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Chapter ( I ) 3
Chapter ( II ) Construction and types of ball bearings 5 II. a ) Introduction to ball bearings ) 5 II. b ) Types of ball bearing and their construction ) 6 II. b. 1 ) Deep groove ball bearings ) 7 II. b. 2 ) Single row angular contact ball bearings ) 8 II. b. 3 ) Double row angular contact ball bearings ) 9 II. b. 4 ) Thrust ball bearings ) 11 II. b. 5 ) Self aligning ball bearings ) 12 II. b. 6 ) For point ball bearings ) 13 II. b. 7 ) Precision ball bearings ) 14 II. b. 8 ) Ceramic ball bearings ) 14 II. b. 9 ) Radial ball bearings ) 15 II. b. 10 ) Thin section ball bearings ) 16 Chapter ( III ) Construction and types of roller bearings 18 III. a ) Introduction to roller bearings ) 18 III. b ) Types of roller bearing and their ) construction 18 III. b. 1 ) Cylindrical roller bearings ) 18 III. b. 2. I ) Cylindrical roller bearings with cage ) 19
III. b. 2. II ) 20 III. b. 2. III ) 20 III. b. 2. IV) grooves III. b. 3 ) 22 III. b. 4 ) 23 III. b. 5 ) 23 III. b. 6 ) 24
Low friction cylindrical roller bearings ) High Precision cylindrical roller bearings ) Cylindrical roller bearings with snap ring ) 21 Spherical roller bearings ) Barrel roller bearings ) Tapered roller bearings ) Needle roller bearings )
Chapter ( IV ) Bearing design 25 IV. a ) Bearing assembly ) 25 IV. b ) Bearing heat ) 27 IV. c ) Bearing deflection ) 27 IV. d ) Bearing life ) 28 IV. e ) Bearing cost ) 29 IV. e. 1 ) Bearing hardware costs ) 29 IV. e. 2 ) Bearing design costs ) 29 IV. e. 3 ) Shop costs ) 29 IV. e. 4 ) Bearing maintenance costs ) 30 IV. e. 5 ) Bearing replacement costs ) 30 IV. e. 6 ) Cost of bearing failure ) 30 IV. f ) Bearing speed ) 30 IV. g ) Bearing torque ) 31 IV. h ) Bearing friction ) 31 IV. i ) Bearing noise ) 32
Chapter ( V ) Bearing maintenance 33 ( V. a ) Introduction 33 V. b ) Failure analysis ) 33 V. b. 1 ) False brinneling Failures ) 33 V. b. 2 ) Loose fit ) 34 V. b. 3 ) Electric fluting ) 34 V. b. 4 ) Excess load ) 35 V. b. 5 ) Over heating Failures ) 36 V. b. 6 ) True brinneling Failures ) 36 V. b. 7 ) Normal fatigue failure ) 37 V. b. 8 ) Contamination ) 37 V. b. 9 ) Lubrication failure ) 38 V. b. 10 ) Reverse loading ) 38 V. b. 11 ) Corrosion and its causes ) 39 V. b. 12 ) Cage damage and its causes ) 41 V. b. 13 ) Wear and its causes ) 42 V. c ) Bearing lubrication ) 42 V. c. 1 ) Oil lubrication ) 46 V. c. 2 ) Grease lubrication ) 47 Chapter ( VI ) 50 Conclusion
( chapter ( I
Rolling-element bearings rely on either balls or rollers to support loads. The rolling motion produces much less friction than plain bearings. For this reason, rolling-element bearings are often called anti-friction bearings. As with plain bearings, rolling-element bearings are available for radial loads, thrust loads, or a combination of radial and thrust loads. Bearings are among the most important components in the vast majority of machines and exacting demands are made upon their carrying capacity and reliability. Therefore it is quite natural that rolling bearings should have come to play such a prominent part and that over the years they have been the subject of extensive research. Indeed rolling bearing technology has developed into a particular branch of science. Bearings are one of the most critical components in the operation of a fan. Typically, noise and vibration levels are required to be kept at a level below that of most applications. Additionally, fan bearings operate at higher speeds and carry lighter loads. It is because of these special design requirements that careful consideration must be
given to the selection of the appropriate bearing for each application. A bearing, machine part designed to reduce friction between moving parts or to support moving loads. There are two main kinds of bearings: the antifriction type, such as the roller bearing and the ball bearing, operating on the principle of rolling friction; and the plain, or sliding, type, such as the journal bearing a... In machine construction, a connector (usually a support) that permits the connected members to rotate or to move in a straight line relative to one another. Often one of the members is fixed, Ball bearings and roller bearings can both be classified as “rolling bearings”. All Forms of bearings utilize the rolling action of balls and/or rollers to minimize friction and to constrain motion of one body relative to another. Even though there are many different type of rolling bearings, they all consist of the same general components: 1. A complement of balls and/or rollers which maintain the shaft and a usually stationary structure in a radially spaced relationship, 2. Two usually steel rings each of which has a hardened raceway on which hardened. Steel balls or rollers roll 3. A cage or separator (retainer) which holds rolling elements in an angularly spaced relationship. Prior to the extensive use of rolling bearings, hydrodynamic bearings were used. Hydrodynamic bearings make use of a lubricant between the interacting surfaces, which, when in operation, forms a fluid gap. In comparison, rolling bearings have several Benefits over hydrodynamic bearings, which are : 1. Lower friction torque 2. Static friction torque is only slightly higher than kinetic friction torque 3. Rolling bearing deflection is less sensitive to load fluctuations than is deflection
in a conventional hydrodynamic bearing. 4. Rolling bearing only need a small quantity of lubrication for satisfactory operation. 5. Rolling bearings occupy a shorter axial length than conventional hydrodynamic .bearings 6. Within reasonable limits, changes in load, speed and operating temperature have only slight effect on satisfactory performance of a rolling bearing. 7. Most rolling bearings are designed to support combination of radial and thrust load simultaneously. 8. There is a fairly wide range of load and speed that rolling bearings may be subjected and still yield excellent performance. Even though rolling bearings have the aforementioned advantages, there exists one. principal shortcoming of rolling bearings, “...even if rolling bearings are properly lubricated, properly mounted, protected form dirt and moisture, and otherwise properly operated, they will eventually fail because of fatigue of the .”surfaces in rolling contact
-:Note -:Here we will explain just Two types of bearings
,Ball bearing and -1 Roller bearing -2
( CHAPTER ( II
:Construction and types of ball bearing
-;II.a Introduction to ball bearing
Its function is to connect two machine members that move relative to one another so that the frictional resistance to motion is minimal. In many applications, one of the members is a rotating shaft and the other a fixed housing. Each ball bearing has three main parts: two grooved, ring like races and a number of balls. The balls fill the space between the two races and roll with negligible friction in the grooves. The balls may be loosely restrained and separated by means of a retainer or cage.
A ball bearing is a common type of rolling-element bearing,
a kind of bearing. The term ball bearing sometimes means a bearing assembly which uses spherical bearings as the rolling elements. It also means an individual ball for a bearing assembly. The remainder of this entry uses the term ball for the individual component and ball bearing or just 'bearing' for the assembly. Ball bearings typically support both axial and radial loads and can tolerate some misalignment of the inner and outer races. Also, balls are relatively easy to make cheaply compared to other kinds of rolling elements. Ball bearings tend to have lower load capacity for their size than other kinds of rolling-element bearings.There are several common designs of ball bearings, each offering various tradeoffs
A radial ball bearing uses inner and outer races that are
shaped so a radial load passes radially through the bearing. Most radial designs also support modest axial loads.
An axial ball bearing uses side-by-side races. An axial load
is transmitted directly through the bearing, while a radial load is poorly-supported, tends to separate the races, and anything other than a small radial load is likely to damage the bearing.
We can also discuss in construction of ball bearing -:the following terms
Materials available: Carbon, Chrome & Stainless Steel Closures: Rubber, Teflon Seals or Metal Shields Retainers: Steel, Nylon, Polyimide, Phonetic, Bakelite or Bronze Sizes: English (inch) & Metric Sizes Application: Wheel, Skate, Roller, Linear, Skateboard, Thrust, needle, pillow blocks or any general application Quality: Testing are essential in products, our resources are based on the ISO9001 standards, Satisfaction: Guaranteed to a point where we make sure you are 100% satisfied, we just anticipate to be your ball bearings buddy.
