ,til .. y B: 3~easp oOn'$

,30·3:(1 \rVinchester r13'6%.l

Q uan:t~t,y A~ 1/2 lIli8spoon + t 1/4 .. :teaspooti"s split lro:lo ,6 p,arf.~.

Quanll:ty B~ 13/4 tea~poQrJ;S'

Simm' ParohbUum (24 .. %) Q,t,N~ntit:y .A: lj.8 tc@aspnort

QlJantjty~ B:; 1 teaspoon. div·ided into 3 par-t~,

.30S WJ"chg,!i,r~r tl.62mBlNA.TCIJ (176~) Ql/J.anfilyA: 1/2 ~easp.Qan +] V4l:easpo:mls split i:n1'o a. paJrt!i

QUlmLHy B: .2 1/4 h~a;spgQni'i.

.;:18 '$pcc.ial {415%1

'Qllamht.y A: ·~14 tc@:MPO(Hl.

Quantity ,8: 1" 314 teas po om spi'l: "~f'l!tg :3 parts}


.357 M(Jgnum {Z9%)

Quantity A:: 1 1/4t·easpOQns spHtmtQ 3 parts. Qu antity U: 1 teaspoon

AFter remote firing, bath the gun aRd the shell snouJd be e.xamibed "or signs Ql excessive, pres:!iyre. U 'dl.e breech p4lg' is diHicuilt to remeve, for ~ample, it ]lmbab!.ly indlc~teB' - an overloaded situation where excessive I,Slhar.nhe:r pre.'!SUTIl! has had a jammmg eff~t on tile' (breadS!. J_.ua~ at. the ptlm,er and ~'pmp\are ittoi .an unfired s heU. E'lce'!i!lj'l{'~ p're$ilun~ i[l]sid.~ th~ shell '",ill have a sw,aging efied 011 the nrimer. Withno:tmru pressure thepsimer will look much lJb:e SaniB aHm 6r:ing as before, es eept ia.r being: d.enited.

If ·you ~e: ~orIDlm'lIM .hat a.sman amount of pow,del' is rattli.~g aroun~ ,n a rmtiv,ely large· cl!l.s~·· and m~y not be detQrtal:-ed by the primer.,· apie:ce of ',cotton lluff can he' inserted aft~r the: powder 'and "heiu,rethe buU~t. The nun wiU bold the :powder to· ~he reM' 'CI~ the sheU, ,against ,the primer for .sure d,'etonat'iVl1. Dotll·.9v~dQ· it .. T QQ ·t:uuCh.'w4ddimg {)r packing ,'Can

build .up' dangertliil-S'- ·p,rei::;uI'J$s.' .. .

Nffx.tcom~ 'the, bu1~el(_ Ii you can 'pUJ"t~e btiUe:t:s~ fine. ]f not, you can make )'lour own. Lead is. fhe best. materia], but rniIDd '~~ell!] ·~a nail or bo,lt of tbe:right diameter' and cut to the appropriate: length - w-fli 'work.

A bun~.t stay's seategt in a. S he~ t;¥tp'S la.r [I;:fy by fr~elJ~n. A s~oppy 'fit .~an' bf!impro,,·~d with an ~tuminu.m ·foil or 'papieir gasket. S~m.e gerill:e squ ~ezlng . with p]ier.s. (i;~ be dOrJt;! if neceisa.ry. on. ~h, R~k of, the brass: €i'lse where-it'grip:5 the

OOllet. '

From a. 5i'lOOty an~. oyer I 6ad:ing point. 'Of \lila1;\;· .~t .is very Lm}lortanl to Us'e a~ appropriate bullet weight; To ohtlttlvy a buUetcan dangerously ~ncrease thepres;sure within the firing .chamber,. even 'to the point 0'£ the gu.n explod1ng~ The table, below 'Shows' the:: b~lejwei ght to use, bycalibet.

.45 ;i.ep (62%)

Quantity.ft.; 1 1/4; teaspoons. split into 3- p$pi Qu ant;ity 13 ~ 1. teas,p"l0fl.

