&,fp&marmp&m

EdkifiHa&;[morsm;

jrefrmusL;ypfzdk&rfrS EdkifiHa&;[morsm;
'gav;rsm;
w½kwfEkdifiHom; /------/ igwdkU tm;upm;orm;/
ajcaxmufESpfzufr½Sdbl;/ a&ul;tm;upm;rSm odyfxl;cRefwm/
jrefrmEkdifiHom; /-- -- -/ 'grsm; qef;wmvkdufvkdU/ vufeJU
ul;vJ&&JUom;eJU/
½k½SEkdifiHom; /-------- / igwkdUqDu oDcsif;a&;q&m/ odyfawmfwm/
vufESpfzufvHk;r½Sdbl;/ ola&;wJhoDcsif;awGodyfaumif;/
jrefrmEkdifiHom; /--- -- / 'gvnf; bmrSrqef;bl;/
ajcaxmufeJUa&;rSmaygh/
tar&duefEkdifiHom;/----/ igwkdUqDu odyÜHynm½SifBuD;/ ajcaxmufa&m
vufa&m vIyfvkdUr&bl;/ 'gayr,fh odyfukdBuD;us,fwJh tawG;tac:awG
trsm;BuD;ajymcJhw,f/
jrefrmEkdifiHom; /------ / 'gvnf;rqef;bl;/ yg;pyfu
pum;ajymvkdU&aewmyJ/ ajymrSmaygh/
w½kwf? ½k½S? tar&duefEkdifiHom;rsm;/-----/ rif;uvnf; rqef;bl;csnf;
2

ajymae/ 'Dxufbmrsm; qef;p&m ½Sdao;vkdUvJ/
jrefrmEkdifiHom; /------ / igwkdUqDrSm acgif;r½Sdbl;/ EkdifiHukdtkyfcsKyfvmwm
ESpf 20 jynfhawmhr,f/
w½kwf? ½k½S? tar&duefEkdifiHom;rsm;/-----/ [kduf
( wifjyol-  botchan  )

vlqdkwm..
armfpudkNrdKUwpfae&m/ vlwpfOD;vrf;avQmufvmonf/ wdkufay:rS tkwfcJ
wpfcsyf jyKwfusNyD; xdkvrf;avQmufol acgif;ay:wnfhwnfh jyKwfus\/
vrf;avQmufol aooGm;\/
0dkif;0ef;Munfhaeolrsm;xJrS wpfa,mufuajym\/ 
“MunfhMuprf;...
wdkufay:utkwfcJ

'Dtpdk;&vufxufrSm
jyKwfusNyD;awmif

vlao&owJU/

vrf;awmif vGwfvGwf vyfvyf ravQmuf&JwJUb0/” 
xdkpOf Munfhaeolrsm;xJrS wpfa,mufu 0ifajym\/

3

bmaumif;wm&SdvJ../
'Dtpdk;&vufxuf

“olUudk usaemfodygw,fAs/ olu tpdk;&tzGJU0ifvlwpfa,mufAs” 
xdkol\ pum;oHtqHk;.. vlawGxHrS toHrsm; wnDwnf;xGufvm\/ 
“MunfhMuprf;/ 'Dtpdk;&vufxuf bmaumif;wm&SdvJ/ vrf;ay:udk tkwfcJ
awmif vGwfvGwfvyfvyf uscGifhr&Sdbl;/” 
( wifjyol- kowhiteman  )

aygvGef;vdkU
tmqD,Hacgif;aqmifrsm; pnf;a0;yGJtNyD;rSm tdrf&Sif puFmyl0efBuD;csKyfu
ZdrfcHoabmFBuD;wpif;ay:rSm npmpm;yGJusif;yay;\/ eJeJneufvmawmU
acgif;aqmifBuD;awG eJeJaxGvmBuonf? xdkpOfrSm rav;&Sm;0efBuD;csKyfu
tvGeft&om&Sdaom yef;oD;rsm;csaBuG;um b,fvdkvJ pm;vdkUaumif;vm;
[kar;avonf/

tm;vHk;u

t&rf;t&om&Sdvdkufwm[k

aNzqdkBuvQif

yef;oD;awmif;rsm;,lí a&xJypfcsvdkuf\? tm;vHk;u bmNzpfvdkUvJ ar;aom
tcg uRefawmfwdkUqDrSm 'grsKd;awGu aygvGef;vdkU[k cyfBuGm;BuGm;av;
aNzonf/

tdrf&Sif0efBuD;csKyfuvnf; tm;usrcH tvGeft&om&Sdaom acsmUuvufawG
csaBuG;&if;

acsmUuvufyguifrsm;udk

a&xJypfcsNyum

usKyfwdkUqDrSm

'grsKd;t&rf;aygwm[k 0ifYBuGm;pGmqdkNyefavonf/
usefacgif;aqmifrsm;u wpfa,mufrsufESmwpfa,mufBunfYum BuGm;p&m&Sm
pOf;pm;Bu\/ 'gayrJU odBuwJYtwkdif; tmqD,H10edkifiHxJrSm olwdkU 2edkifiHudk
,SOfedkifolur&Sdoavmuf ...
tJ'DtcsdefrSm

Nrefrmacgif;aqmifu

0kef;ueJx&yfNyD;

olYvlawGbufudk

BunfYum a[Uwpfa,mufvmprf;[k cyfrmrmvSrf;ac:vdkufonf ...
xdktcg yHkcHk;ay:wGif tacGtcufrsm; wvufvufawmufaNymifaeaom
NrefrmppfAdkvfcsKyfwpfa,mufu cyfukufukufav; olUtem;rSmvm&yfav\/
acgif;aqmifBuD;u

xdkppfAdkvfcsKyf\vnfukwfudkudkifum

oabFm0&ef'g

teD;odkU qGJac:oGm;NyD; a&xJodkUaqmifUuefcsvdkufavonf ...
NyD; ae&modkUNyefvmNyD; aBumiftrf;trf;ESifY oltm;0dkif;BunfYaeol tm;vHk;udk
0ifYBuGm;BuGm;BunfYvdkuf&if; ....
]]usKyfwdkUqDrSm AdkvfcsKyfawG t&rf;aygw,fAsm}} [kaNymvdkufavawmUonf/
( wifjyol-  mokenlay  )

5

a&m*g
&efukefjrKdY&Sd

emrnfMuD;

txl;ukaq;cef;MuD;\

ydkif&Sifq&m0efMuD;onf

aps;uGufavhvma&; tpD&ifcHpmudk zwf&Iaeavonf/
(1) a,musfm;rsm;wGif tjzpfrsm;aoma&m*grsm;rSm tqkwf? tonf;ESifh
ywfouf onf/
oHk;oyfcsuf - aps;uGufwGif oufoufomom&EdkifjyD; ? uHprf;rJrsm;pGm
ygaom ? t&nftaoG;nHhaq;vdyfrsm;? t&ufrsm;udk aomufoHk;jcif;aMumifh
....
(2) rdef;rrsm;wGif tjzpfrsm;aom a&m*grsm;rSm ESvHk;ESifhywfoufonf/
oHk;oyfcsuf - aeYpOf aps;oGm;Muaom tdrf&Sifrrsm;twGuf twufMurf;
vSaomukefaps;EIef;aMumifh...
(3) ausmif;om;rsm;wGif tjzpfrsm;aoma&m*grsm;rSm rsufpdESifhywfoufonf/
oHk;oyfcsuf

-

tvGefw&mao;i,fatmif

csHKYxm;aom

pmrsm;udk

zwfMujcif;aMumifh ...
txl;wifjycsuf - rsufpdESifhem; ukoa&;XmebufwGif vlem tqrwef
rsm;jym;vmaerIaMumifh

txl;ukq&m0efMuD;rsm;

xyfrHwdk;csJYcefYxm;&ef

vdkaeygonf/ xl;jcm;aomxdka&m*g\ vu©PmrSm vlemrsm;\tqdkt&
]]rsufpdjzifh wyftyfjrifaom t&mrsm;udk owif;tjzpfjyefvnfem;axmif
&aomtcg vHk;0uGJjym;jcm;em;aejcif;aMumifh}} [lí jzpfygonf/
( wifjyol-  Clinton  )
6

jynfol
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif jzpfonf/
OD;ae0if;tm; vufatmufi,fom;rsm;u jynfolawG rjidrfoufaMumif;
wifjyonf/
OD;ae0if;u jynfolawGudk ]]rdk;ay:axmifrypfbl;}} [k jcdrf;ajcmufav\/
OD;armifarmiftm; vufatmufi,fom;rsm;u jynfolawG rjidrfoufaMumif;
wifjyonf/
OD;armifarmifu ]] rapmifhEdkifMuawmhbl;vm; }} [k acsmhav\/
OD;apmarmiftm; vufatmufi,fom;rsm;u jynfolawG rjidrfoufaMumif;
wifjyonf/
OD;apmarmifu ]]usKyfwdkYa&G;aumufyGJjyD;&if ppfwef;vsm;jyefr,f}} [k uwday;
av\/
OD;oef;a&Ttm; vufatmufi,fom;rsm;u jynfolawG rjidrfoufaMumif;
wifjyonf/
OD;oef;a&T u ]] bm ... jynfolawG.. [kwfvm; .... b,fuvlawGvJ? jynfjrdKY
uvm;}} [k jyefar;av\ /
( wifjyol-  Clinton  )

7

umuG,fol
aEG&moD ausmif;ydwf&ufwGifjzpfonf/
zcifonf ol hom;MuD;tm; av;*G ypfoifay;\/
tawmftwefypfEdkifvmaomf om;MuD;u ]] taz- om;ypfEkdifvmjyD? bmawG
udk ypf&rvJ}} [k ar;avonf/
zcifu - ]] om; rif;jcHxJudkqif;? acgif;&if;jcHu 0ufawG wdk hpdkufcif;xJudk
0ifxdk;&ifypf?ajc&if;jcHu MuufawG jcHxJ0ifvm&ifvJypf}} vdk hrSmvdkufygowJh/
om;MuD;onf rdrdjcHxJwGif tMudrfMudrfywfaomfvnf; ypfp&mum;rawG h/
wcsDaomf tdrfa&S hyef;jcHav;twGif;rSm vIyfvIyfjrifonfESifh ypfvdkuf&m
ypfrSwfudk wnfhwnfhrSefjyD; rdrdnDi,f\ idkoHudkvnf; wjydKifeuf Mum;&
avonf/
zcifum; jym,mcwfvsuf ]] om;MuD;&,f rif;rvJ &ufpufvdkufwm
udk,fhnDav;udk ypf&ovm; ... ay; - rif; av;*G ... aemuf rypf&awmhbl;}}
[k qlylae&if;rS ....
om;MuD;\

idkoHygMuD;ESifh

ajymvdkufaom

pum;oHudk

Mum;&aomf

yufvufvefav\/
om;MuD;ajymvdkufonfrSm

-

]] tazuvnf; om;u om;wdk hjcHudk umuG,faewmyg}} [l\/
( wifjyol-  Clinton  )
8

toHk;tEIef;
vlwcsdK hpum;ajymaeMuonf/
yxrvl - ukefaps;EIef;awGu MuD;vmjyD/ rif;wkd hydkufqHudk odyfroHk;MueJ h/
wvwv&wJh ydkufqHudk vufxJrSm roHk;yJ z,fcsefxm;MuOD;/
'kwd,vl - [kwfw,f/ reufu aps;em;rSm vlawG &kH;&Hk;tkyftkyfeJ hpum;ajym
aeMuvdk hem;axmifMunfhwm ukefaps;EIef;taMumif; csnf;yJ /
yxrvl - aMomf 'geJ h reufjzef usaemfwdk hc&D;xGufzdk hawG h&yfudk b,frSm
vkyfrvJ/
'kwd,vl - awG h&yfudk tm;vHk; tqifajywJhae&m vkyf&r,fAs/ oli,fcsif;
awGtm;vHk;tkyftkyfpnf;pnf; jyefrqHkjzpfwmMumjyD/ tm;vHk; vdkufEdkifzdk h
pDpOfMu&atmif

