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Fv sNWw

FhnsS XpS-Ww

Aen icnAn

Fv sNWw
FhnsS XpS-Ww
Aen icnAn

hnh\w

F.sI A_vZp aPoZv

CkvemanIv ^ut-j {]kv


Aco-tmSv 673 639

malayalam title
enthu cheyyanam, evide thudanganam
original title in persian
cheh bayed kerd, az kuja agaz kuneem
(what is to be done, where shall we begin)
author
ali shariati
translated by
a.k. abdul majeed
published by
islamic foundation press
paost box 508, areekode-673639
malapuram dist. kerala india
printed at
premier offset prints, calicut
type setting amanath d t p.
edition
december 1991
price Rs. 23/all rights reserved
22(i) M-2000/1412/1991

D-Sw

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{]km-[-I-p-dnv
Fv sNWw
Ipdn-p-I
FhnsS XpSWw
Ipdn-p-I

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53
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89

{]km-[-I-p-dnv
Cdm hn-h-ns ss[j-Wn-Ihpw {]Xym-b-im-kvX-c-]-c-hp-amb ASn-d ]WnX
Aen-i-cn-An ka-tcmkp-Ihpw ]cn-h\ {]h-W-hp-amb h-am-\-Ime
apkvenw apkv enw temI-ns Dze {]Xo-Ihpw B[p-\nI Ckv emanI Nn-Icn \nkvXp-e-\mb Hcm-tKmf hyn-Xz-hp-am-Wv. icn-An Nn-I Cv temIhym-]-I-ambn {]N-cn-p-Ibpw hmbn-p-Ibpwkwhm-Z-hn-j-b-am-hp-Ibpw sNp-p.
Cv tIc-f-nepw icn-An Gsd {]nb-tmSpw Xm]-cy-tmSw IqSn hmbn-s-Sp--Xns sXfn-hmWv Ckv emanIv ^ut-j {]kv Cv tIf-n
samgn-amcvdn {]kn sSp-nb #vt-l-ns Av ]pkvX-I-v A\p-hm-NI-cn \npm kzoI-c-Ww. Fv sN-Ww, FhnsS XpS-Ww F Cu]pkvXIw Bdm-a-t-Xm-Wv.
Ata-cn--bnse Cn-yqv t^m dn{k#v Bv Ckv emanI Uokv {]kn-oI-cn-Xpw icn-A-n-bpsS aqv {]`m-j-W-sm-p--Xp-amb hmnkv p_n
U F ]pkvX-I-n \np cv {]`m-j-W--fm-Wv CXn-ep--Xv. icnAn 1970 Ifn sNbvXv {]`m-j-W--fm-Wn-h. Cd\v Ata-cn- km{am-Py-Xzn ]mh-bmb dnkmjm ]-hn-bpsS cmP-hym-gvNbpw AXvSn-tn ]mmXy kmwkvIm-cnI ta[m-hn-Xzhpw \ne-\n-n-cp s#mcp {]Xn-tema kml-N-cy-amWv
Ap-m-bn-cp--Xv. Fm Ctm AhnsS \ne-\np-Xv icn-An B{Kln-Xpw Zin--Xp-amb kml-N-cy-am-Wv. Cu {]kw-K-ns D-Sw {]kw-Kn
kml-N-cy-a , CXv {]kn-o-I-cn-p-tm icn-An Pohn-Xpw {]hn--Xpamb cmPy-p--Xv. adn At-l-ns BKv]-lhpw Zi-\hpw kmmIr-Xamb kml-N-cy-amWv Fw.
CXnse BZy {]`m-j-a-n BcmWv _pn-Po-hn-sbpw FmWv kaq-l-n
Abmv \nh-ln-m-\p--sXpw hnh-cn-p-I-bmWv icn-A-n-sN-p--Xv.
kaq-l-nv amK-Zi\w \In-km-hm-X-{y-n-tepw ]ptcm-K-Xn-bn-tepw
hf-bn-tepw AXns\ \bn-tv {]_p--\mb _pn-Pqhn icn#v-n-bpsS
ZrjvSn-bn ]qh-Im-e--fn {]hm-N-Ia \nh-ln AtX ]v \nh-ln-t-h-\m-Wv. _pn-Pqhn hn_m-Ks icn-An cmbn hne-bn-cp-p-p. : Hv
tIhe _pn-Po-hn-I , cv {]_p--Nn--I. BZy-Iq- X-fpsS XmXzn-Itam
{]mtbm-Kn-Itam Bb hnZy {]tbm-Kn-p-I-sb _pn-sIm-p {]hrn am{Xw
sNp-p. cmw hn_mKw kmaq-tlym--c-hm-Zn-Xz-ap--h-cm-Wv. Ahcv {]mh-NIam-sc-tmse {]hn-p-p.. FhnsS XpS-Ww F cmw {]`-j-Wn Cu cmw `mK-ns khn-ti-j-X-I-fmWv hnj-bw.
icn-A-n-bpsS Cu hninjvS IrXn ae-bm-fn-Iv \Im Ign--Xn NmcnXmy-ap-v. Am-lp-hn\v kvXpXn! hn{h#--I\v \n!

CkvemanIv ^ut-j {]kv


Acn-tmSv

Hv

Fv sNWw
(lp-ssk-\nbm Cim-Zn sNbvX {]kw-Kw)
Nn-bp-sSbpw kwkvIm-c-n-sbpw Ncn{Xw a\-n-em-p-Ibpw B[p-\nI \mK-cnX-I-fn ImW-s-Sp aX--sf-p-dnv ]Tn-p-Ibpw AtXm-sSmw h-am-\-Ime
]cn-Nbw kzmb--am-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-p--hv ka-Im-eo\ a\p-jys #mnbhpw _pn-]-c-hp-am-b-Zni Ftm-m-sW--dn-bmw. bqtdm-]yam-c-m-, ]uckvXy-cm-b, hninjym ankvenw cmPy-m-cmb {]_p--Xbpw {]Xn-_Xbp-ap
hyn-I \nco-n-p-Ibpw Xncn--dn-bp-Ibpw sNbvXn-p Hcp hkvXp-X-bp-v.
B[p-\nI Nqj-W-hy-h-bpw k-Zvhy-h-sb ]pP-\o-b-ambn KWn-p LS\bpw temI-s-p-ap cmjv{S-sf Nc-p-Ifpw D#p]--fpw hn-bn-m\p hn]-Wn-bmn amp--Xn\v Ign-bm-hp-b apgphv X{fpw a\p-jy-Xz-lo\-amb ]-Xn-Ifpw D]-tbm-Kn-pp F Imcyw. `uXn-I-hm-]-c-amb {]tNm-Z\hpw D]-t`m-K-kw-kvIm-cZi\hpamWv bYm-{Iaw \vehn-ep km-nI hyhn-Xn-bpsS aXhpw kZm-Nm-c-{Iahpw. imkvX-cw, Zi-\w, kmt-XnI hnZy,
Ie,-km-ln-Xyw, kmaq-ly-im-kvX-cw, Ncn-{Xw,-a-\-m-kvXcw Fn-h-sbmw AXns
Bbp-[-m-Wv. Fm-hn[ cmjv{So-bm-bp-[-fpw bphpw kam-[m-\-hp-ap-m-m\p amKvfpw #vXp-]-tbm-Kn-p-p.
{]kvXpX eyw km[n--W-sa-n
apgphv a\p-jycpw D]-t`m-K-ar-K-fmhpIbpw cmjv{S- Ah-bpsS
bmYmy--fn \nv Dcn-vam--s-bp-I-bpw-thWw; kzw hyn-Xz-sbpw
kzmX-{y-sbpw cp]-s-Sp-p khn-i-j-X-I Ah\-jvS-s-Sp-Ww;
ktczm-]cn a\p-jy-sc-m-hcpw Htc aqi-bn hv#m-s--hcpw ASn-tn--s
Hcp amXr-I-bn cq]w sIm-h-cp-am-h-Ww. An-s\-bm-hp-tm ]mm-Xy-sctm
]uc-kvX-cy-sctm apkven-sftm _u-sctm B{]--m-sctm emn-ev\ta-cn-
ss{IkvX-h-sc-tm-hy-Xym-k-at\y
a\p-jy-scm--Sw
temI-km{amPys D]m-Z-\-b-{s B{i-bn-p ASn-a-I-fm-bn-n-cpw.
a\pjysmw Htc BIr-Xn, Htc Bm-hv, XpeyBh-iy-, At\ym-\y-km-Zr-iamb Pohn-X-co-Xn, Htc Xcw Nnbpw `mh-\-bpw--F-nte Ah Jmdp\nb temI{I-a-ns XpeyD]-t`m-m--fm-bn-n-cp-I-bp-p. `panse Fm tKm]p-c-fpw
\new ]Xn-p-Ibpw Fm tIm-Ifpw XIv hogp-I-bpw, Npcp--n ]Sn-mdns sImsb XSp-p then-s--I-sfmw FSp-p-am--s-Sp-Ibpw thWw.;
s#mcp kaq-l-n\v D-X-amb kz`m-h-hn-ti-j-W-fpw kpZr-V-amb kzmX-{yhpw
{]Zm\w sNp-Xpw kzw aqey-sf kwc-np \np-hm\pw Cs ]cnjvI-cn Imm-fnsc B{I-a-W-sf sNdp-p-hm\pw AXns\ k-am-p-Xp-amb Fm LS-I-sbpw \in-n-p-Itbm hnI-e-s-Sp-p-Itbm sN-Ww.
Hcp kaq-l-n\v km-n-tImm-Z-\-tijn Cm-Xm-hp-Ibpw ]cn-]q-ambpw
AXv ap-f-f-h-cpsS `uXn-tIm---fpsS ncw D]-t]m-m-hm-bn-o-cp-Ibpw
sN-W-sa-n t\cs AXns _pn-]-c-amb Dm-Z-\--aX \in-n-cn-Ww
Fv Ncn-{X-]-chpw imkv{Xo-b-]-chpw kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-]-c-hp-am-b-A-\p-`-h-
km{am-Py-Xz-hm-Zn-Isf ]Tn-n-n-p-v. kzw _pn-]-c-amb Dm-Z-\--aX B
kaqlw \ne-n--Ww. Fnv ]q-ambpw AX-cam-cpsS _pn-]-c-amb D6

--fpsS samw D]-t]m-m--fm-bn-o-c-Ww. HSp-hn i{Xp-hp-am-bp-f-f-A-`n-apJo-I-c-W-n AXns am\p-jn-I-kzm-X{yw apgp-h-\mbpw AXn\v hn\-jvS-am-hpw.
aX-amWv CX-cam-cp-am-bp-ff t]mcm--n kaq-l-v khn-ti-j-amb kzt_m-[hpw kzm{k-b-Xzhpw hnizm-khpw kzmX-{yhpw {]Zm\w sNp Ghpw
i-amb LS-I-sav Ncn-{Xm-\p-`-h-n \nv km{am-Py-Xz-i-n-I a\-n-em-nbn-p-v.
A\y-\m-Sp-I-fn-te-p-ff cmjv{Sn-b--kmw-kvm-cnI A[n-\n-th-i-n\p apnse
{][m\ {]Xn-_w aX-am-sW-v, X-fpsS BtKmf B{I-a-W-n-Sv km{amPy-Xz-i-n-I ]Tn-p. hninjym A{]m-Po-\-a-X-am-Xr-I-I \ne-\np cmPy-fn kmwkvIm-cnI bmYmyhpw Ncn-{X-]-c-am-b-k-hn-ti-j-X-Ifpw kpi-amb ]mc-cy ASn m\-fpamWv kaq-ls ]p D]-t`mK hn]-Wn-bmbn
A\m bmkw cq]m--c-s-Sp-p--Xn-s\-Xn-sc-bp-ff t]mcm--n\v IqSp-X
Duhpw t]mj-Ihpw \Ip-Xv Fpw Ah {Kln-n-p-v. ]Sn-m-d
D--sf am{Xw B{i-bn-p Bn-]q hmb-I-fp-ambn \np-I-am{Xw
I-hy-am-bp-ff \n-lm-b-Po-hn-I-fmbn amdp--Xn \nv P\-sf XS-bp-Ibpw
s]mf-f-bmb D]-t`m-r-\m-K-cn-IX s]mXp-hmb temI-ssN-X-\y-nsc
\nmWw Fm-a-\p-jypw Htc \ne-]mSv Fn--s\-bp-ff tcmK--fpsS
hym]\w XSv \np-Ibpw sNp-Xpw ta]-d LS-I- Xs.
\ap--dn-bm-hp--t]mse, cmjv{S--fpsS Ncn-{Xhpw kwkvm-chpw ]mc--cyhpw
Ah-bpsS aX-ssN-X-\y--fp-ambn IqSn--evsIm-m-Wp-f-f-Xv. F-, Hcp
cmjv{S-ns Ncn{Xw, kwkvm-cw, ]mc-cyw Fn-hsb cq]-s-Sp-p--XpXs Nne-tm aX-am-bn-cn-pw. AXn-\m Ahn-sS-bp-ff P\- aX-]-c-amb
ASn-m-\-pw Pohn-X-co-Xnpw A\p-kr-X-amb PohnXw \bn-p km{am-PyXz-i-n-Ihn-ti-jnv BZy-L---fn aX-{`m-ns\ FXnpI sb \mSyn aX-tmSp s]mcp-Xp-Ibpw ]nn-cn--s A[n-t-]n-pI sb-t]cn Ncn-{Xs B{I-an-p-Ibpw A-hn-iz-ksbpw ]g-a-sbbpw Adp-p-I-fbpIsb `mth\ ]mc--cy--fpsS t\sc Itw \S-p-I-bw-am-WvsN-bvX-Xv.
Ncn-{Xhpw ]mc--cyhpw kwkvm-chpw aXhpw hyn-Xz-hp-an-m Hcp-P-\-Xsb
krjvSn--em-bn-cpp Ah-cpsS eyw km{am-Py-Xz-ns apnP-\- Ipcam-sc-tmsebmbn. ]p D]-t`m-K-kw-kvm-c-ns cq]-n Xo{hamb B[p-\n-IX \S-n-em-p--Xnepw XnI A\p-I-c-Whpw hne-b-\hpw hgn
kzw kwkvIm-cs \ntj-[n-p--Xnepw Ah A`n-am-\w-sIm-f-fp-p. Xqew
A\y \n-bn--hn-[nv tkmmlw Iog-S-p-I-bm-W-h. B[p-\n-I-Im-m-f-ns bpK-n apgp-h hmXn-ep-Ifpw Ahi-{Xp-mbn Xpd-n-Sp-p.
s]--h \ncm-bp-[cpw {]Xn-tcm-[-an-m--h-cp-ambn `hn-p-Ibpw ]W-ns
aXn\pw D]-t`mK kwkvm-c-ns XXz-im-kv{X-n\pw hnSp-th-e-sN-p
imkv{X-ns Iui-ehpw Ie-bpsS ambm-Pm-ehpw XXz-Nn--bpsS h-\bpw
P\m-Xn-]-Xy-nsbpw am\-hn-I-Xm-hm-Z-n-sbpw Im]-Syhpw kmt-XnI hnZybpw
IqSn Hcp-p sIWn-bn-C-c-I-fmbn hogp-Ibpw sNp-p.
]pXnb bpK-ns Bcw-`-n AYhm 16,17 iX-I--fn bqtdm-n Imep-dn DSs\ _pjzmkn a\-nXn bpsSbpw imkv{X-hmZnsbpw t]cn
aXs FXnm XpS-n-bXv Cm-c-W-m-em-bn-cp-p. Ah km{am-Py-Xz-L-n-tev {]th-in-p-Ibpw ]uc-kvXy-tZ-ivImeq-p-Ibpw sNbvX-tXmsS tZio7