12 Gouge (l DO%)

Quantity A £ 1/.2 b1!.upQQ1'.i Qu.antitY B: 1. l/4 teaspoons'

1,6 Gnu;ge ~91 %)

QOJUltit:y A: ,2;. 3/4 teaspOons split mto 6 pM-it' Quantit).< B: 1 1/8' teaspoons:

20 G.auge ,(W2%)

Quantity A:: 1 1/4. teaspoons !!,pUt .!nln .3 parts Qu.antity B.. 1 te.aspoor.

.41,0 B;Dt~ (~7%)

Quantity A; l/RtBiiispoon

Quantity 8: 1 teaspoon sp~t into .'3 Pafits

1 would .like to stress·', that the: ·above loads are de.dved 0'1\ a c a1lcuWated! theoretical basis. The l.2 gauge loads hav e been tes~ed and work. as glYien. The load, i'orather cru.ibm<5 and!,

rrau u"'" ·!!..av<> be """" .,._1... ·l· ,,_.l 1. .' i,!1L!. _~ . ...l ..' t' h. . . ,~. ,~;ll

B· ,.~", .. n...... c· ..... " t:m, ... U al:,!;:l;III. IWOO'! IInIS ana at'1it . l\!ore[IlC<u~

They are')onJy, intended Ito give .a. reasomtbi!e s~arti~jgpabJ~,f9r fUfthert:es l.il18",. They should aU be remote fired. before ha,rid.

held firi nrg! See Chapter '3, . Figure 3~5o.. "

Bullet Gra:ms

Bu;U~t Ounce$

Bullets Per U1j.


.az Hom'. .. 22.2 Rem,

40·45 50·55

.10 .12:



160 13-3

.223 Re,m. .243' Win. .30 Ml .3.0·30

.3108 Win. .36·06 .szs H&H .44 Mag ..45·70

.458, \\lm.

Pis:tvls 9mm P,arr:a .,3,8 Spec .035'1 Mag .45 ACP

50·55 .8.0·90 1'0010110

165' 15() .. 180 lS;(~·,180 235.285

240 400 500

.12 .1·9 .24 .. 38 .3;6, .38 .59 .5"5 .91


133 84, 67 42 42· 42 27 29 'rr ~.4

lOG U10 IS8 230

.23 .34 .,36 .53

70 47 44 J]

Shotgu.n Shofar' Slug Weight 12 Gaug.@

16 Gauge

20 "Gauge

.410 Bore

1 oz. 1 uz s, 7/8 '1)2:. l/Z. oz .


, )

16 18 32

V0'U caD mdt, fishirIg sinkers and. easel, bUDe'ljifl .;:onve:nliioo(,t.i_ bnDet molds.. ':Or ~ a 'Wooden mold qm b~ .made' as ,Jh.own _in Figure 1·,,?-. Hafdwoad).'1 best, It wiU !icon:::h~. but can be u~d several tim es. Lead can be mel ted ina pan on your kiitchen stove, Selder will also wQik.

Cheap plastie diet scales can, be used loO' cheek buUet weights! eilpeclally if the' weighing I::; :dQne .in multiples. Y cur seide may nDt be .;lc(:uratl!! enough to weigh ,a qUqf,di'ly 8S small as ,,12 I!)U nee. for ex:aropl,e. But it ",,'in ",,"eis:h o'n~ Gut;ce \!'!lid, reaso~b~" &c,cur:a:~\ ,a!l1cl jJ'eight E!q!.i!i!I)·,5i,i~ lbulkl~weigh. nna ounce in b:Jt,~l,the:n ea!dl buUelwei ghs abQtJ.t .1;;! ounces.

T 00 summarize, the steps in. .loadin g anHe·- cartridge are:

I. Remove the fired primer;


2. [nstall a ftesh primer.