....

yxrvl - [kwfyAsm; / "gwfqDeJ hum;vJ tqifoifhAsdK h.... tif; - "gwfqD
odkavSmif&wmuawmh

enf;enf;cufom;/

qDaps;uvnf;

jrifhoudk;/

'gayr,fh - pdwfrylygeJ husaemf qDtvHktavmuf odkrSD;xm;jyD;ygjyD/
wwd,vl - 'Dr,f 'Dr,f ... udk,hfvlwdk hpum;ajymaewm wrsdK;MuD;yJ /
toHk;tEIH;wcsdK h qef;aeovm; vdk h....
y+'k - (toHudkESdrfhvsuf) udk,hfvluvJ a0;&efaum .... usKyfwdk hu ]pk}
qkdwm rygatmifa&SmifajymaeMuwmyg .....
( wifjyol-  Clinton  )

9

tif*sifwHk;MuD;
rqv acwfu qdk&S,fvpf pD;yGm;a&; udkoa&mfwJh [momav;yg/
qdk&S,fvpfacwfqdkawmh odwJhtwdkif; ypönf;awGudk o,fcsifwdkif;o,f?
a&mif;csifwdkif;a&mif;vdkU r&bl;av/ tm;vHk; tpdk;&u csKyfudkifxm;wm/
ae&mwum &SmazGa&;? ppfaq;a&;awGeJU/ ]]arSmifcdk ypönf;}} qdkwJh pum;vHk;
w,facwfpm;wmudk;As/ rSwfrdMur,fxifygw,f/
Mum;bl;wJh [moav;yg/ waeUvlwa,mufu? 

Volkswagen 

um;av;

armif;vmowJh/ tJ? vrf;rSm&SmazGa&;eJUwdk;a&m/ &SmazGa&;u um;taemufzHk;
udk zGifhMunfhNyD;? ar;vdkufowJh/
]]cifAsm;? 'Dtif*sifwHk;BuD;? b,fuo,fvmwmvJ...}} wJh/
( wifjyol- om*d )

tMudKufqHk;i&J
i&JodkY vlwpfa,muf a&mufvmonf/ i&Jrif;u xdkvltm;jypf'PfruscHcif
a&G;cs,fcGifhwpfckay;\/ xdkrSmtjcm;r[kwf i&JuscH&ef EdkifiHtm; a&G;cGifh
ay;jcif;jzpfonf/
odkYjzifhi&Jom;wpfa,mufudk xdkoltm; EdkifiHtvdkuf i&Jrsm;ESifh4if;wdkU\
jypf'PfpD&ifyHkrsm;udk vdkufjycdkif;avonf/
10

xdkvlvnf; tar&duef? jAdwdef? *syef tp&SdaomEdkifiHrsm;ESifh 4if;wdkY\
Murf;wef;í a0'emrsm;jzifh jynfhESufaeaom jypf'PfpD&ifyHkrsm;udkawGYjyD;
aMumufvefYí aeavonf/ xdkaemuf jrefrmhi&JodkY a&mufvmavonf/
tqdkyg vli,fonf jrefrmEdkifiH i&Jta&SYwGif vltrsm;tjym;wef;pDvsuf
jypf'PfuscH&ef apmifhvsufaeonfudk awGYaomtcg? 4if;tm;vdkufjyaom
i&Jom;tm; tb,faMumifh[líar;av\/
jrefrmhi&JwGif w&m;pD&ifyHkrSm 3 rsdK;jzpfavonf/
xdk 3rsdK;rSm – 
1/ vQyfppfxdkifcHjzifh ESdyfpufjcif;udk cH&jcif;/
2/ MumyGwfjzifh &dkufESufjcif;udk cH&jcif;/
3/ opfom;jym;ay:wGif oHrsm;pGm&dkufxm;í jypf'PfuscHoltm; oHcRef
rsm;bufwGif wuftdyfcdkif;jcif;jzpfonf/
i&Jom;vnf; tqdkygvltm;þuJhodkY&Sifh;jyav\/
1/ jrefrmh i&JwGifvQyfppfxdkifcHkjzifh ESdyfpufaomfvnf; tcsdefjynfheD;eD;
rD;rvmaomaMumifh jypf'Pfoufomjcif;/
2/ MumyGwfjzifh&dkuf&efwm0efusaom i&Jom;rsm;rSm rGef;wnfhtcsdefavmufrS
a&mufvmwwfjyD; rMumrD aehvnfpmxGufoGm;pm;wwfMuonf/ jyefvmjyD;
vQifvnf; twif;ajym? [dkoGm;vdkuf? 'Dvmvdkufjzifh waeYwmtcsdef ukefqHk;
ojzifh jypf'Pfay;&ef tcsdefrsm;rsm;yifr&SdvdkufwwfaMumif;?
3/ opfom;jym;ay:rS oHacsmif;rsm;vJ cdk;a&mif;pm;í ukefvkeD;yg;jzpfaeí
jypf'PfMucHvQif oufomaMumif;?

11

tqdkygtaMumif;rsm;aMumifh jrefrmhi&Jtm; a&G;cs,folrsm;í wef;pDolrsm;ae
aMumif;&Sif;jyygonf/
(wifjyol-  elf2006  )

tjypfr&Sd&if
wcgaomf axmufvSrf;a&; t&m&Sdonf tusOf;om;wOD;tm; ppfar;ae\/
t&m&Sd / / rif;udk igwdk htMurf;ywrf;enf;awG roHk;csifbl;uGm .... rif;
udk,fhtjypfudk udk,fhbmom 0efcHvdkufyg ...
tusOf;om;/ / uGsefawmfhrSm tjypfr&Sdygbl;cifAsm ... uGsefawmf rw&m;
tzrf;cH&wmyg/
t&m&Sd / / 'Dae&mawmif a&mufvmrSawmh tjypfr&SdyJ aervm;uG ...
tusOf;om;/

/

wu,fygcifAsm

.... uGsefawmf

bmtjypfrS

r&SdyJ

tzrf;cHcJh&wmyg/
xdktcg t&m&Sd\ajymvdkufaom pum;aMumifh tusOf;om;rSm acgif;ikdufpdkuf
usoGm;avonf/
t&m&SdajymvdkufonfrSm ]]a[haumif rif; aocsmpOf;pm;aemf ... rif;
tjypfr&Sdbl; qdkwmaocsm&if axmif ESpftuefhtowfr&Sd usoGm;Edkifw,f ...
pum;ajym qifjcifyg ....}} [l\ /
( wifjyol-  Clinton  )
12

bmeJ hwkef;
aejynfawmf wGifjzpfonf/
EdkifiHawmf

tMuD;tuJonf

OD;ay:OD;\avSsmufxHk;rsm;udkzwfjyD;

vGefpGm

oabmusvsuf OD;ay:OD;uJhodkY trwfrif;rsm; olYtem;wGif&SdvSsif aumif;rnf
[k rdef hMum;av\/
xdk haMumifh teD;em;&Sd t&m&Sdrsm;uvnf; OD;ay:OD;pmtkyfudk tvkt,uf
zwfMu&if; rif;vdkvdkuf rif;MudKufaqmifzdk h awG;awmaeMuavonf/
wae haomf - aqmufvkyfjyD;ump wHwm;MuD;wpif;tm; oGm;a&mufppfaq;
&m ....wHwm;MuD;rSm vIyfaeonfudk awGY&ojzifh t&m&Sdav;wpfOD;rS ]]wHwm;
MuD;uvnf;Asm ...}} [k wD;wdk;a&&Gwfvdkufrd\/ xdktcg tMuD;tuJrS ]] [Jh
wHwm;MuD;u bmjzpfwkef;}} [k jyefar;av&m .....
t&m&Sdav;rS ]] bkef;awmfaMumifh ewfjynfodk hwdk;vsdK;ayguf qufoG,fay;
aeovdkygyJ cifAsm; }} [k acwfopf OD;ay:OD; vkyfMunfhvdkuf&m tMuD;tuJrS
vGefpGm oabmusonfjzpfaomaMumifh qkawmf? ygrpfawmfrsm; ay;oem;
av\/ t&m&Sdvnf; rsm;pGm*kPfwufavonf/

13

wzef - zGifhvSpfjyD;ump qdkifbmpD;wD; odk h0ifa&muf ppfaq;aepOf ...
wdkufqdkifvSpGmrD;ysufoGm;onf

jzpfaomaMumifh .... ]]w,f -

rD;u

abmufrJhaMumifhysuf&owkef;}}
[k ar;jref;av&m ...vdrfrmyg;eyfaom t&m&SdrS ]] rSefyg? EdkifiHawmf
tMuD;tuJ\ udk,fa&mift&Sdeft0gudk vsyfppfrD;ewfom;rS r,SOfEdkifaom
aMumifh a0;&modk hz,fcGmajy;ojzifh rD;ysuf&ygonf cifAsm;}} [k ajzMum;
vdkuf&m oabmusvSojzifh qkawmf ygrpfawmfrsm; xyfrH csD;jrSifhjyef
avonf/
xdkodk h vSnfhvnfppfaq;jyD;tjyef tpnf;ta0;cef;raqmifwGif pnf;a0;
aeMupOf – 
orD;awmfav;tm; rjrifrdonfudk owdxm;rdaomaMumifh tMuD;tuJrS ...
]] [Jh ighorD;awmfav; rawG hrdygvm; }} [kar;avonf/
xdktcg ... yg;eyfjyD; pum;MuG,faom t&m&SdrS ]] rSefyg? a&SmifvTJr&Edkifaom
obm0w&m;\ usDpm;rIaMumifh udk,fvufrtDromjzpfvsuf tem;,lae
aMumif;yg }} [k jyefajzav\/
þwGif EdkifiHawmf tMuD;tuJonfvnf; rdrdudk,fukd bdk;awmfeD;eD; xifrSwf
aejyDjzpfaomaMumihf tpnf;ta0;udk &kyfodrf; vlpkcGJavonf/
aemufwae hreufwGifrS - tpnf;ta0; vlpHkcsdefüf rdrdt&m&Sdav;udk xyfrH
prf;oyfvdkonfjzpfaomaMumifh ]] [Jh- bmeJ hwkef; }} [k ar;av\ / ( bm
a&m*geJ hwkef;[kar;&rnf jzpfaomfvnf; tMuD;tuJrSm bdk;awmf\ 'dkif,m
avmh*frsm;rS raoGzDvdkaomaMumifh rl&if;twdkif;ar;avonf/)
14

vdrfrmyg;eyfjyD; owd0D&d,jzifh jynfhpHkaom t&m&Sdav;rS rqdkif;rwGyif ...
]]AdkufeJYygcifAsm;}} [k jyefajzonfwGif ...tMuD;tuJ crsmvnf; rwfwyfrS
pef hpef hvJí avief;pGJavawmhonf/
( wifjyol-  Clinton  )

wm0efudk,fpD
aejynfawmf tpnf;ta0; cef;r wae&m ....
tMuD;tuJ/ / rif;wdk hEdkifiHawmf umuG,fa&;tpDtrHawG ighudkwifjyprf;/
0efMuD; / / [kwfuJh ... jynfolawGqlyl&if ol hvleJ holjyefxdef;odrf;zdk h
pGrf;tm;&SiftzGJYukd

zGJYpnf;ay;xm;ygw,f/ bkef;MuD;ausmif;awGudkawmh

MuHYcdkifa&;tzGJYudk wm0efay;jyD; apmifhMunhfcdkif;xm;ygw,f/
t"du&kPf; ESdrfeif;a&; &JawGudkvnf; wkwfawG? 'dkif;awG tjynfht0 wyfqif
ay;xm;jyD;? tcgtm;avsmfpGm ESpfzufcGJavhusifhay;xm;ygw,f/
ygwDawG? ausmif;om;tzGJ hawGudkvnf; wefjyef tzGJ hawG zJG hpnf;jyD;
jynfolawG xifa,mifxifrSm;jzpfatmif vkyfaeygw,f/ rD'D,m wl rD'D,m
wkdufyGJudkvnf; t&Sdefrysuf qufvuf qifETJaeygw,f cifAsm/
15

tMuD;tuJ/ / at; .... 'gqdk b,fqdk;vdk hvJ/ aumif;w,f qufxdef;xm;/
aMomf 'geJ h ighppfAdkvfav;awGudka&m bmwm0efay;xm;ovJ/
0efMuD; / / olwdk h tGefvdkif; wufaeMuygw,f cifAsm;/
tMuD;tuJ/ /

a[ ........

