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SUBMITTED TO MR. GIRISH CHANDRA

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SAURABH VERMA

Class = IX- ‘C’ Roll. No. 39 KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA No. 1. AFS CHAKERI, KANPUR-208007

Pythagorean Theorem

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The Pythagorean Theorem: The sum of the areas of the two squares on the legs (a and b) equals the area of the square on the hypotenuse (c). In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem (in American English) or Pythagoras' theorem (in British English) is a relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle (right-angled triangle in British English). It states: In any right triangle, the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares whose sides

are the two legs (the two sides that meet at a right angle). The theorem can be written as an equation:

where c representsL the length of the hypotenuse, and a and b represent the lengths of the other two sides. The Pythagorean theorem is named after the Greek mathematician Pythagoras, who by tradition is credited with its discovery and proof,[1] although it is often argued that knowledge of the theory predates him. (There is much evidence the that Babylonian if not mathematicians the mathematical understood significance.) principle,

Contents

1 In formulae 2 Proofs

o o

2.1 Proof using similar triangles 2.2 Euclid's proof

o o o o o o

2.3 Garfield's proof 2.4 Proof by subtraction 2.5 Similarity proof 2.6 Proof by rearrangement 2.7 Algebraic proof 2.8 Proof by differential equations

**3 Converse 4 Consequences and uses of the theorem
**

o o

4.1 Pythagorean triples 4.2 List of primitive Pythagorean triples up to 100 4.3 The existence of irrational numbers 4.4 Distance in Cartesian coordinates 5.1 The Pythagorean theorem in non-

o o

5 Generalizations

o

Euclidean geometry

o

5.2 In complex arithmetic

6 History 7 Cultural references to the Pythagorean theorem

1. In formulae

If we let c be the length of the hypotenuse and a and b be the lengths of the other two sides, the theorem can be expressed as the equation:

or, solved for c:

If c is already given, and the length of one of the legs must be found, the following equations (which are corollaries of the first) can be used:

This equation provides a simple relation among the three sides of a right triangle so that if the lengths of any two sides are known, the length of the third side can be found. A generalization of this theorem is the law of cosines, which allows the computation of the length of the third side of any triangle, given the lengths of two sides and the size of the angle between them. If the angle between the sides is a right angle it reduces to the Pythagorean theorem.

2. Proofs

This is a theorem that may have more known proofs than any other (the law of quadratic reciprocity being also a contender for that distinction); the book Pythagorean Proposition, by Elisha Scott Loomis, contains 367 proofs.

•

Proof using similar triangles

Proof using similar triangles Like most of the proofs of the Pythagorean theorem, this one is based on the proportionality of the sides of two similar triangles. Let ABC represent a right triangle, with the right angle located at C, as shown on the figure. We draw the altitude from point C, and call H its intersection with the side AB. The new triangle ACH is similar to our triangle ABC, because they both have a right angle (by definition of the altitude), and they share the angle at A, meaning that the third angle will be the same in both triangles as well. By a

similar reasoning, the triangle CBH is also similar to ABC. The similarities lead to the two ratios:

Euclid's proof

Proof in Euclid's Elements In Euclid's Elements, Proposition 47 of Book 1, the Pythagorean theorem is proved by an argument along the following lines. Let A, B, C be the vertices of a right triangle, with a right angle at A. Drop a perpendicular from A to the side opposite the hypotenuse in the square on the hypotenuse. That line divides the square on the hypotenuse into two rectangles, each having the same area as one of the two squares on the legs. For the formal proof, we require four elementary

lemmata: 1. If two triangles have two sides of the one equal to two sides of the other, each to each, and the angles included by those sides equal, then the triangles are congruent. (Side - Angle - Side Theorem)

2. The area of a triangle is half the area of any parallelogram on the same base and having the same altitude. 3. The area of any square is equal to the product of two of its sides. 4. The area of any rectangle is equal to the product of two adjacent sides (follows from Lemma 3). The intuitive idea behind this proof, which can make it easier to follow, is that the top squares are morphed into parallelograms with the same size, then turned and morphed into the left and right rectangles in the lower square, again at constant area.[2]

Illustration including the new lines The proof is as follows: 1. Let ACB be a right-angled triangle with right angle CAB. 2. On each of the sides BC, AB, and CA, squares are drawn, CBDE, BAGF, and ACIH, in that order.

3. From A, draw a line parallel to BD and CE. It will perpendicularly intersect BC and DE at K and L, respectively. 4. Join CF and AD, to form the triangles BCF and BDA.

5.

Angles CAB and BAG are both right angles; therefore C, A, and G are collinear. Similarly for B, A, and H.

6. Angles CBD and FBA are both right angles; therefore angle ABD equals angle FBC, since both are the sum of a right angle and angle ABC. 7. Since FBC. 8. Since A is collinear with K and L, rectangle BDLK must be twice in area to triangle ABD. 9. Since C is collinear with A and G, square BAGF must be twice in area to triangle FBC.