II.b Types of ball bearings and there construction:There are several types of ball bearings that fit specific needs. The deep-groove ball bearing, Figure 1 is the most versatile. Radial loads and thrust-load capacities may be approximately equal in this bearing. When it has the proper separator, it is very good for high-speed operation. At low speeds, no bearing separator is required at intermediate speeds, a ball control separator of steel-ribbon construction is adequate; while the ultimate high-speed Performance is obtained with a race controlled (or piloted), fully machined separator. Since balls are assembled into the bearing by eccentric displacement of the races the number of balls in this type of bearing is limited. Capacity is higher in this bearing than In the standard deep-groove construction, but high-speed
performance and thrust-load capacity Is impaired. When large thrust loads in one direction are coupled with radial loads, angular contact ball bearings, Figure 2, are usually superior. Most high-speed and precision spindles use axially preloaded pairs of these bearings. Preload is controlled by the length of the spacers, which determine axial location of the races, or by mounting the bearings against one another in a “back-to-back” or “face-to-face” fashion. The double-row, angular-contact bearing, Figure 3, is a simpler arrangement from the standpoint of the user. The preload is built into the bearing at the factory. The thrust ball bearing, Figure 4, is adaptable to large thrust loads that have almost no radial component. Very large sizes of this bearing are used in gun turrets and large earth moving machinery.” Also, there are many types of ball bearings we will discuss .them with there construction
(Figure 1(deep groove ball bearing
II.b.1 Deep groove ball bearings
Are versatile, self-retaining bearings with solid outer rings, inner rings and ball and cage assemblies. These products are of simple design, durable in operation and easy to maintain; they are available in single and double row designs and in open and sealed variants. Due to the production technology
used, open bearings can still have turned recesses on the outer ring for seals or shields. Due to their low frictional torque, they are suitable for high speeds. Equivalent dynamic load
The contact angle of deep groove ball bearings increases with the axial load. Therefore the factors X and Y depend on the ratio f0 · Fa/C0 , see table below. The factor f0 can be read off the table on page 149. C0 is the static load rating. The values shown in the table below apply to deep groove ball bearings with normal fits (shafts machined to j5 or k5 and housings machined to J6). Equivalent static load
(Figure 2 (single row angular contact ball bearing
II.b.2 Single row angular contact ball bearings
Single row angular contact ball bearings are selfretaining units with solid inner and outer rings and ball and cage assemblies with polyamide, sheet steel or brass cages. The raceways of the inner and outer rings are offset in relation to each other in the direction of the bearing axis. The bearings are available in open and sealed versions. Their self-alignment capacity is very small. Equivalent dynamic load Angular contact ball bearings, with contact angle of = 40 ° Single bearings:
O or X arranged bearing pairs:
Equivalent static load Angular contact ball bearings, with a contact angle of = 40 ° Single bearings:
O or X arranged bearing pairs:
(Figure 3 (double row angular contact ball bearing
II.b.3 Double row angular contact ball bearing
Double row angular contact ball bearings are units with solid inner and outer rings and ball and cage assemblies with polyamide, sheet steel or brass cages. They correspond in design to single row angular contact ball bearings in pairs in an O arrangement but give a narrower design than these. They differ in the size of their contact angle and the design of the bearing rings. The bearings are available in open and sealed versions. Due to the production technology used, open bearings can still have turned recesses on the outer ring for seals or shields. Sealed bearings are maintenance-free and, as a result, allow particularly economical bearing arrangements. The self-alignment capacity of angular contact ball bearings is very small.
Angular contact ball bearings, with a contact angle of = 25 °
Angular contact ball bearings, with a contact angle of = 35°
Angular contact ball bearings, with a contact angle of = 45°
Equivalent static load The radial factor is 1; the thrust factors depend on the contact angle. Angular contact ball bearings, with a contact angle of = 25 °
Angular contact ball bearings, with a contact angle of = 35 °
Angular contact ball bearings, with a contact angle of = 45 °
Figure 4 a (thrust ball bearing) ((contact thrust ball bearings
figure 4 b
II.b.4 Thrust ball bearings
are made as single and double direction bearings. Both designs can transmit high axial loads but must not be loaded radially. Besides the design with flat washers, thrust ball bearings with spherical housing washers and seating ,washers are available Also as shown in ( figure 4 b ) Single direction angular contact thrust ball bearings are precision bearings with narrow tolerances and are intended for ball screw and nut assemblies for machine tool applications. The bearings are characterized by great rigidity, low friction, and suitability for high speeds at fast changes of position. They are not .separable Equivalent dynamic load (for three types) Thrust ball bearings can accommodate only axial loads.
Equivalent static load (for two types) Thrust ball bearings can accommodate only axial loads.
But equivalent static load for Angular Contact Thrust Ball Bearings is:Under static operating conditions, i.e. when they are stationary
C0 i P0
static load rating [kN], number of bearings carrying the axial load equivalent static load [kN]
(Figure 5(Self-Aligning Ball Bearings
II.b.5 Self-aligning ball bearings
Are of the double row type, with a spherical outer ring raceway. Their self-aligning capability allows them to compensate for misalignments, shaft deflections, and housing deformations. Self-aligning ball bearings are
available with a cylindrical or with a tapered bore. The .bearings are not separable Equivalent dynamic load
Equivalent static load
(Figure 6(Four-Point Bearings
II.b.6 Four-point bearings
Are single row angular contact ball bearings which can accommodate high axial loads in both directions and low radial loads. To ensure low friction, particularly at high speeds, an axial minimum load is required (see Section "Equivalent dynamic load"). Four-point bearings feature a split inner ring; this allows a large complement of balls to be filled in. The outer ring with ball set and the inner ring halves can be mounted individually. The self-aligning capability is very limited. Equivalent dynamic load as shown bellow:16
To prevent an undesirable friction increase in the four-point bearing, the axial load should be so high that the balls touch the raceways at only two points. This is the case when Fa 1.2 · Fr.
Equivalent static load
:Also from ball bearing types are the following
Figure 7(Precision Ball Bearings)
II.b.7 Precision Ball Bearings
Size Range 10mm - 200mm bore Fafnir super precision ball bearings are designed to meet demanding machine tool requirements for high speeds,
accuracy and rigidity. These bearings are available manufactured to ABEC-7 and ABEC-9 tolerances, the most precise tolerances recognized by the ball bearing industry. Most super precision ball bearings have contact angles of 15° or 25° for different combinations of radial and axial loads. Special raceway finishes and ball bearing designs achieve the highest possible operating speeds. Ball screw support bearings are supplied in sets with 60° contact angles and a maximum ball complement for the high capacity and axial rigidity required for the most precise tool positioning.
II.b.8 Ceramic Ball Bearings
Size Range 15mm - 120mm bore Advanced Fafnir Ceramic hybrid ball bearings combine ceramic rolling elements with super finished steel rings to run faster, cooler and longer in high-speed machine tool spindles and other demanding applications. The hybrid combination of materials provides superior ceramic performance at a cost-effective price. Super Precision ceramic hybrid bearings deliver outstanding service life and operating characteristics at high spindle speeds. The advanced design and materials help improve rigidity while reducing noise, vibration and operating temperature.
(Figure 8 (Ceramic Ball Bearings
Fafnir ceramic hybrid bearings help machine tool spindles achieve maximum accuracy at speeds greater than 2 million DN under air/oil lubrication, with reduced skidding, wear and heat generation. Speeds greater than 1 million DN are possible with grease lubrication. The lightweight silicon nitride balls have a superfine surface finish and high hardness (Rc78) that can help to extend service life up to 5 times that of standard steel bearings. Low friction characteristics enhance operation under minimal lubrication conditions and increase both life and speed capabilities of lubricants. The ceramic’s greater modulus of elasticity significantly increases rigidity over steel bearings. Greater bearing rigidity improves spindle stiffness and accuracy for precise machining. Low thermal expansion helps maintain consistent bearing preload and stiffness at high speeds.