b-Xm-hm-Zw, DZm-c-Nn-, B[p-\n-I-X, am\-hn-I-Xm-hmZw apX-em-b-h-bpsS ad-hna-lma-X-sf A{I-an-m XpS-n. {]tXy-Inpw A`n-Pm-X-cn \nv aXs XpSp
\om Ah-cm-{K-ln-p. P\-n-S-bn Adp-]n-n-cn-n\pw hnIr-X-hp-amb aXw
t{]mkm-ln-n--s-p. aXw FXnscbpw t_m[-n-sbpw kzmX-{y-{]-m\-n-sbpw am-ambn amdm-Xn-cn-m-\p-ff AS-hm-bn-cp-p CXv. P\-sf ab-pIbpw ac-hn-n-p-Ibpw sNp aXw Ahsc Xncp ]nSn--A-h--bn
\n\npw. Xv bYmXz-n FmWv kw`-hn-p-Xv Fv Ah-c-dn-bp-Ibn-. \nc-Ihpw Pohkvk Xpamb BNmc I--fn apgp-In-bn-cn-p-Ibmhpw Ah AtX s]mse sIp-I-Y-I-fnepw `h-\m-I Nn-I-fnepw hnUVnw \nd A-hn-izm-k--fnepw Ah hym]npw. aXs hnIr-X-am-p-IbmWv CXn-s-sbmw Dtiyw. CXp-aqew `nnpw hyP-tm-cp-Ifpw krjvSn--sSp-p. Xpd a\-nXn Xf-cp-p. t_m[-h-cW {ia- ]n-e-am--s-Sp-p,
hnivjym aX-ns icn-bob ssNX\yw hos-Sp-m-\p-ff {iaw.
P\-sf Xn-e-Sn-n-p coXn-bn aXs {]hn-n-p--Xn\v _mly-Zrjym
hncp tNcn-I-fn \ne-sIm-f-fp cp hn`m-K-sf krjvSn-t--Xm-h-jy-ambn
hp km{am-Py-Xz-hm-Zn-Iv. hncp--sa tXmn-n-p cp {[ph--fn
\nv ]c-kv]cw Gp-ap-p cv hn`m-K-sf I]-Shpw _ln`m-K--hp-amb
A-am-bn-cnpw Ah-cp-sS-Xv. Fm Cu Xnp bp-n Ccp hn`m-K-nsbpw t\XrXzw bYm-n Hv Xs-bm-Wv. Ccp hn`m-Khpw ssIh-i-s-Spp bp-ap-X-ep-Ifpw Iog-S-p \ne-fpw sNp-tN-cp-Xv Htc IamUdpsS ASp-tmWv. Cu hymP-bp--n ]s-Sp-p Hcp-hn-`mKw \Sam
hkv{Xm-e-m-c-fpw ap Na-b-epw apJw aqSn-I-fp-a-Wn-v i_vZ-{I-ao-I-cWw
\Sn {]_p--cpsS `mKw A`n-\-bn-p-p. at hn`mKw ]ptcm-ln-X-cpsS
`mKhpw.
hyP-{]-_p--cpsS `mK-amWv A`n-\-bn-m Ffp-w. sXc-sR-Sp bqtdm-y
Nn-Ifpw Bi-b-fpw hnX-cWw sNp-Ibpw ]Sn-m-d PohnX coXnbpw
kmaqly _-epw s]cp-am acym-Z-Ifpw {]N-cn-n-p-I-bp-amWv Ah-cpsS
Ihyw. Cu I]S _pn-Po-hn-I P\-se B[p-\n-Icmpp. bqtdm-]y-\mv kaq-l--fnse ]ptcm-K-a-t\-p-fpw hnZo#v-bm-k---cp-amb bphmsfbpw A`n-Pm-X-sc-bpw. bptdm-]y kwkvm-c-n-tev BKn-cWw sNp-p.
Cs\ ]mm-Xy \pgp Ib--n\v Hc-Sn-d e`n-p-p. ]mm-Xyv A]cn-Nn-Xsc a\-n-em-m\pw Ah-cp-am-bp-ff Bi-b-hn-\n-abw Ffp--am-m\pw Ah
Hcp ]me-ambn hn-p-p. aX-{`m-ns AmX tIm-Isf kmwkvm-cn-Iambpw km-n-I-ambpw Iogvs-Sp-p-X-bmWv Cu ZuXy-ns An-a-^-ew.
hyh-kmb hXvI-c-W-n-sbpw B[p-\n-I-im-kv{Xnb ImgvN-mSv BPn-p-Xnbpw {]Y-ahpw {][m-\-hp-amb D]m[n kzkw-kvm-c-n\pw Ncn-{X-n-\p-saXnsc Ielw Iqp-I-bm-sdv m]np sImmav km{am-PyXz BKn-c-W-{]-m-\ns Bcw-`w. {]_p--X, B[p-\n-I-X, ]ptcm-K-a\w CXymXn Xe-s-p-Iv
Iogn-emWv Cu {]m-\-ns {]h\w. Hcp hn`mKw P\-X-bpsS Iem-kmwkvIm-cnI [manI aqy- kq-ambn \nl-\n-p-I-bm-bn-cpp CXns Dtiyw. CXns {]Y-ah ]Sn-bmbn6 ]cn-K-Wn--s-Xv aX-hn-iz-k-tm-Sp-ff t]mcmhpw tIh-e-am-b-\n-kw-K-XbpsS AYhm kmwkvIm-cn-I-amb ap[m-c-W-I-C-mXncnenvs {]Nm-c-W-hp-am-bn-cp-p. aXw Hcp `qX-Ime hkvXp-hm-sWv imkv{X sXfn-bn--Xmbn XmXzn-I-X-e-n {]N-cn-n--s-p; `qcn-]w ]Sn-m-d
a\o-jn-Ifpw imkv{X-cpw ]cy-th-j-W-mcpw Kth-i-Icpw aX-hn-izm-kn-I-fmsW hkvvXpXDm-bn-cp-np IqSn . ka-Im-enI a\pjy hnm-\s htXm8

Xn Dbp-Ibpw klm-bn-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-p-v Ch-cpsS kw`m-h-\-I. Zn\-]{X- hmbn-p-Ibpw ^o-tdm thj-hn-[m-\-lvMtem D]-tbm-Kn-p-Ibpw
sNp \ne-hm-c-n-se-n--gn-m apkvenw kaq-l--fnse A _p#nPohn-I-fmb bphm---hn-injym IWpw Poh-im-kv{Xhpw ]Tn--h DSs\ ssZh\n-ti-[n-I-fm-hpw. Fm aX-ssN-X\yw imkv{Xn-b-t\z-j-W--fpsS \s-m-sWv
sFo ]d-bm-dp-m-bn-cp-p. hnizm-k-an-m--h AIv {]th-in--cpXv
Fv imkv{X-nsc A`n-am-\-amb amIvkv mIv hnfnp ]d-bpI ]Xn-hm-bn-cpp.Fm \psS CkvemanI cmPy--fnse B[p-\n-I-X-e-apd Cu cv imkv{X-m-cpsS t]cp-tIp-tm-g-t-p-Xs Ap-d-tampw Nnn-msX
aXhnkzm-k-v hg-m--h-cm-bn-o-cm hy{K-X-Im-p-I-bm-Wv. ssZhmkvXnIyw F {]iv\-n bqtdm-n ]q-amb Dcw \I-s-p-I-gn-pshv ka-Im-eo-\-im-kv{X-ns t]cn Ah {]Jym-]n-pp!.
km{Xns `mj-bn ]d-m {]_p--cmb B[p-\n-I-cpsS `mKw A`n-\-bn-p
\Sam-cn-eqsS hms-Sp--s Cu I]S bqtdm-]y Xe-apd aI bqtdm-]y
km{am-PyXz in-Ip-thn Zm]Wn \S-p--h-cm-Wv. jmsU ]d-bp-Xp-t]mse, P\-sf kzX-{-ambn sIm sNmthn Ahsc sImp-Xv
\nnb I-mv hgn-Im-n-sm-Sp-p-I-bm-W-h. X-fpsS B[n-Im-cnI kaqls kzw Ic- sImv inYn-e-am-p-I-bmWv Ah-cpsS {][m\ZuXyw.
Xp-Xpw `qX-Im-e--\nv ]uXr-I-ambn e`n--Xp-samw Ah XIpp. km{am-Py-Xz--fpsS t\-p-thn ]c--cm-K-X-amb kaq-l-nta
bqtdm-]y Pohn-X-co-Xnbpw cmjv{Sob `cW \n-l-W, km-n-I, kmwkvIm-cnI, [mn-I, {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-am-Xr-I-Ifpw Ah ASn-t]n-p-p. Cu A`y-c
km{am-PyXzZmam ]c--cm-KX kaq-l
- B[p-\nI bqtd-]y a\p-jy-s\bpw
imkv{X-sbpw kwkvIm-c-sbpw Ipdn--dn--Xv. bqtdm-n t]mep-an-m-{X
hrn-sI B[p-\n-I-Xbpw \mK-cn-I-Xbpw Ah ]Tn-n-p. I]S B[p-\n-I-cpSwbpw ]mm-Xy-hIrX _pn-Po-hn-I-fpsSbpw F-s-cp--ns ImcWw CXv
hni-Zo-I-cn-p-p.
CkvemanI cmPy--fnkv I]-S-{]-_p-Xm {]m-\-n-sbpw B[p-\n-I-em-Z-nsbpw ap-Wvtm-cm-fn-I Bcm-bn-cp-p? ankm aIpw-Jm (18331908) BWv
Ccm-\n Xnp hmKm-hm-Z-th-Zn-bn I]S B[p-\nI _pn-Po-hn-bpsS `mK-a-`n-\bnp BZyw {]Xy--s--Xv. Abv hotdmsS {]N-cn-np; bntdm-]y _mp-I
Cdm-\n imJ-I Xpd-s. hntZ-i-I--\n-I Cdm-\n-tev hcs As\
cmPyw ]ptcm-KXn ssIh-cn--s..... Ahsc `b-s-tS kvZv lk XJo-km-sZbm-bn-cpp asm-cm. Abm-fpsS Ah-Im-i-hmZw ImWpI; ]ptcm-KXn t\Sm\p GI amcw ]cn-]qW bptdm-]y h-c-W-am-Wv. bptdm-]yv IogvsSpI F t_mw_v B Znh-k--fn Cdm-\n BZyw hjn-Xv Rm-\m-bn-cp-p...
aXw XpS-p-\o--s-s-nte Iog-S- t_mw_v apkvenw kaq-l-ns lrP-bn ]Xn-p-I-bp-p. Cmw ]nn-cn-\pw ]ptcm-K-a-\-hn-cp-hpw B[p-\nI
h-c-W-n-s\-Xn-cp-am-sWv
Cs
aIp-ap-am
{]N-cn-n-p-p.
AXvsImv hntZ-i-_m-p-Ipw I-\n-Ipw hym]m-c-kw-L-pw FslvInepw {]iv\tam XS-tam A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-msX ISp hcmw! AtX kabw
]gb ap-Im-c-\mb Bb-pm ankm lk jndmkn Xs apgp-h aXm-[n-Im-c-