10. Therefore

AB

and

BD

are

equal

to

FB

and

BC,

respectively, triangle ABD must be equal to triangle

rectangle BDLK must have the same area it can be shown that rectangle CKLE must

**as square BAGF = AB2.
**

11. Similarly,

**have the same area as square ACIH = AC2.
**

12. Adding

these two results, AB2 + AC2 = BD × BK + KL

× KC

13.

Since BD = KL, BD* BK + KL × KC = BD(BK + AB2 + AC2 = BC2, since CBDE is a square.

KC) = BD × BC

14. Therefore

This proof appears in Euclid's Elements as that of Proposition 1.47.[3]

Garfield's proof

James A. Garfield (later President of the United States) is credited with a novel algebraic proof: The area of a trapezoid is

where h is the height, and s1 and s2 are lengths of the parallel sides. So the area of the trapezoid in the figure is

While Triangle 1 and triangle 2 each have area .

And triangle 3 has area the hypotenuse.

, and it is half of the square on

Then the Area of trapezoid is

The two areas must be equal, so

Therefore the square on the hypotenuse = the sum of the squares on the other two sides.

Proof by subtraction

In this proof, the square on the hypotenuse plus four copies of the triangle can be assembled into the same shape as the squares on the other two sides plus four copies of the triangle. This proof is recorded from China.[

Similarity proof

From the same diagram as that in Euclid's proof above, we can see three similar figures, each being "a square with a triangle on top". Since the large triangle is made of the two smaller triangles, its area is the sum of areas of the two smaller ones. By similarity, the three squares are in the same proportions relative to each other as the three triangles, and so likewise the area of the larger square is the sum of the areas of the two smaller squares.

Proof by rearrangement

Proof of Pythagorean Theorem by rearrangement of 4 identical right triangles: Since the total area and the areas of the triangles are all constant, the total black area is constant. But this can be divided into squares delineated by the triangle sides a, b, c, demonstrating that a2 + b2 = c2. A proof by rearrangement is given by the illustration and the animation. In the illustration, the area of each large square is (a + b)2. In both, the area of four identical triangles is removed. The remaining areas, a2 + b2 and c2, are equal.

Proof using rearrangement

• Algebraic proof

A square created by aligning four right angle triangles and a large square This proof is indeed very simple, but it is not elementary, in the sense that it does not depend solely upon the most basic axioms and theorems of Euclidean geometry. In particular, while it is quite easy to give a formula for area of triangles and squares, it is not as easy to prove that the area of a square is the sum of areas of its pieces. In

fact, proving the necessary properties is harder than proving the Pythagorean Theorem itself (see Lebesgue measure and Banach-Tarski paradox). Actually, this difficulty affects all simple Euclidean proofs involving area; for instance, deriving the area of a right triangle involves the assumption that it is half the area of a rectangle with the same height and base. For this reason, axiomatic introductions to geometry usually employ another proof based on the similarity of triangles (see above). A third graphic illustration of the Pythagorean Theorem (in yellow and blue to the right) fits parts of the sides' squares into the hypotenuse's square. A related proof would show that the repositioned parts are identical with the originals and, since the sum of equals are equal, that the corresponding areas are equal. To show that a square is the result one must show that the length of the new sides equals c. Note that for this proof to work, one must provide a way to handle cutting the small square in more and more slices as the corresponding side gets smaller and smaller.[5] Algebraic proof

An algebraic variant of this proof is provided by the following reasoning. Looking at the illustration which is a large square with identical right triangles in its corners, the area of each of these four triangles is given by an angle corresponding with the side of length C.

The A-side angle and B-side angle of each of these triangles are complementary angles, so each of the angles of the blue area in the middle is a right angle, making this area a square with side length C. The area of this square is C2. Thus the area of everything together is given by:

However, as the large square has sides of length A + B, we can also calculate its area as (A + B) 2, which expands to A2 + 2AB + B2.

**Proof by differential equations
**

One can arrive at the Pythagorean Theorem by studying how changes in a side produce a change in the

hypotenuse in the following diagram and employing a little

Proof using differential equations As a result of a change da in side a,

By similarity of triangles and for differential changes. So

Upon separation of variables. Which results from adding a second term for changes in side b. Integrating gives

When a = 0 then c = b, so the "constant" is b2.

As can be seen, the squares are due to the particular proportion between the changes and the sides while the sum is a result of the independent contributions of the changes in the sides which is not evident from the geometric proofs. From the proportion given it can be shown that the changes in the sides are inversely proportional to the sides. The differential equation suggests that the theorem is due to relative changes and its derivation is nearly equivalent to computing a line integral. These quantities da and dc are respectively infinitely small changes in a and c. But we use instead real numbers Δa and Δc, then the limit of their ratio as their sizes approach zero is da/dc, the derivative, and also approaches c/a, the ratio of lengths of sides of triangles, and the differential equation results.