II.b.9 Radial Ball Bearings
Size Range 3mm - 600mm bore Fafnir radial ball bearings use a versatile design that permits relatively high-speed operation under a range of load conditions. Bearings consist of an inner and outer ring with a cage containing a complement of precision balls. The standard Conrad-type bearing has a deep-groove construction capable of handling radial and axial loads from either direction. The maximum-capacity type supports primarily radial loading.
Figure 9 (Radial Ball Bearings) An extremely wide variety of sizes is available in extralight to heavy series. Various shield and seal configurations help protect internal bearing components and retain lubricants.
II.b.10 Thin Section Ball Bearings
Thin-section bearings - Thin-section bearings are used mainly where space and weight must be conserved. Crosssectional area of these bearings remains constant within a series, regardless of bore diameter. Thin-section bearings have much lower inertia than conventional bearings of equal bore, and they require much smaller envelopes, which can significantly reduce overall drive weight. By nature, thin-section bearings have a much lower load capacity than equally sized conventional bearings. Figure A when load, life, and speed permit their use, thin-section bearings allow lighter, more compact designs than conventional extra-light series
Figure A Thin-section bearings are designed for light to medium-duty drives operating at medium and slow speeds. Conversely, they are not well suited for heavy-duty or high-speed drives operating continuously. Speed limitations Because rolling elements and races are so small in thinsection bearings, they must be properly supported in the drive's assembly. Be sure that axial, radial, or moment deflection of the thin-section bearing does not prohibit its use. Also, imperfections in bore or shaft diameter will be transmitted to rolling paths, reducing life or increasing torque drag of the bearing.
Thin-section bearings may also reduce the number of required components in a design. For example, rotating kingpost assemblies using two standard bearings and a long shaft can be replaced with a more compact design using large diameter thin-section bearings. In the conventional kingpost design, Figure 9A, standard bearings are mounted back-to-back to maximize rigidity under moment loading. The thin-section design, Figure 9B, uses large-diameter thinsection bearings to increase rigidity of the structure. The bearings, mounted back-to-back, support a hollow shaft that is more rigid than the small diameter shaft. As an added benefit, wiring and hoses can be routed through the hollow shaft, protecting them from damage.
Also that: 1-Agricultural Ball Bearings, 2- Cartridge Ball Bearings, 3Corrosion Resistant Ball, Bearings 4-Flanged Ball Bearings, 5- Miniature Ball Bearings, 6- Plastic Ball Bearings, 7- Special Ball Bearings, 8- Thin Section Ball Bearings, 9- Ungrounded Ball Bearings And thousands types of ball bearing with their different structure …etc. We have mansion that all ball bearing usually consists of four parts: an inner ring, an outer ring, the balls and the cage or separator. To increase the contact area and permit larger loads to be carried, the balls run in curvilinear grooves in the rings. The radius of the groove is slightly larger than the radius of the ball, and a very slight amount of radial play must be provided. The bearing is thus permitted to adjust itself to small amounts of angular misalignment between the assembled shaft and mounting. The separator keeps the balls evenly spaced and prevents them from touching each other on the sides where their relative velocities are the greatest. Ball bearings are made in a wide variety of types and sizes. Single-row radial bearings are made in four series, extra light, light, medium, and heavy, for each bore the heavy series of bearings is designated by 400. Most, but not all, manufacturers use a numbering system so devised that if the last two digits are multiplied by 5, the result
will be the bore in millimeters. The digit in the third place from the right indicates the series number. Thus, bearing 307 signifies a medium-series bearing of 35-mm bore.
Chapter ( III ) :Construction and types of roller bearing
:III.a Introduction to roller bearing
Because roller bearings have greater rolling surface area in contact with inner and outer races, they generally support greater loads than comparably sized ball bearings. Rollingelement geometries include cylindrical rollers, of rectangular cross section; spherical rollers, which are barrel or hourglassshaped; and tapered rollers, of trapezoidal cross section. Cylindrical roller bearings are designed primarily to carry heavy radial loads. Spherical roller bearings carry primarily radial loads but, in addition, accept some thrust loading and accommodate wide variation of shaft-to-housing misalignment. Tapered roller bearings carry radial and thrust loads. Like a ball bearing, a roller bearing has two grooved tracks, but the balls are replaced by rollers. The rollers may be cylinders or shortened cones. If the rollers are cylindrical, only radial loads (perpendicular to the axis of rotation) can be carried, but with conical rollers both radial and thrust, or axial, loads (parallel to the axis of rotation) can be carried. In a given space, a roller .bearing can carry a greater radial load than a ball bearing can
III.b Types of roller bearings and there construction:III.b.1 Cylindrical roller bearings
Are suitable for particularly heavily stressed bearing locations and moderate speeds. Unsealed single row and double row bearings are used primarily in power transmission construction. Sealed double row bearings are preferably used in crane construction. Single row and double row cylindrical roller bearing both of them rings of separable bearings can be tightly fitted. This facilitates mounting and dismounting.
Figure 10 (Cylindrical roller bearings) Cylindrical roller bearings have exceptionally low friction torque characteristics that make them suitable for high speed operation. They also have high radial load carrying capacity. They are typically used in machine tools, transmissions, vibration machines and as wheel set bearings for rail vehicles. The surface finish of the tracks and rolling elements is critical to the running performance and noise characteristics of these bearings. Taylor Hobson have a range of Form Tally surf systems which are suitable for measuring the surface finish characteristics of cylindrical roller bearings. Types of Cylindrical roller bearings:
III.b.2.I Cylindrical roller bearings with cage
Single row cylindrical roller bearings with cage are units comprising solid inner and outer rings together with cylindrical roller and cage assemblies. The outer rings have rigid ribs on both sides or are without ribs, the inner rings have one or two rigid ribs or are designed without ribs. The cage prevents the cylindrical rollers coming into contact with each other during rolling.
Figure 11 (cylindrical roller bearings) The cylindrical roller bearings are very rigid, can support high radial loads and, due to the cage, are suitable for higher speeds than the full complement designs. Bearings with suffix E have a larger roller set and are thus designed for extremely high load carrying capacity. The bearings can be taken apart and can therefore be fitted and dismantled more easily. Both bearing rings can therefore have an interference fit. Single row cylindrical roller bearings with cage are available as non-locating, semi-locating and locating bearings.
III.b.2.II Low-friction cylindrical roller bearings
Low-friction cylindrical roller bearings LSL and ZSL are single row, self-retaining and correspond to dimension series 23. The bearings have solid outer rings with two ribs, while the inner rings have one rib. The inner ring can be removed and this gives easier fitting of the bearings. Disc cages or spacers prevent the cylindrical rollers coming into contact with each other during rolling.
Figure 12 (Low-friction cylindrical roller bearings)
III.b.2.III High precision cylindrical roller bearings
Cylindrical roller bearings of this type are double row precision bearings for machine tools. They allow radially rigid, high precision bearing arrangements and are mainly used for the radial support of main spindles.
Figure 13 (High precision cylindrical roller bearings) The bearings comprise solid outer rings without ribs, solid inner rings with three ribs and cylindrical roller and cage assemblies with solid brass cages. For optimum setting of the radial internal clearance, the inner ring has a tapered bore with a taper of 1:12. The cylindrical roller bearings can be dismantled and are therefore easier to fit and remove. Both bearing rings can therefore have an interference fit.
III.b.2.IV Cylindrical roller bearings with snap ring grooves
Cylindrical roller bearings with snap ring grooves are full complement, self-retaining units comprising solid inner and outer rings, rib-guided cylindrical rollers and sealing rings. The outer rings have grooves for retaining rings. The inner rings are axially split, 1 mm wider than the outer rings and are held together by a steel strip that is rolled into place.
Figure 14 (Cylindrical roller bearings with snap ring grooves) Locating bearings Cylindrical roller bearings with snap ring grooves are locating bearings. These bearings are highly rigid and can support axial forces in both directions as well as high radial forces. Due to the full complement design of these bearings, they have the largest possible number of rolling elements and thus extremely high basic dynamic and static load ratings. Due to their kinematics conditions, however, they cannot achieve the high speeds that are possible when using cylindrical roller bearings with cage. Bearings for cable sheaves Due to the grooves in the outer ring, the bearing rings can be axially located with ease. The bearings are therefore very suitable in bearing arrangements for cable sheaves.
