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THE SENSES

Ch. 14

OBJECTIVES FOR CH. 14


Read the following objectives.

What will you be learning about in Ch. 14?


What do you already know about these concepts?
Summarize the big ideas under the objectives.

1. describe the structure and function of the parts of the


human eye
2. describe the structure and function of the parts of the
human ear
3. explain other ways that humans sense their
environment and their spatial orientation in it; e.g.,
olfactory receptors, proprioceptors, taste receptors,
receptors in the skin.

STARTING POINTS
Answer #1-3 on p. 444
Remember these are your best guesses right now

STARTING POINTS
Imagine if neurons carrying sensory information about
sound were surgically moved from the sound
interpreting area in the temporal lobe to the vision
interpreting area in the occipital lobe.
How would the brain interpret a loud sound?
Would moving the nerve ending to another part of the
visual area of the occipital lobe cause a different
interpretation of the stimulus? Explain why or why not.

STARTING POINTS
When you first walk into a kitchen where fish is cooking,
the smell is strong and distinctive, yet after a few
minutes the smell disappears.
Why does the smell seem to disappear?
What advantage is gained from having the smell
disappear?

Humans are nothing more than the sum of their


experiences.
- David Hume

SENSORY RECEPTORS
Sensory receptors - modified dendrites of
sensory neurons activated by specific
stimuli
brain interprets the sensation, does not
come from nerve itself think of brain
mapping

sensory adaptation - sensors have


adjusted to a change in environment
think of hot frog

SENSORY RECEPTORS
A stimulus is a form of energy
Sensory receptors convert one energy form into
another form
Chemical energy - taste, smell
Mechanical energy - pressure, proprioceptor,
balance
Heat thermoreceptor
Light energy visual
Sound energy - audio

THERMORECEPTORS
Hot and cold receptors are adapted to signal changes
in the environment
I need 2 volunteers

THERMORECEPTORS
Procedure:
Place one hand the cold beaker and one hand in the
warm beaker
Allow your hands to adjust to the temperature of the
water
Transfer both hands into the room temperature beaker

Describe what happens

THERMORECEPTORS
Why do you feel a chill when you step out of a warm
shower even though the temperature is comfortable?
Explain the following observations: When a frog is
placed in a beaker above 40C, it jumps out
immediately. However, if placed in room temperature
water and then slowly elevating the water, the frog
stays in the water.

COPY AND COMPLETE THE TABLE


Receptor Type
Taste

Smell
Pressure
Proprioception

Balance
Audio
Visual

Thermoreceptor

Stimulus

Information provided

Area of the brain


stimulated

Receptor
Type

Stimulus

Info Provided

Area of brain stimulated

Taste

Chemical

Presence of specific
Parietal/temporal
chemicals (taste buds)

Smell

Chemical

Presence of chemicals Temporal


(olfactory cells)

Pressure

Mechanical

Movement of the skin


or changes in the
body surface

Frontal

Proprioceptor

Mechanical

Movement of limbs,
sense of position

Parietal

Balance

Mechanical

Body movement

Cerebellum

Audio

Sound

Sound waves

Temporal

Visual

Light

Changes in light
intensity, movement,
colour

Occipital

Thermoreceptor

Temp. changes Flow of heat

Hypothalamus

TASTE RECEPTORS

WHAT ARE THE 5 MAIN


TYPES OF TASTE?
1. Sweet
2. Sour
3. Salt
4. Bitter
5. Savoury
6. (umami)

SUPERTASTERS
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bQ_uyux8i_M
Take the test!
http://sunburst.usd.edu/~schieber/coglab/TasteLab.ht
ml

EXPLAIN WHY YOU ARE LESS


ABLE TO TASTE FOOD WHEN
YOU HAVE A COLD?
Clogged nasal passages reduce effectiveness of
olfactory cells
Reduced capacity to smell food
Smell detects airborne chemicals and taste detects
dissolved chemicals

SMELL RECEPTORS

SMELL TEST!
Sample Number
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Smell

TOUCH RECEPTORS
Problem: Are touch receptors distributed evenly
throughout your body?
Are your arms as sensitive as your face? Legs? Hands?

ASSIGNMENT
This lab studies the mapping of sensory receptors.
1. Read the lab on p. 462
2. Prepare your lab report so you are ready to
conduct your experiment.
3. For your lab report, include:
Purpose
Table for recording data (include predictions
and observed results)
Analysis Qs
When you are finished your lab prep, start on 14.1
Qs
Reminder: Hand in Brain Lab due tomorrow!