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DATA

1 State
2 Type of Road
3 Carriageway
4 Design period
5 Lane width
6 Transverse joint spacing
7 Effective CBR of compacted sub-grade
8 Design Traffic in CVPD in each direction
9 Axle distribution
a
Front single axle
b
Rear Single Axle
c
Rear tandem axle
d
Rear tridem axle
10 Percentage of commercial vehicles with spacing between the front axle
& the first rear axle less than 4.5m
11 Traveling time distribution
6 AM to 6PM
6PM to 6AM
12 Average number of axles per commercial vehicle
13 Maximum Day time temperature differential in slab ( for bottom up cracking)
14 Maximum Night time temperature differential in slab ( for Top down
cracking) ( Day time diff/2+5)

Single Axle
Frequency (
% of single
Axle Load Class kN
axles
185
195
18.15
175
185
17.43
165
175
18.27
155
165
12.98
145
155
2.98
135
145
1.62
125
135
2.62
115
125
2.65
105
115
2.65
95
105
3.25
85
95
3.25
<
85
14.15
100
CASE-1
CASE-2
CASE-3
CASE-4

Concrete
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete

Tandem Axle

Axle Load Class kN


380
360
340
320
300
280
260
240
220
200
180
<

400
380
360
340
320
300
280
260
240
220
200
180

pavement with Tied Concrete Shoulder with Doweled joints


pavement without Tied Concrete Shoulder and without Doweled joints
pavement with widened outer lane
poavement bonded to Dry Lean Layer

Interface can be bonded or unbonded

CASE-1
STEP-1

PQC
DLC/Cement treated Aggregate sub-base
Drainage Layer as per design
Separation layer ( Grade I/II/V/VI of 401.2.2
Sub-grade

Selection of Modulus of subgrade reaction


i
Effective CBR of compacted subgrade
ii
Modulus of sub-garde reaction
iii
Provide
Granular sub-base
DLC Sub-base
iv
Effective modulus of sub-grade reaction of combined foundation of
grade+ Granular sub-base and DLC sub-base
v
Provide a debonding layer of polythene sheet of 125 micron
Selection of Flexural strength of concrete
i
28 days compressive strength of cement concrete
ii
90 days compressive strength of cement concrete
iii
28 days flexural strength of cement concrete
iv
90 days flexural strength of cement concrete

STEP-2

Concrete properties
i
Elastic modulus of concrete
ii
Poisson's ratio of concrete
iii
iv

STEP-3

Ubit weight of concrete


Design Flexural strength of concrete

Selection of Design Traffic for Fatigue Analysis


i
Design period
ii
Annual rate of growth of commercial traffic
iii
Two way commercial volume per day
iv
% traffic in predominant direction
v
Total two way commercial vehicles during design period
vi
Average number of axles per commrecial vehicles
vii
Total two way commercial vehicles during design period
viii
Number of axles in predominant direction
ix
Design Traffic after adjusting for lateral placement of axles ( 25% o
direction of traffic for multi-lane highways)
x
x
xi

Night time design axle repetitions ( 12 hour)


Day time design axle repetitions ( 12 Hour)
Day time six hour axle load repetitions

xii

Hence Design number of axle load repetions for bottom up crack

xiii
xiv

Night time Six hour axle load repetions


% of commercial vehilcles having the spacing between the front ax
axle of the rear axle unit less than 4.5m

xv

Six hour night time design axle repetitions for Top down cracking
wheel base < 4.5m)

xvi

Axle load categorywise design axle load repetions for top down and

Categorywise
Propotion of Axle repetions for
Axle
axle
bottom up
Category
category
cracking analysis
Front Single
45%
6758607
Rear Single
15%
2252869
Tandem
25%
3754782
Tridem
15%
2252869
STEP 4

STEP

Pavement Option-1 ( Concrete pavement with Tied Concrete Shoulder wi


i
Trial Thickness
ii
Radius of relative thickness
iii
( Beta) Factor in the stress equations will be 0.66 for dow
5
Cumulative Fatigue Damage analysis for Bottom up Cracking
( Mid point of the axle load class is adopted for stress calculations)
Bottom up clacking Fatigue analysis for Day time ( 6 hour) traffi
Rear Single axles

Mid-point
of Axle
Expected
Flexural
Stress Ratio Allowable
Fatigue Damage (
load in kN repetitions
Stress Mpa ( SR)
repetions ni ni/Ni)
190
408896
2.5
0.505
603336
0.6777251813
180
392675
2.4
0.485
1732461
0.2266573389
170
411599
2.3
0.465
8304419
0.0495638527
160
292422
2.26
0.457
20909773
0.0139849438
150
67135
2
0.404 infinite
140
36496
1.85
0.374 infinite
130
59025
1.75
0.354 infinite
120
59701
1.7
0.343 infinite
110
59701
1.6
0.323 infinite
100
73218
1.5
0.303 infinite
90
73218
1.4
0.283 infinite
<90
318781
1.3
0.263 infinite
2252867
0.9679313167

Cumulative Fatigue Damage analysis for Top down Cracking


( Mid point of the axle load class is adopted for stress calculations)
Top Down clacking Fatigue analysis for Night time ( 6 hour) traffi
Rear Single axles
Mid-point
Allowable
of Axle
Expected
Flexural
Stress Ratio repetions
Fatigue Damage (
load in kN repetitions
Stress Mpa ( SR)
( ni )
ni/Ni)
190
337339
2.4
0.485
1732461
0.1947166487
180
323957
2.3
0.465
8304419
0.0390101945
170
339569
2.2
0.444 infinite
160
241248
2.1
0.424 infinite
150
55387
2
0.404 infinite
140
30110
1.9
0.384 infinite
130
48696
1.8
0.364 infinite
120
49253
1.7
0.343 infinite
110
49253
1.6
0.323 infinite
100
60405
1.5
0.303 infinite
90
1.4
0.283 infinite
<90
1.3
0.263 infinite
0.2337268432