III.b.3 Spherical roller bearings
Spherical roller bearings are double row, self-retaining units comprising solid outer rings with a concave raceway, solid inner rings and barrel rollers with cages. The inner rings with cylindrical or tapered bores. The symmetrical barrel rollers freely align themselves to the concave outer ring raceway. As a result, shaft deflections and misalignments of the bearing seats are compensated.
Figure 15 a (Spherical roller bearings) They are designed to manage high radial loads and perform consistently, even when marginal lubrication, contamination, extreme speeds and critical-application stress are present.
Figure 15 b (Spherical roller bearings)
Design attributes: Large bores for integration into heavy-duty industrial applications • Spherically shaped rollers accommodate heavy radial loads while permitting axial loading and relative misalignment between the housing and the shaft
III.b.4 Barrel roller bearings
Barrel roller bearings are single row, self-aligning roller bearings. They comprise solid outer rings with a concave raceway, solid inner rings with two ribs and a cylindrical or tapered bore and barrel rollers with cages. The bearings cannot be dismantled. Barrel roller bearings are particularly suitable where high radial shock type loads occur and misalignments must be compensated, see Compensation of angular misalignments. Their axial load carrying capacity is small.
Figure 16 (Barrel roller bearings) They are particularly suitable for applications where a high radial load carrying capacity and the compensation of misalignment are required. Their sturdy design has proven its worth especially in cases where shock-type radial loads have to be accommodated. The axial load carrying capacity of the barrel roller bearings is limited. The bearings are not separable.
III.b.5 Tapered roller bearings
Tapered roller bearings comprise solid inner and outer rings with tapered raceways and tapered rollers with cages. The bearings are not self-retaining. As a result, the inner ring together with the rollers and cage can be fitted separately from the outer ring. Tapered roller bearings can support axial loads from one direction as well as high radial loads. They must normally be axially adjusted against a second bearing fitted in a mirror image arrangement. Tapered roller bearings are generally of separable design and have tapered cone and cup raceway between which tapered roller are arranged, their design makes tapered roller bearings particularly suitable for carrying combined (radial and axial ) load. The taper roller bearing has the ability to carry combinations of large radial and thrust loads or to carry thrust load only. Because of the difference between the inner and outer raceway contact angles, there is a force component, which drives the tapered rollers against the guide flange.
Figure 17 (Tapered roller bearings) The relatively large sliding friction generated at this flange makes this bearing typically unsuitable for high-speed applications without special consideration to coolant / lubricant. Typical applications include construction machinery, gear construction, vehicle manufacture and rolling mills.
III.b.6 Needle roller and cage assemblies
Needle roller and cage assemblies are single or double row units comprising cages and needle rollers. Since their radial section is no greater than the diameter of the needle rollers, needle roller and cage assemblies allow bearing arrangements with a very small radial design envelope to be achieved. They have very high load carrying capacity, are suitable for high speeds and can be easily fitted.
Figure 18 (Needle roller bearing)
Chapter ( IV ) Bearing design:IV.a Bearing Assembly
There are a variety of methods to assemble ball bearings, both single and double row, and there are two basic bearing configurations that aid in the assembly process, namely, slotted and unslotted. Slotted assembly type bearings have filling slots cut axially through the shoulder on one side of each ring. This slot allows the introduction of as many balls as permitted by the retainer and the pitch circle. The increased number of balls adds to the radial load carrying capacity of the bearing. Even though the filling slot may aid in the assembly process, under axial loading the balls will contact the filling slot, causing noise and poor performance. ,The unslotted, or Conrad
bearing is the bearing assembly type to be addressed in this thesis. The Conrad bearing is probably the most commonly used. The inner and outer races have deep uninterrupted grooves with circular cross sections whose radii are only slightly larger than that of the .balls Ball Bearing Assembly Module consists a 60mm wide conveyor, a washer assembly station, a ball bearing assembly station, and two inspection stations. An infrared sensor at the start of the conveyor belt detects if a part has entered the module. The part is moved to the washer assembly station where a washer is placed in a hole on the top of the part. The part is then moved to the inspection station to check if the washer is in place. Then Assembly Place the centre shaft placed through its bearing in the superstructure if one is used, taking care to ensure meshing between the gear rings and the slewing pinion. Now attach the hook rollers one by one to the underside of the superstructure. Introduce a 3/4" bolt from above through the chassis girder and flat plate, thread two collars onto it, and then screw it into the waiting central bore of the threaded coupling. Proceed around the bearing, attaching the other rollers, and then check for free running. Lubricate where necessary. Once the bearing has been completed, it action can be clearly seen. When it is loaded in front, then the front rollers run against the lower plates. The rear rollers will run under the upper plates. Because the gauge has been so finely adjusted, almost no tilt will be apparent.
A much smaller bearing can be built, with 2" pulleys (part 20a) as the circular plates, and 1/2" pulleys used as the rollers.
1 Before starting bearing assembly ensure that all items in section 3 have been completed and all items on the Bill of materials are available. 2 Place Chicago Rawhide seals Item 5 into Elevation bearing retainers Item 3. 3 Place the outside, outer bearing race into the alidade bore and then fasten its Elevation retainer item 3 onto the alidade so that it is at the 1-mm dimension, as shown. Install all hardware, items 8, 9 and 10 to hold the Bearing retainer in place (loosely). 4 Apply a light coating of grease, item 6 to the install Bearing race. 5 Install the Bearing preload spacer. Note: supplied with bearing. 6 The next step is to install the Shaft, Elevation-Inside, item 2. Lightly grease the bearings cone rollers using grease item 6. Install the Shaft from the cabin inside side until it contacts the outer race. Hold in place and install the remaining Bearing outer race. Note this race should be lightly greased before installation. 7 Install the other Elevation bearing retainer, item 3 and fasten lightly in place using hardware items 8 and 10. 8 Tighten the hardware in both Elevation bearing retainers in a random (cylinder block) fashion to a Torque of 90 in-lbs (7.5 ft-lbs) while maintaining the approximate 1 mm spacing on either side of the alidade. The alidade spacing is not important but should be equal on both sides; this centers the bearing within the alidade. Rotate shaft while tightening screws to ensure that the bearing rotates
smoothly (no binding). 9 Torque the Elevation bearing retainers to their final setting torque of 90 in-lbs (12.5 ft-lbs). This applies the proper bearing pre-load. Rotate shaft and check that it rotates freely, no binding or clogging. 10 Caulk using item 12 around the Bearing retainers and let cure for at least 12 hours and 24 hours is preferred before filling Bearing with grease. 11 The alidade has two grease fittings for filling the bearing. Remove one of them before filling with grease. Using an alidade grease fitting and a grease gun, pump the bearing assembly full of grease, item 6. Rotate the shaft during this operation to completely fill the bearing with grease. Don't over fill as it may damage the grease seals. This ends the assembly operation.
IV.b Bearing Heat
Heat is generated either by shearing of the oil film or by rubbing contact. In a hydrostatic or hydrodynamic bearing, heat generation at running speeds is the result of oil shear, and the amount of temperature rise can be estimated if oil viscosity and shear rates are known. Bearing temperature can be regulated by controlling the oil flow through the bearing or by using external cooling. High-speed and close-clearance fluid-film bearings are difficult to cool. The flow rate through a journal bearing consists of a hydrodynamic portion and a hydrostatic portion. The hydrodynamic flow is proportional to RCw/2 multiplied by a constant which is a function of load or eccentricity e. Here, R = bearing radius, in.; C = clearance, in.; and w = journal speed, rpm. The hydrostatic flow is proportional to feed pressure and is also a function of feed groove shape, cube of oil-film thickness, and local viscosity.
Boundary-lubricated and self-lubricating bearings are more sensitive to sliding velocity than fluid-film types because the coefficient of friction is as much as ten times greater in the first two. Frictional heating is a function of bearing pressure, sliding velocity, and coefficient of friction. Therefore, if the coefficient of friction remains constant for a range of loads and speeds, a rough indication of bearing heat load is provided by the PV factor. Most plastic bearing materials are sensitive to PV because of their low thermal conductivities and high thermal-expansion rates.