3. Converse

The converse of the theorem is also true: For any three positive numbers a, b, and c such that a2 + b2 = c2, there exists a triangle with sides a, b and c, and every such

triangle has a right angle between the sides of lengths a and b. This converse also appears in Euclid's Elements. It can be proven using the law of cosines (see below under Generalizations), or by the following proof: Let ABC be a triangle with side lengths a, b, and c, with a2 + b2 = c2. We need to prove that the angle between the a and b sides is a right angle. We construct another triangle with a right angle between sides of lengths a and b. By the Pythagorean Theorem, it follows that the hypotenuse of this triangle also has length c. Since both triangles have the same side lengths a, b and c, they are congruent, and so they must have the same angles. Therefore, the angle between the side of lengths a and b in our original triangle is a right angle. A corollary of the Pythagorean Theorem’s converse is a simple means of determining whether a triangle is right, obtuse, or acute, as follows. Where c is chosen to be the longest of the three sides:

• • •

If a2 + b2 = c2, then the triangle is right. If a2 + b2 > c2, then the triangle is acute. If a2 + b2 < c2, then the triangle is obtuse.

**4. Consequences and uses of the theorem
**

Pythagorean triples

Main article: Pythagorean triple A Pythagorean triple has three positive integers a, b, and c, such that a2 + b2 = c2. In other words, a Pythagorean triple represents the lengths of the sides of a right triangle where all three sides have integer lengths. Evidence from megalithic monuments on the Northern Europe shows that such triples were known before the discovery of writing. Such a triple is commonly written (a, b, c). Some well-known examples are (3, 4, 5) and (5, 12, 13).

**List of primitive Pythagorean triples up to 100
**

(3, 4, 5), (5, 12, 13), (7, 24, 25), (8, 15, 17), (9, 40, 41), (11, 60, 61), (12, 35, 37), (13, 84, 85), (16, 63, 65), (20, 21, 29), (28, 45, 53), (33, 56, 65), (36, 77, 85), (39, 80, 89), (48, 55, 73), (65, 72, 97)

**The existence of irrational numbers
**

One of the consequences of the Pythagorean Theorem is that incommensurable lengths (ie. their ratio is irrational number), such as the square root of 2, can be constructed. A right triangle with legs both equal to one unit has hypotenuse length square root of 2. The proof that the square root of 2 is irrational was contrary to the long-held belief that everything was rational. According to legend, Hippasus, who first proved the irrationality of the square root of two, was drowned at sea as a consequence.[7]

**Distance in Cartesian coordinates
**

The distance formula in Cartesian coordinates is derived from the Pythagorean Theorem. If (x0, y0) and (x1, y1) are points in the plane, then the distance between them, also called the Euclidean distance, is given by

More generally, in Euclidean n-space, the Euclidean distance between two points, , is defined, using the Pythagorean theorem, as:

Generalizations

Generalization for similar triangles, green area = red area The Pythagorean Theorem was generalized by Euclid in his Elements: If one erects similar figures (see Euclidean geometry) on the sides of a right triangle, then the sum of the areas of the two smaller ones equals the area of the larger one. The Pythagorean Theorem is a special case of the more general theorem relating the lengths of sides in any triangle, the law of cosines:

Where θ is the angle between sides a and b. When θ is 90 degrees, then cos(θ) = 0, so the formula reduces to the usual Pythagorean theorem. Given two vectors v and w in a complex inner product space, the Pythagorean Theorem takes the following form:

In particular, ||v + w||2 = ||v||2 + ||w||2 if v and w are orthogonal, although the converse is not necessarily true. Using mathematical induction, the previous result can be extended to any finite number of pair wise orthogonal vectors. Let v1, v2, …, vn be vectors in an inner product space such that <vi, vj> = 0 for 1 ≤ i < j ≤ n. Then

The generalization of this result to infinite-dimensional real inner product spaces is known as Parseval's identity. When the theorem above about vectors is rewritten in terms of solid geometry, it becomes the following theorem. If lines AB and BC form a right angle at B, and

lines BC and CD form a right angle at C, and if CD is perpendicular to the plane containing lines AB and BC, then the sum of the squares of the lengths of AB, BC, and CD is equal to the square of AD. The proof is trivial. Another generalization of the Pythagorean theorem to three dimensions is de Gua's theorem, named for Jean Paul de Gua de Malves: If a tetrahedron has a right angle corner (a corner like a cube), then the square of the area of the face opposite the right angle corner is the sum of the squares of the areas of the other three faces. There are also analogs of these theorems in dimensions four and higher. In a triangle with three acute angles, α + β > γ holds. Therefore, a2 + b2 > c2. In a triangle with an obtuse angle, α + β < γ holds. Therefore, a2 + b2 < c2. Edsger Dijkstra has stated this proposition about acute, right, and obtuse triangles in this language: sgn(α + β − γ) = sgn(a2 + b2 − c2)