( wifjyol-  Clinton  )

igvJygw,faemf
wpfcgu EkdifiHawmf orwrif;awGcsnf;oD;oefU av,mOfwpfpD; pD;vmMu
owJh/
]0kef;} qkd av,mOfBuD;u odrfhodrfhwkefoGm;ygw,f/
e*g;BuD;wpfaumifu av,mOfBuD;udkcGpD;NyD; av,mOfukd b,fvkdrS quf
armif;vkdUr&atmif Ncdrf;ajcmufaewmyg/
'geJU ½k½Sm; or®w ylwifu atmfajymvkdufowJh/
]]igwkdUqDu aygufuGJtm;tjyif;qHk; EsLu,m;'Hk;eJU cGif;vkdufr,f}}

16

e*g;uat;at;aq;aq;ygyJ/
'geJU tar&duefor®wrif; a*smhbk½Sfu 0ifatmfajymvkdufowJh/
]]igwkdUqDu 

Starwars 

pDrHudef;u

vufeufqef;awGeJUypfvkdufr,f/

ab;z,fyg }}
e*g;BuD;uat;at;aq;aq;ygyJ/ av,mOfudk ydkNyD;awmhawmif vIyf&rf;ae
ygao;owJh/
'geJU rjzpfacsbl;qkdNyD; OuúXBuD; AkdvfcsKyfrSL;BuD;u acgif;uav;jyLNyD;
wkd;wkd;ajymvkdufw,f/
e*g;BuD;vnf;aMumufvefUwMum;

ckefysHajy;vTm;aysmufuG,foGm;ygw,f/

'geJU wjcm;aom or®wrif;awGu tm;vHk; tHhMowBuD; 0kdif;ar;Muwmaygh/
bmrsm;ajymvkdufygwkef;aygh/
tbu at;at;aq;aq;yJ jyefajymvkdufowJh/
]] jrefrmEkdifiHudkoGm;aeMuwm..../ igvJygw,faemf }}
( wifjyol-  botchan  )
17

olrsm;usawmY  “rSL;MuD;” rvkyf& ... wJY
e0wvufxufrSm udk,fYzmomudk,f &mxl;awGwdk;ay;vdkufMuwm AdkvfcsKyf
MuD;awGrsm;vmawmY olwdkYxJu tmPmt&dSqHk;vludkay;zdkY wDxGifvdkufwJY
&mxl;u  “AdkvfcsKyfrSL;MuD;”  wJY/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;xufawmif &mxl;
trsm;MuD; MuD;oGm;wmaygY/
tJ'gudk

tm;usvdkY

'ku©a&mufoGm;wJY

yk*d¾Kvfwa,muf&dSoAs/

olu

rEåav;jynfolYaq;&HkMuD;u aq;&HktkyfMuD;qdkyJ/ rEåav;rSmu t&ifwkef;uvdk
r[kwfyJ aq;&HkawGursm;vmawmY aq;&Hktyk fMuD;awGvnf; av;ig;a,muf
&dSwmaygYAsm/

'gayr,fY

wjcm;aq;&Hktyk fMuD;awGu?

ydkjyD;pDeD,muswJY

tckeuajymwJY yk*d¾KvfMuD;&JY tkyfcsKyfrIatmufrSmyJ &dSowJY/
tEDS yk*d¾KvfMuD;[m udk,fuydkjyD; yg0g&dS&JYom;eJY? wjcm;olawGeJY  “aq;&Hktkyf
MuD;”  qdkjyD; tac:ta0: wlaewmudk rESpfjrdKY[efwlyg&JY/ waeYawmY
olxkwfjyefwJY XmewGif; ausnmcsufwckxJrSm  “aq;&HktkyfrSL;MuD;”  qdkjyD;
vufrSwfatmufrSm a&;vdkufowJY/
tJ... rMumcifyJ tJ'D aq;&HktkyfMuD;vnf;
jyKwfygava&mAsm/
tm;uswmvm;? &GJYvdkufwmvm; q&mMuD;&,f/
( wifjyol- mgpo  )

18

MudKuf&ma&G;
EdkifiHYacgif;aqmifrsm;udk

jzKwfcsifvSsif

trsm;qHk;

toHk;jyKavY&dSMuaom

taMumif;jycsuf ESpfck&dSygonf/
¤if;wdkYrSm vmbfpm;rI (  bribery  ) ESifY tdrfaxmifa&;azmufjyefrI(  adultery  )
wdkYjzpfygonf/
bbMuD;[k emrnfwGifusefcJYaom AdkvfcsKyfMuD;tm; jzKwfypfvdkaomtcg
xdkpOfu twGif;a&;rSL;(1) jzpfaeao;aom AdkvfcsKyfcifnGefY vufxJwGif
taMumif;jyp&m ESpfckvHk; udkifxm;jyD;jzpfavonf/
xdkYaemuf AdkvfcsKyfcifnGefYu xdkAdkvfcsKyfMuD;tm; ac:ajym\/ 
“cifAsm;udk uGsefawmfwdkY jzKwfzdkY taxmuftxm;awGawmY &Smxm;jyD;jyD? 
bribery 

eJYjzKwfwmudk MudKufovm;?  adultery  eJYjzKwfwmudk MudKufovm;

a&G;ayawmY” 
AdkvfcsKyfcifnGefY nSyfajymvdkufaom t*FvdyfpmvHk;udk aumif;pGmem;rvnf
aom bbAdkvfcsKyfMuD;u ajzrdajz&m “ t'yfxGD ”  [k ajzrdcJYavonf/
odkYESifY bbMuD;ESifY rif;orD;av;wdkYZmwfvrf; vlxkMum;odkY a&muf&dSoGm;
cJYjcif; jzpfygownf;/
( wifjyol- mgpo  )

19

Local Call 

wpfcgu tar&dueforw bk&Sf &,f? NAdwdefu 0efMuD;csKyf wdkeDbvJ &,f?
NrefrmNynfu OD;oef;a&T&,f...(3) a,muf[m aoNyD;aemufydkif; i&JNynfudk
a&mufvmMuw,f/ ,rrif;MuD;qDrSm qHk;Nzwfcsufudkapmifhae&if; olwkdY&Jh
rdef;rawGqDudk

owd&vkdY

zkH;ac:csifvmw,fwJh/

tJ'geJU

bk&fupNyD;

zkH;ac:wm r'rfbk&fS eJY ( 5 ) rdepfavmuf tvGrf;o,fvkdufw,f/ ( 5 )
rdepfaNymNyD; zkH;csvkdufawmh ,rrif;MuD;u zkH;aNymc a':vm ( 1000 )
awmif;vkdufw,f/ bk&fu bmvkdYzkH;caps;MuD;wmvJvkdYar;awmh vlNynfudkac:
wmrdkY  oversea  rdkYvkdYygvkdaNymvkdufw,f/ aemuf wkdeDu zkH;xyfac:w,f../
olu awmh ( 10 ) rdepfMumw,fwJh/ ,rrif;MuD;u olYqDu a':vm
( 1000 ) yJ awmif;vkdufw,f/ bk&Sfu olYwHk;u ( 5 ) rdepfudk a':vm
( 1000 )? wkdeDusawmh ( 10 ) rdepfukd a':vm ( 1000 ) qkdawmh
raMueyfbl;aygh/ ,rrif;MuD;udk ar;awmh NAdwdefu tar&duefxufydkeD;vkdY
ygvkdYNyefaNymw,f/

aemufqkH; OD;oef;a&TtvSnfhusawmh

r'rfoef;a&TeJh

zkH;aNymvkdufwm ( 5 ) rdepfvnf;ru..( 10 ) rdepfvnf;ru...( 1 )
em&DMumoGm;w,fwJh/ ,rrif;MuD;u oef;a&TqDu ( 5 ) a':vmyJ
,lvkdufw,fwJh/ tJ'DrSm bk&Sfaum? wkdeDaum pdwfawGqkd;NyD; ,rrif;MuD;udk
tNypfqkdwmaygh/

tJ'DrSm,rrif;MuD;u

olYrdef;rqDac:wm 

Oversea 

Call 

....ygwJhcifAsm;..../
( wifjyol-  exotic  )

20 

bmNyefaNymvnf;qkdawmh........
r[kwfbl;.... 

Local 

Call 

ay:vmjyefjyD
udkZm*emjuD;wpfa,muf axmifxJa&mufaewkef; oef;a&$juD;a&mufcsvm_yD;  "udkif;/
rif;tckaxmifxJa&mufae_yD? rif;ighudk[movkyfEdkifao;&Jhvm;?"  vdhkar;owJh? udkZm*em
u  "usKyfudk 'Daehxkwfowif;pmwpfapmif/ a&wpfyHk;eJh aumfcGufwpfcGuf omay;yg" 
vdkh_yefa_ymvdkufw,f?
oef;a&$"gwfyHkygwJh

vdkcsifwJhypPnf;awGvJ&a&m
pmrsufESmudkvSef/

cGufuaumfcGufqdkawmh

udkZm*emvJ

cGufudka&yHk;xJESpf_yD;

a&ay:udkcsuf_cif;

owif;pmrSm

_yefv$wfvdkufa&m?