tmSpw Adn-thmSpw IqSn Cun-ym-I--\n-bpsS ktlm-Z-cn-bmb sdPn


I\nsb shdpp Cu \nanjw apX ]pI-bne D]-tbmKw Cam-an-s\-Xnsc
bpw sNp-n\v ka-amWvF-tlw {]Jym-]n-p. CtXmsS aX-{`m--cmb
P\- I\-]-\n-s-Xnsc Cf-In. F{X-tm-f-sa-m JmP cmPm-hns `mcy-am
cmP-sIm-m-c-n Bpw ]pI-bne \Im IqSm-S-n-bn-.! aX-{`m- \pgvI-g--m-c-\mbv Pam-ep-o Ak-Zm_n `ojWn aW--dn-bp-Ibpw hnfn-p-]-dbp-Ibpw sNbvXp: Ch-cn-hnsS Hcp_vv m]n-m-\p-t-in-p-p. F{X-k-l-Xm]mlw Hcp-_m-v. FmWv _mv Fv \n-dn-bmtam?
AsX htc-Wy-cp-tSbpw Ipeo-\-cp-tSbpw kap-l-nse ]ptcm-K-a-\-hn-`m-K--fptSbpw kvac-W-I-fn \nv aXw XpSv \o-Ww. Fnte hn]-WnbpsSaXan\pw ]p ASn-a--n\pw km[yX e`n-p. a[y-Im-e-ns
A-Im-c-n kvw kti-jnbpw sImv temIs hnk-a-bn-n cmjv{Sw
A apJ-am-hp-Ibpw AKm-[-amb K-n \n]-Xn-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. ]pdtav Pzen-p-Xpw AIw s]m-bm-bn-o-Xp-am-hp. Ctm \psS cmjv{Sn\v kz-ambn hoSp-I \ncvan-p-hmt\m kzw hkv{X- [cn-p-hmt\m
kz-ambn apdn-I Ae--cn-p-hmt\m Ig-hn-. Fs\ `Ww Ign--W-sav
Xocp-am-\n-m t]mepw AXv ss[cy-s-Sp-n-.
CtX-k-abw \mS-I-im-e-bpsS FXn hit thZn-bn asmcp Iqw \S-m-cp-v.
Ah-cpsS Na-b- thsd-bm-Wv. \mS-Ihpw thsd. Fm \S-mpw ]py ]pcpjam-cpsS apJ-am-Wn-hn-sS. thj-hn-[m-\--sfmw aX-Io-bw. ssZhw, ]c-tem-Iw,
\c-Iw,-kzw, kaw, ]mhw, shfn-]m-Sv, {]hm-N-I, Jp-B, -C-am-a-Xv, ]cnip-n, kq-a-X, Bo-b-X, kZm-Nm-cw, [-\n-jvS, hnc-n, XpS-n-b-hsb ]nbmWv AhnsS kw`m-j-W-, ]ns Cl-temIw `uXn-Im-Ij-W--fn \nv
Xncnp If-bp--Xvs\-p-dnpw. Gsd Zpjv-c-amWv Cu A`n-t\-Xm--fpsS
tPmen. Zzm--I-`m-K-am-W-h-cp-sS-Xv. aXw {]N-cn-n-vsmv thWw-C-hv aXs-\-in-n-m! aXm-Nm-c- A\p-jvTn-p-Ibpw BZ-cn-pbpw sNp-p-shmWv Ch-cpsS \mSyw. al-p-sf hmgvp-p-shpw hnip--{K--n \nv
]cn-ip-nbpw A\p-{K-lhpw km-Zn-ppshpw `mhnv Ch aX-t\-Xm--fpsS
A[ym-]-\-fpw Jp-B-\ns kbpw adpshp-p. AXv {Kln-p--Xn
\npw P\-sf XS-p-\np-I-bm-Wn-h. _mly-cq-]hpw Df-f-S-hpw \ne\np-tm Xs aXs AXn-s\-Xnsc Xncn-p-\-in-n-p-p. CXn\v Cd-p-aXv
sNbvX aX-hn-cp Nn-I-fpsS klm-b-hp-ap-v. Cu \mS-Im-`n-\-b-m cq]hpw Dff-S-hpw Xn s]mcp--an-m`mK-amWv Ifn-p--Xv. cv hncp--L-S-I-sf
Iqn-bn-W-p-I-bmWv Ah-cpsS Npa-X-e. ]cn-N-b-k-\-]-cpw \n]p-W-cp-amb \Sm km[n Akm-Zy-Im-cyw!
CX-c-a-X--fp-ambn Xmc-X-ay-s-Sp-p-tm Cu hni-b-n Ncn{Xw sXfn-pImWpw hn[w Zpc--]q-am-Wv. Ckvemans\ asmcp CkvemwsImv t\cn-Sp-Xn\v Ckmemans i{Xp- Ah-cpsS apgp-h AZ-[zm-\hpw {]Xn-`bpw hnm\hpw hn\n-tbm-Kn-n-p-. BNm-cm-\p-jvTm-\-sf I]-S-ambn {]Ion-pI hgn
Ckvemans kXys \in-n-p-I-bmWv Ah-cpsS Dtiyw. Ckvemans\
Ckvemw sImv t\cn-Sp-I. ImcWw Bhn`mhw apX-en-p-hsc i{Xp--fp-ambn
apJm-apJw \S-n-b-tm-sgms Ckvemw hnP-b-smSn \mn ]pdp h-XmbmWv Ncn-{Xw, Ckvemw AXns {]Xm-]-ns Gw Xmgv ]Sn-bnepw i{Xp-

10

in-bpsS ]c-tIm-Sn-bnepw Bbn-cp ka-b--fn t]mepw. i{Xp an{Xns DS-bm-S-I-f-Wn--tmgpw _lp-ssZ-h-Xzhpw Agn-a-Xnbpw \a-bp-sSbpw
`n-bp-sSbpw \of-p-mbw [cn--tmgpw Ckvemw, AIv \nv aen-\-am--s-np-v. AtX-k-abw AXns _mly-tim-`bpw BNm-cm-\p-jvTm-\--fpsS ]pdw {]Xm]hpw ]c-tIm-Sn-bn-em-bn-cpp Xm\pw. Ckvemans X\n-abpw ssNX-\yhpw AkvX{]-`-am-bn. AXns Gw ]cn-ip-cpw Bm-bp-f-f-h-cp-amb A\p-bm-bn-Ifpw
t\Xm-fpw AXns Xs hmfn-\mIp-cp-Xn-sIm-Sp--s-p.
Aa-hn-I em-bp-sSbpw lp_-en-sbpw hn{K-l- ssIbp-te-n-b-h-cm-bn-cpp. {]hm-N-I-s\-Xnsc hmfq-cn-b-tmgpw Jp-B\p t\sc A-bvX-tmgpw _Z-dn
]cm-P-bhpw InS-p-bp--n A]-am-\-hp-am-bn-cpp Ah-cvUv hn[n--Xv. i{Xp-fn \nv Hmtcm BK-X-tap-tmgpw Ckveman\v IqSp-Xi-nbpw Xnfhpw e`n-p. Hcp ]Sn-IqSn aptmv \on A_p-kp-^yms IY-sb-Sp-p-I.-C-cp]Xv hi--tfmfw Ckvemans\Xnsc KqVm-tem-N\ \S--A-t-l-ns hkXn
Ckvemans A`-b-m-\-am-bn. Abm-fpsS cp a-fn-sem-cm-fmb bkoZv
Ckvemans [a-`-S-\m-bn. iman Ckvemans ]XmI Dbp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
as aI apB-hnb {]hm-N-Is kJmhpw Jp-B teJ-I-\p-am-bn. AS-hp-amn
an{X-thiw [cnp i{Xp-sf t\cn--tm kn^v^obp--n Ah _Z-dnse
]cm-P-b-n\p ]Icw hon. _Z-dnlp-_ hn{K-l-n\p {]Xn sNpI aqew
Ah i{Xp--fmbn Xncn--dn-b-s-n-cp-p. kn^v^o\n Ah Am-lp-hn\p
{]Xn sNbvXp-an{X hkv{X-a-anp i{Xp--fm-bn. t\c-tX-sX-b-h Jp-B-\n-s\Xnsc As-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p. Ctm-g-h Jp-Bs\ Ah-cpsS sImSn-I-fn \mn-bncn-p-I-bm-Wv. Jv bp-n InS-n-\-p-d-am-bm- A-a-hn-Iv ]cm-Pbw
]nW-p. Fm shf-f-ns Csc Cgp h-Xn\p tijw, J-n
Ahsc ]cm-N-b-s-Sp-nb AtX a\p-jy-t\mSv bq{^-o-kn(-I_-e) \njv{]bmkw ]Icw hon.
Ckveman\pw apkvenw Ipw Ghpw henb A]-ISw _lp-ssZ-h-hn-kzm-knItfm Ahn-izm-kn-Itfm hn{K-lm-cm-[-Itcm `uXnI hmZn-Itfm An. adnv I]-Sm-cmWv Fv {]hm-N-I\pw Jp-B\pw ZoL-Zi\w sNbvXn-psvv {]hm-NIs\bpw Jp-B-s\bpw ]cn-N-b-ap-f-f-hsms Adnbmw. BZyw ]d Iqcmcpw Ckvemans {][m-\-shp hnfn-bm-bn-cp-nv ImcWw Ah-cp-am-bp-ff bp-fn _un-I-ambpw ssk\n-I-ambpw Ckveman\mbncpp Pbw. Ckv emanI
\oXn-bpsS tap-Sh [cn a-I\pw Xulo-Zns ap{Zm-hmIyw apg-p--hn-{K-l-a-\p-jy--]-W--A-[n-Im-cm-cm-[-I-cp-amWv Gsd A]-ISw ]nSn--i-{Xp. ]cn-{hm-P-I-\mb
]pWy-hm-fs Na-b--f-Wn ASn-a-hym-]m-cn. _lp-ssZ-h-Xz-nsc ssIIfnse D]-I-cWw. Ckvemans\ Bbp-[-am-p i{Xp. A-X-bp-sSbpw \n{Z-bpsSbpw cm-[n-Im-cn.-A hnizm-k-fpw \pW-Ifpw sIp IY-Ifpw {]N-cn-n-p-h.
kmaq-ln-I-k-Xw-`-\m-h--bp-sSbpw
\oN-Xz-nscbpw
{]Xn-\n-[n.
Ckvemans t]cn P\-sf NXn-p--h. Zphn-[nbpw Zmcn-{Zyhpw \ny-Xbpw
adp If-bm\pw i{Xp--fpsS KqVm-tem-N-\-I Ah-K-Wn-m\pw Bh-iy-s-Sp-h `qan-bnse hn{K-l-sf Xr]vXn-s-Sp-m-\v, ssPh {]oXnp thn-bp-f-fsX an, \ne-hn-ep-ff hyh-n-Xnsb AwKo-I-cn-mP-\-sf Ah t{]cn-np-p. A-Xbpw a-\hpw Zu_-yhpw Zmcn-{Zyhpw ]ntm-m-h-bpw
tcmK-fpw kln-p--hv am{Xw {]Xn-^ew \Ip {]Xn-`m-k-am-bn Ckv
emanse ssZh-s Nn{Xo-I-cn-p--h I]-S-\m-Wv. bYm-n Ckemanse
ssZhw A-ns\ BZ-cn-p-p. kv Hcp \ kwK-Xn-bmWv Jp-Bs
ZrjvSn-bn. Ckemw \oXn-bp-sS-bpw-im-kv{X-n-sbpw ku-cy-nscbpw aX-amWv. apkvenwIfpsS A-hn-izm-khpw ]ntm-m-h-bpw Zmcn-{Zhpw NqjWw
11