3. L,oad Runpgwder in the sh~Jt

4. A,ad a p~ecegfoofton fluff i:Ethe-volume ol powder is timaU. in td.ation. to the ,shel] S1!Zt!I.

5, En stall. :!;! b[Jl~eL

Figufe 7 .. 2

A t\,(]Irnemad,¢ bt!ll€t ,rri,~ld:. Two, pi~ces [If hnrdi.oo.Dd ~'~ ,dQm~d lagethet '~J'ld drmed i';o t,h~~9rred' d'Iumef€ral dl~: joint MG'beu'lend is ~htm~ p[:H;lir~~ .~n r/;I!~'c~Vity:. ~he b'IJ~~et .i~ remo,Lred by undam»mg ond pulling' a~,lJTt lhe. spndw!ch. Tile re,s,!:,t,I'tin:R slb11 mttSl Qe trimmed and scraped to finisned Jimens,iofl's.



ShotguD, shells :aremoreoomp]iooted", torelQa~ lha~ riJk ,cartridges" The. oomponemsM:e' ··;ihO'~n in Figure" 7 ~,,~, They iru:;looe the >s~ll .easing, 'the 'powdeI"~ the Dtimer ~ the "'slmt"j and

the wad', ~ - , .

The, }(lIJilJlpese'Qf, the w,ad is to Ir,ap tm;" ~x~Q$.i.wefo.li~e' fl' the PtlPowcib!r behind the shot jn. ~ucll a y;a, ~t.,at the, sh(l~ ,~ exp.~Ue,d -&m'H ,.h;~' mlU~~I,e ~l\! a !J~t ow Jump. Thf!, hunp ,0J'shor ~,a~l, out on.H!!· w,ay lo, the target, but ~eaveii the bar:l'el ~mtia1iy' as Ci' d:li!ft!!,e Gh.l,!!IIie~, aJmm~ one' ~je(l~ •.

To r,~oadf -a. iroo sheD" 'fiF8t~ remove tb:e ,s~nt.. p:rimeft~s. sh.Q;wn iQ Fi gute7'~4. Nex~irepl,a~.ci·it" wifh aft'e;sh ·primer. Stpd th.e' ne:,';"prunel 'w.ft5 ~in.g~(pil":es.su~e, . tlu!~ seail'.it,.;w,iih a vise and a, length of. WQ,od!li!l1 d.Qwe~ .. ElS s.baM'll in Fimure T·5. Addf·powti.e>.!'

a's "Shown. iafigure. 7'-6., ...

-;:.,: h"

TOO wa.d· is ht9:ert~d n~'xl~ If a ~\'erdiofial p]~Ucwad-.·UI Il'lle.d, the' milubb 0:£ the· {~heU can be $ttelthe.d by ir!\~ertjng' 'ami h~l~~diing a wooden crOO earvred to a. CGne ~ha~~. The w~d ,iff im~~ii by ha:~. ~ .. s,ea:t~ wi,h a d.tJ¥?et S~ee, F]~re "]:·'7. 'ail! ci~efuJ dQ~, fih~ .~~~tiDfiS fiot 'tQ -, <J5,~11 the ~der whi,c'h 18 all'~d .. y in the: shell,

n a lado,ry .rn~d:~ p.llJ.sti'~, 'Yrad~ nat ~v;p-j~(!jb}~~ .a;. ·Waldol paper can b.~· \1se_d,. SeeFi~litl"e 7·~a. In am~zit~;~det't .::a.- w.ad. is:ll:iH~iiI bpeien·tlflt: pp;w4.er and the i&cit·~··a.rseeohd wad is tlsed after the shot fo·.hoM iti" ~heb:arr~l. A'V.ery simi~ar .system was: ttS"~d. :!ll emlyshotgl1llJ sheIk, with gn:e yrad jbe~eM ~h~ powder .~!!h·ot an·da.seiQoria wad ~~ 10. nilb:Jl:h_e s'ho.~ in~lte . ·$h~,. Th~,. s~me ·sy;s,mr-n. co.uld! 5:llll ;beemplg~!ea if need be ..

Shot i, added, with', €.t,. runnel. Sub&t~u:te~ fo!'" fa;~tory. rna<;le chjU~"d J~d s~focf at~ P]'~tH 00 ~ishin~ l.inkel' ~ lead ooUan fr,orn tOQ1llng riails1 and..,Wd baml bearin;g~~


Filgtlre i ... 4

Rem9U~nkrQ prUti:er f~i?m Q fir~ .sl;u~~U. Th'e 5:1u;~,now af),[-e i'S 7!f.W in drQmele~. The' smaller hQle··is 3j8~' in: ·dilamete.r.