_yefay:vma&maygh?

tJ'DtcsdefrSm

udkZm*ema_ymvdkufwmuawmh "awmuf/ ay:vm_yef_yD 'DcGuf"

( wifjyol- Wyclef  )

xm0& bk&m;ocifawmif rrSDyg
wcgu tar&duefor®w&,f? w&kwfor®w&,f? usaemfwdkU AdkvfcsKyfrSL;MuD;
&,f xm0&bk&m;ocifudk oGm;awGUMuygowJh/ ...
xm0&bk&m;ocifu oifwdkU odvdk&mudk ar;Muygqdkawmh wa,mufjyD;
wa,muf ar;Muawmhwmaygh/
yxrqHk; tar&duefor®wu ar;w,f/
] b,fawmhrsm;rS tar&duef[m urÇmwckvHk;udk EdkifiHa&;? ppfa&;t&
jydKifbufuif; vTrf;rdk;EdkifrvJ } .. wJh/
21

xm0&bk&m;ocifu cPpOf;pm;vdkufjyD; jyefajymw,f/
] jzpfawmhjzpfr,f ... 'gayr,hf rif;rrSDawmhbl; } .. wJh/
tar&duefor®w idkygava&m/
jyD;awmh w&kwfor®wu ar;w,f/
] b,fawmhrsm;rS w&kwfjynf[m urÇmYpD;yGm;a&;wckvHk;udk vTrf;rdk;EdkifrvJ} ..
wJh/
xm0&bk&m;ocifu ckeuvdkyJ cPpOf;pm;vdkufjyD; jyefajymygw,f/
] jzpfawmhjzpfvmr,f .. 'gayr,hf rif; rrSDawmhbl; } .. qdkawmh
w&kwfor®wvJ idkjyefwmaygh/
aemufqHk;awmh AdkvfcsKyfrSL;MuD;tvSnhfaygh/ ..
olUar;cGef;vJ Mum;jyD;a&m xm0&bk&m;ocif idkygava&m/
olar;wmu ] b,fawmhrsm;rS jrefrmjynfrSm a&awGrD;awG rSefrSmvJ } .. wJh/
rsuf&nfvnf&GJMum;xJu xm0&bk&m;ocifu jyefajz&Smygw,f/
] jzpfawmhjzpfr,f ... 'gayr,hf igrrSDawmhbl; } ...... wJhAsm /
( wifjyol-  yzg  )

22

tckuHaumif;w,f
wrvGefb0rSm a*smhbkcsf &,f? bboef;&,f? Avm'Drm ylwif&,f twlwl
awGYjyD; vrf;avQmufxGufcJhygw,f/ olwdkY wpfae&mta&muf vuf0g;uyf
wdkifrSm um;piftwifcHxm;&wJh a,&Ic&pfawmfeJYawGYygava&m/ tJ'DrSmwif
a*smhu a,&Iem;udk wdk;oGm;jyD;awmh
]t&Sif? om;awmf touf&SifcJhwJh b0rSm om;awmf uHaumif;cJhygvm;/}
a,&Iu ]at;.. rif;uHaumif;cJhw,f/ bmvdkYvJqdkawmh rif;[m tMurf;zuf
orm;awGudk EdSrfESif;cGifh &cJhvdkYyJ/}
jyD;awmh ylwifu a,&Iudk ]uRefawmfrsdK;aum touf&SifpOfu b,fvkd
uHaumif;cJhygvJ/} vdkYar;w,f/ a,&Iu ]rif;vJ uHaumif;cJhwmyJ.. bmvdkYvJ
qdkawmh rif;[m wdkif;jynfudk pdwfwdkif;us yHkazmfEdkifcJhvdkYyJ/}
aemufqHk;ydwftaeeJY uRefawmfwdkY bboef;u tm;usrcH ]uRefawmfa&mAsm..
b,fvdk uHaumif;cJhvJ/} vdkYar;w,f/ tJ.. ar;vdkufwJh cPrSm a,&I
vufESpfzufvHk; vIyfoGm;w,f.. 'gayr,f.. um;pifwifcHxm;&wmqdkawmh
vIyfvdkYr&blk;/ jyD;awmh bboef;udk tHMudwfjyjyD; 'Dvdkajymw,f/
]at;.. ighvufESpfzufpvHk; vIyfvdkYr&wmyJ rif;uHaumif;w,fvdkYrSwf/}

( wifjyol- deathmetalster  )

23

Myanmar & Wireless 

*syefEkdifiHrS blrdaA'ynm&SifawGu wl;azmfa&;vkyfuGufwpfckuae rxifrSwf
yJ aNratmufrDwm ( 1000 ) ausmfrSm

Copper  Wire

awGwl;azmfawGY&dS

oGm;Muw,f/ *syefrS odyÜHynm&SifawG&Jh prf;oyfrSKt& atmufygtwdkif;
rSwfcsufwpfck csvkdufMuw,f/
rdrdwdkY bkd;ab;bDbifawG[m a&S;ESpfaygif; 1000 cefYuwnf;u
Wire Coxial Technology

Copper 

awGtokH;NyKcJhMuw,fwJh../

tJ'gudk rcHEkdifNzpfoGm;wJh tar&duefawGu olwdkYEkdifiHrSm aNratmufrDwm
( 2000 ) wl;cJhMuw,f/ xl;qef;pGmeJY

Fibre  Cables

awGudk awGY&dSoGm;

w,f/ tar&duef ynm&SifawGu atmufygtwdkif; rSwfcsufcsvkdufMuw,f/
rdrdwdkY bkd;ab;bDbifawG[m a&S;ESpfaygif; 1000 cefYuwnf;u
Technology ( or ) Photonic Technology

Optical 

awGtokH;NyKcJhMuw,fwJh../

aemufqkH; NrefrmEkdifiHrS AdkvfcsKyfMuD;awGuvnf; tm;usrcH NrefrmhaNratmuf
udkwl;azmfckdif;vkdufMuw,f/ rDwm ( 1000 ) wl;w,f....bmrSrawGYbl;/
rDwm ( 2000 ) wl;w,f...bmrSrawGYao;bl;/ 'geJY ydkaocsmoGm;atmif
rDwm ( 3000 ) txd wl;vkdufMuw,f/ tHhMop&myJAsm../ bmqkdbmrS
udkrawGYwm../ 'geJY aemufqkH;rSwfcsufwpfck csvkdufMuw,f/
rdrdwdkY bkd;ab;bDbifawG[m a&S;ESpfaygif; 1000 cefYuwnf;u
Technology

awGtokH;NyKcJhMuw,fwJh../

( wifjyol-  exotic  )

24 

Wireless 

aumfr&Sif
wpfcgujrefrmEdkifiHu 0efMuD;csKyfwpfa,muf tif'dkeD;&Sm;EdkifiHudk tvnfoGm;
owJh/

tif'dkeD;&Sm;0efMuD;csKyfvnf;

olYtdrfudkac:jyD;

{nfhcHwmayghAsm/

aumif;ayhnGefYayhqdkwJhtpm;taomufawG? t&ufawGeJY {nfhcHayr,fh jrefrm
0efMuD;csKyfu tif'dk0efMuD;csKyf&JY eef;awmfwrQ xnf0gvSwJh tdrfawmfMuD;udkyJ
oabmusaeowJh/ aemufqHk;raeEdkifawmhwmeJY ]AsdKY tif'dk0efMuD;? cifAsm;
vcb,favmuf&vdkY 'DtdrfMuD;udk aqmufEdkifwmvJ} vdkYar;rdowJh/ 'Dawmh
tif'dk0efMuD;u bmrS jyefrajzao;bJ jywif;aygufuae vSrf;jrifae&wJh
jrpfMuD;udk vufndK;vSrf;xdk;jyD; ][dkrSmawGYvm; jrpful;wHwm;MuD;} qdkawmhjrefrm0efMuD;csKyf/ / ]awGYygw,f}
tif'dk0efMuD;csKyf/ / ] 20% } vdkYajymvdkufowJh/
aemufwpfESpfMumwJhtcgrSmawmh tif'dk0efMuD;csKyfu jrefrmjynfudk jyefjyD;
tvnfvmowJh/ jrefrm0efMuD;csKyfvnf; *kPf,l0ifhMuGm;pGmeJY olYtdrfudk
zdwfwmaygh/ tJ'DrSm tif'dk0efMuD;csKyfwpfa,muf tdrfxJudkawmif r0if&
ao;bl;?

tdrfa&SYrSmwif

yg;pyfta[mif;om;eJY

ai;jyD;&yfaerdw,f/

jrefrm0efMuD;csKyf&JY tdrfawmfu olYtdrfxuf q,fqru crf;em;wmudk;/
wpftdrfvHk;udk

pusifausmufawGeJY

rGrf;rHxm;jyD;?

aumfaZmawGuvnf;

eif;&ufp&mawmifr&Sdbl;wJh/ 'geJY tif'dk0efMuD;vnf; t&JpGefYjyD; ar;vdkuf
w,f ]cifAsm; vc b,favmuf&wmvJ[if? tdrfMuD;u [D;aewmyJ}?
jrefrm0efMuD;csKyf/ / ] [dkrSmjrpful;wHwm;MuD;awGYvm;}
[kjrpfudkxdk;jya&GYar;vdkufonf/
tif'dk0efMuD;csKyf/ / ] rawGYygvm;? b,frSmvJAs} [kjyefar;vdkufonf/
25

xdktcg jrefrm0efMuD;csKyfu rdefYrdefYMuD;jyHK;í

atmufygtwdkif; ajymcsvdkuf

avownf;/
] 100%}
( wifjyol-  Eistein  )
t<um;jydKifyGJ
tmqD,H xdyfoD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;wGif EdkifiHtoD;oD;rS acgif;aqmifrsm;
tBuGm;NydKifMuav&m yxrOD;pGm rav;&Sm;acgif;aqmifu ...
]usKyfwdkU rav;vlrsKd;awG wnfaqmufxm;wJh rdk;arSsmfwdkufAsm? v udk
xdaevdkU} [k MuGm;avonf/
xdktcg tjcm;acgif;aqmifrsm;u wpfa,mufwpfayguf 0dkif;0ef; EdSyfuGyf
avrS rlvtjrifh jyefa&mufatmif avsmhoGm;avonf/
acgif;aqmif toD;oD;rSm olwdkUEdkifiHtaMumif;udk tmaygiftm&if;oefoefjzifh
BuGm;vdkuf? wjcm;acgif;aqmifrsm;u 0dkif;EdSyfuGyfvdkufjzifh olwkdU MuGm;cJhorSs
rlvxufrsm;pGm jyefjyefavsmhcsaeMu&onf/
aemufqHk; tba½TqDrS bmrSMuGm;oH rMum;&ojzifh tm;vHk;u 0dkif;ar;Mu&m?
]igwdkU EdkifiHrSm rdef;rawGu uav;arG;&if zifaygufuae arG;w,fuG} [k
ajymav&m tm;vHk; tHk;tHk;uGsufuRuf jzpfNyD; oufaojycdkif; avawmhonf/
xdktcgrS

tba½Tu

rdefUrdefUBuD;NyHK;um

vGJoGm;wmyguGm} [lownf;/
( wifjyol- Black­Xenon )
26

]igMuGm;wmu

ESpfvufryJ

tajctaeaumif;wmu
wpfcgu

tpdk;&tjuD;tuJwpfOD;onf

aemufvdkufrsm;ESifh

tpnf;ta0;twGuf

c&D;xGufjuonf? vrf;wGif rawmfwq ,mOfwdkufr+ _zpf_yD; tm;vHk;aq;@Hkodkh
a&mufoGm;juonf? tjuD;tuJ. owif;udk ar;_ref;pHkprf;&eftwGuf owif;axmuf
rsm; vma&muf_yD; q&m0eftm;ar;_ref;cJhonf?
owif;axmufrsm; ? q&m/q&m--- tjuD;tuJa_ctae b,fvdkvJ?
q&m0ef ? tif; --- ta_ctae raumif;bl;?
owif;axmufrsm; ? ol&Jh aemufvdkufawGaum---?
q&m0ef ? tif; -- olwdkhvJta_ctae raumif;bl;?
owif;axmufrsm; ? 'gqdk b,folta_ctae aumif;vJq&m?
q&m0ef ? igwdkh wdkif;_ynf?
( wifjyol-  loyalty  )