sNp--h-cn \nv {]Xn-^ew e`npw F Imc-W-m-emWv I]-S-hn-izm-kn-I


CsXmw sNp--Xv. Ckvem
ans\ ]c-ky-ambn Xf-fn--d--h-sc-mIq-Sp-Xembn I]-S-hn-izm-kn-I-sf-p-dn-mWv Jp-B A[nIw tZjy-tm-Spw shdp-tmSpw
IqSn kwkm-cn-p--Xv. CXv bmZr-n-I-a-. Ccw apkvenwIsf Ipdn-mWv Jp-B\nse Hc-ymbw Xs.9
a-bpsS Nppw _lp-ssZ-hh-h-izm-kn-I-fm-bn-cp--tmgpw aZo-\sb i{Xp- hf-tmgpw {]hm-N-I sXpw `bw IqSmsX _nw_-s-Xnsc Kn-p.
\n-b-ZmVy-tmsS, B-hn-izm-k-tmsS, imNn-\mbn Atlw InSv
Ipgn-p. CsXm-c-p-X-a-. A-Zzo]v H-Sw At-l-n\v Iogvs]-p. _mt_-dnb-m-cp-sSbpw Ab]-s _lp-ssZ-h-hn-izm-knIfpsSbpw A]-ISw Atlw
XpS-p-\o-n. hSpw sXp-ap cv henb km{am-Py-sf \nho-cy-am-n.
temIs Am-\-am-Sp-I-bm-bn-cpp Cu km{am-Py-. hssk\ys-Xnsc
bpw \S-nb Fm Ak-p-enX bp--fnepw Atlw hnPbw sImbvXp. Npcp-n in-bpsS ]c-tIm-Sn-bn Fn \nsbmWv Atlw A\p-bm-bn-ItfmSv hnS-]-d-bm B{K-ln--Xv. B ka-bv {]hm-N-I\v thh-em-Xn-bp-m-bn-cp-p.
hfsc Icp-X-tem-sS-bm-W-tlw kwkm-cn--Xv. A\p-bm-bn-I-fpsS F-p-cpw
aqew Ckvemw Hcn-epw ]cm-P-b-s-Sp-I-bn F-t-l-n-\-dn-bm-am-bn-cp-p
Xpd bp-n Ckvemw app-a-S-p-I-bn. _lp-ssZ-h-hn-izm-kn-I-fp-tStbm
Ahn-izm-kn-I-fp-tStbm hmfp-Iv AXns\ shnapdn-m-\m-hn-. Xs kzw aXns HutZym-KnIA\p-bm-bn-Ifpw kwc--I-cp-amhpw Xs hoSv s]mfn-p-I
Fv {]hm-N-I-\-dn-bm-am-bn-cp-p. Xs {]apJ kJm- Aensb s]mXpPohn-Xn \nv ]nhm-m t{]cn-n-p-sapw \a-kv-cn-p-Ibpw t\ms-Sp-pIbpw sNp kq-am-ep--fmb ]cn-ip--m k^v^o bp-n Aenv
]nh-en-p-sapw \lvd-hn bp-n Ah Aen-s-Xnsc hmfq-cp-sapw HSphn alvdp-anshv Ah-c-t-ls h[n-p-sapw (F.-Un. 661) {]hm-N-I\v Adnbm-am-bn-cp-p
ssk{]kv Iog-S-p-tmtgm _lp-ssZ-h-Xz--ns hmfp-I-fmtem Bhn A_qZdv h[n--s-SpI Fv {]hm-N-I Adn-n-cp-p. Xs almkJm--fn-sem-cmfmb Dkvams I-\-{]-Imcw, Ckvemans HutZym-KnI \nb-tam-]-tZm-jvSmhv
IA-_p Al-_m-dns aX-hn-[n-sb-p-Sv d_vZm acp-`q-an-bn-tev \mSp-I-S-sv GIm-In-bmbn ]n-Wn-In-S-mWv Atlw acn-p-I Fpw {]hm-N-I-\-dn-bm-ambn-cpp. At-l-ns B-an-{X-amb lpPvdns12 sIme-]m-X-Is Ipeo-\-cpsS
kmn-sam-gn-Ifpw HutZym-KnI ap^n-Xn-If
- psS aX-hn-[n-Ifpw \ymbo-I-cn-p-sav
Atlw Adn-n-cp-p. Xs IpSpw_w Iq-sm-e-sN--s-Sp-Ibpw _n-I-fm-s-Sp-Ibpw sNp apldw ]v JmZn-kn-b-bntem baqn-te13tbm bqtdm-]nstbm kok-dp-tStbm JUvK--fmtem Bhn Dm-hp-I-sbpw skmdm-kv{Snb An-bm-cm-[-It\m {Ink-Xy ]mXn-cntbm PqX-]p-tcm-ln-Xt\m {_mW
k\ym-kntbm aX-hn[n {]Im-c-a AXv \S-p-I-sbpw CkvemanI \nb-a-]-WvUn-Xm-cpsS hn[n-b-\p-k-cnv CkvemanI Jeo-^-bmb hnizm-kn-I-fpsS t\Xmhpw
hnJym-X\pw hnP-{io-em-fn-X-\-\p-amb [-tbm-m-hns ]p{X Dss_-Zp--bpsS
D-c-hp-{]-Im-c-amWXp-m-hp-I-sbpw Ckvemans ssk\y-amWv Xs IpSpw_s Adp-sIm-e-sN-p-I-sbpw {]hm-N-I Adn-n-cp-p. kXy-\n-tj-[n-IfpsS `qan-Io-g-S-p-Ibpw A\y-a-X-tZ-hm-e-b--fpsS m\v akvPnZv ]Wn-bpIbpw {]m-\-bn-tep hcnI F ssZhnI Ww(A-Zm) temI-am-k-Iew
hnfnp ]d-bp-Ibpw JpB t{ImUn-I-cn-p-I-b-pw tImn-sb-Sp-p-Ibpw {]N-cn-np-Ibpw sNp AtX ssk\yw! apl--Zns aX-n-s\-Xnsc Iem-]-ap-m-p12

Ibpw ssZh-n-s\-Xnsc ]m]w sNp-Ibpw ssZh-Zq-Xs Jeo-^-bvs-Xnsc


hnhw \S-p-Ibpw apkvenw kaq-ls ]nfp-Ibpw sNbvX hntZ-in-I-fn
\nv Ckvemans\ c-s-Sp-pI hgn Biq-d-bnse hnP-b-n-eqsS Am-lphns\ BZ-cn-p-I-bm-W-h FXv F{X hnNn{Xw!hntcm-[m-`mkw! t\m-\p-jvTnp-Ibpw \qdp-I-W-n\v ]n-I ]Wn-bp-Ibpw sNbvX tk\-bm-W-Xv. t\mp-I.
Ckveman-t-Xn-t\-m Zpcn-X-]qhpw hnkva-bn-n-p--Xp-amb Ncn{Xw t]sd-bn. _mly-i-{Xp-s-Xnsc Cu aXw Ftmgpw hnPbw sImbvXp. ]s an{X-Ic--fm tXm]n--s-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Ckvemans bmYmyw AXns I]-St\-Xm--fn sIm-s-Sp-Itbm hnjw Xo-s-Sp-Itbm sNpXv BmWv
kn-m Ign-bpI?14
ioC-k-ns Ncn{Xw CkvemanI ssNX-\y-ns Ncn-{X-am-Wv.-kzw ico-cns Cc-bm-bn-o-cp Bmhv. Pnlm-Zn-s\-Ip-dn CkvemanI kq- DtJ\w sNbvX hmfp-IsImpw GI-sZm-h-Xz--ns ap{Zm-hm-Iy- sImnh JUvK-sImpw apl--Zns IpSpw_w apgp-h sIme-sN--s-p.
]nI ]Wn-X-h, aX-tbm-m-, Ckveman-\p-thn kXy-\n-tj-[n-I-fpsS
\new Iog-Sn-b-h C-s\-sb-mw Adn-b-s-Sp--h-cmWv{]hm-NI IpSpw_s
sIm-Xv. LmX-I Jp-B-\ns HutZym-KnI t{ImUo-Im-fpw {]Nm-c-Icpw
kwc--I-cp-am-bn-cp-p. EPp-hmb Ckvemans\ Cs ]cn-lmky cq]-n-em-nbXv Zmi-\nI ssk\nI i{Xp--f-. A\p-bm-bn-I-fmWv. A_q-Zdm-C-s\bpw
A_q-Mp-dm-d-sbbpw t]mep lZokv \nth-Z-I, IA#v-_p Alvdm, A_q-aqk,
ipssdd XpS-nb \ymbm-[n-]-m, \nb-tam-]-tZ-jvSm-, ssZh-im-kv{X-,
JpB hymJym-Xm-, `cWm[nIm-cn-I, ap^n-Xn-I, {]t_m-[n-I, Jeo-^am, B-hn-Zym-hm-Zn-I!
Ckvemans ta-d cm-Im--fmWv Ckveman-Im-Nm-c--fpw NS-fpw
]mc--cy-fpw Ah-bpsS aln-a-I klnXw{]N-cn-n--Xv. Ah Ckvemans
{]Xm]w Dbn. AXns imkv{X-hpwh \mK-cn-I-Xbpw kwkvIm-chw BYvao-bXbpw \p-]n-Sn-n-p-I-b-pw hfp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Fm CtX Bfp-IXs
Ckvemans\ AXns AIp \np \in-n-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p. AXns AIv
\nv \in-n-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p. Ah-c-Xns\ Poh-p--Xmn. Znim-t_m[w sISp-n.
Ne-\-an-m-Xm-n. CsXmw sNbvXXv Ahn-izm-kn-Itfm `uXn-I-hm-Zn-Itfm A.
Cm-an-s-Xvt]mse Nm{InI kz`m-h-ap-ff Ncn-{X-an-. Cp-an Cu nXnv amw.
am{X-a Ipsd-IqSn tami-hp-amWv! Cm-ans\ Daq-e\w sNm\mh-iy-s-Sp
B[p-\n-I-hm-Zn-Ifpw I]-S-_p-n-Po-hn-Ifpw bqtdm-]y-hIrX apkvenwIfpw Ckv
emans {]Xy i{Xp--fm-Wv. Camw lpssks at\m-l-c-amb Hcp hmIyw ]cmh\w sNbvXp ]d-m aX-hn-izm-kn-I-f-s-n Npcp-nb ]Jvjw Ch
kzX-{cpw hntam-Nn-X-cp-am-Ipp Ah kzsb adp shp-nv F-XmWv
kXyw. Ah-cpsS hyn-Xzw, eyw, A`n-em-j- Fnh Ah-cpsS kzX-{mm-hns\ hnfn--dn-bn-p-p. Ch Ckveman-t\mcp `oj-Wn-b. Ch-cp-am-bp-ff
t\bp--n-emWv Ckemw IqSp-X i-nbpw hocyhpw ssIh-cn-p-I. ImcWw
Ch Ckvemap-ambn _pn-]-c-amb bp-n-emWv Gs-n-cn-p--Xv. Acw
kml-N-cy-n Ckveman\v AXns ihpw AP--hp-am-b-bp-n-sImv kZm
Xncn-Sn \Im km[npw. `uXnI hmZ-{K--tm A\n-m-anI ]cn-`m-jIt\m aX-c-lnX _pn-Po-hntm Ckvemans\Xn-sc-bp-ff B{I-a-W-n Hc-Snt]mepw aptmv shm-\m-bn-n-. Ckvemapw ssZh-\n-bpw Gp apn-b-tm-

13

tgms BZ-cm#i ]chpw Xmn-I-hp-am-bn-cpp t]mcm-w. hnPbw Ckveman\pw.


\psS Zu_-y-n-sbpw Ass\-Iy-nscbpw A[x-]-X-\-n-sbpw bpK-amb
Cm-ev t]mepw CXmWv nXn. DZm-l-c-W-n\v B{^n--bn Ckvemw cmko-b-am-b-`u-Xn-I-hmZ {]N-c-W-sbpw ssIkvXh anj-\-dn-am-scbpw Htc-k-abw
t\cn-Sp-p. Fnpw {]^-k hnkv tamWn NqnImWn-p--Xp-t]mse aXw
amdp An \men-e-[nIw t]cpw hcp-Xv Ckvemantem-Wv. Hn Xmsg
Bfp-Isf {InkvXp-aXw kzoI-cn-p-p-f-fq. Ah-cm-hs A[n-Ihpw ]mivNm-Xy
Akv-]-{Xn-I-fn-setbm I-\n-I-fn-setbm anj-\-dn-am-cp-sStbm Xt-iob the-m-cpam-Wv. {InkvXp aX {]Nm-c-n\pw hI-c-bpsS Ncn-{Xw, `mj-I, kwkvm-c-,
tKm{X-, aX-, kmaqly cmjv{Snb km-nI m]-\-, a\-m-kv{Xw,
`qan-imkv{Xw B[n-bm-bh ]Tn-p--Xn-\p-ambn _ney IW-n tUmf-dp-Ifpw
^up-I-fp-amWv {]Xn-hjw Nne-h-gn-p-Xv F hkvXpX IW-n-se-Sp-ptm Cu Fw {i-bln-p-p. apgp-h {]tZ-inI `mj-I-fn-tepw
ss__n hnh\w sN-s-n-p-v. ani-\-dn-amv Idp--hI-csb Ah-\hs Ioi-I-sf-tm-se-b-dn.bmw. Ah kzbw hy-am-p--Xm-Wn-Xv. kI-e-hn-Zpc-tKm-{X-fpw hnkvarX kmaq-ly-]m-c--cy-fpw Ahv kp]-cn-Nn-X-am-Wv.16
Ckvemans\