IV.c Bearing Deflection
At light loads an externally pressurized sleeve bearing tends to be stiffest, followed by rolling-element bearings and selfacting sleeve bearings. As loads increase, the rollingelement bearing deflection exceeds that of the self-acting sleeve bearing. With a further increase in load, the deflection of the externally pressurized bearing exceeds that of the self-acting sleeve bearing. Thus, the least rigid bearing at light loads becomes the most rigid at heavy loads. Stiffness of the rolling-element bearings could be increased by a switch to roller bearings or preloaded, angular-contact ball bearings. Deflection at the bearing -- or at the load point in the bearing-shaft system -- is often important, especially in machine tools and precision instruments. Deflection of overhung loads can be particularly critical since the stiffness at the loading point is sometimes less than 10% of the basic bearing stiffness.
IV.d bearing life
Over the years, engineers estimated the life of both ball bearings and roller bearings with the aid of ANSI/AFBMA standards for ball bearings (1950) and roller bearings (1953), which were updated in 1978 and 1990, plus ASME bearing life factors (1971).
Recently, the Society of Iridologist and Lubrication Engineers (STLE) developed new life factors that reflect improvements in bearing components such as steel manufacturing and lubrication, which have taken place over the last 50 years. These improvements increased bearing life substantially. The new life factors, which make it possible to predict bearing life much more accurately, are described in the book STLE Life Factors for Rolling Bearings, 1992 (STLE, 840 Buss Highway, Park Ridge, Ill., 60068-2376). Updated bearing life factors Figure C shows how bearing life increased over 50 years and how that increase was reflected in the industry standards and life factors. The early ANSI/AFBMA standards (1950s) had no life adjustment factors. In 1971, ASME introduced life adjustment factors of about 15 for both ball and roller bearings, reflecting improvements since 1940.
Figure C - Rolling element bearing life improvement over five decades. How is bearing life defined? Generally, a rolling bearing cannot rotate for ever. Unless operating conditions are ideal and the fatigue load limit is not reached, sooner or later material fatigue will occur. The period until the first sign of fatigue appears is a function of
the number of revolutions performed by the bearing and the magnitude of the load. Fatigue is the result of shear stresses cyclically appearing immediately below the load carrying surface. After a time these stresses cause cracks which gradually extend up to the surface. As the rolling elements pass over the cracks fragments of material break away and this is known as flaking or spalling. The flaking progressively increases in extent (figures D to G) and eventually makes the bearing unserviceable. The life of a rolling bearing is defined as the number of revolutions the bearing can perform before incipient flaking occurs. This does not mean to say that the bearing cannot be used after then. Flaking is a relatively long, drawn-out process and makes its presence known by increasing noise and vibration levels in the bearing. Therefore, as a rule, there is plenty of time to prepare for a change of bearing.
Figures D to G - Progressive stages of flaking.
IV.e Bearing Cost
IV.e,1 Bearing Hardware costs: In high-volume lots, sleeve bearings and bushings are considerably less costly than rolling-element bearings. In mid-range volumes, prices are comparable. For special designs in small quantities, sliding bearings are more costly than rolling-element bearings. Dryfilm and boundary-lubricated bearings usually use expensive proprietary materials. Powdered-metal bearings, however, are inexpensive. IV.e,2 Bearing Design costs: Rolling-element and drylubricated bearings normally require the least cost for end user. Manufacturers of rolling-element bearings can provide
considerable cost-saving assistance by virtue of welldocumented design manuals. Self-acting sleeve bearings, however, may require considerable end-user design effort except for light-duty applications experience. The behavior of externally pressurized bearings usually are predicted by calculations, but considerable design effort may be required to verify the design completely. IV.e,3 Shop costs: Rolling-element bearings normally require precise housings and shafts and require fairly costly machining for products in which they are used. Sleeve bearings, in contrast, generally operate well with less finely prepared machine finishes. Many plain bearings operate satisfactorily with lathe-turned journals. IV.e,4 Bearing Maintenance costs: When the bearing lubrication is self-contained, maintenance costs are determined by sealing requirements. If there is full-pressure lubrication, costs may be determined by the amount of filtration needed. Generally, rolling-element bearings have the lowest maintenance costs because of lower lubrication requirements. The very minimum maintenance cost is associated with self-lubricating bearings -- provided they deliver sufficient service life. IV.e,5 Bearing Replacement costs: These costs depend more on the specific design than on the type of bearing. In general, however, sliding bearings are replaced more easily than rolling-element types. Both types can be damaged during installation if not handled properly. Sliding bearings can often be replaced quickly by machining from bar stock or by altering available stock sizes.
IV.e,6 Cost of bearing failure: Rolling-element bearings give ample warning that they are approaching failure by virtue of increasingly noisy operation and usually fail from fatigue. Sliding bearings, on the other hand, usually perform well up to moments before a violent failure. If a rolling-element bearing fails at high speed, it is usually total and catastrophic. With a journal bearing, the effect is normally less drastic. Often, only a bit of polishing puts it
back into service. However, sliding bearings can suffer catastrophic failure.
IV.f Bearing Speed
Limiting speed values for instrument bearings are almost impossible to determine. However, generalizations may be made. Bearing size: Highest speeds may be obtained with the smallest bearing. However, extremely small miniature bearings usually have a thin, weak retainer and their maximum speed is less than medium-size miniatures. Load: Limiting speed is directly affected by the magnitude of applied load. Heavy loads result in a decreased speed capability. Use of a preloaded pair of bearings also decreases allowable speed. Ring rotation: Inner-ring rotation gives higher speed capability. If the outer ring is rotating, limiting speed must be reduced by about one-third. Retainer: Phenolic (and some other nonmetallic materials) -very high speed; crown (hardened steel) -- high speed; ribbon (loosely clinched) -- low speed; full race -- moderate speed; spacers (PTFE) -- very low speed. Lubricant: Stiff, mineral-oil grease -- high speed; soft, synthetic-oil grease -- moderate to high speed; soft, silicone grease -- low to moderate speed; mineral oil -- high speed; synthetic oil -- moderate speed; silicone oil -- low speed. Lubricant method: Oil impregnation and grease pack -excellent; oil impregnation -- very good; grease pack -- good; minimum oil -- fair. Many factors combine to affect the attainable speed and expected life of a bearing. Factors affecting speed and life include ... 1- Load 2- Vibration 3- Lubrication 4- Cage type 5- Operating temperature and internal clearance 6- Moisture / Contaminants 7- Mounting 8- Precision 9- Closures.
IV.g Bearing Torque
Bearing torque is the moment required to overcome internal friction to start or maintain rotation of one ring while the other is stationary. Torque or friction generally increases when: 1. Bearing size is increased because a larger ball and retainer must be moved. 1. Load is increased because of greater deformation and resistance to rolling motion. 1. Speed is increased because of increased lubricant drag.
IV.h Bearing Friction
Torque required to put a bearing into motion from rest is usually higher than that required to keep the bearing running once it starts. Starting friction, therefore, has an important influence on the power required in a bearing drive system. Externally pressurized bearings have very low starting torque. Roller bearings have a low starting torque and under pressurized sleeve (fluid-film) bearings have substantially higher starting torque. The coefficient of friction at start-up for self-lubricated bearings is highly variable. It may range from 0.04 to 0.16. The fluid-film bearing has a high starting torque because it passes through boundary lubrication stages as it comes up to speed. Once running under a hydrodynamic film, the fluidfilm bearing exhibits friction characteristics comparable to a rolling-element bearing. At running speed, the externally pressurized bearing runs with low friction. Friction in a self-lubricating sleeve bearing is quite variable depending upon the application. Running friction for a rolling-element bearing is lower than its starting friction. If torque characteristics are critical to a
bearing design, starting and running frictional characteristics should be measured experimentally. When a bearing must be started repeatedly under heavy load, rolling-element bearings offer a better choice than sleeve bearings. When the increased complexity is acceptable, an externally pressurized (hydrostatic) bearing is the best choice. When starting load is light and load increases gradually with speed, the conventional hydrodynamic sleeve bearing usually is preferred. The frictional properties of any plain bearing depend on the lubrication system. Either hydrodynamic or hydrostatic lubrication can provide low friction. A gas bearing offers the lowest friction levels. Friction in hydrodynamic and hydrostatic bearings is a function of lubricant viscosity and shear rate. Shear rate increases with increasing rotational speed and decreasing film thickness. Friction coefficient is generally below 0.001. Self-lubricated bearings vary widely. It is difficult to predict performance for a given bearing / lubricant system. The range of coefficients of friction is 0.01 to 0.10 for boundary lubrication and 0.01 to 0.3 for self-lubrication. Caution must be used when applying friction coefficient handbook data. Conditions under which the values were measured should be known and duplicated in the application. Coefficient of friction tends to increase with increasing surface roughness, dryness, and cleanliness of surfaces, and decreasing temperature.