ighudkbmrSwfaevJ
wpfcgu tpdk;&tjuD;tuJwpfOD;onf ntcsdefwGif wpfa,mufwnf; t_yifxGufrd&m
vrf;wGifvk,ufolESifh wdk;onf?
vk,ufol ? ygor# ydkufqHtukefxkwf?
tjuD;tuJ?-- a[h-- rif; -ighudkbmrSwfaevJ-- igb,folvJodvm;--- ig
'Dwdkif;_ynf&Jh tpdk;& tjuD;tuJuG?
vk,ufol ? 'gqdk-- ,lxm;or#awG tukef_yefay;?
27

taumif;qHk;0g'

wpfcgu

urÇmay:rSm

(&nf½G,fcsufuawmh

EdkifiHa&;0g'

tpnf;ta0;yGJBuD;usif;yw,f/

urÇmay:rSmaumifqHk;0g'udka½G;r,faygh/)urÇmay:u

EdkifiHacgif;aqmiftm;vHk;ESifh 0g'&Siftm;vHk; wufa&mufMuwmaygh/
(rSufcsuf/ / jrefrmEdkifiHuODoef;a½TBuD; ESifh wpfaqGwpfrsdK;vHk; wufa&muf
onf[kowif;&½Sdygonf/)
tNydKiftqdkifyJ [pfwvmwdkU?rlqdkvDeDwdkU?wdkeDbvJwdkU?vifuGef;wdkU?ponfjzifh
EkdifiHaygif;pHku acgif;aqmifESifh0g'&Sif tm;vHk;[m olwdkU0g'aumif;aMumif;
a[majymjiif;ckefMuwmaygh/

tm;vHk;wpfa,mufESifhwpfa,muf t&SH;ray;Muovdk b,folrSvJb,f0g'
aumif;w,fvdkU rqHk;jzwfEdkifMuzl;aygY/ aemufqHk; tm;vHk;owdxm;rdwmu
jrefrmEdkifiHuOD;oef;a½TBuD;ESifh taygif;ygrsm;[m bmrSrajymbJ Nidrfoufae
MuwmudkawGU&w,faygh/ tm;vHk;u 'DvdkNidrfaeyHkaxmuf&if OD;oef;a½TBuD;qD
rSmtm;vHk;ESifhrwlyJ tm;vHk;xufaumif;wJh0g'wpfck&Sdr,fvdkU xifMuwmaygh/
vmwHk;uawmh aqGrsdK;awGa&mufzl;atmif tvnfoabmrsdK;eJU bmrSrajymbl;
vdkUpOf;pm;xm;ayrJh tm;vHk;uawmif;qdkvmwmeJU OD;oef;a½TBuD;u pifay:
wufoGm;ygw,f/
pifay:a&mufa&mufcsif;yJ

tm;vHk;u

OD;oef;a½TBuD;udk

jrefrmEdkifiHudk

b,f0g'ESifh tkyfcsKyfovJvdkUar;ygw,f/ 'Dawmh OD;oef;a½TBuD;u olrsm;
28

awGvdk &Snf&Snfa0;a0;rajymyJ wpfcGef;xJajymNyD; qif;vmcJhwJhtcgrSm....
vlaygif;rsm;pGm&SdwJh tpnf;ta0;cef;rBuD;[m tyfusoHawmifMum;&atmif
wdwfqdwfoGm;ygawmhw,f/ tm;vHk;[m tmap;xnfUcH&ovdk tvefUwMum;
ESifh bmrSrajymEdkifawmhygbl;/
OD;oef;a½TBuD; ajymvdkufwmuawmh wpfcGef;xJyg/

]]rkom0g'}} wJhAsm...../
(wifjyol-  peterhein1983  ) 

Myanmar Fashion 

oHvHk;ESifha&pufygaom EdkifiHNcm;om;tm; NrdKUwGif;odkUvdkufvHydkUaqmifay;&ef
MuHKMudKufvmavonf/ yltdkufaomaEG&moD NzpfaeaomaMumifh EdkifiHNcm;om;
u ...
]]

rif;wdkUvlrsdK;awG

ylNyif;rIudktHwkovdk

igvJvdkufvkyfrSNzpfawmhr,f?

igb,fvdk'DZdkif;vkyf&rvJqdkwm aNymNyprf;ygOD;uGm }}
oHvHk;u
]] ryklygeJU uRefawmfNyr,f...? a[m'DrsufrSefrnf;MuD;udkwyfvdkuf 'g[m
aeumrsufrSefr[kwfbl;

txuf?

atmuf?

ab;rSm

bmawGNzpfaevJ

rNrif&awmhyJ cifAsm;vufwpfurf;udkyJ pl;pdkufMunfh&awmhr,f/ NyD;&if a[m'D
mp3 player

av;udk em;axmifaevdkuf? txuf? atmuf? ab;u vl

awGbmawGaNymaevJ bmrSrMum;awmhbl;/ a[m'D yDauawGudk tqufrNywf
0g;NyD; armf&ifndKvdk apm'urwufbJ zm*lqefvdk wdwfwdwfav;aevdkuf/
29

'gqdkcifAsm; &efenf;oGm;r,f/ aemufqHk;taeeJU a[movdkav; acgif;uae
a&avmif;vdkuf? ylwJh'PfudkcHEdkifoGm;NyD }}
qdkNyD;

EdkifiHNcm;om;acgif;uae

a&avmif;csvdkufw,f/

cPaeawmh

EdkifiHNcm;om;u [wfcsD; . . [wfcsD; eJUacsNyD; ESmawGydwfvma&m/ 'DawmhrS
oHvHk;u
]] tm;vHk;tdkauoGm;NyD? vmoGm;r,f? 'DvdkrsdK;omqdk NrefrmNynfwESHUwvsm;
cifAsm; oGm;csifwJhqDoGm;NyD; awGUcsifwJholeJU awGUvdkU&NyD }} qdkNyD;ac:oGm;
ygawmhw,f/ 

( wifjyol-  Flame of Passion ) 

tdkb,fhbDueD&,f? apmifh&wmarmvGef;vSbd . . .
tNidrf;pm&if;udkifMuD;ESifh acwfa[mif;EdkifiHa&;orm;MuD;wdkU tv’myov’my
aNymaeMuonf/ tNidrf;pm;pm&if;udkifMuD;r
]] 'geJU cifAsm; [dk[moav;Mum;zl;vm;? pm&if;Z,m;qdkwm bDueDeJU
wlw,fqdkwmav }}
EdkifiHa&;orm;a[mif;MuD;u
]] rMum;zl;bl;? 'gayr,fh uRefawmfhtNrifawmh bDueD[m pm&if;xufpm&if
tpdk;&tzGJUeJU ydkwlw,fxifwmyJ/ bmawGudkzHk;uG,fxm;vJvdkY tm;vHk;u
*&kwpdkuf apmifhMunfhaew,fxifayr,fh trSefrSmawmh b,fawmhuRwfNyD;
NyKwfusrSmvJvdkU apmifharQmfaeMuwm }} 
( wifjyol-  Flame of Passion )

30

NrefrmNynf Nyoem aNz&Sif;enf;
waeYaomtcg tv’gt&SifNrwf&,f? a,&SKc&pfawmf&,f? oMum;rif;OD;rmC
wkdYu urÇmhNidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf awGYqkHaqG;aEG;cJhMuw,f/ oabmwlnDcsuf
awG &cJhMuw,f/ tv’mt&SifNrwfu tkdprmbifvm'ifukd oGm;awGYr,f/
c&pfawmfu or®w bk&Sfukd aNzmif;zsr,f/ OD;rmC uawmh AdkvfcsKyfrSL;MuD;ukd
wm0ef,l&r,fwJh/
'geJY bmomMuD; (3)ck&Jh wefcdk;&SifawGu &ufaumif;&ufNrwf a&G;NyD;oumv
urÇmausmf tMurf;zuform; (3)OD; eJYawGYMuw,f/ awGYwJhae&mu [dr0E¬åm
awmifaNcu vSkKdPf*lwpfckrSmyg/ taESmifht,Sufr&dS pum;aNymvkdY&atmif
0ifaygufrSm vkHNcKHa&;tapmifhawG csxm;vkdufw,f/
tJovkdeJYawGYMuNyD; ( 3 )em&DtMumrSm c&pfawmfu or®wbk&fSeJYtwl *lxJu
ae xGufvmw,f/ c&pfawmfu NyKH;aew,f/ bk&Sfuawmh tuRwfw&m;
&oGm;[ef&dSygw,f/
tapmifhrsm; / aqG;aEG;yGJ taNctae b,fvkd&dSygovJ t&Sif/
c&pfawmf / tcktcsdefupNyD; ppfyGJawG &yfpJawmhr,f/ or®wbk&fSu Nidrf;csrf;
a&;&Jhwefzkd;ukd owdxm;rdoGm;NyD/
aemufxyf ( 3 ) em&DtMumrSm tv’mt&SifNrwfu *lxJuae xGufvmw,f/

31

bifvm'ifvnf; ygvmw,f/ bifvm'ifykHpHu tv’mukd ydkíydkí &dkao
av;pm;ae[ef ay:vGifaew,f/
tapmifhrsm; / aqG;aEG;yGJ taNctae b,fvkd&dSygovJ t&Sif/
tv’m / bifvm'ifukd vlaumif;olaumif;Nzpfatmif aNymif;vJvkdufEkdifygNyD/
tcktcsdefupNyD; ol[m tMurf;zufvkyfief;awGeJY ygwfoufawmhrSm r[kwf
ygbl;/
aemufxyf ( 3 ) em&D tMumrSmawmh AkdvfcsKyfrSL;MuD;oef;a&G *lxJuae
xGufvmw,f/

a'gowaxmif;axmif;eJYaygh/

olYaemufrSm

OD;rmCMuD;

pdwfysufvufysufeJY/
tapmifhrsm; / b,fvkdNzpfwmvJ t&Sif/
OD;rmC / NrefrmNynfrSm Nidrf;csrf;zdkYvkdNyDqkdwJhtaMumif; oef;a&Gukd wwfEkdif
oavmuf em;csygw,fuGm/ 'Dawmh olu ighukd yk'fr 5(n) t& tNypf&dS
w,fvkdY pGwfpGJygava&m/ tckighudk tif;pdefaxmifykdYrvkdY wJhuGm/ 
( wifjyol-  exotic )

32

armf'efoMum;rif;
waeYaomtcg oDv?orm"d eJY NynfhpkHwJh vlwpfa,mufukd oMum;rif;u
zdwfNyD; Adrmefukd ac:Nyw,f/ xl;qef;vkdufykHuawmh oMum;rif;&Jhtcef;xJrSm
em&DawG awmifykH&mykHygyJ/ em&Dqkdifawmif olYtcef;avmufem&DawG rrsm;
avmufbl;/ 
“oMum;rif; ....... 'Dem&DawGu bmvkyfwmvJ” qkdawmh vdrfaNym? nmaNymwJh
olawGukd rSwfxm;wmqkdyJ/ 
“[m...oMum;rif;u acG;om;a&yk&ykdufeJY a&;rSwfw,fqkd....”  vkdYaNymvkduf
awmh... 
“atmifrm... bmrSwfaevJ/ armf'efoMum;rif;...uG ES,fES,f&& rSwfvkdY/
vlwpfa,mufpDtwGuf em&DwpfvkH;csif;pDeJY rSwfwm/ wpfcgvdrfaNym&if
puúefYwHu wpfcga&GYw,f/ q,fcgvdrfaNym&if q,fcga&GYw,fayghuGm...” 
wJh/
w,f[kwfyghvm;/ 
“'geJY ... oMum;rif; ....... a[m [dkem&Du puúefYwHawG a&GYaeygvm;As..” 
qdkawmh .../ 
“tJ'g... um;yGJpm; em&DuG” wJh/ 
“[dkem&DuaumAs.... wpfpuúefYNyD; wpfpuúefY a&GYaeygvm;” 
“tJ'g... Nrefrmh&kyfNrifoHMum; owif;aMuNimwJhvl&Jh em&D..” wJh/