\in-n-p--Xn t\cnb hnPbw t\Sm\pw KWy-amb Hcp hn`mKw


hnZymk- -bp-hm-sf sIWn-bn-em-m\pw aX-c-lnX I]S _pn Pohn-Iv
Ign-n-p-v. Fm Ckvemans\ hnIr-X-am-pI hgn-bp-hm-sf Ckveman
\n-I-nb I]S aX-t\-Xm-temSmWv Ah X-fpsS hnP-b-n\v Xopw
IS-s-n-cn-p--Xv. Ch AI-n-btm adp-`m-Kv I]-S-_p-n-Po-hn-I bphmsf th-bm-Sn. Fmw kwhn-[m-\n-p km{am-PyXz hmZn B{K-ln-p-Xpw
asm--. aX-t\-Xm--fpsS `mKw A`n-\-bn-p--h-cpsS I-hy-amWv
Ckvemans hnIr-X-am-. [mcm-e-am-fp-Isf BIin-p--Xn Ah hnP-bnp-p. Iem-]-c-amb C{-Pm-ehpw am{nIhnZybpw ImWnv Ah P\-sf hioI-cn-p-Ibpw amkva-cnI \n{Zbn-em-p-Ibpw sNpp. In-Xhpw hymP-\nnXhpw cmjv{Snb X{--f-S-n-b-Xp-am-b-hn-Im-c--eDw {]Xo--Ifpw CjvS-fpw
shdppw hntZz-jhpw k-cn-mWv Ah P\--fpsS Bm-hns\ hnj-en-]vX-amn-b-Xv. ]e t]cp-Ifpw hymtam-l-fpw B`n-Nm-c-lvMfpw {]tbm-Knv Ah P\sf ap[m-c-W-I-fn IpSp-n-bn-Sp-p. t]mf-fbpw \nc-I-hp-amb imem-\pjvTm-\--fn ]mgm-p--h-cm-p-p. aXw Fv hnfn--s-Sp Ftm kwK-Xnbn hym]r-X-cm-hp-I-bmWv P\w. t{]aw, {]Xo-, hntZz-jw, hncn XpS-nb
{]tbm-P\ cln-X-am-b-G-Xm\pw Baq Imcy--fm-W-Xv. Ahv A[n-I-sampw
Adnv IqSm kw`-h-fpw AtX-tNm-n-bp-ff tX-ep-I-fnepw Ah apgp-Ipp. ]c-temIw F Bibw aqew {`a-Nn--cm-bn-o-cp Hcp Pohn-X-n-tevioew sNbvsX-Sp--s-n-cn--bmWv P\-. AtX eabw Ah-cpsS h-am\
nXnbpw i{Xp-fpw hnkva-cn--s-p. Ckvemapw apkvenwIsf X-fpsS hn[nbn \nv hnIjn-p D]-I-c-W-ambn. iobnkw kz-n-te-p-ff Ipdp-p-hgn-bm-bn-op. X-fpsS t{imm--sf-smv Cu temIs hnkva-cn-n-p-Ibmbn aX-y--m-cpsS sXmgn. X-fpsS A`n-kw-t`m-Xn-Xsc Ckvemantev
sImp-h-cn-I-bm-bn-cpp Ah-cpsS {][m-\-tPm-en. Fp shm P\-sf `qXIm-e-s-p-dnp am{Xw Nnn-p--h-cm-p-I. Fn-\m-Wn-sXtm? ]c-temI
Pohn-X-n\p Ahsc Xbm-dm-m! h-am-\-s-Ip-dn FmWv ]d-bm-\p-ffXv? acn-p--Xn\p apv Hcmm-h-iy-amb Ckvemans\p-dnv? Ctm
Ckvemamw sImv F\nv {]tbm-P\w Dm-bn-qsS? h-am\ Imev P\v AXvsIm-v KpWsamp-ant? \psS Ctm-gs A-Xbpw ]nWnbpw amm AXn-s\-mWp sNm Ign-bpI? sFln-I-tem-I-tm-Sp-ff {`aw
14

\nan--am-Wn-sXms Fmhpw aX-ta-[m-hn-I-fpsS adp-]-Sn. sImf-f-cp-Xm--XmWv


Cu temIw. Ipm-b-ns Bh-iy-an-m-Xn-cn-m ico-cs Ah-K-WnpIFv!
aX-ns t]cn-ep-ff Hcp Xcw Akw-_--Zi-\hpw aX-]-c-amb iq\y-Xm-hm-Z-hpam-Wn-Xv. AXv aXs A[n-Im-c- iIvXnIfpsS KpW-n\p thn D]-tbm-Kn-pp. P\- Cu temI-s-p-dnv Nnn-m-Xm-hp-tm kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw ]Wn-sbpw A[n-Im-c-n-sbpw Bfp-Iv (Jm-dq\pw ^tdm-h-bpw) X-fpsS
]Z-hn-sb-sNmn Hpw DWvT Dm-hn-. aXw P\--fn \nv `qan-bpsS
sFizcyw Xn-sb-Spv Aip--sapw hrn-sI ih-i-co-c- Fpw ap{ZIpn hen-s-dn-bp-tm Bcmhpw AXv ssIh-i--Sp-pX Fv hyIvXw.
Npcp--n h-am\ nXn-K-Xn-Ifn \nv P\--fpsS {i Xncn-p-Ibpw
Ahsc ab-n-n-S-p-I-bp-amWv aX \mS-I-ime bnse A`n-t\-Xm- sNpXv. Pnlm-Zns D-c-hm-Zn-Xz-ns, Ne-\-n-s, Pohn-X-ns sFln-Ihpw
G\-kz-chpw kt`m-Pn-X-hp-amb Ckvemans\, `qX-Im-e-ttm ]c-tem-Ittm BXvam\ns\ BIjn-p Hcp aX-ambn amm-\m-W-h-cpsS {iaw. \mSI-im-e-bpsS kwhn-[m-b-I `qX-Im-e-stbm ac-Wm-\--c-Im-cy-lvM-sftbm {inp-n-. Ah-cpsS eJvjy- Cu temI-sbpw {in-m-Xn-cn-m am{Xw
Aaq-y-amWv Ckvemw Fv aXm-`n-\-b-m Ahp-thn {]N-cn-n-p-p.
aXm-`n-\-b-m Ah-X-cn-n-p Cu Ckvemw P\-sf \n{Zm-[o-\-cm-p-p.
h-am\ Imcy- hnkva-cn-pp. C-c-samcp Bo-b- \nhr-Xn-bnI-\nI-amb Hcp {]`-bn-eqsS `mh-\m-kr-jvS-amb temI-tv Btcm-lWw sNsh
apkvenw Xncn--dn-bn-n-. ihw Xo\n-I-fmb I]S \mSy-m-cpsS ssII-fn XfpsS Ioi-bn-em-sWv. C\n Ah CXv Ip-]n-Sn-pp Fv Icp-Xp-I. Fm-Wh\v sNm km[n-pI? FXnm-\p intbm ka-btam Ah-\n-. AXv
FXnm-h-iy-s-Sp--Xm-sW Nn-t]mepwAh-\n-. ImcWw I]-S-\m-Sy-m-cpsS
A`n-{]m-b-n apkv enw t\Xr-`-n-bp-ambn amem-J-am-cpsS Nnd-Ip-I [cnv
Am-lp-hn-t\mSv Ign-bp-{X ASpv kz--fn ]mdn--fn-p-I-bm-Wv. ktm]-cn, Cu temIs IjvS-m-Sp-I aqew hogvp Hmtcm Xpn Ip-\ocpw
kz-n Xp-thn amWn-Iy-n-ttbm ]pjy-cm-K-n-sbpw sImm-c ]Wn-bp-sav\ I]-S-\m-Sy-m Ah-tcmSv ]d-bp-p. Cs\ t\mn-bm
Hcp _mc F aqv skv hne-Ip-dv Inm thn-am{Xw Pohn-X-Imew apgph \pW-]-dv NXnbpw h-\bpw \Sn bpw sNbvX-vem-\n-p `uXn-IhmZn, apkv enam-bn-cn-pI F-Xns A\--amb Bo-bm-mZw A\p`hn-m
tbmKy-an-m \nIrjvS hyn-bmWv apkvenans ZrjvSn-bn.
t{imXm--fn
_pn-bp
Iptd-t]m-sc-nepw
aXm-`n-\-b-msc
Xpdnp
t\mm\pw tXmcm-p-tI-p-d-m-Xn-cn-m\pw km[y-X-bp-v. Ah B`n-Nm-c-
{in-p-I-bm-sWv hnNm-cn-p-I. A`n-t\-Xm--fpsS at{m-m-cW- Ahv
a\-n-emhpw. ssIbmw-Ky- Ah hmbn-pw. kaq-l-n B aXw \nlnp ]v Fm-sWpw Ah Xncn--dn-bpw. apkv enwIfpsS ssIbn-ep
XpSp BnAXv ZpKw han-p-Xpw ]pgp- \nd--Xp-am-sW `mh\
hen-s-dn-b-W-sav C{X-b-[nIw hmin-]n-Sn-p ]d-bp--Xns Dtiyw Ahv a\n-emhpw. adp-`m-K-p Hcp hn`m-K-n\v Xn-sb-Sp-m thn-bmWv Cu hens-dn-b. XpSs-m-Wp-m-hp-I? k`w a\-n-em-p a\p-jy Fp
sNpw? aX-sbpw AXns a\p-jy-hn-cp PohnX \ntj[ \ne-]m-Sn-s\bpw
shdpv t_m[-]qw Pm{K-X-tbmsS Ah HmSn-tmhpw. Ftmv? \mS-I-im-e-

15

bpsS adp-i-tv. Ahn-sS-b-h ]m-Xy-h-cW {]{In-b-bpsS t{]-I-\mhpw.


{][m\ kwhn-[m-b-Is\ kw_-n-n-S-tmfw CXn hyXym-k-sam-p-an-.
ImcWw ]c-kv]c `n-am-sW-\v tXmp Ccp- `m-K--fp-sSbpw Dt-iy-epw
Hp-X-s-bmWv hgn t]ms\ bm{X-bn\np XS-bp-I. CXn-\mbn D]-tbm-K-sSp-p-Xv aX-s-bmtWm Atbm FXv {]k--a-. t]cp-Ipw Xe-hm-N-Ipw ap{Zm-hm-Iy-pw kzw \ne-bn Fv hne-bm-Wp--Xv? CkvemanI
\mSp-I-fn-te-p-ff {_ns ISp Ib--ns BZy-\m-fp-I-fn {_nojv {][m-\a{n Chmv mUv(1809-1898) {_nojv ]me-san tcmj-]qw Ae-dn-bXv
CXn-s-sbmw cXv\-p-cp--am-Wv: Ah-cpsS ssIbn Jp-B-\p-f-tf-S-tmfw
Imew \ap-smpw sNm Ign-bp-I-bnv Ckvemapw ]mm-Xy km{am-PyXzhpw Xn-ep-ff i{Xp-X-sb-p-dnv N sNp-tm-sgm-s-Nne I]-S-_p-n-Po-hnI {]Xn-tj-[n-m-dp-v. Ingpw ]Sn-mdpw Xn-ep-ff _\v[w km-n-I- Nqj-W-n-\vtdXm-sWpw cmjv{Snb ssN\nI {]iv\- AXns D--amsWpw aX-n\v AXn-ep-ff ]v hfsc Ipd-hm-sWpw Ah ]d-bp-p.
Fm \mw Fn-\mWv Cu _s Bob {]iv\--fp-sSbpw aX-i-{Xp-X-bpsSbpw ASn-m-\-n hni-I-e\w sNp-Xv?
Hm-a-Xm-bn, Ign GXm\pw \qm-p-I-fn Ing-n\pw ]Sn-m-dn\pw CS-bn
kw`-hn-Xv t]mse-bp-ff tImf-\n-h-cW {]Xn-`m-ks Ipdnv imkv{Xn-bhpw
kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-]-c-hp-amb [mcW Cu Bfp-In Fv tXm\p-p. Zn\-]-{X-fn \npw _lp-P-\-am-[y-a--fn \npw e`n-p Adnhv am{X-amWv tImf-Wnh-c-W-s-p-dnv I]-S-_p-n-Po-hn-Ip-f-f-Xv. AXn-\m kwkvm-chpw
[\-im-kv{Xhpw ]c-kv]cw _-s Hcp Xmm-enI \nh-N\-ns LS-I-fm-sWpw Ahsb Imcy-Im-c-W-_w Iqn-tp-p-spw Ah-dn-bn.
]mc-cy hmZn-I-sf-tmse Ccw I]-S-_p-n-Po-hn-Ifpw `uXn-I-hmZw Bo-bhmZw As-n hkvXp\njvTX B-\n-jvTX Fn-hsb kzX-{hpw hyXy-kvXhp-amb c-h-kvX-I-fmbn ImWp-p. aXw a\p,jys\ ab-p Idp-mWv XpSnb ]d-p-a-Sp hmIy- Bhn-p-tm aXw aXw shdp-samcp D]-cnL-S\ AYhm Dm-Z\ coXn-bp-sSbpw kaq-l-nse km-nI _--fpsSbpw Hcpw Asv A\n-hm-cy-ambpw k-Xn-p-I-bmWv X-sfv Ah-cdn-bp-n. aXw Fm-n-sbpw ASn--dbpw ]vYa \nan--hp-am-Wv. ap-hm-p-Ifn, kaq-l-ns km-nI B-c-L-S-\-bn-tev hgn Ip-]n-Sn-m km[yam-p Hcm-I-kvanI ]v aX-n Ah Aym-tcm-]n-n-cn-p-p.
lrZ-bhpw Imhpw Xn-ep-ff _-n am{Xw ]cn-an-X-amb Hcp kq
Bym-nI kZm-Nmc sshb-n-I-a-X-amWv {InkvXym-\nkw. ]Sn-m-dnsc
kmt-XnI ]ptcm-K-Xnbpw apX-em-fn--ns Bhn`m-hhpw km-nI
hfbpw `uXn-I-\m-K-cn-I-Xbpw IW-n-se-Sp-p-tm {InkvXp-a-X-nt]mepw
Itm-en-m s{]mv hn`m-K- cv hncp ]p-Ih-ln-p-p-sv
amIvkvsh_ hy-am-n-bn-p-v. Hv hv[ym-I-Xhpw aXv \ntj-[m--Ihpw .
ap hmp-I-fn, ]Sn-m-dns `qan-im-kv{X-`q-]-Shpw ]cn-tjm-[n-p-tma-Xn\pw km-nI kml-N-cy-p-an-S-bn Hcp kl-hnXzw ImWm-hp-Xm-Wv. cv klP {]Xn-`m-k-v Hcm-I-kvanI _-ap-m-bn-cn-p-sa
kmIv slbvan-b knm--ns shfn--n s{]m-mnkw sFln-Ihpw
bpn-]-c-hpamb ss{IkvX-h-X-bm-Wv. Fp-sIm-s-m Fm s{]m-v cmPyfpw `uXnI ]ptcm-KXn t\Snb apX-em-fn cmPy--fm-Wv. Ata-cn-bpw Pa16