B:E~tiflg a nie~ rfrim0f. S!:ort tn·e. nw' p~tme'<1'" .by h(l)lid L(:l:it!i 1ing:err: ,Pres.stlrS '(~~r 'Wf.ij~ Ffn:i~~ ~J?,fifi_1'i!g' -the fl:r!m~r' by i!1:scElrU~!; c(lI ~ed:ID:!I dowel i'lda fhfSh€ll Q;r;ud applg'in.g $!!7tr1r't~Dusp.re5s.tI:re (wi:l1J d :Vlse) ',to' .rhe fr{lnt end of the

d91il;e1 ~nat:he"r'g~'r~n:i '~i :th? sheil.' ." . . ... _..

Figure· '·6

A.dd ~tuctJ:ftio,wdert{l" the s;jl~n with a:fiUl1l'fe.l ~nd, a M,easll .... iflf cS\pOHn. Allll'i1!:rl!ll!m ;o"d~pla~tic ut~vHtlS ore :pt~~e~re(:;' .. ,b:e~aus~ they GTt!. nOT!- stn;irk.ing ..


,Fipr;e '., ~8

~n -.it. i.s 'S,~.,ti~n~ l v iew. of (;l 5 hot811 n 'Sh~U; I)n t~h:e Ie ~ is a. hotl1,@frule wad of lJo:,Pq" Q~'1 !:h'e ti.ght fi.s a 'fqetbq.Fi'1,:uJde .m~.

pj;i*ce pla.5 tIe wad tuu:iS'hcit 'Cub" " ,

Recr:i;rnping the rop of ilie slwHwith finger pressu re 0,..])'" is. difficu11 bMt CJ;l;n be don.l1'!. FiglJr~: 7~9 !ihow~, a.ctyal shelLs whkh have been cr.imped with linger p.res~'\lJe alol'i:e, If theerim;p simply won't staY~!l plarce !xlt keeps unjQlding't !he- mouth ·~f thfl sHdl tan' be, plugg~~ up y,oiMh a" sm al1 haJf gl papeJ". The

paptlr wm Jlfwent th~ s,k~t tl'01TI Jeaking wI.' ,

Figure; ''l-Il'

On the, rig" f .l'S a plas!ir.;;, .8 h:oish:eH rhQl h~ b~" 1~c'r:!mpeJ tofdZ'y by hrtmd' :w,~th :finger pressltre I)nly., 'Dh t~,€ left is llsh,ell l.!"hi~ r~fll~fJ# h:t stay per iRij:\l.~d. A:imQIl EmU of UhHrlde'd up paf;l!er ha;s· bem I'ns;(rt~:d as an dVef$f!Qt w.adto s~op t,-e :;!lhot fr~m '!eaking'_ Otilt. rhr4 aimp will.hoi,d the Wild in pJgce mid dl'E n!ad wfll, ~,~l~ thf :~hGll i;u pli1ce.



,.. 0 check your ih:otshcdllioad, brf! -at .. (1 Large sheet of paper it; yardis aWay. A m an! s ,.stride. i's abouit eq ual to 8. YMd .. lliaw' acircle gfYi :i'n diameler ID'OlU'ld the mOg.[ "d.~Og,e· co:nt:ootration. ~~s~otl ~iUl't .tt{C:sbQ~ P'GIl1id~s\'lm;ideJh:e:~itt;l~; amd.·c~Fqpa~ i·t· to ·th·1i: r:u.lm"btw ,of shot partides, 1m :the od!il'inal load.

A f~c~(lTY·m.;m~ '~·c~~inder bore" .shotgun wiU place '3'5.'% of its ;peUets - ~n a 30i~ diameter circle· at so Yllr.ds~ ·Y:mn:· boDle:made gou ~ilnd. hom,emad~' ammo. 'W.on"t'·do that weU. That's why [ ~,u."est pat:temillg' you,r gun. at onJ), 20 yards. {In gene.r a] hunting, th~ta. ,th~ dis.tanc~ a~. whl!::ih: most' of your shots wj~l ocrur anyway.} By patterning I.] meolil1 e:~perimel1;tjf>i.r \!o~lt h diU~rel'l ( l:oi(dJi; - kind!! arid qu.anbti~s· '~f powder ~ ki I1ds.· and q:ml~iitieS' ~f~hot1 ki'rids ot w.a;d~, ~~t;~"._;,,~€! aih,ievea load Ihiit. will p]ate the rughest percentage' (1£ .>sh~f inside. the rude.