IV.i Bearing Noise
When a machine is subjected to a noise-reduction program, bearings are normally involved. Even when bearings are not generating noise, they may be concerned with noise transfer. Generally, rolling-element bearings are noisier than fluidfilm bearings. Minor inaccuracies in rollers or raceways can generate sounds that are amplified by the machine structure. Improving bearing quality can reduce this effect.
Fluid-film bearings under steady radial load generally do not produce noise. However, if this type of bearing is reversed frequently, it can generate considerable noise if it doesn't have enough lubricant to fill the bearing. Fluid-film bearings running unstable in a whirling mode can also produce noise.
Chapter ( V )
We have to discuss here (Bearing failure):
Bearings are among the most important components in the vast majority of machines and exacting demands are made upon their carrying capacity and reliability. Therefore it is quite natural that rolling bearings should have come to play such a prominent part and that over the years they have been the subject of extensive research. Indeed rolling bearing technology has developed into a particular branch of science. Among the benefits resulting from this research has been the ability to calculate the life of a bearing with considerable accuracy, thus making it possible to match the bearing life with the service life of the machine involved. Unfortunately it sometimes happens that a bearing does not attain its calculated rating life. There may be many reasons for this heavier loading than has been anticipated, inadequate or unsuitable lubrication, careless handling, ineffective sealing, or fits that are too tight, with resultant insufficient internal bearing clearance. Each of these factors produces its own particular type of damage and leaves its own special imprint on the bearing. Consequently, by examining a damaged bearing, it is possible, in the majority of cases, to form an opinion on the cause of the damage and to take the requisite action to prevent a recurrence.
V.b Failure Analysis:
V.b.1 False Brinneling Failures Occurs when there is small relative motion between the balls/rollers and raceways during non-rotation times. Characterized by elliptical wear marks in the axial direction at each ball/roller position. When the bearing isn't turning, an oil film cannot be formed to prevent raceway wear. Wear marks are perpendicular to the line of motion, normally well-defined, and sometimes surrounded by debris.
:Loose Fit Caused relative between which, in by motion mating turn, causes fretting.
Fretting occurs when fine metal particles oxidize, leaving a distinctive brown color. This normally occurs through outer ring slippage in the housing due to improper fits. Outer ring slippage caused by improper housing fits. Discoloration and scoring will appear on the outside of the outer ring.
V.b.3 Electrical Fluting Electrical Fluting occurs when a current is passed through the bearing, instead of to a grounded source.
Frequently seen in electric motors Can be eliminated by ceramic-coating the OD of the bearing.
Damage caused by the passage of electric current When an electric current passes through a bearing, i.e. proceeds from one ring to the other via the rolling elements, damage will occur. At the contact surfaces the process is similar to electric arc welding. The material is heated to temperatures ranging from tempering to melting levels. This leads to the appearance of discolored areas, varying in size, where the material has been tempered, re-hardened or melted. Small craters also form where the metal has melted. The passage of electric current frequently leads to the formation of fluting (corrugation) in bearing raceways. Rollers are also subject to fluting, while there is only dark discoloration of balls. It can be difficult to distinguish between electric current damage and vibration damage. A feature of the fluting caused by electric current is the dark bottom of the corrugations, as opposed to the bright or rusty appearance at the bottom of the vibration induced fluting. Another distinguishing feature is the lack of damage to the rolling elements of bearings with raceway fluting caused by vibrations. Both alternating and direct currents cause damage to bearings. Even low amperage currents are dangerous. Nonrotating bearings are much more resistant to electric current damage than bearings in rotation. The extent of the damage depends on a number of factors: current intensity, duration, bearing load, speed and lubricant. The only way of avoiding damage of this nature is to prevent any electric current from passing through the bearing.
Dark brown or grayish black fluting (corrugation) or craters in raceways and rollers. Balls have dark discoloration only. Sometimes zigzag burns in ball bearings raceways. Localized burns in raceways and on rolling elements. Passage of electric current through rotating bearing. Passage of electric current through non-rotating bearing. Re-route the current to by-pass the bearing. Use insulated bearings. Re-route the current to by-pass the bearing. When welding, arrange earthing to prevent current passing through the bearing. Use insulated bearings.
V.b.4 Excess Load Excessive load normally causes premature bearing failure. Symptoms are the same as normal fatigue, although showing heavier ball wear paths, greater evidence of overheating, and a more widespread and deeper spalling (fatigue area).
:V.b.5 Overheating Failures Symptoms of overheating are the discoloration of the rings, balls/rollers and cages from gold to blue. Temperatures in excess of 400 degrees C. Extreme cases result in deformation of balls/rollers and rings.
Primary indications are blue/black and silver/gold discoloration, and balls/rollers will be blue/black.
Due to high temperature :V.b.6 True Brinneling Failures True Brinelling occurs when loads exceed the elastic limit of the ring material. Brinell marks are indentations at ball/roller frequency caused by any static overload or severe impact. Examples of true brinelling causes: Using a hammer to install a bearing Dropping a bearing Pressing a bearing onto a shaft by applying force to the non-rotating ring These indentations are evident in the raceways and can increase bearing noise and vibration, leading to premature bearing failure.
V.b.7 Normal Fatigue
Normal fatigue failure is characterized by "spalling", or a fracture of the running surface and subsequent removal of small, discrete particles of material. Spalling can occur on balls, rollers or raceways, and is always accompanied by a marked increase in vibration. Moderately spalled areas indicate that the bearing has reached the end of its useful life.
V.b.8 Contamination Contamination is one of the leading causes of premature bearing failure. Symptoms of contamination are dents or scratches embedded in the bearing raceways and balls/rollers, resulting in undue bearing vibration and wear. Contaminants may include airborne dust, dirt or any abrasive substance that gets into the bearing. Principal sources are dirty tools, contaminated work areas, dirty hands and foreign matter in lubricant or cleaning solutions.
V.b.9 Lubrication Failure Symptoms include discolored (blue/brown) raceways and balls/rollers. Restricted lubricant flow or excessive temperatures that degrade the lubricant's properties typically cause failures. Lubricant failure will lead to excessive wear, overheating and subsequent bearing failure.
V.b.10 Reverse Loading Occurs when loads shift direction in bearings that can only take axial loads in one direction (angular contact ball bearings). When loaded in the opposite direction, the elliptical contact area on the outer ring is truncated by the low shoulder on that side of the outer ring. The balls will show a band caused by the ball riding over the edge of the raceway. Failure mode is very similar to that of heavy interface (tight) fits. A thrust load applied to the wrong bearing face results in a wear band on the balls.
Corrosion Corrosion results from the chemical attack on bearing materials by hostile fluids or atmospheres. Symptoms include red/brown areas on rolling elements, raceways, or cages. Corrosion usually results in increased vibration followed by wear, with subsequent increase in radial clearance or loss of preload.
V.b.11 Bearing corrosion and its Causes Corrosion Rust will form if water or corrosive agents reach the inside of the bearing in such quantities that the lubricant cannot provide protection for the steel surfaces. This process will soon lead to deep seated rust. Another type of corrosion is fretting corrosion. Deep seated rust. A thin protective oxide film forms on clean steel surfaces exposed to air. However, this film is not impenetrable and if water or corrosive elements make contact with the steel surfaces, patches of etching will form. This development soon leads to deep seated rust. Deep seated rust is a great danger to bearings since it can initiate flaking and cracks. Acid liquids corrode the steel quickly, while alkaline solutions are less dangerous. The salts that are present in fresh water constitute, together with the water, an electrolyte which causes galvanic corrosion, known as water etching. Salt water, such as sea water, is therefore highly dangerous to bearings.