\nbpw DZm-l-c-Ww. ]c-tem-I-tI-{n-Xhpw \ntj-[m--Ihpw {]`q-Xz-]-c-hp-amWv adp`m-Ks Imtm-en-m-a-Xw. hyh-kmb h-c-Whpw apX-em-fn-hpw hp
t\mp-tm Xmc-X-tay\ ]ntmw \np--h-bmWv Imtm-enm kaq-l. DZm-l-cWw C-enbpw kvs]bn\pw. cp aX-fpw ]np-S-cp cmPy-
Cu cp {[ph-p at[y s{]m-v Itm-enm A\p-]m-Z-ns [\m-I
]mc-kv]-cy-nse GtXm Hcp _np-hn-emWv nXn sNp--Xv. {^mkv, Cwv
apX-emb DZm-l-c-Ww.
A\p-[m-h-I-cpsS km-nI `uXnI PohnXw cq]-s-Sp-p--Xn k\ym-kn-a-T-fpsS aXw i-amb Hcp LS-I-ambn hn-p-p-sh-n hnip--bpw k\ymkn-a-T-amb aX-ns Imcy-n AXv Xo-bmbpw kXy-amWv! Bbp-[-[m-cn-bmb
{]hm-N-I m]-I\pw Aen A\p-bm-bn-bp-am-b-a-X-ns Imcy-n cmjv{Sn-bn-sbpw ka-c(-Pn-lm-Zv)-n-sbpw \Sp-mWv AXns Ncn{Xw Bcw-`n-p--Xv.
{]m\v ka-am-WXv\v \nIpXn ]ncn-hv. Cu aXw [manI hnip-npw Bob
{]N-c-W-n\pw kmwkvm-cnI ]ptcm-K-Xn-p-samw cmjv{Sn km-nI hyh-Ifpw Hcp \mK-cn-I-X-bpw m]n-n-p-v, k\ymk ss{IkvX-hX AXns A\p-bmbn-I-fpsS `uXnI PohnXw Nn-s-Sp-p Hcp in-bm-sW-n `Du-an-bn aIs-Xnsc t]mcm-SpI FXv kZm-ap-{Z-hm-Iy-am-n-bn-p-ff Ckvemapw An-s\-s-bm-Wv. km-eu-InI `c-W-Iq-S-cq-]o-I-c-W-n\v {]tNm-Z\w \Ip
Ckvemw Cu temIs ]c-tem-I-tX-sX-p-ff Irjn-bn-S-am-bn-I-W-m-p-p. anXsc Iem-]-n\pw kmbp-[-k-a-c-n\pw Wn-p-p. ka-Im-eo\ Nqj-W-hn-cp
{]m-\-\m-b-Iv ka-ioj-\mb Aen Ckvemans `b-`-n-bpsSbpw ]cn-ipn-bp-sSbpw {]Xo-Ihpw Bob kwkvI-c-W-ns aqe-am-Xr-I-bp-amWv. Ckvemw
[\-im-kv{Xs [mn-I-X-bpsS B-c-L-S-\-bmbpw `uXn-I-Xsb Bo-b-X-bnte-p tkm]m-\-ambpw ]cn-K-Wn-p-p. AWn-I F{]-Imcw Pohn--W-sa-v
\n-bn-m {InkvXym-\n-k-n\v Ign-bp-sa-n km-n-tIm-]m-[n-I-fn-m-h hnNm-c-W-\m-fnepw Fmw \jvS-s--h-\m-hpw Fv kphy--ambn {]Jym-]np {]hm-N-Is Ckveman\pw AXv Ignbpw. apgp-h aqe-[-\hpw P\-n-Sbn ]p\hn-X-cWw sN-W-sapw Nne ]qgvn-sh-n-p [\-ti-Jcw IpsI-Ww17 Fp-ap XXz-n-\p-thn CkvemanI Jnem-^-n-s\-Xnsc ]S-s]m-cpXm PohnXw kan tbip-hn-s\-tmse `-\mb A_q-Zdv A\p-bm-bn-bmb
aX-amWv Ckvemw.P-\--sfmw kaam-cmWv FXXzw ssZh-n-\p-ap-n am{Xa `c-W-Iq-S-p apnepw thWw. ]c-tem-Iv am{X-a Cu temIpw
thW-aXv. ssZh-ns \oXn-ZWvVn \p apn am{Xw t]mc s]mXp-k--ns
Imcy-nepw \nb-a-{]-Imcw AXv _m[y-X-bm-hWw. Cu Ckv emans D-amWv A_p-Zdv. hon`-n-m Hp-an-m-npw hmfq-cn-bpw sNm Xmdm-hm a\p-jysc Inv A_p-Zdv AXn-ibw Iqdn. Zmcn{Zyw aX-nsc ]cn-c-Sm-sWpw AXv aXs t]mjn-n-p-sapw Ah-Im-i-s-Sp CXc aX-t\-Xm-fpsS Aym-]-\-v hn]-co-X-ambn Zmcn{Zyw Hcp-hm-Xn-en-eqsS hon-\-Iv
{]th-in-p-tm hnkzmkw atmdp hmXn-en-eqsS ]pdv t]mhp-p FmWv
Ckvemans {]Jym-]\w. Zmcn-{Zys ssZh-\n-v Xpy-am-bn-m-Wp Ckv
emans\ pdn-mWv Rm ]d-bp-Xv. Ckvemans Aen Cs\ {]Jym-]np:
aX-n\p thn Cu temIs _en-sIm-Sp--h Cu temI-n\p thn
aXs _en-sIm-Sp--h-s\-tmse Xs-bm-Wv. Ccp-Iq-cpw \psS Iq-ns]Sp-I-bn. bmYmym-[n-jvTnX aX-amWv Ckv emw. AXv {]Ir-Xn-sbbpw A[n-Im-csbpw ku-cy-sbpw k-n-s\bpw kar-n-sbbpw ]ptcm-K-Xn-sbbpw a\pjy-bm-h-iy--fpsS ]qo-I-c-W-sbpw kvt\ln-p-p. F{X-tm-f-sa-m
17

AXns ssZhw, kp-chpw D]-Im-c-{]-Z-hp-amb `uXn-I-{]-Xn-`m-k-fpw km[-\fpw {]Zm\w sNm-sav {]Xn sNp-p. A-n-s\bpw ktm-j-sbpw
a\pjy Pohn-X-nse Bizm-k-sbpw {]Ion-pp. AXns {]hm-N-I
Pohn-Xhpw cmjv{So-bhpw A[n-Im-c-hpw kucyw t]mep-ap a\p-jy-\m-Wv.
AXns {Kw A`u-Xn-I-Im-cy--sfbpw aX-sbpw Ipdnv ]d-bp--Xn-t\-mtfsd {]Ir-Xn, sFln-Iw, temIw, kaq-lw, Ncn{Xw Fn-h-sb-p-dn-mWv kwkmcn-p--Xv. {]m-\bvp ]Icw ka-c-s-p-dn-Xv {]Xn-]m-[n-p-p. `qcn-]-ns Pohn-X-n-\p-ta B[n-]Xyw ]pep \yq\-]--ns hn[n-sb-pdnv AXv N sNp-p. ssZh-n\v kzbw kan-m AXv P\-sf Wnp-p. a-\-n\pw A-Xbvpw A\o-Xnbvpw Ak-a-Xz-n-\p-sa-Xnsc
Iem]w sNm t{]cW \Ip-p. {IqcX ImWn-p--hpw ]am-[n-]-Xyn\pw ]ptcm-ln-X-mp-sa-Xnsc s]mcpXv Bh-iy-s-Sp-p. Ckvemw tIhew
D]cn LS-\-b-. t\Xr-Xzhpw (Cam-a-v) \oXnbpw (A-Zv) AXns cv khn-tij-X-Ifpw ap{Zm-hm-Iy--fp-am-Wv. AXns (XpS-hpw hnti-j-Whpw c-n-tXmWv P\-sf ASn--ap--Xn\pw bYmys hnIr-X-am-p--Xn-s\-Xn-scbp-ap Iem-]-n\pw ka-c-n\pw H-amWv AXns Ncn{Xw cNn--s-n-p--Xv,
sNdpp \nn-sbpw ka-c-n-sbpw ]mX-bn AXns \mb-I-scmw Poh
_en-\-In-bn-p-v.
jmsU ]d-bpp: tkm{I-okv XXz-Nn-sb BIm-iv \nv `qan-bn-tev
sImphXv t]mse aXs ]c-tem-Iv \nv Cu temI-tv sImp-h
hnizm-k-am-Wnkvemw apkvenwIv `mcn kmaqly D-c-hm-Zn--apv. Xnbvs-Xnsc s]mcpXpI. a\p-jy-cm-in-bpsS hnPbhpw kzmX-{hpw \oXnbpw
\bpw kmm-XvI-cn-m-\p k-sem-InI ZuXyw t]mep-apv apkvenwIv.
\mK-cn-I-X, A[n-Im-cw, _pn-]-chpw imkv{Xo-bhpw Iem-]-c-hp-amb {Inbm--I-X,
A-v, hnP-bw, kzmX{yw Fn-h-bm kp-jvS-amWv apkvenw kaq-l-.
Ah-cpsS kwkvImcw Bo-bhpw samXr-Im-tbm-Kyhpw Poh-Zm-b-Ihpw Nen-n-pXpw \nm-Wm--Ihpw {]_p--X-]-I-cp-Xpw kzmX{yw imkn-p--Xp-amb
hn`-h- \ndp Xpfp-p--Xm-Wv. a\p-jy-kw-th-Z-sf k--am-p bpn-I-em--ssh-Im-cnI {]Xn-`-bpsS Ae-dp Xnc-am-e-I \nd kap-{Zw. Npcp-n CkvemanI kwkvImcw a\p-jyhw-i-n\v B-t_m-[hpw hy-n-Xzhpw
kzmX-{hpw DZm-c-Xbpw am\-hnI inbpw {]Zm\w sNp-p. C-s\-sbm-sbm-sW-nepw km{am-Py-Xz-hm-Zn-I-fpsS ZrjvSn-bn Ckvemw, Cy _p-a-Xns \nmW k]-s-tm-setbm ssN\okv Xmthm-a-ns B`n-Nm-cs-tm-setbm
emn-\-ta-cn- Itm-en-m-a-X-ns k\ym-k-s-tmsetbm Bkvt{X-en-b-bn-sebpw B{^n--bn-sebpw A aXm-I \mm-Nm-c-sf-tmsetbm D Aaqhpw CSp-n-b-Xp-amb Hcp aX cq]-a-s{X.18
kmh-eu-InI tImf\n hXvI-c-W-n-sbpw km-nI km{am-Py-Xz-n-sbpw
hmXn-Sn-bn-se-p--Xn\p apt ]mm-Xyv Ckvemans\ \m-b-dn-bm-am-bn-cpp. bqtdm-n Xs Ckvemw hntizm-c \mK-cn-I-X-I-en-semv m]n-n-p-v.
kvs]bn-\n CXn-\p-]p-dsa ]e-\q-m-p-I-fn-embn ]e L--fn Ingpw ]Snmdpw bqtdmv Ckvemap-ambn FXn-cn-p. CkmemanI kaqlw kmaq-lnI _elo-\-Xbpw aX-]-c-amb hn`m-Ko-b-X-Ifpw cmjv{Snb ssiYn-yhpw aqew Dg-ep-I-bmbn-cp-(-Ip-cn-ip-bp-w) ka-b-p-t]mepw bqtdm-n\v Ckveman \nv amc-I-amb
apdn-hp-I-tf-n-p-. Cdm-\nepw sak-t]m-t-an-b-bnepw kndn-b-bnepw ^e-kvXo-\nepw
Gjym-ssa-\-dnepw A\m-tXm-en-bnt]mepw Ckvemw bptdm-ns aX kzm[o\w
Cm-Xm-n. kao] \qm-p-I-fnt]mepw bptdmv Ckmemansc ta[m-hn-Xz-n\v