190

0.7

Bihar
NH
Four lane divided
30
3.5
4.5
8%
30000

years
m
m

45%
15%
25%
15%
55%

40%
60%
2.35

m up cracking)

dem Axle

16.8 0C
13.4 0C

Tridem Axle
Frequency ( % of
Tandem axles
14.5
10.5
3.63
2.5
2.69
1.26
3.9
5.19
6.3
6.4
8.9
34.23
100

ut Doweled joints

Frequency ( %
Axle Load Class kN of Tridem axles
530
560
5.23
500
530
4.85
470
500
3.44
440
470
7.12
410
440
10.11
380
410
12.01
350
380
15.57
320
350
13.28
290
320
4.55
260
290
3.16
230
260
3.1
<
230
17.58
100

ggregate sub-base

de I/II/V/VI of 401.2.2)

=
=
=
=

8%
50.3 Mpa/m

from Table 2

150 mm
150 mm

7 days compressive strength of

285 MPa/m

From table 4

bined foundation of sub-

=
eet of 125 micron between DLC & PQC

>
>
=
=

40 Mpa
48 MPa
4.5 MPa
4.95 MPa

=
=

30000 Mpa
0.15

=
=

24 kN/m3
4.95 MPa

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

30 years
0.075
6000
50%
255644692 CV
2.35
600765026
300382513

ent of axles ( 25% of predomonant


=

75095628

=
=
=

45057377
30038251
15019126

bottom up cracking analysis

etween the front axle and the first

op down cracking analysis ( for

15019126

22528689

55%

12390779

ns for top down and bottom up

Categorywise
Axle repetions for
Top down
cracking analysis
5575851
1858617
3097695
1858617

crete Shoulder with Doweled joints)


h
=
0.28 m
I
=
0.666213 m
ll be 0.66 for doweled transverse joints for carrying out TDC analysis

stress calculations)
ime ( 6 hour) traffic and positive Temperature Differential
Rear Tandem Axles

Expected
Flexural
Stress
Allowable
repetitions
Stress Mpa Ratio ( SR) repetions ni
544443
2.1
0.424 infinite
394252
2
0.404 infinite
136299
1.9
0.384 infinite
93870
1.8
0.364 infinite
101004
1.7
0.343 infinite
47310
1.6
0.323 infinite
146436
1.5
0.303 infinite
194873
1.4
0.283 infinite
236551
1.3
0.263 infinite
240306
1.2
0.242 infinite
334176
1.1
0.222 infinite
1285262
1
0.202 infinite
3754782

Fatigue
Damage
( ni/Ni)
0
0
0
0

stress calculations)
time ( 6 hour) traffic and negative Temperature Differential
Rear Tandem Axles
Stress
Allowable
Fatigue
Expected
Flexural
Ratio
repetions
( Damage Expected
repetitions
Stress Mpa ( SR)
ni )
( ni/Ni)
repetitions
449166
2.3
0.465
1732461 0.259265
117825
325258
2.2
0.444
8304419 0.039167
109264
112446
2.1
0.424
77499
77442
2
0.404
160404
83328
1.9
0.384
227765
39031
1.8
0.364
270570
120810
1.7
0.343
350772
160770
1.6
0.323
299181
195155
1.5
0.303
102506
198252
1.4
0.283
71191
275695
1.3
0.263
69839
1060341
1.2
0.242
396054
3097694
0.298432
2252870

Rear Tridem

ys compressive strength of 7 Mpa

Rear Tridem Axles

Fatigue
Flexural Stress
Allowable
Damage
Stress
Ratio
repetions
Mpa
( SR)
(ni)
( ni/Ni)
2.35
0.475
1732461 0.06801
2.25
0.455
8304419 0.013157
2.15
0.434
2.05
0.414
1.95
0.394
1.85
0.374
1.75
0.354
1.65
0.333
1.55
0.313
1.45
0.293
1.35
0.273
1.25
0.253
0.081168

DESIGN OF DRAINAGE LAYER


1 Type of Road
Four lane divided carriageway
2 annual rainfall
1500 mm/year
3 width of carriageway
7m
4 paved shoulder
1.5 m
5 unpaved
1m
6 transverse joint spacing
4.5 m
7 longitudinal gradient
3%
8 camber
2.50%
9 embankment side slope
2:01
10 PQC
300 mm
11 DLC
150 mm
12 Thickness of drainage layer
150 mm
13 Drainage layer will be provided below DLC layer for full width of embankment
DESIGN
1 Combined thickness of DLC+PQC
=
2 Depth at which drainage layer is available
3 Width of the drainage layer

Longitudinal Slope

450 mm
450 mm
10.4 m

3%

C
Direction of flow of water

Camber

2.50%

D
AB
AC
AD

Drop of elevation along AC


Drop of elevation along CD
Drop of elevation along AD
Gradient along AD

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Crack infiltration rate


Number of longitudinal joint
Width of pavement subjected to infiltration
length of transverse cracks or joints
Spacing of transverse joint
rate filtration through uncracked pavement

=
=
=
=
=
=

rate of infiltration of water into pavement

Amount of infiltrated water per metre width flowing along the


path AD of the drainage layer

With drainage layer of 0.15m


Required coefficient of permeability

KA
A

=
Q=
=
=
=

h of embankment

10.4 m
12.48 m
16.25 m
0.3744 m
0.26 m
0.6344 m
0.03904
0.223 m3/day/m
3
9.5 m
8.5 m
4.5 m
0

0.115 m3/day/m
1.86875 m3/day/m
KIA
m3/day/m
47.87 m3/day
0.15 sqm
319 m/day