Where α is the angle opposite to side a, β is the angle opposite to side b and γ is the angle opposite to side c.[8]

The

Pythagorean

Theorem

in

non-

Euclidean geometry

The Pythagorean Theorem is derived from the axioms of Euclidean geometry, and in fact, the Euclidean form of the Pythagorean Theorem given above does not hold in non-Euclidean geometry. (It has been shown in fact to be equivalent to Euclid's Parallel (Fifth) Postulate.) For example, in spherical geometry, all three sides of the right triangle bounding an octant of the unit sphere have length equal to

3.14

;

this

violates

the .

Euclidean

Pythagorean theorem because This means that in non-Euclidean

geometry,

the

Pythagorean theorem must necessarily take a different form from the Euclidean theorem. There are two cases to consider — spherical geometry and hyperbolic plane geometry; in each case, as in the Euclidean case, the result follows from the appropriate law of cosines: For any right triangle on a sphere of radius R, the Pythagorean Theorem takes the form

This equation can be derived as a special case of the spherical law of cosines. By using the Maclaurin series for the cosine function, it can be shown that as the radius R approaches infinity, the spherical form of the Pythagorean Theorem approaches the Euclidean form. For any triangle in the hyperbolic plane (with Gaussian curvature −1), the Pythagorean Theorem takes the form

where cosh is the hyperbolic cosine. By using the Maclaurin series for this function, it can be shown that as a hyperbolic triangle becomes very small (i.e., as a, b, and c all approach zero), the hyperbolic form of the Pythagorean Theorem approaches the Euclidean form. In hyperbolic geometry, for a right triangle one can also write,

where is the angle of parallelism of the line segment AB where μ is the multiplicative distance function (see Hilbert's arithmetic of ends). In hyperbolic trigonometry, the sine of the angle of parallelism satisfies

Thus, the equation takes the form

Where a, b, and c are multiplicative distances of the sides of the right triangle (Hartshorne, 2000).

**In complex arithmetic
**

The Pythagoras formula is used to find the distance between two points in the Cartesian coordinate plane, and is valid if all coordinates are real: the distance between the points (a, b) and (c, d) is √((a − c)2 + (b − d)2). With complex coordinates, this formula breaks down, e.g. the distance between the points {0,1} and {i,0} would work out as 0, resulting in a

reductio ad absurdum. This is because this formula depends on Pythagoras's theorem, which in all its proofs depends on areas, and areas of triangles and other geometrical figures depend on the edge lines of these figures separating an inside from an outside, which does not happen if the coordinates can be complex. Instead, for the distance between the points (a, b) and (c, d) it is usual to use: (p and q are the real and imaginary parts of (a − c)) (r and s are the real and imaginary parts of (b − d))

Where is the complex conjugate of z. For example, the distance between the points (0, 1) and (i, 0) would work out as 0 if complex conjugates were not taken. But the distance is

History

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2008)

Visual proof for the (3, 4, 5) triangle as in the Chou Pei Suan Ching 500–200 BC The history of the theorem can be divided into four parts: knowledge of Pythagorean triples, knowledge of the relationship among the sides of a right triangle, knowledge of the relationships among adjacent angles, and proofs of the theorem. Megalithic monuments from circa 2500 BC in Egypt, and in Northern Europe, incorporate right triangles with integer sides.[9] Bartel Leendert van der Waerden conjectures that these Pythagorean triples were discovered algebraically.[10]

Written between 2000 and 1786 BC, the Middle Kingdom Egyptian papyrus Berlin 6619 includes a problem whose solution is a Pythagorean triple. The Mesopotamian tablet Plimpton 322, written between 1790 and 1750 BC during the reign of Hammurabi the Great, contains many entries closely related to Pythagorean triples. The Baudhayana Sulba Sutra, the dates of which are given variously as between the 8th century BC and the 2nd century BC, in India, contains a list of Pythagorean triples discovered algebraically, a statement of the Pythagorean theorem, and a geometrical proof of the Pythagorean theorem for an isosceles right triangle. The Apastamba Sulba Sutra (circa 600 BC) contains a numerical proof of the general Pythagorean Theorem, using an area computation. Van der Waerden believes that "it was certainly based on earlier traditions". According to Albert Bŭrk, this is the original proof of the theorem; he further theorizes that Pythagoras visited Arakonam, India, and copied it.