18

kmyw hln-n-p-v. Ing- bqtdm-y cmPy--fm-b C-en-bp-sSbpw Bkv{Xnb-bp-sSbpw ta ihpw `oj-W-hp-amb B[n-]Xyw Dm-bn-cpp AXn-\v.
]sm-Xmw \qm-n cp XhW apkvenwI hnb-- h-fp ]nSn-p A{Ian-p-I-bp-m-bn. temIv Fp \S-p-p-shv {in-msX AWn-I Bcm-[\m-e-b--fpsS GIm--X-I-fn HXp-n-qSn \nKq-V-amb at{m-m-c-W--fnepw
]hn-{X-amb C{nb \n{K-l-nepw hym]r-X-am-hp aX-a Ckvemw Fv Ncn{Xw
bqtdm-ns\ ]Tn-n-p. n{]w Ne-\-ap-m-p-Ibpw in ]I-cp-Ibpw Bt_m[w hfp-Ibpw {]_p-X \Ip-Ibpw cmjv{So-bm-h-t_m[w krjvSn-p-Ibpw-km-aqly D-c-hm-ZnXzw Dm-p-Ibpw sNp aX-amWv Ckv emw. Ckvemw
]n-bpsS Ae-mc hnf--. a\-ns\ {]Xo-]vX-am-p in hnti-j-am-W-Xv.
an-Xsc AXv Iem-]-n\v Wn-p-p. bp--f-n\v hnizm-k-n-sbpw
{]Xo--bp-sSbpw ss[cy-n-sbpw ssNX\yw ]I-cpp. apIm-e--\p-`-hn
Ckvemans I]Ss Ipdnv Kuc-h-]qhw Btem-Nn-msX Fn-s\-bmWv
]mm-Xy km{am-Py-Xz-n\v CkvemanI `qan-bn-tev {]th-in-m Ign-bpI?
CkvemanI kaq-l-ns lrZ-b-n-tev Fs\ ISp Ibdpw? AWn-I-fpsS
Pohn-Xhpw ]c--cm-KX m]-\-fpw XIp--sX-s\? Fs\ hn`-hsm-f-f-b-Snpw? ]-W- Itm-f-ampw? apkvenwIsf Hp-an-m--hcpw
Akw-_cpw sImf-f-cp-Xm--hcpw A\p-Im--fp-ampw? I]-S-t\-Xm-
aptJ\ Ckvemans\ Xopw Dq-e\w sNbvXvsImtm As-n apkve#n#wIsf `mh\m Imcy--fn Ipcp-n-bnpsImtm sImtfm-Wnb enp-I hnP-bnn-cn-p-p.
FmWv ]cn-lmcw?
]IpXv P\-v aX-s-Ip-dnv Hp-a-dn-bn-. _mn ]Ip-Xn-bpsS [mcW hnIrX-am-Wv. C-c-samcp kaq-l-n Hcp _un-I Bob hnhw A\n-hm-cy-amIp-p. Fnse AsXmcp aX-\-thm-m-\-am-Iq. Np Ponp hnIr-X-amb
kwkvIm-c-ns AkvXn-Iq-S-n\v Poh e`n-p-Ibpw ]ptcm-K-a-\m--I-amb
kz`m-h-hn-tk-j-fpw Ne-\mXvahpw amK-Zi-Ihpw {]_p--hp-amb LS-I-fpw
Dm-hp-Ibpw sNq. Ah Ign--Im-ev Hfnp InS-p-Xpw h-am\ Xeap-dv Adnv IqSm--Xp-amb LS-I--fm-hmw. _mlyhpw `mh-\m--Ihpw
I]n-Xhpw hni-en-]vX-hp-amb tNcp-h-I-fm an{iWw sN-s-p InS-p--Xp-amhmw., Bcm-[-\-I-sfbpw NS--I-sfbpw Nn IqSmsX al-Xz-h-cn-pI hgn
hocyhpw kmchpw Ne-\hpw eyhpw tNmp-t]mb LS-I--fmhmw; Acmb kplr-p--fp-sSbpw I]-Scpw \oXn-c-ln-X-cp-am-b -t\-Xm--fp-sSbpw klm-btmsS Ipgnv aqS-s-Sp-Ibpw hnkva-cn--s-Sp-Ibpw sNbvX LS-I--f-hmw.
kaqlw Cu {][m\ LS-I- Isn AtX-p-dnv N sN-W-sa-nhnhw Bh-iy-am-Wv. Atmsg k`-ns Xm]-cy-n-\-\p-k-cnv kaqlw
\op-I-bp-f-fq. kaq-l-s-p-dnv \ ]nSn-]m-Sp-ff kXy-k-cpw D-c-hm-Zn-t_m-[-ap-f-f-h-cp-amb apgphv {]_p hyn-I-fp-sSbpw AI-a-gn kl-I-c-W-amWv CXn\v Hgnv IqSm ]cvdm D]m-[n. A-sa-nepw imkv{Xnb ]mm--eap-ff Bpw CXp-t_m-y-amhpw Ckvemans Poh-kv^p-c-Ihpw Ne-\m--Ihpw
k{In-b-hp-amb ssNX\yw hos-Sp-m h-am-\-Ime Ckvemans Zpc Ncn{X-a-dn-bp t_m[-hpw- D--c-hm-Zn-Xz-hp-ap-ff apgp-h {]_p hyn-Ifpw XfpsS kap-Zmbw A\p-`-hn-p Zp-Ip\w ]nSn sshcp-yhpw hymP-Zz-mXvIXbpw ]cn-l-cn-p-I amamWv GI-c-m-amw Fv a\-n-em-t-n-bn-cn-pp. bmYmy-lvMsf hnIr-X-am-pXv Ahsb Daq-e\w sNp-Xv t]mseXs \io-I-cW]chpw AYw sIXpw `oj-W-hp-am-sWv a\-n-em-p--h-sXbmWv Rm a\-n ImWp--Xv. Hcp hi-v, hgn shn-sm-Sppw hn[w aXw
19

Kpcp-X-c-ambn A{I-an--s-Sp-Ibpw, adp-h-i-v, P\-sf Xa-n \np--Xn\v


aXs Dcn--h-ambn hmgvp-Ibpw sNp-Xv ImWp-tm kmaq-ln-Ihpw a\p,#vbXz cln-Xhpw {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-]-c-hp-amb D-c-hm-ZnXzw A\p-`-hn-p-Ibpw
t_m[y-s-Sp-Ibpw sNp--hsc Poh-{]-Zm-b-Ihpw k{In-b-hp-amb CkvemanI
ssNX\yw F-XvsImv Rm\p-t-in-p--Xv A[-]-X-\-n\pw APvRXpw
ssiYn-ey-n\pw _e-lo-\-Xbvpw Iog-S--en\pw Zmcn-{Z-n\pw lo\-Xpw
hnth-N-\-n\pw A-a-Xm-I aqV aX-{`m-n\pw A-hn-izm-k-n\pw A]-cnjvIr-X-Xz-n\pw aSp-hn Npcp-nb Imew-sImv Hcp hn-hhpw kwkvIm-chpw
Ncn-{Xhpw m]n a\p-jy-s\bpw AXn\v t{]cW \Inb ssNX-\y-s-bpamWv.a-tlm--X-am-b-kvt\-l-hmk-y-fpw Nn-Ifpw {]tNm-Z-\-fpw hgn
BtN-X\ Zot]m-hw Bcw-`n-p. \nc--c-amb kac (Pn-lm-Zv) sbpw c-kmn-Xz-sbpw ASn-m-\-amn kpi--amb hn-h-ap-m-n. kpw A[n-Imchpw \nd \mK-cn-IX ]Sp-p-bn. \hyhpw hnkva-b-I-c-hp-amb Nn-I-fpw,
B-]-cn-ip-nbpw _pn-Iqa-Xbpw lrZ-b-{]-Im-ihpw ]cn-e-kn-p-Xpw hnIm-cfpw {]Xn-`bpw Ihn-sm-gp-Ip--Xp-amb kwkvIm-c-n\p Pw \In. kucyw, ka-Xzw, \oXn, sFIyw Fo Bi-b-fpw \bpw Bmbpw Xpfp-pIbpw a\p-jy-I-ns B-cnI hnIm-c- {]Xn-^-en-n-p-Ibpw sNp Hcp
kmlnXyw am\-h-cm-in-mbn Ah-ti-jvn-p.
I]-S-_p-n-Po-hn-Ipw hymP-a-X-t\-Xr-Xz-n-\p-an-S-bnse s]mbz-g-mWv \psS
kaq-l-s cp hn`m-K--fmn ]nfn-b-Xv. Hcp-hn-`mKw A\m--bnepw at-hn`mKw aX-{`m-nepw apgp-In-bn-cn-p-I-bm-Wv. km[m-c-W-mpw ]n-X-m-cy-p-anS-bn, hym]m-cn-Ipw kh-I-Im-e-mp-an-S-bn, {]mbw sN-hpw
sNdp--mp-an-S-bn, ]gb k{-Zm-b-n ]Tn--hpanS-bn, aX-]-n-Xmpw imkv{X-amp-an-S-bn, C{X-tbsd AI-bp-m-hm ImcWw
Cu hymP hmKzm-Z-am-Wv. Cu h-\-aqew i{Xp-hn-s\-Xnsc tbmPnp s]mcn-tX
Hcp ico-c-ns Ccp ssIIfpw ]c-kv]cw s]mcn-Xn. Hcp ]d-h-bpsS cp Nnd-IpI At\ym\yw A{I-an-p. B[p-\n-I-Xbpw ]mc--cyhpw Xn-ep-ff ]cn-lm-kyamb bp-n-te-mWv CXv \s \bn--Xv. Fm Ingpw ]Sn##v-Rmdpw Xnem-bn-cpp bYm-n Aw \S-t-tW-Sn-bn-cn-p--Xv. Dm-Z-I\pw D]-t`mmhpw Xn, DS-abpw ASn-abpw Xn. A]-N-bhpw ]ptcm-K-Xnbpw Xn.
Fm \mw Gs-n-cn-p-Xv aX-]-c-amb t]mcm--nepw aX-]-c-a-m hnhcw-sI hymP aX-{`m- bp-nepw Iqsd-IqSn hnhcw sI aX-hn-cp Iem-]n-ep-am-av. hkvXp \njvT-bm-Ymy--fn \npw thZ-\-I-fn \npw \psS
hnizm-kw, kaq-lw, h-am-\--`mhn `mK-tZbw Fn-hsb `oj-Wn-s-Sp-p
Kpcp-X-c-amb tNmZy-fn \npw {i[v[-sX-n-m cmw InS Aaq {]iv\Mvlfpw Bm-W-ns hn[n-Ifpw I]-S-hm-KzZw apsS apmsI \nc-n-shn-cn-p-p. AXn-\m apsS A`n-\-h-_p-n-Po-hn-I #q#p-n-Pohn hmZ-ns
ad-hnepw ]c--cm-KX _pn-Po-hn-I aXs kwc-Iv,#n-pI F-t]-cnepw [rXn]n-Snp Ign-bp-I-bm-Wv.
]IpXn XfhmXw ]nSn-Xpw _mn s]m-bp-amb An-Iq-S-n-tev Ckv
sseanI ssNX\yw kn-thinn-bmWv GI-t]mw-h-gn. kz-n \n-\y-am-b,
kzw Bob kmwkvIm-cnI ASn-th-cp-If
- n \n-I-p-t]m-b Cu ASn-th-cp-IfmWv hyn-Is--t]mse P\-Xpw kmaply hyn-Xzhpw inbpw
sFIyhpw \Ip--Xv Ae-p-Xn-cn-bp Xe-ap-dsb kz-n-tepw AXns
kmwkvIm-cnI ss]Xr-I-n-tepw Ncn-Xv]p-chpw [ma-I-hp-amb X\n-a-bn-tepw
B-t_m[ Xncn-p-h-cm AXn-S-bm-n-tb-pw. Atm am{Xta \jvS-s Xe-

