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Rwanda: Genocide
To what extent have attempts to respond to the legacies of
historical globalization been effective?

Scramble for Africa - Before


Rwanda occupied by two main Indigenous groups: the
Hutus and the Tutsis
Hutus: 85% Traditionally were laborers
Tutsis: 15% Traditionally held positions of power
Before the late 1800s and the scramble for Africa the
two groups usually coexisted peacefully

Scramble for Africa - During


Rwanda was claimed by Germany in 1885
Reinforced traditional roles by appointing Tutsis to key
positions. Germans believed they were more European
After Germanys defeat in WWI the peace treaty gave
this area to Belgium in 1918
Belgium continued to give Tutsis key positions
Made the divide between the Tutsis and the Hutus
larger by requiring the members to carry ID cards**

Scramble for Africa: After


After WWII African colonies demanded independence
Belgians left Rwanda in 1962
Civil War broke out between Tutsis and Hutus over who
would have political power
Hutus, the majority, formed a government
Tensions between the two groups were high, many
Tutsis fled the country

Conflict
In the late 1980s economic problems made the Hutu
government unpopular
In 1990 the Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Front invaded
Rwanda from refugee camps in Uganda
Rwandan government began a campaign against the
Tutsis and sympathetic Hutus
Peace agreement ended the fighting, but not the
hatred

Genocide
April 6, 1994 Rwandan presidents plane was shot down.
Tutsis were blamed
Government and militia forces retaliated against the Tutsis
Machetes were the militias weapon of choice
Genocide: the mass killing of a targeted group of people
began
By July 1994 800,000 to 1 million
Tutsis and Hutus had been killed

End of Genocide
Came to an end in July 1994
Tutsis Rwandan Patriotic Force captured the capital and
established a new multi ethnic government
2 million Hutus then fled to neighboring countries
fearing Tutsi revenge

United Nations: World Response


A small number of Canadian Peacekeepers were
stationed in Rwanda since the peace negotiations
Canadian general Romeo Dallaire warned the United
Nations weeks before the genocide of rising tensions
UN refused to get involved with Internal Affairs
Told peacekeepers to not interfere in case it looked as
if the UN was taking sides
UN cut the peacekeeping mission by 90%

Assessing and Defining Responsibility


How would you assess the level of responsibility
of these people for the Rwandan genocide that
began in April 1994? Indicate one of the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Not Responsible
Minimally Responsible
Responsible
Very Responsible

A teacher who categorized


schoolchildren as Hutu or
Tutsi for the government

A Rwandan soldier who


opposed the killings, but
did not speak out against
them

Child soldiers recruited into the


Hutu militia who killed Tutsis

Belgian colonizers who, in the


early 1900s, damaged ethnic
relations between Hutus and
Tutsis by promoting the idea
that Tutsis were superior to
Hutu

Members of the UN Security


Council who voted to reduce
peacekeeping troops while
the killings were ongoing

Rwanda
Responses to the legacy of historical globalization in
this country

Rebuilding International Criminal Tribunal

Justice for victims: UN created an International


Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda to try criminals
By June 2006, 22 judgments had been made on army
and government officials. 130,000 people in prison
waiting to be tried
Gacaca courts, meaning justice on the grass, set
up in 2002 to try between 600,00 to 761,000 low-level
officials

Rebuilding Coffee Co-operatives


The coffee industry employees 40% of Rwandans
International community helped rebuild destroyed
coffee farms
In coffee co-ops Hutus and Tutsis work side by side on
rebuilt coffee farms
Members of the co-op receive a higher price for their
crops than when they sold to private dealers

Rebuilding Ubuntu Edmonton


Started by Nicole Pageau, from Edmonton, Alberta
Organization that supports the widows of the genocide
and helps them build a strong future for their children
Helped women win sewing contracts and grants from
the government for sewing machines
Work together and share experiences

Rebuilding Women for Women


Provides financial and emotional support for women in
conflict areas
Job skills, leadership training, establish small
businesses
Take control of their social, economic, and political
lives

Creating a venn diagram


To compare Rwanda and Canadas response to their
own legacies of historical globalization

Truth and
Reconciliation
Commission
established

E th
Form noce
n tr
rec ms o
is
f
o
De
occ ncil
po
urr iatio
pu
ed
lat
n
ion

Focus on children

Physical genocide
Successful in
rebuilding
economy
Civil unrest

Cultural genocide

d
an
Rw

Ca
na
da

Venn diagram key

Exit slip
Which form of rebuilding Rwandas society do you
believe has been most effective? Why?