A common em;u .is .te loa;.d tOCl much gJIl..npowder in an effort to ,get a hatd:el,' bitting Load with longer tar.ige., The' result ,oft~ is that it. 't'b~!i ~ h.ole;"in· t.he p~ue:m. E~perfui~h;t"" 9h:o~r but: ~1i\'~Ys ~th ~ ~'Isalety Lirsf' attitudel Good: Luck. and .good shoollingI



A brusci, J nse~h~Pro:f.e.l.iQtlJrJ Homemade S(fI'U;te.~ Corn \1'.iU·e~ A'l: D~,ert Publicatibnsr 197,9.

Ah~mp .J~rry_. HTh~ Gun _, Ultimate S,;mbol of Se..Lf~Rf;.liance" Guns & t.\R11flO, J lJ-n'e' 1.980.

A,,':ery. .Ralph; CORJOa.l Load,· Fur The 5niPJ!.T Rifle, Corrrville, AZ; Desert Pu.blication8" 1"9-81.

Bebie, Jules, Mal'luQi 01 E;xplos.rlJe'&J M:ilitQl"J' P'yJ'Iotec.~n~c.s" ';4 nd . Chem teal WdriaFeA,,~nt', B:p'u~d~r. CO: P ~lawti .Pt~s5". U14,2.

I .,.."r'

Benson, R~gtlar; Lir~e Off The LQnd. J,~ Th~ Ci.ty,A"J CountrY, l3oujd~,; CO: Paladin Prese, 19.82.

~ens'on" .Ragnar, j,urvhlal P.oQchillg, Bc}ulder. CO:. Paladin Press, 19800 ..

Boddington. Crrug~ liSlg' Game:at Long Rang')il'r Magnum Rille. ~pmp1J!i1ld by GU!l.S ,& Ammo :·5p~·i)iiJt1 Boo·ks Staff,

198Q -

Brewn, Ro,"aJd~ °Sb:ike Anywher1:i Amn;ip~ ,Su.rvi-ve (f1o!;'o· Guns & A etion) Jaflu.ary!f·eibruary issa

CIA FielJ Expedient MetAod" For Explo5iue • . Prepcn:atioR4J C:omvillet AZ: .Dest:r~ Public.ations, 1'9'.17.


CIA .Field E:cpeJiel1t Pre.pctraticm· of Bloc·k Pouulerli'; Cornville, AZ: Degen Publications, 1977.

Danisevich, Philip J; High-Low' Boom}J McDonaM, OM: [(ell Hal-e~ Publications; 19'66.

Davis, T e1hne:yl.. ~,The Ot~mg"" Of Pvwtier ,Add, £~osive,) H9~:Y\~T"odt CA: A~ff Prli:1Ul~. 1943 ..

E.lii.as, Stephen~ L.~gu.1 Re,·e(ln:~ Berliedey, CA.:. Nol.QI Press; 1.983.

C~ttll@b! Alan lVI., The .Righ" Of Gan Owner"~ Aurota,J. ILl

Carolih@ HO!.l'$!!\' Publishers, Ine., 198]. .

Eney,:IOPflai'U.. ,A mmcm1Q" 1 919 {i EJed:rolysiis, II

"~'Gunpo'Wdtit!~! ~~Pot,"sium Clllo:rate," r.(Potas:s,ium N ib'ate",

; ~ EJ{pl,o:llives~pyrQtechnic:s~ . and Mal6he~~l>.! The C'lfilm,~'fXlll

Fomrulury, eirea 19:00, '

G'renf'l@Jl. Dean~ The ABC~$ o.fReloaam,t/:. North:fieJd, II.:

DBl, Bpo~~ 1974.