Pythagoras, whose dates are commonly given as 569–475 BC, used algebraic methods to construct Pythagorean triples, according to Proklos's commentary on Euclid. Proklos, however, wrote between 410 and 485 AD. According to Sir Thomas L. Heath, there was no attribution of the theorem to Pythagoras for five centuries after Pythagoras lived. However, when authors such as Plutarch and Cicero attributed the theorem to Pythagoras, they did so in a way which suggests that the attribution was widely known and undoubted.[1] Around 400 BC, according to Proklos, Plato gave a method for finding Pythagorean triples that combined algebra and geometry. Circa 300 BC, in Euclid's Elements, the oldest extant axiomatic proof of the theorem is presented. Written sometime between 500 BC and 200 AD, the Chinese text Chou Pei Suan Ching (周髀算经), (The Arithmetical Classic of the Gnomon and the Circular Paths of Heaven) gives a visual proof of the Pythagorean theorem — in China it is called the "Gougu Theorem" ( 勾 股 定 理 ) — for the (3, 4, 5) triangle. During the Han Dynasty, from 202 BC to 220 AD, Pythagorean triples

appear in The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, together with a mention of right triangles.[11] The first recorded use is in China (where it is alternately known as the "Shang Gao Theorem" ( 商 高 定 理 ), named after the Duke of Zhou's astrologer, and described in the mathematical collection Zhou Bi Suan Jing) and in India, where it is known as the Bhaskara Theorem. There is much debate on whether the Pythagorean theorem was discovered once or many times. Boyer (1991) thinks the elements found in the Shulba Sutras may be of Mesopotamian derivation.[12]

Cultural

references

to

the

Pythagorean Theorem

The Pythagorean Theorem has been referenced in a variety of mass media throughout history.

•

A verse of the Major-General's Song in the Gilbert and Sullivan musical The Pirates of Penzance, "About binomial theorem I'm teeming with a lot o' news, With many cheerful facts about the square of the hypotenuse", with oblique reference to the theorem. The Scarecrow of The Wizard of Oz makes a more specific reference to the theorem when he receives his diploma from the Wizard. He immediately exhibits his "knowledge" by reciting a mangled and incorrect version of the theorem: "The sum of the square roots of any two sides of an isosceles triangle is equal to the square root of the remaining side. Oh, joy, oh, rapture. I've got a brain!" The "knowledge" exhibited by the Scarecrow is incorrect. The accurate statement would have been "The sum of the squares of the legs of a right triangle is equal to the square of the remaining side."[13] In an episode of The Simpsons, after finding a pair of Henry Kissinger's glasses in a toilet at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, Homer puts them on and quotes Oz Scarecrow's mangled version of the formula. A man in a nearby toilet stall then yells out "That's a

•

•

**right triangle, you idiot!" (The comment about square roots remained uncorrected.)
**

•

Similarly, the Speech software on an Apple MacBook references the Scarecrow's incorrect statement. It is the sample speech when the voice setting 'Ralph' is selected. In Freemasonry, one symbol for a Past Master is the diagram from the 47th Proposition of Euclid, used in Euclid's proof of the Pythagorean Theorem. In 2000, Uganda released a coin with the shape of a right triangle. The coin's tail has an image of Pythagoras accompanied and with the the Pythagorean mention Theorem, "Pythagoras

•

•

Millennium".[14] Greece, Japan, San Marino, Sierra Leone, and Suriname have issued postage stamps depicting Pythagoras and the Pythagorean theorem.

[15]

•

In Neal Stephenson's speculative fiction Anathem, the Pythagorean Theorem is referred to as 'the Adrakhonic theorem'. A geometric proof of the theorem is displayed on the side of an alien ship to demonstrate their understanding of mathematics.

Pythagorean Theorem

The sum of the squares of the lengths of the two legs of a right triangle is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse.

There are 55 jobs that use Pythagorean Theorem.

Management

Management occupations

Computer and information systems managers Construction managers Engineering and natural sciences managers Farmers, ranchers, and agricultural managers Funeral directors Industrial production managers Medical and health services managers Property, real estate, and community association managers Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents

Professional

Computer and mathematical occupations

Actuaries Computer software engineers Mathematicians Statisticians

**Architects, surveyors, and cartographers
**

Architects, except landscape and naval Landscape architects Surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying technicians

Engineers

Aerospace engineers Chemical engineers Civil engineers Computer hardware engineers Electrical engineers Environmental engineers Industrial engineers Materials engineers Mechanical engineers Nuclear engineers

**Business and financial operations occupations
**

Insurance underwriters

**Drafters and engineering technicians
**

Drafters

Life scientists

Biological scientists Conservation scientists and foresters

Physical scientists

Atmospheric scientists Chemists and materials scientists Environmental scientists and hydrologists Physicists and astronomers

**Social scientists and related occupations
**

Economists

Legal occupations

Lawyers

**Education, training, library, and museum occupations
**

Archivists, curators, and museum technicians Teachers-preschool, kindergarten, elementary, middle, and secondary

**Media and communications-related occupations
**

Writers and editors

**Health diagnosing and treating occupations
**

Optometrists Physicians and surgeons Registered nurses Veterinarians

**Health technologists and technicians
**

Opticians, dispensing Veterinary technologists and technicians

Farming

Farming

Agricultural workers

Construction

Construction

Carpenters Construction and building inspectors Electricians Glaziers

Installation

Electrical and electronic equipment

Production

Metal workers and plastic workers

**mechanics, installers, and repairers
**

Electrical and electronics installers and repairers Electronic home entertainment equipment installers and repairers

Machinists Welding, soldering, and brazing workers

**Other installation, maintenance, and repair occupations
**

Millwrights

**The Pythagorean Theorem
**

The Pythagorean Theorem was developed by the Greek Philosopher Pythagoras and is used in every day situations. These tips can ease the normal anxieties felt by students.