33

“a[mAsm.../ [kdem&DMuD;Muawmh yifhultdrfawGawmif wufNyD; &yfaeyghvm;As/
b,folYem&Dwkef;” 
“tJ'g... omrnq&mawmfMuD; &Jh em&DuG” 
“pum;rpyf? A[kokwaygh oMum;rif;MuD;&,f..../ AdkvfcsKyfrSL;MuD;oef;a&T&Jh
em&D ua&mAsm...” vkdYvnf;ar;a&m ... oMum;rif;MuD;u... 
“[m .... olYem&DMuD;u vnfvGef;vdkY.. yefumvkyfxm;&w,f” ....wJhAsm; / /
( rkd;rc rS ul;,lNyD; teJi,f NyifqifazmfNyxm;Ncif;yg ) 
( wifjyol-  exotic ) 

'gawmYrjzpfbl;
tdkqmrmbifvm'if wpfa,muf tar&duef&JU&efu ajy;&if;eJU jrefrmEdkifiH
wGif EdkifiHa&;cdkvIHcGifh,l&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufygw,fwJh/ tar&duef&JU &efol
jzpfwmcsif; wlaewJhtwGuf jrefrmjynfujzifh olYtwGufawmh vHkNcHKrI
ay;Edkifr,f xifraygh/
tJ'geJU tdkqmrmeJU bbBuD; aqG;aEG;Muawmh? tqifawmfawmfajyygw,fwJh/
bbBuD;uvnf; jrefrmjynfrSmvmae&if tar&duefu vufzsm;eJUawmif
rxdap&bl;? tmrcHw,f bmnmaygh/ 'gayr,fh aemufqHk;wpfcsufrSm
tdkqmrmu

b,fvdkrS

vufrcHEdkifvdkY

34 

aqG;aEG;yGJ

ysufoGm;&ygowJh/

tJ'guawmh tdkqmrmu BuHUzGHUtoif;xJ 0if&rSmqdkwmygyJ/
( wifjyol- armifbwf )

bmom ysufrSmpdk;
bbBuD;wpfa,muf

tar&duef&JU&efu

ajy;&if;eJU

tmz*efepöwefwGif

EkdifiHa&;ckdvIHcGifh,l&ef qkHk;jzwfvkdufygw,fwJh/ tar&duefeJU &efoljzpfwmcsif;
wlaeojzifh tmz*efepöwefujzifh olUtwGuf vHkNcHKrIay;Edkifr,fxifraygh/
'geJU bbBuD;eJU tkdqmrmaqG;aEG;Muawmh tqifawmfawmfajyygw,fwJh/
tkdqmrmuvnf; tmz*efepöwefrSmvmae&if tar&duefu vufzsm;eJUawmif
rxdap&bl;? tmrcHw,f bmnmaygh/ bbBuD;uvnf; olUrSm ygvmr,fh
a':vmoef;aygif;rsm;pGmudk

tkdqmrmudk

pdwfBudKuf

cGJay;yghr,faygh/

'gayr,fh aemufqHk;wpfcsufrSm tdkqmrmu b,fvdkrS vufrcHEdkifvdkY
aqG;aEG;yGJ ysufoGm;&ygowJh/
tJ'guawmh OD;jrifharmifudk omoema&;0efBuD;cefUay;&r,f qdkwmygyJ/ 
(  wifjyol-  botchan )

35

MuufqlqD
a&TjrefjynfrSm

a&TOmPfawmfpl;a&mufjyD;

MuufqlqDuae

avmifpmqD

jzpfatmif vkyfaewm Mum;zl;MurSmaygh/
usaemfwdkYjrdKYrSm MuufqlqDuae pufoHk;qDtjzpfoHk;vdkY &jyD;qdkwJho&kyfjyyGJ
&Sif;vif;yGJvkyfw,f/ wdkif;rI;udk,fwdkifvmMunfhwmav/ jrefrmhtoHuvnf;
wDAGDvm&dkufw,f/

yGJvnf;pa&m

MuufqlqDxnfh

w&kyfeDvdkYac:wJh

aqGrsdK;aygufaz:EdkifiHu rD;pufxJxnfhjyD;awmh rD;xGef;jyrvdkYayghAsm/ pufxJ
qDxnfhjyD;

pufEdI;wm

rEdk;bl;jzpfaew,f/

wdkifrI;uvnf;

aocsmudk

Munfhaewm qdkawmh ya&m*sufwm0efcH AdIvfrI;MuD;u pufEdI;aewJhvludk ....... 
“acG;rom; 'DZ,fxnfhvdkuf? 'DZ,fxnfhvdkufqdkjyD; wdwfwdwfav;tHMudwfjyD;
ajymwm” 
'DZ,fvnf;xnfhvdkufa&m

rD;cdk;trJawG

Asm....../ 
( wifjyol-  Big Boy )

36

xGufvmjyD;

pufvnfoGm;a&m

[dkxJrSm
raeUu pvHk;rSma&mufaewJh nDrwpf0rf;uGJav;eJU zkef;ajymjzpfMuw,f/ olu
a&SUvxJrSm bef;ausmf ( jrefrmjynf ) jyefrSm/ ol[dkrSm&Sdaewkef; usaemf
uvnf;jyefrSmqdkawmh oluvmMudKr,fwJh/ usaemfuajymw,f... 
“at;[m.. avqdyfuae tdrfyJa&mufrvm;? [dkxJyJ wdkuf&dkufa&mufoGm;
rvm;rodbl;”...vdkUajymawmh? oluckvdktm;ay;ygw,f/ 
“[m...aumif;wmaygh... rMuD;&m? [dkxJrSmq&mawmfawGzl;&wmayghwJ”h.....uJ/
( wifjyol-  Mya  )
jrifMunfYvdkufyg
tJ'D pvHk;unDrav;yJ/ [dk pdefr*FvmaqmifacG xGufpwkef;u vlawG
uvnf;t&rf;ajymMu/

'Duvnf;MunfhcsifvSjyD/

'Dudkvnf;ra&mufao;/

tJ'golu bef;ausmfuaejyefa&mufcgp? tacGudkoluMunfhvmcJhwmav/
olUudkzkef;qufjyD; tacGtaMumif;ar;wmaygh/ 'Dbufuvluom [yfxdk;
vdkufar;ae&wm? olurajymcsifovdk ajymcsifovdk? jyD;awmhajymao;wm...
usaemfjzifh qHk;atmifawmifrMunfhcJhygbl;... ? rsufESmawGjrif&wm usufoa&
r&SdvdkU..wJh/ usaemfuvnf;ar;rdjyefa&m/  “owdkUorD;ua&m vSvm;”  vdkU
qdkawmh...

37

“olYtazMuD;udk *g0eftjzLMuD; 0wfay;xm;wJhyHkudkom rsufpdxJjrifMunfhvdkuf
aygh rMuD;&m”... wJh/
( wifjyol-  Mya  )

NyD;cgprdkU
yk*vdu [kdw,fpDrHudef; wcktwGuf AdkvfrI;BuD;wOD; vma&mufrnfjzpfaom
aMumifh jymwmwdkU jym&mcwfaeMuonf/ reufapmapmxJu jym&mcwf
ae&aomaMumifh tawmfav;t&Sdef&aeMuonf/ owfrSwfxm;aom tcsdefem;
uyfvmonf/ ydkif&SifrS jymwmrefae*smudkar;vdkufonf/
]]a[h ppfaq;a&;awGrvmao;ygvm;uG}}
t&ifuqdk tpnf;ta0;rwdkifcif ppfaq;a&;qdkaom [kdvSef'DvSef a0guD
awmfuDESifhvlwcsdKU vma&mufwwfaomaMumifh ar;&jcif;jzpfonf/
jymwmrefae*smrSm ]]vmrSmygapmao;vdkUyg q&m}} [kjyefajymonf/
wcP . . .
a[ma&mufvmMuonf/ rqvm*spfuav; wpD;wnf; 0ifvmonf/

38 

um;ay:rS ukwfacsmif;acsmif;jzifh qif;vmonf/ &Ha&Gawmf av;a,muf
avmufjzifh ...
ydkif&SifrS ]] q&mwdkU &Smp&m&Sd jrefjref&SmMuyg AdkvfrI;BuD;awmfMum vmawmhrSm}}
[kqdkum wHcg;zGifhay;vdkufonf/
xdkolonf AdkvfcsLyfrI;BuD;xdkifckHwGif xdkifvdkufonf/ 'DawmhrS olESifhtwl
ygvmaom Adkvfav;u ydkif&Sifudk ajymavonf/
]] tJ'gAdkvfrI;BuD;cifAs }}
'DvdkeJU

yGJNyD;vdkU

tm;vkH;jyefoGm;MuawmY

ydkif&Sifu

jymwmrefae*smudk

ar;vdkufonf/
]] b,fvdkjzpfwmvnf;uGm t&ifuqdk wcrf;wem;vmwmr[kwfvm; }}
jymwmrefae*sm jyefajzvdkufonf/
]] pufwifbm NyD;cgprdkUyg q&m }} wJh/
rSwfcsuf/ / pufwifbm ta&;tcif;tNyD; ykef;vQdKuG,fvQdK; tcsdef/
( wifjyol-  nelayne  )

39

vdSsKY0SufcsufaygufMum;rI
qkdAD,uftifyg,mBuD; wnf&SdpOfumv? waeh oufBuD;&G,ftkd wpfa,muf
armfpukdjrdKh vrf;rv,fwGif avSsmufí atmfaeonf/ olatmfonfrSm ...
" wkdif;jynfukd tkyfcsKyfwJh aumifawGtm;vHk; acgif;(OD;aESmuf)r&Sdbl; "
rBumyg xHk;pHtwkdif; olYhukd au*sDAD axmufvSef;a&;rsm; zrf;oGm;\/
aemufqHk; w&m;&Hk;rS Bum;emppfaq;jyD; axmif'Pf 15 ESpfcsvkdufonf/
jypf'Pf tao;pdwfrSm ...
ol\ pum; " wkdif;jynfukd tkyfcsKyfwJhaumifawGtm;vHk; acgif;(OD;aESmuf)
r&Sdbl; " twGuf axmif'Pf 1 ESpf?
tJ ... wkdif;jynf\ xdyfwef;vdSsKY0SufcsufaygufBum;jcif;twGuf axmif'Pf
14 ESpf ... wJh/
( wifjyol- Zulu  )
udkZl;vl;&JU [moav;udk qufxm;wm &Sdao;vdkUyg... tJ'D vludk axmif 15
ESpfcsvdkufayr,fh aemuf 3 ESpfavmufaeawmh jyefvTwfay;vdkufygw,f...
bmvdkUvJqdkawmh " wkdif;jynfukdtkyfcsKyfwJh

aumifawGtm;vHk; acgif;