IGlUener~ Hippolytet The Story 'oF Chem~,t:ry, New- Y'ork:

P.r. CoJWt &: S,9]]:!, 19:39.' .

Hacker ~ Rick.;, '!LD;'amng Your M uz'z!eloaders" Hnntin g GU1)i" Otdd'uor LUe, 198'4., -

Hanfi.1 ton~ C loltth, .~ A Hard L"ook at Handgun B rass"

Hand,r oaa€t Num b.er $4 M arch.April j9S0.. -0

Hisco;x:, Gardner :0." HenleY~1J Formulas ,f',o" Rome~ And' WQrksnop,:. New York: Avenel Books, h119.

Hog!!:, Ivan V" IGun:s .A.nd How The, Work, New Vorl(:

Everest H01llsl!, 197~.

Hoimtl'$", sm, Homs'Workiho:p GURS For Defense AnB R:ss.istance -Vo.lume One:' n,e Sa.bmachi'ne GQI!J Bonlder, CO: Paladin PI"@5S~, 1977.

Imp'r.GtJisea ExpJosit:Je~ ,for ,use In Dekm:a.for'sJ C(J'rnviUle.~ AZ:. Desmt Pubkatlon8:J 19.80.

Improvi •. ea MtfQ.mon& Black BookJ V olume 3~ ComviH;e, AZ: Dest:rt PubJication~. 1982'.


I"ntrodu,cttOll To Pyrot:eclmic~t Na$h.Ila~ NH: Pionc:rer industries.

Kirk~andj T: .. unef, Dixie. Gun Wl'lli'ks~, 1981 CQtcUog, Uruon City. TN: Dixie Gun ·\V'oik;s." Ine,

Lee Loa..All ./uRi'01" Tabled)· Hart\rIilTd~ \Vl~ Lee Precision,

Ine., 1978,., .

Lewis, Titn, Kitche.n ImP!'u~etl _ Plns~ic E;tp'osive,~ Odessa, TX,: In~,orm,alion Publishing ce., 1'983.

Luzadder"WarreI'l, Basic C'l:ap/.aic'S, Engle,wood CG"s~ NJ:

Prentice-HaU" 191;4. .

Markh;;tm &. Smi~h~ General Che~~tryt Boston, MA; H ougbWn MlfA'in Co., 195-5.

M atunas~ Ed.. f~ ~ 1]. P yrpo~ 12· C HUge/l. Hanf/laod:er Number 913 Septmnber.O~dober' t 981.

M lonery, J o1m~ H-r>w To Kim Vohn't'le 1(", Boulder't. C 0 ~ P aladlinr Pl\¢s:s~ 198.0.

Most, Joharnn, Mllitary Scien'ce F01' Reva.lutionW'ies,1 GormlilJe, AZ: De$,erl Publications, 1978,_

Oberg, eric" et al, M(JChmm'~B' Hcm,dboo'_ Z2ncl Editio~ New Y.o,rk: IQli:hJjtrial Pr~,ss" 198·t

O'C.Dl'lfl!:>tr & ~1.. Chemi,tty E:xp'erilnMts And Prir)£';"lesJ! Lex;i.ncgtQIlj MA; D.C., Heath and ,Ieo.~ I.'9J77' ,

PelzaljDavid' E.* rhe ILcperl~8' Boah: Q~ The$/uxiting A rt8J N-ew Y QIIk: Simon and Schust@tj. 197,2 •.

P'owen~ y._'illiam,Tlte A'narchisl Cookbook, S~aUCtl8. NJ:

Lylle StUMit.;, [ne;'i' 1979"

ReloaQers' Gufile for Hercu.les SmokeleMs' Powd'ers~ \Viim~ng:ton; P E; Hercales Inc., 19'78"

Remitlg:b)n SPading Fimj)ilttlls: andAm:rruJni~:iDn for 1.981 (a com 'p.limen~ary c.al'a1o.g)1 .Brid,geporit C'f;: R,emin;,gtll1nDujpont.

Ri(e, F. Ph;iUJl'~ O,UR Daita BQr;J,.~ N'ew YDrk~ Hatper & Row, 1915.