The words "Pythagorean Theorem" can sound incredibly intimidating to typical middle school math students. What students may not initially realize is that the Pythagorean Theorem is executed in various daily situations, some that students may have already experienced without realizing it. Introducing this concept using real life examples can help set the stage for easier problem solving and a deeper understanding and can hence help students appreciate the reasons why it’s essential to learn this concept at all. The Pythagorean Theorem consists of the following: The sum of

the squares of two legs of a right triangle is equal to the hypotenuse squared.

**For example, if one of the legs is 6 inches and the other leg is 7 inches,
**

we can calculate how long the hypotenuse, or the third leg is. Let a = 6, b=7, and c= the length of the hypotenuse. (6)^2 + (7)^2 = c^2. 6*6=36, and 7*7=49. Thus, 36 + 49 = 85. So, the square root of 85 is approximately 9.2 inches. Therefore, we just calculated the length of the hypotenuse using this theorem. The following consists of real life applications to introduce to students

which can greatly ease their anxieties and further promote their learning.

Baseball Diamond

If the teacher asks students how many of them play baseball or enjoy baseball, the majority of boys in the classroom will more than likely raise their hands. The teacher can utilize this concept by using an overhead transparency, chalkboard, or other advanced technological device. In a baseball diamond, the distance between each of the three bases and home plate are 90 feet and all form right angles. If a teacher draws a line from home plate to first base, then from first base to second base and back to the home plate, the students can see a right triangle has been formed. Using the Pythagorean Theorem, the teacher can then pose the question, "How far does the second baseman have to throw the ball in order to get the runner out before he slides into the home plate?" (90)^2 + (90)^2 = c^2, or the distance from home plate to second base. 8100 + 8100 = 16,200. The square root of 16,200 is approximately 127, so the second baseman would have to throw it about 127 feet.

Height of a Building

Firemen, construction workers, and other workers often rely on the use of ladders in their line of work. They make use of the Pythagorean Theorem in various situations. For example, the height to a second story window may be 25 feet, and a window cleaner may need to put the ladder ten feet away from the house in order to avoid the bushes or flowers. How long of a ladder does the window cleaner need in order to achieve this task? (25)^2 + (10)^2 = c^2, or the length of ladder needed. 625 + 100 = 725. The square root of 725 is approximately 27, so the window cleaner would need a ladder 27 feet long.

Two friends meeting at a specific

π

Pi has been known for almost 4000 years— but even if we calculated the number of seconds in those 4000 years and calculated pi to that number history of places, of we would still only be Pi: approximating its actual value. Here’s a brief finding

The ancient Babylonians calculated the area of a circle by taking 3 times the square of its radius, which gave a value of pi = 3. One Babylonian tablet (ca. 1900–1680 BC) indicates a value of 3.125 for pi, which is a closer approximation.

A history of Pi

A little known verse of the Bible reads And he made a molten sea, ten cubits from the one brim to the other: it was round all about, and his height was five cubits: and a line of thirty cubits did compass it about. (I Kings 7, 23) The same verse can be found in II Chronicles 4, 2. It occurs in a list of specifications for the great temple of Solomon, built around 950 BC and its interest here is that it gives π = 3. Not a very accurate value of course and not even very accurate in its day, for the Egyptian and Mesopotamian values of

25

/8 = 3.125 and √10 = 3.162

have been traced to much earlier dates: though in defence of Solomon's craftsmen it should be noted that the item being described seems to have been a very large brass casting, where a high degree of geometrical precision is neither possible nor necessary. There are

some interpretations of this which lead to a much better value. The fact that the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle is constant has been known for so long that it is quite untraceable. The earliest values of π including the 'Biblical' value of 3, were almost certainly found by measurement. In the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus, which is dated about 1650 BC, there is good evidence for 4 (8/9)2 = 3.16 as a value for π. The first theoretical calculation seems to have been carried out by Archimedes of Syracuse (287-212 BC). He obtained the approximation

223

/71 < π <

22

/7.

**Before giving an indication of his proof, notice that very considerable sophistication involved in
**

22

the

use

of

inequalities here. Archimedes knew, what so many people to this day do not, that π does not equal /7, and made no claim to have discovered the exact value. If we take his best estimate as the average of his two bounds we obtain 3.1418, an error of about 0.0002. Here is Archimedes' argument.