(OD;aESmuf)r&Sdbl; " qdkwJhudpö[m tJ'DtcsdefrSm (aemuf 3ESpftMumrSm)
40

EdkifiHawmf xdyfwef;vQdKU0Sufcsuf r[kwfawmhvdkUygwJh... ( jynfolawG tm;vHk;
vufcHvdkufNyDav )
( wifjyol- solidsnake  )

tcGifYta&;
aemufwpfcku &k&Swpfa,mufu jyefajymjyjcif;yg/
qkdAD,uf,leD,H tcsdefumv? waeh armfpukdjrdKh puf&Hkwckokdh tar&duef
EkdifiHom; wpfa,muf a&mufvmjyD;? &k&S tvkyform;wpfa,muf ESifh
pum;vufqHk us\/
tar&duef " rif;wkdY &k&SawGu igwkdY tar&duefawGvkd or®w raumif;&if
raumif;bl;vkdY zGifhajymvkdh&vm;/ or®w tdrfjzLawmfa&ShrSm atmfvkdY&vm; "

&k&S "r&bl;"/
tar&duef

"rif;wkdh&k&SawG

igwkdYvkd

'Drdkua&pD&Sdvm;"
&k&S "r&Sdbl;"/
41

vlhtcGifhta&;

tjynfht0&Sdvm;?

tqHk; &k&Su jyefajym\/
&k&S " rif;wkdh tar&duefawG igwkdY &k&Sm;awGvdk puf&HkvmjyD;? tckvkd tvkyf
aumif;aumif; rvkyfvkdY &vm;"
tar&duef "[ vkyfvkdYr&bl;uG/"

&k&S "rif;wkdYtar&duefawG igwkdY &k&SawGvkd tvkyftcsdefrSm tjyifxGuf?
aq;vdyfaomuf? vzuf&nf aomufvkdY&vm;/"

tar&duef " [m 'Dvkdvnf; vkyfvkdYr&bl;uGm/"
&k&S "rif;wkdYtar&duefawG igwkdY&k&SawGvkd? tvkyfukd zdzdpD;pD; aumif;aumif;
rvkyfbJ vukef&if vkyftm;ctjynfht0&vm;/"

tar&duef "'grsdK;vnf; r&bl;uG/ igwkdY ukd,fvkyf&if vkyfoavmuf
bJ&wm/"
&k&S "awGYvm; rif;wkdY tar&duefawGvkyfvkdYr&wm igwkdY tukef&w,f/"
( wifjyol- Zulu  )
42

EdkifiHawmfqdkwm
AdkvfcsKyfrSL;MuD;oef;a&Tu wyfrawmfaeYwdkif; rdefYcGef;ajymMum;jrJjzpfav\/ 
“&JabmfwdkY igwdkY[m EdkifiHawmf wdk;wufMuD;yGm;zdkY udk,fpGrf;&dSorSs OmPfpGrf;
&dSorSs aqmif&GufMu&rSmyJ jzpfw,f/” 
ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm Mumvm\/
xdktawmtwGif; AdkvfcsKyfrSL;MuD;\wynfYom;ajr;rsm;rSm q,foufpm;rukef
atmif? csrf;omoGm;Muav\/ wdkif;jynfum; qif;&JrGJawvsufyif/
aemufqHk;wGif jynfolwdkYrSm atmufygtwdkif; jiD;jiLvdkYom ae&ygawmYonf/ 
“ atmf ... EdkifiHawmfqdkwm olwdkYudk,fudkolwdkY ajymwmudk; ...” 
( wifjyol- mgpo  )

43

rJay;jcif;
qE´cH,lyGJ usif;ya&;twGuf wm0ef&Sd yk*d¾Kvfrsm;udk owif;axmufrsm;rS
ar;jref;aeMuonf/
axmuf/ / tckusif;yr,fh qE´´cH,lyGJrSm rJvdrfr,fvdkY owif;awG us,fus,f
jyefYjyefY ay: xGufaeygw,f ... tJ'geJ hywfoufjyD; &Sif;jyay;ygvm; cifAsm
...
wm0efcH/ / r[kwf&ygbl;cifAsm ... rJvdrfzdkYtpDtpOf vHk;0r&Sdygbl;/ csrSwf
xm;wJh Oya'rsm;eJYtnD usif;yay;oGm;rSmyg/
axmuf/ / aMomf [kwfuJh ... b,fvdkrsm; rJay;&rSmvJ cifAsm ....
wm0efcH/ / yxrOD;pGm rJ&HkrSm rJay;zdk hpm&if;ay;jyD; rJpm&Gufudk &,l&ygr,f/
axmufcHr,fqdk&ifawmh owfrSwfxm;wJh tuGufrSm trSefuav; jcpfvdkuf
&HkygyJ/ odyfvG,fygw,f/
axmuf/ / uefYuGufrJeJYywfowfjyD;awmh &Sif;jyay;ygOD;/
wm0efcH/ / tJ'geJYywfoufjyD;awmh usaemfhrSm ajymydkifcGifhr&Sdygbl;/ odcsif&if
txufudk tpD&ifcHay;yghr,f ....
axmuf/ / [kwfuJh ... y,frJudka&m b,fvdk owfrSwfygovJ ...
wm0efcH/ / Muufajccwfjcpfxm;wJh rJawGudk y,frJ tjzpfowfrSwfygw,f
cifAs ....
( wifjyol-  Clinton  )

44

aA'ifa[mjcif;
aA'ifq&m OD;a&Tonf emrnfausmfwpfOD; jzpfonf/ wynhfav;rsm;pGm\
0dkif;0ef;ynm,lrIudk cH&oljzpfonf/
wae h- vlwOD; 0ifvmonf/
q&m / / uJ emrnfav; ajymygOD; ...
ar;ol/ / ]] ----}}
q&m/ / aMomf ... we*FaEGom;yJ ... cifAsm; MuD;yGm;udef;jrifw,f/
we*FaEGeH eJ hpwJh EdkifiHMuD; wpfEdkifiH&J hoH&Hk;a&S hrSm pm&Gufw&Gufudk udkifjyD;
vrf;avSsmuf&if aiG tpkvdkuf tjyHKvdkuf0ifjyD; emrnfausmfr,f/ tMuD;tuJ
awG&JY Munfh&I apmifrrIudk &vdrfhr,f ....
xkdol xGufoGm;jyD; aemufwpfOD; 0ifvmjyefonf/
q&m/ / uJ emrnfav; ajymygOD; ...
ar;ol/ / ]] -----}}
q&m/

/

aMomf

...

we*FaEGom;yJ

...

cifAsm;

owdxm;&r,f/

we*FaEGeH eJ hpwJh EdkifiHMuD; wpfEdkifiH&J hoH&Hk;a&S hrSm pm&Gufw&Gufudk udkifjyD;
45

vrf;avSsmuf&if tMuD;tus,f 'ku©awGYvdrfYr,f/ tzrf;tqD;jrifw,f/
axmifwef; usudef;&Sdw,f/ tMuD;tuJawG trsuf&Svdrfh r,f ....
xdkol xGufoGm;jyD;aemuf ....
wynfhrsm;u 0dkif;jyD; ar;Muavonf/
wynfhrsm;/ /q&m emrnfav;yJ ar;jyD; b,fvdk a[mvdkufwmvJ ...
we*FaEGom;csif; twlwl a[mcsufu vHk;0 qefYusifaew,faemf ...
j*dKvfpD; j*dKvfeif;aMumifhrsm;vm;/
q&m/ / tif; - rif;wdkYeJYrvJ cufygw,f/ aA'ifa[mw,fqdkwm
jyifyA[kokwav;vJ &Sd&w,fuG ... yxrvl emrnfu udkat;vGif wJ h/
'kwd,vlu OD;tkef;oef; wJhuGm .... ig bmrS rwGufbl; .. emrnfMunhfjyD;
a[mvdkufwmyJ .....
( wifjyol-  Clinton  )

46

20 &mpkbbrSL;MuD;&JUtqdk/
igwdkUt&ifuqdk wdkufyJGtvDvDrSm tEdkif&wm &rfbdkvdk pdwfrsdK;eJU taocH
wdkufcJhwmuG...
om;awmfwdkUvnf; wdkufyGJwpfyJGudk &rfbdkvdkpdwfrsdK;arG;jyD; wdkuf&if EkdifudkEdkif
&r,fuG..../

21 &mpkbbrSL;MuD;&JUtqdk/
om;awmfwdkU.... &rfbdkvdk pdwfrsdK;arG;&if... tbwdkUwyfu vHk;0vufrcHbl;
aemf...[Gef;/
awoGm;r,f..../ bmrSwfaevJ/ %$^#^*!@@@*(*^^$
( wifjyol- GeneralBoz  )

47

“[,f ... 'gawmY ...” 
waeYoü “bdk;awmf rif;rw&m;MuD;”onf rdrd\ aejynfawmfopfMuD; rnfrSs
pnfum;om,maeoenf; qdkonfudk odvdkaomaMumifY trwfMuD; OD;ay:&l;
tm; ac:í ar;jref;awmfrl\/
bdk;awmf/

/ “[JY? ay:&l;? igudk,fawmfjrwf aejynfawmfopfMuD;&JY vuf&dS

tajctaeudk odvdkawmfrlw,f/ armifrif; odoavmuf avSsmufwifprf;/” 
OD;ay:&l;/

/  “rSefvSyg? bkef;awmfaMumifY t&SifYaejynfawmfMuD;[m

ewfjynfeJYrSm;avmufatmif pnfum; om,m0ajym aejyDjzpfaMumif;yg/” 
bdk;awmf/

/  “tdrf;? igudk,fawmf tm;&awmfrlvSouG,f? tus,fo0ifY

&Sif;vif; avSsmufwifOD;avmY trwfMuD;/” 
OD;ay:&l;/ /  “rSefvSyg? &Hk;awmfrsm; tm;vHk;udk &efukefrS a&TYvmjyD;aMumif;
yg/ &efukefyd#uwfwdkufMuD;rS pmtkyftm;vHk;udk o,f,ljyD; aejynfawmf
yd#uwfwdkufopfMuD;tjzpf

wnfaxmifjyD;aMumif;yg/

&efukefwd&pämef&HkrS

wd&pämefrsm;udkvnf; aejynfawmfwd&pämefO,smOfodkY ajymif;a&TYxm;&m tawmf
pHkpHkvifvif &dSaeygjyD ... zsmY/” 
bdk;awmf/

/ “rD;rsm;aum rSef&JYvm;uGJY/”

48 

OD;ay:&l;/

/  “rSefvSyg? &efukefjrdKY&JY vSsyfppfrD;cGJwrf;rsm;udk avSsmYjyD;

aejynfawmfudk vSsyfppfrD; xdefxdefnD;ap&ef pDpOfxm;aMumif;yg” 

bdk;awmf/

OD;ay:&l;/

/ “udk;uG,fzdkY twGufaum ...” 

/ “rSefvSyg? &efukefu a&Twd*Hkbk&m;MuD;udkvnf; 'Dudk a&TYvmzdkY

MuH&G,f xm;ygw,f... zsmY” 

bdk;awmf/

/ “aumif;ouG,f? aemufjyD; igYvlawGzdkY aysmfp&m yg;p&mawG

pDpOfay;zdkYvnf; rusefapeJYOD;uGJY/” 
OD;ay:&l;/

/ “rSefvSyg? &efukefrSm&dSwJY tEdSyfcef;rsm;udkvnf; Zdrfr,frsm;yg

rusefcJYavatmif ajymif;vmcJYcdkif;jyD;ygjyD ...zsmY/” 
bdk;awmf/

/ “[,f ... 'gawmY topfav;awG &Smcdkif;vuG,f ...” 