Saxon; Kurt. The PoOr' Man~s J'wnet BQRtiJ Harrisonr.AR. Allan Formu:la;ri1il1i 19,72.

Sel;yenf JamesE¥, The Collecting 0' Guns, New York:

Bonilfll;,a Boobt 19.64.

Sltooti-ng and' Hu "ring A c'cessO',fres 198 iJl.;81l (Cilt.oa!IOg) No. 32~

a .

The ShorHetll B;ible#4 t Nf,lW Yaik: Stoeger Ann:,

Corp.oration, 1950. '

SPeR RtdOrl.ff Mqriuc..t· Nilm~ Ten, l@'Mston, 'ID:

Oroark Jndu~trjes~ 1979.

Tappan,. MeW~. $q.niliv.rJ Gu~~, RQcgue River, OR: Janus Press?

'1980.. .

US Depru-trl'umt of Di'!fl!!ns~t!·, rE'm:ergeIJCJI War Surgery 'Waghilngton: US nlJ·v.,@t:lJ.me~l PfiiJlti.Q:g OlIice, 1915. -'

US .Army .. Impml).ised· Ma.rt~Dnl· Hruu:lboo~ 1M 31.2:~O~ Phil adelphia: Frankford ArSena], .1969 ..

\Vai:er·g", K eol" Arn.etican Bune.ted CartFi.dg€SP CUll! . .D.iges t :2lJthAnn;iv;€~5atY Edition, Chicagol: The:.. Gun Oi'gl;l5t Comp'any,;:. I ;PHi·6~

'IWeapons and Fir.earm,s" Americt'm Jurispru.dence. 2nd Editi-a1it VQIUfl1le 19~ Rcu::.h~.t,er,. NY; '{he L.awyers CQ'

operative Pubti:!fh±Q1gC~~.... . .

W'emgart" George'. W .~~t~(:hniiz{lj. lc 94; 7 ..

Winches.fet W~1etn .1981 SPd:i'.Hn.g Arms. cmd· Am'nuilllftion (compumentarycatalo!Oh 01in Corp.1 ISS(t

Zutz, Don, Handloading Fot HUR.teT$,. Tulsa.

OK: \Vinchester Press, 19>77:

Zwir~, BOD' ~'Reooij: 'Its Caus·es, Effects, and Remedies" Ammo A.ugus,t 1980~


[] 130M GUERRILLA c~prrAUSM; Haw'To Pni.dlCiIII .Free Enterprise In .UiI 1InI ... EC:Qi'i!JII!Y., by Ahm CUh.. ~. !)900 is "bl!lli,s'oliiig til' (rea elll13rprtself yoU dQn"~ Il'7 This boolilli.~ow!f}w hoW '11l Priicl:ic-e free eJ'ller~ pns.a liiI an uill1ree soolety -lime 'ulimarte book on [Mi'lolalprlva;cy - it b,;Ims in Gtsp-by.&lep datal how to 'ck) b(.L$lrtGSG ~Off lI'1e' b¢Ol(s,· Sold fat !nft!rm&1ionsJ ~ CYtIyf ,.,. 5N .. 8Jf~. t72PA.lI!W.~·Mlit:Q~ $1·!1.91.

01 ,t409t TH.E·AI~ II ICII;iNSE (IF DUMPSTER DIVIJUlIi, brJotur ~.

This amazilil~ ~r le'lili you e~ hoW" to ~i.v'e, Ichj~er:s. for hJ!'l and profit;. !Il i;.!RJWs yo,. how: l.i1lI ~ j~1 ~l!I llhf!Mn!l, - Y9U want or ne.ed - food". clothing. fiJmlwre,. bl.i~dil'l!ill makuJa15, l'l#u!'Y~-gi;!odS, tQQIS.tujli:..... )'Qu name iI-AlfISQUiTEl.Y F"RItEI ~~ ,1M X 'If.. 'i52pp, -. IlIimtIIted,. SOft CdI"""",$1'Ui.