Consider a circle of radius 1, in which we inscribe a regular polygon of 3 semiperimeter an. 2n-1 sides, with semiperimeter bn, 2n-1 sides, with and superscribe a regular polygon of 3

The diagram for the case n = 2 is on the right. The effect of this procedure is to define an increasing sequence

b1 , b2 , b3 , ... and a decreasing sequence

a1 , a2 , a3 , ... such that both sequences have limit π. Using trigonometrical notation, we see that the two semi perimeters are given by an = K tan(π/K), bn = K sin(π/K), where K = 3 2n-1. Equally, we have an+1 = 2K tan(π/2K), bn+1 = 2K sin(π/2K), and it is not a difficult exercise in trigonometry to show that (1/an + 1/bn) = 2/an+1 . . . (1) an+1bn = (bn+1)2 . . . (2)

Archimedes, starting from a1 = 3 tan(π/3) = 3√3 and b1 = 3 sin(π/3) = 3√3/2, calculated a2 using (1), then b2 using (2), then a3 using (1), then b3 using (2), and so on until he had calculated a6 and b6. His conclusion was that b 6 < π < a6 . It is important to realize that the use of trigonometry here is unhistorical: Archimedes did not have the advantage of

an algebraic and trigonometrical notation and had to derive (1) and (2) by purely geometrical means. Moreover he did not even have the advantage of our decimal notation for numbers, so that the calculation of a6 and b6 from (1) and (2) was by no means a trivial task. So it was a pretty stupendous feat both of imagination and of calculation and the wonder is not that he stopped with polygons of 96 sides, but that he went so far. For of course there is no reason in principle why one should not go on. Various people did, including: (c. Ptolemy Zu 150 3.14 16

355

AD) (430-

Chongzhi 501 AD) alKhwarizm (c. 800 ) i al-Kashi (c. 1430) (15401603)

/113

3.14 16 14 place s 9 place s

Viète

Roomen

(15611615) (c. 1600)

17 place s 35 place s

Van Ceulen

Except for Zu Chongzhi, about whom next to nothing is known and who is very unlikely to have known about Archimedes' work, there was no theoretical progress involved in these improvements, only greater stamina in calculation. Notice how the lead, in this as in all scientific matters, passed from Europe to the East for the millennium 400 to 1400 AD. Al-Khwarizmi lived in Baghdad, and incidentally gave his name to 'algorithm', while the words al jabr in the title of one of his books gave us the word 'algebra'. Al-Kashi lived still further east, in Samarkand, while Zu Chongzhi, one need hardly add, lived in China. The European Renaissance brought about in due course a whole new mathematical world. Among the first effects of this reawakening was the emergence of mathematical

formulae for π. One of the earliest was that of Wallis (1616-1703) 2/π = (1.3.3.5.5.7. ...)/(2.2.4.4.6.6. ...) And one of the best-known is π/4 = 1 - 1/3 + 1/5 - 1/7 + .... This formula is sometimes attributed to Leibniz (16461716) but is seems to have been first discovered by James Gregory (1638- 1675). These are both dramatic and astonishing formulae, for the expressions on the right are completely arithmetical in character, while π arises in the first instance from geometry. They show the surprising results that infinite processes can achieve and point the way to the wonderful richness of modern mathematics. From the point of view of the calculation of π, however, neither is of any use at all. In Gregory's series, for example, to get 4 decimal places correct we require the error to be less than 0.00005 = 1/20000, and so we need about 10000 terms of the series. However, Gregory also showed the more general result

tan-1 x = x - x3/3 + x5/5 - ... (-1 ≤ x ≤ 1) . . . (3) from which the first series results if we put x = 1. So using the fact that tan-1(1/√3) = π/6 we get π/6 = (1/√3)(1 - 1/(3.3) + 1/(5.3.3) - 1/(7.3.3.3) + ... Which converges much more quickly. The 10th term is 1/ (19 39√3), which is less than 0.00005, and so we have at least 4 places correct after just 9 terms. An even better idea is to take the formula π/4 = tan-1(1/2) + tan-1(1/3) . . . (4) and then calculate the two series obtained by putting first

1

/2 and the 1/3 into (3).

