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RESULT

TABLE 1: Test Data


Test Data
Sample Data

Replicate 1

Replicate 2

Sample Weight, A (g)

2.0017

2.0013

Amoumt HCl used, Vsample (ml)

3.7

3.5

Amount HCl used, V blank (ml)

0.3

0.5

Normality HCl, N used (N)

0.1534

0.1534

Replicate 1

Replicate 2

0.3648%

0.3433%

TABLE 2: Test Result


Test Result
Test Data

(%)Protein = (f %N)
Mean Of Protein

2.3786.

TABLE 3: Test Result by Group


PROTEIN (%)

2.2383
2.30845

BRAND

HUP SENG

JULIES

GROUP

Replicate 1

Replicate 2

MEAN OF PROTEIN(%)

2.0119

1.3419

1.6769

2.3786

2.2383

2.3084

0.89125

3.8075

2.349

1.3413

1.4081

1.3747

2.8181

2.9519

2.885

2.4819

5.0294

3.7557

2.8076

1.8717

2.3397

MEAN OF PROTEIN(%)
2.5
2
1.5

Mean of Protein (%)

MEAN OF PROTEIN(%)

1
0.5
0
1 2 3 4

Group

Graph 1: Graph Mean of Protein Against Group for Hup Seng

Mean Of Protein(%) Againt Group

Mean of Protein (%)

4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

MEAN OF PROTEIN(%)

1 2 3

Group

Graph 2: Graph Mean of Protein Against Group for Julies

DISCUSSION
There are many methods used to deterinne the Crude Protein Content such as UV- visible
Spectroscopy, Lowry Method, Dye Binding Method and Biuret Method. But in this experiment,
instrumental and method used was Kjedahl Method. Internationally, this method commonly
suggested for protein content determination because it has precision and good reproducibility
also classified as standard method. Two replicates of sample of 2gram of Hup seng biscuit were
prepared and labelled as R 1 and R2 required in this experiment. Blank sample then prepared by
one other group as to compare and deternine the Crude Proteib content by using Kjedahl Metd.
The partition of Kjedahl were digestion of sulfuric acid with catalyst. In the experient, 2 Kjetabs,
anhydrous sodium was funtioned as catalyst and carefully added sulphuric acid inside the tube.
The catalyst will speed up the reaction as they acted as the oxidizing agent for the food similaly
like copper and mercury. Theoritically, along this experiment 3 main reaction occurred including
the Digestion, Neutralization and Titration. In digestion, digestion converts any nitrogen in the
food (other than that which is in the form of nitrates or nitrites) into ammonia, and other organic
matter to C02 and H20. Ammonia gas is not liberated in an acid solution because the ammonia is
in the form of the ammonium ion (NH4+) which binds to the sulfate ion (SO42-) and thus remains
in solution.
N(food) (NH4)2SO4 (1)

Next, the neutralization. After the digestion has been completed the digestion flask is
connected to a recieving flask by a tube. The solution in the digestion flask is then made alkaline
by addition of sodium hydroxide, which converts the ammonium sulfate into ammonia gas:
(NH4)2SO4 + 2 NaOH 2NH3 + 2H2O + Na2SO4 (2)
The ammonia gas that is formed is liberated from the solution and moves out of the digestion
flask and into the receiving flask - which contains an excess of boric acid. The low pH of the
solution in the receiving flask converts the ammonia gas into the ammonium ion, and
simultaneously converts the boric acid to the borate ion:
NH3 + H3BO3 (boric acid) NH4+ + H2BO3- (borate ion) (3)
In the end, titration done.The nitrogen content is then estimated by titration of the
ammonium borate formed with standard sulfuric or hydrochloric acid, using a suitable indicator
to determine the end-point of the reaction.
H2BO3- + H+ H3BO3 (4)
Lastly the concentration of the hydrogen ions which was calculated by using the formula
of:
3
% N = x moles/ 1000 cm x (Vs-Vb) /mg x 14g/moles x 100 (5)

The concentration was required the reach the-end point was equivalent to the
concentration of the hydrogen by the following equation which determines the concentration of
nitrogen sample that weighs m grams using xM HCl acid for titration. Where vs and vb are the
titration sample and blank, 14g is the molecular weight of nitrogen N. A blank sample was
usually ran at the same time as the other sample replicate to take into account any residue
nitrogen which may be the reagents used to carry out the analysis. Lastly, the protein content was
calculated:
% of Protein = %N X conversion factor, f
f= 6.25 because most of protein contain 16% N, so the conversion factor is 6.25

The highest mean of protein obtain for Hup Seng is from group 3, 2.349 while the lowest
is from group 4, 1.3747. In this case, there are many factors that could result the value of protein
this way. Factors that may affect are sampling, cleanliness of grain, moisture content of sample,
protein differences in particles of ground grain and laboratory techniques. Group 4 claimed that
their sample maybe exposed to surrounding during weighing that caused their sample change in
the moisture content. Basically, When large enough moisture changes occur in sample there is
also a change in the protein content. For this reason, samples to be tested should always be stored
in air-tight containers.

CALCULATION
For replicate 1:
% N = (Vsample-Vblank x 0.014 x 100) x Nacid / A
= ((3.7- 0.3) x0.014) x 0.0.1534x 100)/ 2.0015g
= 0.3648%
% Protein = (f x %N)
= 0.3648% x 6.25
= 2.3786%

For replicate 1:
% N = (Vsample-Vblank x 0.014 x 100) x Nacid / A
= ((3.5- 0.5) x0.014) x 0.0.1534x 100)/ 2.0015g

= 0.3433%
% Protein = (f x %N)
= 0.3433% x 6.25
= 2.2383%
Mean of Protein (%) = 2.30845 %