Cl 14US BUlUmNGr WITH JUNK And ajar GQOdi.stuH, .. by Jim i1ToadBlnHIl; A complete- ~ fI:I. bulilingr aod ~l;iqr1g !J~I!,!g ~d~tI m.aletla'IS. '{Jil· lions 01 doIla~ worilh Qf l3uJlding ma~lli '",~re Ulr;;iwn aJNaY EMll)'aay .. This .boo,1t shows .. tlicrwto ril"ld,· slJtlil'G,'a:nd IUlSa·this ~ .&UI. Cmfers fiIOOrs, dotI~ ~IneVy. >trIm. ~. ap,pli!l.!lCrlfS" rurni!Jiffi - e;vel'll.:SOialf powe;F. lI.'NO; ,,,'.1 't~ t-u pp. hmit RlIi'l!lt:,$1 !US.


KEf!, ETC:., /Jy ~ CooptN'; Alf!;ir ~.aIS DI' mIDJilg g:aotl 11i1QM'J·:at fl~la IllI'Iai!kel:9. ·fIe trulilorls4s yOlI In 00 .Ihe ~rQl$ or sl]2cass~ What t.o; se I~ 1il'lli'l5pOrIEliioo; Selling-Up; 'How to' DIs,play l'QlJr Wares: Pric'itJ; Advertising, .11!i1d MlJtIiJ ,~. 1:-. 5J1 x,H; 18(JPI!I·fffllgua~ st!h t:/.}VIi(. $t4.9!?.

And moen mpfe( IIYii i1Jtlei' tl'/(I."Mt ~Nn cdni;~.wm;;al8.di:ltJn~ booksp/fHmI kim tc Wi" 6aliii(J{lJlrwe~ 'OR' 1M n6;(1~: tAt!' ~t;lItJg. Is tr06 witb dJe orrJ8f of any bo»k-~.

1 ... 11 •••••• 111111 .. ' •• "'jll"'''!I''~' ~ .• 1,1.1"1 •• 1'1 .,i1IlI!!I!!!!!!!!!!!I'!!! ••• _ ••• IIi •••••.• JII •• iil ••• :iiiJi;+ilfi-i-i,.i"illiili~ .... !lfI ••••• 1 •••••• 1 .....

L.oompaIl'Jilcs·IUll'llilml.ted PO Box 1191.

P'cnil: Townsend, WA ·9·8368



Pleasesena roe itheboQ'ks I havel:lhe~.d aoo:vo. I have enclosed ·S~ __ whi:ctl includllls $4.00 tor s.hippi ng, .and handlil)l'g o.f 1"t,0 9 books, $6.00 fOJ 4 or melre_

Nalme ----- __ --

AddreiM ~ ~ __ -- _

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w~mJl ~~·iiletttf pJM~' i11lO::lJut~ 7 .. 9.% mlt).s ·jax.

There are 101.5 oJ books on making ~ uns ul home, Follow the instructions, ::.I rid YUIJ11 oLIuic-klv find 'V I) lJ need so rm': '!,' CI)' c xpensive _ mach i rltt.:!o', • N 0 L V:'id~ Homemade (..'lin.l' ~Iml Homemade Ammr)~ You"li learn W make gum and ammuniiion with sirnpfe 1111.1)(1 tools and! everyday materials.

Ho-m.~made GflRc!' alIa llomemfl8P AI mmv uses step-by-step pt.I!:'Itllwnph~ detailed UTa Wllt.f!:L. nnd pi flTI~ ((I shu ,,.',. you exactly how IJ.1 fl),fIi.; e:

.. A J2 gauge shotgun frum pipe

• A m uzzleloadcr

• f\ double-barrel gun

• A wooden gun

• An made in your home!

Th:t au lhor gi .... 'cs yon fit.'t:' glJnpo~1idf!r recipes :=11.1 sim pie you'll lind them hard to hel ieve - tin lit you try them, Twn super-simple recipes far m aki 11i£ pri mer are .[ ls o .t n cl uded,

Jlf}R.l.~,nade' Glm:~ {Jnd IIQf1k'madc Ammn ~s the ea';:;y-[O-lJ~e guide that sho\\~ rhe ~15_'r' was '.0 make gum and am InU ni lion at home.

IS~N D-·9151"'l-9-39.'-.3 9·1] 0


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