Grayish black streaks across the raceways, mostly coinciding with the rolling element spacing. At a later stage, pitting of raceways and other surfaces of the bearing. Presence of water, moisture or corrosive substances in the bearing over a long period of time. Improve sealing. Use lubricant with better rust inhibiting properties.
Figure H - Deep seated rust in the outer ring of a deep groove ball bearing.
If the thin oxide film is penetrated, oxidation will proceed deeper into the material. An instance of this is the corrosion that occurs when there is relative movement between bearing ring and shaft or housing, on account of the fit being too loose. This type of damage is called fretting corrosion and may be relatively deep in places. The relative movement may also cause small particles of material to become detached from the surface. These particles oxidise quickly when exposed to the oxygen in the atmosphere. As a result of the fretting corrosion, the bearing rings may not be evenly supported and this has a detrimental effect on the load distribution in the bearings. Rusted areas also act as fracture notches. Appearanc Areas of rust on the outside surface of the outer e ring or in the bore of the inner ring. Raceway path pattern heavily marked at corresponding
positions. Cause Action Fit too loose. Shaft or housing seating with errors of form. Adjust seating.
Figure I - Extensive fretting corrosion on the outer race of a deep groove ball bearing. V.b.12 Bearing Cage Damage and Its Causes Cage damage If, on examination of a failed bearing, the cage is found to be damaged, it may in many cases prove difficult to ascertain the cause. Usually other components of the bearing are damaged too and this makes it even more difficult to discover the reason for the trouble. However, there are certain main causes of cage failure, viz. vibration, excessive speed, wear and blockage. Vibration When a bearing is exposed to vibration, the forces of inertia may be so great as to cause fatigue cracks to form in the cage material after a time Sooner or later these cracks lead to cage fracture. Excessive speed If the bearing is run at speeds in excess of that for which the cage is designed, the cage is subjected to heavy forces of inertia that may lead to fractures. Frequently, where very high speeds are involved, it is possible to select bearings with cages of special design.
Wear Cage wear may be caused by inadequate lubrication or by abrasive particles. The idea with rolling bearings is of course to avoid sliding friction. However, where the cage is concerned, sliding cannot be eliminated in the contacts with the other components of the bearing. This explains why the cage is the first component to be affected when the lubrication becomes inadequate. The cage is always made of softer material than the other components of the bearing and consequently it wears comparatively quickly. As the cage pockets increase in size, due to wear, the rolling element guidance deteriorates and this also applies to the cage in cases where the cage is centred on the rolling elements. The resultant forces may lead to cage failure within a short space of time. Blockage Fragments of flaked material or other hard particles may become wedged between the cage and a rolling element, preventing the latter from rotating round its own axis. This leads to cage failure. Other causes of cage damage If the rings of a deep groove ball bearing are fitted out of alignment with each other, the path of the balls has an oval configuration. If the cage is centred on the balls, it has to change shape for every revolution it performs. Fatigue cracks then form in the material and sooner or later they lead to fractures. There is a similar case when a thrust ball bearing is fitted together with radial plain bearings. If clearance arises in the plain bearings, the washers of the thrust bearing become displaced in relation to each other. Then the balls do not follow their normal path and heavy stresses may arise in the cage. Cages in bearings subject to severe acceleration and retardation, in conjunction with fluctuations in speed, are affected by forces of inertia. These give rise to considerable pressure between the contacting surfaces, with consequent heavy wear.
Figure J Left hand image : Fractured surface of the cage shown in the right hand image. The fatigue cracks are clearly visible. Right hand image : Cage of a spherical roller bearing. Fatigue cracks have formed in the fillets. V.b.13 Bearing WEAR and its Causes Wear In normal cases there is no appreciable wear in rolling bearings. Wear may, however, occur as a result of the ingress of foreign particles into the bearing or when, the lubrication is unsatisfactory. Vibration in bearings which are not running also gives rise to wear. Wear caused by abrasive particles. Small, abrasive particles, such as grit or sward that have entered the bearing by some means or other, cause wear of raceways, rolling elements and cage. The surfaces become dull to a degree that varies according to the coarseness and nature of the abrasive particles. Sometimes worn particles from brass cages become verdigrises and then give lightcolored grease a greenish hue. The quantity of abrasive particles gradually increases as material is worn away from the running surfaces and cage. Therefore the wear becomes an accelerating process and in the end the surfaces become worn to such an extent as to render the bearing unserviceable. However, it is not necessary to scrap bearings that are only slightly worn. They can be used again after cleaning. The abrasive particles may have entered the bearing because the sealing arrangement was not sufficiently
effective for the operating conditions involved. They may also have entered with contaminated lubricant or during the mounting operation.
Small indentations around the raceways and Appearanc rolling elements. Dull, worn surfaces. Grease e discolored green. Cause Lack of cleanliness before and during mounting operation. Ineffective seals. Lubricant contaminated by worn particles from brass cage. Do not unpack bearing until just before it is to be mounted. Keep workshop clean and use clean tools. Check and possibly improve the sealing. Always use fresh, clean lubricant. Wipe the grease nipples. Filter the oil.
Figure K (The outer race of a spherical roller bearing with raceways that have been worn by abrasive particles. It is easy to feel where the dividing line goes between worn and unworn sections.) Wear caused by inadequate lubrication If there is not sufficient lubricant, or if the lubricant has lost its lubricating properties, it is not possible for an oil film with sufficient carrying capacity to form. Metal to metal contact occurs between rolling elements and raceways. In its
initial phase, the resultant wear has roughly the same effect as lapping. The peaks of the microscopic asperities, that remain after the production processes, are torn off and, at the same time, a certain rolling-out effect is obtained. This gives the surfaces concerned a varying degree of mirror-like finish. At this stage surface distress can also arise. If the lubricant is completely used up, the temperature will rise rapidly. The hardened material then softens and the surfaces take on blue to brown hues. The temperature may even become so high as to cause the bearing to seize.
Appearanc Worn, frequently mirror-like, surfaces; at a later e stage blue to brown discoloration. Cause Action Lubricant has gradually been used up or has lost its lubricating properties. Check that the lubricant reaches the bearing. More frequent relubrication.
Figure L - The outer ring of a spherical roller bearing that has not been adequately lubricated. The raceways have a mirror finish Wear caused by vibration When a bearing is not running, there is no lubricant film between the rolling elements and the raceways. The absence of lubricant film gives metal to metal contact and the vibrations produce small relative movements of rolling
elements and rings. As a result of these movements, small particles break away from the surfaces and this leads to the formation of depressions in the raceways. This damage is known as false brinelling, sometimes also referred to as wash boarding. Balls produce sphered cavities while rollers produce fluting. In many cases, it is possible to discern red rust at the bottom of the depressions. This is caused by oxidation of the detached particles, which have a large area in relation to their volume, as a result of their exposure to air. There is never any visible damage to the rolling elements. The greater the energy of vibration, the more severe the damage. The period of time and the magnitude of the bearing internal clearance also influence developments, but the frequency of the vibrations does not appear to have any significant effect. Roller bearings have proved to be more susceptible to this type of damage than ball bearings. This is considered to be because the balls can roll in every direction. Rollers, on the other hand, only roll in one direction; movement in the remaining directions takes the form of sliding. Cylindrical roller bearings are the most susceptible. The fluting resulting from vibrations sometimes closely resembles the fluting produced by the passage of electric current. However, in the latter case the bottom of the depression is dark in colour, not bright or corroded. The damage caused by electric current is also distinguishable by the fact that the rolling elements are marked as well as the raceways. Bearings with vibration damage are usually found in machines that are not in operation and are situated close to machinery producing vibrations. Examples that can be cited are transformer fans, stand-by generators and ships' auxiliary machinery. Bearings in machines transported by rail, road or sea may be subject to vibration damage too. Depressions in the raceways. These depressions Appearanc are rectangular in roller bearings and circular in e ball bearings. The bottom of these depressions may be bright or dull and oxidised. Cause Action The bearing has been exposed to vibration while stationary. Secure the bearing during transport by radial
preloading. Provide a vibration-damping base. Where possible, use ball bearings instead of roller bearings. Employ oil bath lubrication, where possible. Where machines subject to constant vibration are concerned, it is essential that the risk of damage to the bearings be taken into consideration at the design stage. Consequently, where possible, ball bearings should be selected instead of roller bearings. The ability of ball bearings to withstand vibrations without being damaged can also be considerably improved by applying axial preloading with the aid of springs,. An oil bath, in which all rolling elements in the load zone are immersed in the oil, has also proved to provide satisfactory protection. A vibrationdamping base helps to prevent damage too. The bearings in machines that are to be transported can be protected by locking the shaft, thus preventing the small movements that have such a damaging effect on the bearings.