( wifjyol-  mgpo  )

49

bbMuD;aus;Zl;
cv& ( ) \ wyfom;opf oifwef;qif;yGJwGifjzpfonf/ tcrf;tem;
tpDtpOfwGif qk&&Sdaom oifwef;om;rsm;rS BuGa&mufvmaom {nfhonf
awmfrsm;ukd aus;Zlwifpum; jyefvnfajymBum;&ef tpDtpOfvnf; xnfhoGif;
xm;\/ oifwef;rqif;rDuwnf;u oifwef;rI;u qk&&Sdaom &Jabmfrsm;ukd
4if;wkdY aus;Zl;wifpum; ajymBum;&mwGif tbBuD; (AkdvfcsKyfrI;BuD;) \
*kPfaus;Zl;aBumifh 4if;wkdY ,ckuJhodkY xl;csGefxufjrufolrsm; jzpfvm&aBumif;
rjzpfrae xnfhoGif;ajymBum;&ef trdefYcsxm;\/
oifwef;qif;aomaeY/
yxr ... taumif;qHk;pHjyqk&&Sdaom oifwef;om; atmifjrifhu 
“usaemf ,ckvkd pHjyqk&&Sdjcif;[m tbBuD;&Jh *kPfaus;Zl;aBumifhjzpfygw,f/
usaemf bmbJvkyfvkyf tbBuD;ukd tjrJESvHk;oGif;jyD; vkyfwJhtwGuf tckvkd
pHjyqk &&Sdjcif;jzpfygw,f/” 
vufckyfoHrsm; wajzmif;ajzmif; ...
aemufwpfa,muf? pmayxl;csGefqk&oifwef;om; oef;Ekdif 
“usaemf tckvkd pmayxl;csGefqk &&Sdjcif;[m tbBuD;&Jh *kPfaus;Zl;aBumifh
jzpfygw,f/ usaemf pmay oifcef;pmawG avhvmrSwfom; oif,lwJhae&mrSm
50

tbBuD;ukd tjrJESvHk;oGif;wJhtwGuf tckvkd pmayxl;cGsefqk&&Sdjcif; jzpfyg
w,f/” 
vufckyfoHrsm; a&SYutwkdif; ...
aemufqHk;wpfa,muf? vufajzmifhtaumif;qHk;qk& oifwef;om; armifwl; 
“usaemf tckvkd vufajzmifhtaumif;qHk;qk &&Sdjcif;[m tbBuD;&JY*kPfaus;Zl;
aBumifhjzpfygw,f/ tJh'DaeYu usaemfypfrJhypfrSwfpuf0kdif;&JY tvnfwnfhwnfh
rSm tbBuD;&JYyHk ay:vmvkdYygbJ/” 
vufckyfoHrsm; apmapmuxuf ykdjyD; qlnHoGm;onf/
rBumrD armifwl; wyf&if;rS aysmufoGm;avonf/
( wifjyol-  Zulu  )

ynma&;pepfopf
bef;ausmfa&TEdkifiHBuD;wGif wuúúodkvfBuD; 1001 ckwnfNyD;? ynma&;udk pvkH;?
,yufvuf wdkYudkomru qvdrf (qdkrmvD,m) &aumuf (&0rf'g)
wdkYudktrSDvkdufEdkif BudK;pm;aecsdef ..

51

*sKyfBuD;/ / tdrf; .. igYEdkifiHawmfw0Srf;u wuúúodkvfBuD; 1001 ckrSm
rsdK;qufopf rD;cJjymzkH;av;awG ay:xGuf&JUvm; ynm0efBuD;/
ynm0efBuD;/ / “*sKyfBuD;wdkYzkef; rdk;odkYcsKef; ayG;ykef;aygifrSm raeom” qdkovdk
rD;cJjymzkef;av;awG tajrmuftrsm; awGY&Sdxm;aMumif;yg ..
*sKyfBuD;/ / at; ... at; ... awGY&if a&avmif;xm;vdkuf? rawmf
xawmufaeOD;r,f/
(þwGif rD;cJa&avmif; ynma&;pepfBuD; ay: xGef;vmownf;/ )
( wifjyol-  cohtet  )

Edk;wJYol owdxm; 
Vote  No  ,  Vote  No 

MuHYzGYHawGuvnf; 

No 

eJY jynfolawG&JYtoHawG xGufvmawmY &0wawG?
wJYolawGudk rJ&HkawGrSm uifr&mawGwyfxm;jyD;

rSwfxm;r,f/ od&ifrvG,fbl; qdkwJYavoHawGeJY &yfuGufxJrSm vdkufjyD;
jcdrf;ajcmufovdkvdk pnf;&Hk;aeovdkvdk vkyfMuowJY/
'DawmY eD;&m"m;aMumufaeMuwJY vlawGuvnf; olwdkYa&SYrSm  “  Edk;  ” 
qdkwYJpum; wdk;wdk;awmif r[ rdzdkY owdxm;aeMu&w,fqdkyJ/

52

wnrSm ...
&yfuGufuav; tdyfarmusp ...
oef;acgifausmfvdkY vlajcwdwfaewJYtcsdef ...
us,fus,favmifavmif atmfvdkufwJYtoHaMumifY vlawG tdyfaysmf&mu
vefYEdk;vmMu&owJY/ 

“a[Y ... 'D&yfuGufxJrSm Edk;wJYolawG &dSovm;uG” 
bk&m;

...

bk&m;?

MuHYzGHYawG

noef;acgifMuD;awmif

pnf;&Hk;a&;rsm;

qif;aeMuovm;aygY/ vlawGvnf; wHcg;aygufu tomacsmif;MunfY,if;
&ef&SmrSmpdk;vdkY toHawmifrxGuf0HYMubl;/ nMuD;rif;MuD; rl;jyD;&rf;aewJY
udk,fawmfu vrf;ay: rSm&yfjyD; tJovdkyJ xyfxyfatmfaeowJY/
twefMumvdkY olYudk wkHYjyefwJYtoH bmrSrMum;rS ... 

“at; ...tm;vHk;tdyfae&ifjyD;a&m? quftdyfMu? Edk;aewJYol&dS&if
igeJYawGYr,f ” vdkUMudrf;0g;jyD; xGufoGm;ygowJY/
atmf ... trl;orm;udkawmif aMumufaeMu&wJY b0ygvm;aemf/
( wifjyol-  mgpo  )

53

acG;rSr[kwfwm 
“rD'D,mudk rD'D,meJYwdkufr,f”  qdkwJY AdkvfcsKyfausmfqef;&JY r[mAsL[meJY
etzu rD'D,mwdkufyGJMuD; qifETJvmwm tawmft&dSef&aeygjyD/
tJ ... tckvnf; twdkuftcHawGu 
vkyfvmMuawmY

Vote  No  Campaigm 

awG

etzuvnf;  “urfydef;udkurfydef;eJYwdkufr,f”  qdkwm

xyfvkyfvmjyefa&mAs/ olwdkY&JY 

Vote  Yes  Campaign 

rSm yg0ifvIyf&Sm;

MuolawGuawmY xHk;pHtwdkif; &0wawG? MuHYzGYHawG? pGrf;tm;&SifawGyJaygY/
&yfuGufwckrSm MuHYzGHYwa,mufu  “Edk;”  orm;awGudk tm;usrcH jydKifjyD;? 
“&ufpf” “&ufpf” eJY vdkufajymvdkufwm? MumawmY pum;ryDEdkifawmYyJ “,uf” 
“,uf”  qdkjyD; jzpfoGm;owJY/ tJ'DrSm cyf&Gwf&Gwf olYbMuD;wa,mufeJY
awGYawmYwmyJ/
olu olYbMuD;udk “bMuD;vnf; ,uf&r,faemf” vdkYoGm;ajymrdwm ...
[dku bmjyefajymovJqdkawmY ... 
“[..aumif.. ,uf&atmif igu acG;rSr[kwfwm” ...wJY/
rSwfom;&ef /

/ acG;rsm;om (vSsmjzifY) vsufygonf/

( wifjyol- mgpo  )

54

trdtrnf? tztrnf
qm*sifarmif\om;Nzpfol *sLeD,marmiftm; r'rfarmif ausmif;oGm;tyfonf?
avQmufvTmwGifa&;xm;aom tztrnf .......... ESifU trdtrnf ...... udk
NunfUNyD; q&mru r'rfarmifukd  “&l;aeovm;”  [kar;onf/ r'rfarmifu 
“q&mr owif;pmrzwfbl;vm;”  [kNyefar;vkdufonf/ cspfpGmaom pmzwf
y&dwfowfMuD;a&m

owif;pmzwfbl;ygu

r'rfarmifNznfUvdkufaom

*sLeD,marmif\ tztrnfESifUtrdtrnfudk odMurnfNzpfygonf?? tu,fí
rodao;yguþya[Vd\tajzudk pmrsufESm ( 56 ) wGif &SmMunfYMuyg/
arwåmcH,lvQuf
&wemarmif

bbMuD;&JU Mo0g' (jzpf&yfrSef)
&efukefjrdKUawmfrS aeylawmfodkU 0efMuD;XmeawGpjyD;ajymif;wJhtcsdefayghAsm...
taqmuftOD;topfawGrSm ae&mxdkifcif;pDpOf...a&TUvmwJhypönf;awG ae&mcs
vkyfaewkef;..
bbMuD;MuGvmw,fqdkawmh.... t&m&Sdtbdk;MuD;awGu vuftkyfrcsDcsifyJ...
csDjyD;...

55

bbMuD;&JUMo0g'udk cH,lcsifa,mifaqmifaepOfrSm....
bbMuD;&JU yg;pyfawmfrS 'Dvdkpum;ajymoGm;ygw,f....
rif;wdkUawG avmavmq,fysif;ae&if opfyifawGeJU pum;ajymaetHk;ayghuGm
.... wJh...
bbMuD;jyefMuGoGm;wJhtcsdefrSm.... t&m&Sdtbdk;MuD;awGu wpfa,mufrsufESm
wpfa,mufMunfhjyD;.... yg;pyfta[mif;om;eJU usef&pfcJhygw,f... t&m&Sd
tbdk;MuD;awG tm;vHk;u pdwfxJrSm....
aMomf... wdkif;jynftkyfcsKyf rif;vkyf aewm... 'DvdkvlMuD;ygvm;.... wJh..../ /
( wifjyol- GeneralBoz  )

udk&wemarmif&JY ya[Vdtajz
tztrnf - wyfrawmf
trdtrnf – wyfrawmf

56

bufrSm;vdkY
wdkif;jynftjuD;tuJwOD;onf

rdrd\emrnfeSifh*kPfudk

jrSifwifcsifonfh

twGuf udk,fhyHkudk wHqdyfacgif;tjzifh xkwfa0cJhonf/ xkwfa0jyD; wv
tjumwGif a&mif;tm;aumif;raumif; pmwdkufjuD;odkY udk,fwdkifoGm;a&muf
pHkprf;cJhonf/
tjuD;tuJ..... “ighyHkeJY wHqdyfacgif; a&mif;tm;aumif;vm;a[h” 
pmwdkufrSk;...... “aumif;ygw,f......'gayr,fh wHqdyfacgif;u? aumf odyfruyf
bl;vdkY ajymjuw,f/” 
tjuD;tuJ...... “rjzpfedkifwm” 
udk,fwdkif wHqdyfacgif;wckudk ,ljyD;? aemufausmudk wHaxG; axG;um
pmtdwfay:wGif uyfjunfhvdkufonf/
tjuD;tuJ........ “uyfwmrS jrJaewmyJ” 
pmwdkufrSk;....... “olwdkYu wHaxG;udk wHqdyfacgif;a&Sh axG;juvdkhyg/” 

( wifjyol-  xinyaw13  )

57

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