Clearly we shall get very rapid convergence indeed if we can find a formula something like π/4 = tan-1(1/a) + tan-1(1/b) With a and b large. In 1706 Machin found such a formula: π/4 = 4 tan-1(1/5) - tan-1(1/239) . . . (5)

Actually this is not at all hard to prove, if you know how to prove (4) then there is no real extra difficulty about (5), except that the arithmetic is worse. Thinking it up in the first place is, of course, quite another matter. With a formula like this available the only difficulty in computing π is the sheer boredom of continuing the calculation. Needless to say, a few people were silly enough to devote vast amounts of time and effort to this tedious and wholly useless pursuit. One of them, an Englishman named Shanks, used Machin's formula to calculate π to 707 places, publishing the results of many years of labour in 1873. Shanks has achieved immortality for a very curious reason which we shall explain in a moment. Here is a summary of how the improvement went: 169 Sharp used Gregory's result to get 71 correct digits 9: 170 Machin used an improvement to get 100 digits and 1: the following used his methods: 171 de Lagny found 112 correct digits 9: 178 Vega got 126 places and in 1794 got 136 9:

184 Rutherford calculated 152 digits and in 1853 got 1: 440 187 Shanks calculated 707 places of which 527 were 3: correct

A more detailed Chronology is available. Shanks knew that π was irrational since this had been proved in 1761 by Lambert. Shortly after Shanks' calculation it was shown by Lindemann that π is transcendental, that is, π is not the solution of any polynomial equation with integer coefficients. In fact this result of Lindemann showed that 'squaring the circle' is impossible. The transcendentality of π implies that there is no ruler and compass construction to construct a square equal in area to a given circle. Very soon after Shanks' calculation a curious statistical freak was noticed by De Morgan, who found that in the last of 707 digits there was a suspicious shortage of 7's. He mentions this in his Budget of Paradoxes of 1872 and a curiosity it remained until 1945 when Ferguson discovered that Shanks had made an error in the 528th place, after which all his digits were wrong. In 1949 a computer was used to calculate π to

2000 places. In this and all subsequent computer expansions the number of 7's does not differ significantly from its expectation, and indeed the sequence of digits has so far passed all statistical tests for randomness. You can see 2000 places of π. We should say a little of how the notation π arose. Oughtred in 1647 used the symbol d/π for the ratio of the diameter of a circle to its circumference. David Gregory (1697) used π/r for the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its radius. The first to use π with its present meaning was an Welsh mathematician William Jones in 1706 when he states "3.14159 andc. = π". Euler adopted the symbol in 1737 and it quickly became a standard notation. We conclude with one further statistical curiosity about the calculation of π, namely Buffon's needle experiment. If we have a uniform grid of parallel lines, unit distance apart and if we drop a needle of length k < 1 on the grid, the probability that the needle falls across a line is 2k/π. Various people have tried to calculate π by throwing

needles. The most remarkable result was that of Lazzerini (1901), who made 34080 tosses and got π=

355

/113 = 3.1415929

Which, incidentally, is the value found by Zu Chongzhi. This outcome is suspiciously good, and the game is given away by the strange number 34080 of tosses. Kendall and Moran comment that a good value can be obtained by stopping the experiment at an optimal moment. If you set in advance how many throws there are to be then this is a very inaccurate way of computing π. Kendall and Moran comment that you would do better to cut out a large circle of wood and use a tape measure to find its circumference and diameter. Still on the theme of phoney experiments, Gridgeman, in a paper which pours scorn on Lazzerini and others, created some amusement by using a needle of carefully chosen length k = 0.7857, throwing it twice, and hitting a line once. His estimate for π was thus given by 2 0.7857 / π = 1/2 from which he got the highly creditable value of π = 3.1428. He was not being serious!

It is almost unbelievable that a definition of π was used, at least as an excuse, for a racial attack on the eminent mathematician Edmund Landau in 1934. Landau had defined π in this textbook published in Göttingen in that year by the, now fairly usual, method of saying that π/2 is the value of x between 1 and 2 for which cos x vanishes. This unleashed an academic dispute which was to end in Landau's dismissal from his chair at Göttingen. Bieberbach, an eminent number theorist who disgraced himself by his racist views, explains the reasons for Landau's dismissal:Thus the valiant rejection by the Göttingen student body which a great mathematician, Edmund Landau, has experienced is due in the final analysis to the fact that the un-German style of this man in his research and teaching is unbearable to German feelings. A people who have perceived how members of another race are working to impose ideas foreign to its own must refuse teachers of an alien culture. G H Hardy replied immediately to Bieberbach in a published note about the consequences of this unGerman definition of π

There are many of us, many Englishmen and many Germans, who said things during the War which we scarcely meant and are sorry to remember now. Anxiety for one's own position, dread of falling behind the rising torrent of folly, determination at all cost not to be outdone, may be natural if not particularly heroic excuses. Professor Bieberbach's reputation excludes such explanations of his utterances, and I find myself driven to the more uncharitable conclusion that he really believes them true. Not only in Germany did π present problems. In the USA the value of π gave rise to heated political debate. In the State of Indiana in 1897 the House of Representatives unanimously passed a Bill introducing a new mathematical truth. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana: It has been found that a circular area is to the square to on the a line equal to the of quadrant one of the side. circumference, as the area of an equilateral rectangle is square (Section I, House Bill No. 246, 1897)

The Senate of Indiana showed a little more sense and postponed indefinitely the adoption of the Act!

****END***

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