Figure M Figure N
Figure M - The inner and outer ring of a cylindrical roller bearing that has exposed to vibration. The inner ring has changed position. Figure N- The outer ring of a self aligning ball bearing damaged by vibration. The bearing has not rotated at all. The main maintenance for bearings (Lubrication)
V.c Bearing Lubrication
Proper lubrication is the single most important factor to bearing life. Bearings rely on a micro inch thin film of oil between the rolling elements and the raceways. This delicate protective film, existing only during bearing operation, is the single thing preventing direct contact between rolling elements and raceways in a conventional bearing. The type of lubricant, quantity, quality and cleanliness are all extremely important factors which control bearing life. There are several types of lubricants applicable to rolling element bearings: Oils Greases Dry lubricants
Regardless of type, all lubrications Recants serve the same functions: Provide a elastohydrodynamic film that prevents or reduces contact and wear between rolling elements, separators and raceways. Protect susceptible bearing components from oxidation. Minimize the effect of contaminants The EHD (elastohydrodynamic) film is generated by the motion of the rolling elements as they displace the lubricant much like hydroplaning which occurs when exceeding a certain speed while driving a vehicle on a wet road. Though undesirable with tires this phenomenon is required for long bearing life. That is why the selection of lubricant is based on the following parameters: The viscosity of the lubricant at all relevant temperatures The operating speed of the bearings.
Compatibility of the lubricant to all components and potential contaminants. Spindles and motors are typically lubricated with either grease or oil lubrication. Dry film lubricants are reserved to special applications. V.c.1 Oil Lubrication Let's look at oils first. There are a number of different types of oils used for bearing lubrication. Petroleum based oils are the most common type in industrial applications. The synthetics can have special characteristics at temperature extremes. The most misunderstood concept about oil lubrication is that more is better. Too much oil can actually cause increased bearing temperatures. There is an ideal amount of oil required to produce the perfect EHD film under the rolling elements at operating speed and temperature. Any amount of oil beyond what is required is plowed out the way by the balls or rollers. This takes more power and creates friction and heat. Oil is typically introduced via a lubrication system. There are 3 basic ways of introducing oil lubrication into a bearing used in modern spindles: 1-Air-oil mist 2-Creates a fog of oil droplets in an air stream delivered to the bearing. 3-Low cost, simple and reliable. 4-High air usage. 5-Adjustable air pressure and oil delivery rate 6-Can be optimized for minimum temperature rise. 7-Often mis-adjusted and neglected. 8-Creates undesirable air pollution in facility 9-Air oil injection 10-Delivers controlled microscopic oil stream to the bearing. 11-Adjustable air and oil delivery rates. 12-Oil injection 13-High pressure oil fed directly to bearing 14-Typically used in aircraft engines
15-High initial cost. 16-Excellent for high loads and high speeds. 17-Maximum bearing life. 18-Not used in machine tools. V.c.2 Grease Lubrication Grease lubrication is usually simpler since bearings can be pre-lubricated at the factory under ideal conditions (ultra clean bearings, filtered grease). Pre-lubrication in a sealed bearing means that no further contamination will be introduced through the lubricating system since there is none. Grease is actually just oil mixed with a thickener. The thickener is an inert material which holds the oil like a sponge and delivers it where it is needed during operation. There are advantages and disadvantages to grease lubrication: 1-No lubrication system to maintain 2-Lower initial cost. 3-Reduced speed capability. 4-No cooling effect. 5-Good for low speed, minimum maintenance. There are some special high speed greases that can increase the speed limit when properly applied and are even more effective when used with special bearing configurations. Profiteered spindle bearing greases in special applicators are available. Greases can also be applied via automatic injection system. Over lubrication is still possible with this type of system if not properly adjusted. On low speed equipment it is less critical, but on high speed applications, the proper amount of grease is a critical factor. When I ran the Research and Development Lab at a precision bearing company, we had an on-going test running. It was designed to allow ball bearings to reach their ideal theoretical fatigue life. The bearings were under a high axial load and were lubricated with an oil jet. This test rig had three stages of oil filtration with extremely large and
effective filters. The lubricant was a high quality, synthetically modified oil that cost 1200 US dollars per gallon in 1985. Bearings in this test rig never wore out. They would always reach fatigue failure. If we removed a bearing prior to fatigue there was absolutely no sign of wear. As a matter of fact I once had a hard time convincing one of our product engineers that the bearing we had tested for him had actually ever been run when it had over 2000 hours of operation at 20,000 rpm on it. This proved to me that lubrication was the key to long bearing life. There was another time that brand new bearings destined for navy submarines were not passing the vibration and noise test. After a critical evaluation, my lab discovered that the grease had excessively large thickener particles that had crystallized and were actually damaging the raceways during test. The solution was to filter the grease under high pressure to remove the larger particles and have a heart to heart with the lube supplier. The bottom line is that correct lubrication is one of the most important factors to bearing life. The proper lubricant, delivered in the ideal quantity with fastidious cleanliness will ensure long bearing life. And yes, spindle bearings can last indefinitely under the following conditions: Proper lubrication at all time, contamination is excluded, EHD film is maintained continuously and Hertz Ian stress levels are below the threshold for fatigue failure (a typically lightly loaded spindle bearing). Though it is uncommon, it is completely possible to achieve infinite life. More realistically, massive improvements that are extremely cost effective are easy to achieve through a program of continuous improvement. Give us a call at Advanced Machine Service and let us know your tired of wasting your money on excessive rebuilding. Once again, If you are going to deviate from manufacturers recommendations, we recommend that tests be performed to determine the optimum lubrication system for your equipment.
The tests I have seen, clearly showed that excessive lubrication is not optimum. From the manufacturers standpoint, more is safer, preventing bearing failure due to
oil starvation. We ran a high speed Bryant model B spindle in the old lab, at 120,000 rpm. What we found about the lubrication rate proved everything that the theory states. As we reduced the drops per minute from 45 dpm, bearing raceway temperatures continued to become cooler. The coolest bearing temperatures occurred at 12 drops per minute. However at any rate less than that the bearing temperatures immediately started to increase until failure at 3 drops per minutes in our test. This fact that bearings need very little oil to form the EHD, is the operating premise for the newer type of air oil injection systems. They use very small amounts of oil, do not generate mist and use air for cooling and to transport the oil through the deliver tube in a liquid flow along the tube I.D. until it is injected into the bearing. If you are going to deviate from manufacturers recommendations, we recommend that tests be performed to determine the optimum lube rate for your equipment.
Chapter ( VI )
Conclusion:1Bearings are necessary in machines to let friction very small between members which assembled with them. 2- Ball and roller bearings are the prevalent types of rolling element bearings.
3Ball / Roller bearing types are more than hundred type and their constructions are different from type to another. 4In design we must have to include some important factors:
Bearing assembly. Bearing cost. Bearing speed. Bearing life. Failure analyses. Bearing noise. Bearing friction. Bearing torque. Bearing deflection. Bearing heat. Bearing maintenance should be: Study Failure analyses. The main maintenance for Bearings is lubrication.
We take all of our information from internet ( Google ( – AltaVista
www.bearingsdirect. com www.embearings.com Ball Bearings from bearing manufacturer Bearing Services.htm Ball Bearing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.htm Roller bearing -- Britannica Concise Encyclopedia The online encyclopedia you can trust!.htm Roller bearings - DirectIndustry_com_files Bearings Reference Center by Machine Design Bearing Speed.htm Metal Powder Products - Pulley & Bearing Assembly.htm Failure Analysis - Corrosion.htm Bearing Reference Center - Bearing Heat.htm Bearing Reference Center - Predicting Bearing Life.htm Bearings Reference Center by Machine Design Bearing Cost.htm Bearings Reference Center by Machine Design Bearing Deflection.htm Bearings Reference Center by Machine Design Bearing Noise.htm
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