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low (1954) and Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman (1959) are among the most popular ones. The former describes needs as a hierarchy of physiological, security, social, prestige, and self-sufficiency needs from the lowest to the highest needs. Herzberg dichtomizes the needs into extrinsic needs (hygiene factors) and intrinsic needs (motivators). The former refer to the working conditions outside the job and the latter to the work itself. It is the basic assertion of Herzberg that hygiene factors may be a reason for dissatisfaction, but even when they are as good as they can be, they only minimize dissatisfaction, but do not give rise to a positive motivation to work. Only the motivators, ie., an interesting and challenging job, are conducive to a real work motivation. Figure 6.3 illustrates the point of Herzberg’s two-factor theory as a result of a survey that was conducted in an in-house course for managers. The participants were asked—as in the original study by Herzberg—to mention their most positive and most negative expe- rience at work. The distribution of the answers in the figure shows that the majority of positive experiences were associated with the motivators (the upper part of the list), whereas dissatisfaction was associated with the hygiene factors (lower part of the list). It is the work itself that produces or fails to produce motivation, The extrin- sic, administrative factors increase or decrease dissatisfaction. Motivation and dissatisfaction, accordingly, are not ends of the same dimension. They are caused by different factors; they are two different dimensions, and they are influenced by different means. Criticisms have been leveled against the Herzberg theory on the grounds that it may apply to intellectual work only and that it is the product of its methodology to ask for critical incidents rather thana genuine distribution of factors that influence motivation (¢.g., Schneider and Locke, 1971). It is true, too, that in some respects, the two-factor theory may be more modern than at the time of its inception nearly half a century ago as a consequence of structural changes in the economy and the nature of work. There has been a great wave of automation in industry, in retail trade, and even in many parts of administration, and we have not seen all of it yet. A new wave is going on along with developments in information technology. As a result, many jobs that require manual, mental, or social skills have been replaced by a fewer number of jobs with more monotonous work. It is difficult to see how these jobs could Leadership il FIGURE 6.9, The Disinivution of Satisfaction and Olssatistaction in @ Finnish Company Classified According to Herzberg’s Factors § Satistaction | Dissatistaction 3 ® ie) g Achiovernents 31 7 5 Recognition 25 3 Interesting job, F (recasting 1, silty 5 Advancement, 2 g professional development E 81 12 z | SeresrMtettn 22 Supervision 8 j Working conditions 3 s Salary 2 8 Status Relationshi op with subordinates 4 4 5 Relationships a % with colleagues pence ree eeerenerennemel 4 Relationships 7 3 with superiors Satety y 9 64 be intrinsically interesting and challenging. A manager who tries to persuade the worker to believe so comes to be considered a manipu- lator rather than a motivator. There are some possibilities to increase the variety in these kinds of jobs. Work rotation is one often-used means, and it is useful, because it increases flexibility of the organization and replaceability of people. However, its possibilities remain limited. Basically, people do dull work for their living, and they do not imagine then that they can realize their potential in the work. Even the fear of losing one’s job is an incitement to work harder. It may sound 142 INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP somber that there are jobs where, and people to whom, survival and other extrinsic factors are the only reasons to work. But there have always been these kinds of jobs, and the ongoing automation is producing more of them. People’s interest in these jobs is first and foremost in the salary that the company pays for their living (see Lahteenmiaki and Paalumaki, 1993). Their motivation is instrumen- tal: the work and the pay for them is an instrument for the quality of life outside work. In terms of Herzberg, it is the hygiene factors that count in these jobs and for these people. At the same time, there are jobs that are impossible to be auto- mated. In service industries and in the knowledge-intensive sector in particular, new ones arise. People in these jobs value the profes- sional ethic oftentimes more than the organizational culture, and they perform best when driven by their intrinsic motivation to do a good job. These people cannot be managed and motivated by hygiene factors; they work for intrinsic motivators. These kinds of jobs and people are found in traditional industries, too. The service sector abounds with them despite the automation and bureaucracy contradicting motivation. Maintenance work is difficult to automate, and there are lots of new possibilities for skillful, craft-based, and professional people in fields such as hous- ing and industrial maintenance at a time when real estate is aging. Many companies have outsourced their maintenance services, which has created new entrepreneurship opportunities in the busi- ness. In personal selling and in consulting services, a person who is well versed in his product, service, and clients cannot be replaced. by a machine. An enterprising and capable person develops in these jobs the competitive edge of the business. If she is not satisfied with the company, it is not too difficult for her to find a job in another firm or even to found a company of her own. In this situation, the intrinsic motivation is the key. Motivation cannot be donated nor transferred to another person. Nonetheless, there are organizational means to influence it. It is well-known that a great amount of personnel turnover and absen- tecism are symptoms of organizational diseases that diminish motivation to work for the organization. Personnel turnover and. absenteeism result in more costs than most companies realize. Other symptoms of poor motivation are more difficult to measure;