20

ap-dsb iyq\yXm hmZ-n\npw Akw-_n\npw s]m--c-fn\npw Bob iyq\y-X-bn \npw Bi-b-Im-ep-jy-n \npw _pn-]chpw Zmi-\n-I-hp-amb ss\cm-iy-n \npw c-s-Sp-m Ign-bp. Ah
EPphpw sXfn-Xpw D-c-hm-Xnw P\n-n-p--Xp-amb GIXz (Xu-lo-Zn)
teI-hn--W-n-tev IS-p-h-cmw. kzXz-n-te-p aSw am{X-amWv Aep-\-S-p Xe-ap-dsb ]Sn-m-d c-k-s\-Xnsc ]nSnp \nm i-amp Htc Hcp {]Xo-. Ipp-Ibpw tamln-n-p-Ibpw sNp ]Sn-m-d
ITn-\hpw kqW-hp-amb kmkvIm-cn-I, ss[j-Wn-I, ku-cy-im-kv{X, [manI
t_mw_p hj-n-\p-ti-j-amWv AXns m\w Dd-n-n-cn-p-Xv; Bn-bhpw
am\-kn-I-hp-amb tijn \in-n-p-Ibpw bpn-]-c-amb sNdpv \n]n\pw hnebn-cp--en\pw ]co-n--en\pw sXc-s-Sp-n\pw Is--en-\p-ap Ignhv sISpn--f tij-hpw. H-hm-n ]d-m, \apv #mnb ]X\w kw`-hn-p.
AXn\v tijamWvv ]Sn-mdv \s Iogvs-Sp-n-b-Xv. kzw Imen \nm\pw
kzw \nev \S-m\pw XIp-t]mb A`n-am\w ]p\-m-]n-m\pw ]Sn-md Zp`q-Xs sNdp-p-\-in-n-m-\pevf GI-amKw Aevp-Xn-cn-bp bph-X-eap-d-bpsS kmwkvIm-cnI Bnb PohnXw ]p\-cp-o-hn-n-p-Ibpw Ahcw
bYm-kz-Xz-n-tev aS-p-I-bp-am-Wv.
P\-sf kw_-n-s-S-tmfw ChnsS ]e-tmgpw {]t_m-[\w sN-s-Sp Xcn-ep-ff aXw bpnsb Xfp-Ibpw a\-ns\ ac-hn-n-p-Ibpw CNvOsb
A[x-]-Xn-n-p-Ibpw sNp--Xm-Wv. AXv kmaq-ly-am-b-A-ip` Nnpw \ncmipw Imc-W-am-Ip-p. \ne-hn-ep-ff hyh-n-Xnv ]q-ambpw Iosgm-Xp-m
Bh-iy-s-Sp-Ibpw AXns\ \oXn-a-Xv-cn-p-Ibpw sNp-I-bm-W-Xv. A-hn-izm-kv AXv t{]mm-l\w \Ip-p. bpn-k-l-a-m Bh-\-sf
kzoIm-cy-am-p-p. bpnv \nc-m I-fpw BNm-c-fpw A\p-jvTn-m\m-h-iy-s-Sp-p. ASn-m-\-an-m `b-fpw kwi-b--fp-ap-bp-p.-\n-jv^-eamb kvt\lhpw hntZz-jhpw {]N-cn-n-p-p. Cm-tXm A-Xtam Bb
an{X-sfbpw i{Xp--sfbpw tNmn P\-se Xncv ]nSn-n-p-p. Cm
kwK-Xn-I-fn Ahsc A`n-c-an-n-p-p. Dff Imcy-se AYhm {i-blnp Imcy- {iPvQn-p--Xn \npw AXv P\--sf- Ah-iy-an-msX XS-bpp. Cm-c-W--fm P\-Iob aXw sImv {]tbm-P\w e`n-p-Xv aqv
IqmWv: ^tdm-h-am (cm-jv{Snb in-I), Jmdqam (km--nI inI), _-Bav_v\p _mDu-d-am (I-]-S-]p-tcm-ln-Xam). Fm-n\pw Cc Hcp
hn`m-K-am-Wv P\-.
C-c-samcp Zb-\ob kml-N-cy-nZm-cn-{Zy-n-sbpw Am-\-n-sbpw
tIhe hnt[-b-Xz-n-s-Xp-amb ab-p aXs DNvOmS\w sNm-\p-ff ApX-I-c-amb LSIw bYm aX-am-Wv. Bob Xe-nepw `uXnI Pohn-X-nepw
hncp hnln-X- hln-p ApX {]Xn-`m-k-amWv aXw. AXv \in-n-pIbpw ]p\Po-hn-n-p-Ibpw sNp-p.-D-d-p-Ibpw DWp-Ibpw sNp-\v#p.
Iosgm-Xp-m\pw Iem]w sNm\pw ]Tn-n-p-p. Npcp--n aX-n-s\-Xnsc
\S-nb bp-ns Ncn-{X-amWv a\p-jy-cm-in-bpsS Ncn{Xw; aXw \nco-iz-c-hm-Zn-s\-Xnsc \S-nb bp-nsX, hnhn[ kmaq-ly-h-n-S-bn aXw
hln hncp hnln-X--fpsS IY-bmWv Ckvemans Ncn{Xw. Ckvemw Ckvemans\-Xnsc \S-nb bpw. Jp-B Jp-B-\n-s\-Xn-sc--kn^v^o\n\-bn bpw.
bpn-bp-sSbpw A`n-hr-n-bp-sSbpw Ne-\-n-sbpw CkvemwF-tmgpw Fm-bnSpw hgn-]n-g Ckveman\m]-cm-P-b-s-Sp--s-n-p-.-A-[--X-\-nsbpw
kXw-`-\-n-sbpw A\p-c--\-n-sbpw Ckvemam-bn-cpp AXv. AS-hp-I-fn
Cu aXs Ihp shm\pw P\-a-\-n\nv CXns\ ]ngp-sX-dn-bm-\p-ap-f-f-G-I-

21

amw Poh-Zm-b-Ihpw BZy-ta-bp-f-f-Xp-am-b-i-cn-bmb Ckvemans\ ]Icw m]np-I-bm-sWv bmYmy t_m[-ap-ff {]_p--dnbmw. Ckv emw Fs--dnbm _pn-Po-hn-Itm Imes Adn-bm aX-]-WvUn-X-mtm Cu
knKvZL-n \psS kXz-cm-h-iy- ]qo-I-cn-m Ign-bp-I-bn-.
{]_p--cmb Ckemw hmZn-Iv am{Xsa s]mbpw A\y-h-cn--s-Xpw
taml--fn-m--Xp-amb Xe-ap-dbvv B-t_m[w ]I-cm\pw Ahsc apJy-[m-c-bntev sImv hcm\pw Ign-bp-I-bp-q. CsXmcphiw. adp-h-iv bYm
Ckvemans Nn-bnepw k-bnepw {]Ir--Xnepw Aeo-\-amb hn-h-i-nbpsS klm-b-tmsS Ahsc kwkvI-cn-m-\pw Ah-cpsS Ign-hp-I ]ps-Spm\pw km[n-pw. Fm hnkvXr-X-amb Cu aX-in sIWn-bn AI-s-n-cnp-IbmWn-tm. C-m-ev adhp sN-s-Sp-Itbm hnkva-cn--s-Sp-Itbm ]mgm-s-Sp-ItbmsNbvX hnizm-k-ns in-sb-p-dn-mWv Fs kqN-\. D]-tbmK-s-Sp-p-I-bm-sW-n AXp \psS Ncn-{X-sbpw Bm-hn-s\bpw \mK-cn-I-Xsbbpw NnI-sfbpw {]tNm-Zn-n-p-Ibpw sNpw.
Bh-iyw Hcp `uXnI hn-h-am-Wv. Hcp CkvemanI \thm-m\w. \psS hnizm-k-fpsS Bg-ta-dnb ASn-m-\-sf Bcm-[n-p, \psS ssIh-i-apff kar-amb hn`-h--fm kpk--amb Hcp kmwkvIm-cnI BZi {]m-\w. H-hmn \apv Cm-am-Wm-h-iyw. Ime-L-
- ns X-Xn-Ip am{Xsa, ]mtZ
]d-bp-Xp t]mse, P\-X-bpsS `qX-Im-e-n AS-p-Iq-Snb Ncn{Xw ]p\-cp-ohn-n-m Ign-bp-I-bp-q. arXphpw ac-hn-Xpw Cf-m ]m--Xp-amWXv.
kaql Pohn-Xs AXv An-bmn amn. Poh-m-Ip--Xn \npw AXns\
XS-p. Hcn- IqSn Ncn{Xw AXns DuP-kz-e-X-tbmSpw h-am\ Imetv {]h-ln--Ww. Fnte Cu ]mX-bn apt-dp-hm\pw ey-an-m \psS Ime-n\v t\XrXzw \Ip-hm\pw Ign-bp-I-bp-q. Ncn-{X--ns Hgpn\nv Gsd hnZqc-amWv \psS Imew. AXv hgn-]n-gp t]mbn-p-v. A[n-Im-cnI-fpsS ssIbnse Ifn-m--ambnon-p-v.
Cu D-c-hm-Zn--tam ]nb Bfp-I-sf-hnsS? \psS k-I-em-im-e-I
]c-cm-KX hnZym-`ym-k-k-{-Zm-b-n\v ]pd-m-Wv. ]nd-p-Ibpw hf-cp-Ibpw
sNbvXnp--Xv. am{X-a Ah ]c-kv]cw t]mc-Sn-p-Ibpw sNp-p F-XmWv
\psS {]bm-k--fn-sem-v. \psS hnZym-`ymkw ]g-b-Xns A\p-]q-c-Itam
XpStbm Bhp-n-. apJw ]Sn-m-tdmpw ]pdw \psS kwkvIm-c-n\v t\scbp-amWv AXm-cw-`n--Xv. Fp-sImv Cu cv hnZym-`ym-k-k-{-Zm-b-fpw thdn-p\npp Fv CXv hni-Zo-I-cn-p-p. bqtdm-]yhn-Zym-`ymk kvYm]-\-v
ka-amWv \psS k-Im-e-im-e-I. Ah m]n--s-n-p-Xv Ncn-{X-an-m
GtXm B{^n- As-n emn-\-ta-cn- cmPymsWn t]mepw Npcp-nbXv Bbncw hjs \nc-camb kh-I-em-imem hnZym-`ym-k-ns XpSbm-WnXv Fpw Bpw tXmp-n.
Fm ]c--cm-KX hnZym-`ym-k--]-\- (lu-k)
hmXn-ep-I
sImnb-S-n-cn-p-I-bp-am-Wv. \ho\ _unI imkv{Xnb Xcw-K--fn-tev Hcp Infn
hmXn t]mepw Ah-Xp-d-p-sh-p-n-. kh-I-emimeIsmw Ac-\q-m-pImew Ah {]h-\-\n-c-X-am-bn-cpp F-Xnv kqN-\-sbm-p-an-. ]Sn-m-dn\m hebw sN-s--Xmbn Ahbvsmcn-epw tXmo-p-an-. F-Xp-sImsXn\m ]cnioe-\w-t\-SpXns\-Xnsc Ah Ah-bpsS km{-Zm-bnI kao]\w s#pw \ne-\nXv#n-X-bn-cp-p.--B-[n#p-\nI kh-I-em-im-e-Ifw ]c--cm-KX
kcvU-h-I-em-im-e-Ifpw Xn-ep AIbpw A\y-Xzhpw \psS _pn-Po-hn-I-

22

fpsS kmwkvIm-cnI ]cn-io-e-\-nepw kmaq-ly-L-S-\-bnepw kmc-amb kzm[o\w


sNep-n-bn-p-v. AXv \psS kaq-l-n A\yhpw ]c-kv]c hncp--hp-amb
cv _unI imkv{Xob A-co--v Paw \In. Hmtcm hn`m-K-nsbpw AXns kwkvIm-c-n-sbpw temI-ho--W-n-sbpw AXn-cp-I-fn-tev
Npcp-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. ]c--cm-KX ]mT-im-e-I-fn am{Xta Ckvemw Ctmgpw
]Tn-n--s-Sp-p-p. A`y-kvX-hn-Zy-cmb Bfp-I \ho\ botdm-]y kwkvImcw
am{Xw ]Tn--h-cm-Wv. Ahv Ckvemw Adn-bn-. Ckv emw ]Tn--h-cm-Is ka-Imeo\ ImgvN-mSw temI-ho--Whpw kao-]-\-co-Xnbpw temIm-h-kvXbpw a\-n-emp-nan. \psS Imev icn-bmb Ckv eman\w hcp ImWn-m Cu cp
hn`m-K-pw Ign-bp-I-bn-. cv kwkvIm-c--sfbpw ]Tn--hthWw AXn-\v.
`mKy-h-im Cu cv hn`m-K-n-S-bnepw X-fpsS ]cn-tXm-hkvX ASn \ne\np--Xns\ BwKo-I-cn-m Iqm-m--h-cpv Ah kmaq-ly-L-S-\-bpsS
shdpw D]---f-. Ah X-fpsS Npp-]mSv \nn-p-I-bpw cq]s]-Sp-pIbpw sNp-p. bqtdm-nepw Cdm-\nepw ]Tn kh-I-em-ime imkv{X- AhcpsS Iq-n-ep-v. \ho\ kwkvImcw Ah-dn-bmw. imkvX-c-ns GsX-n-epsamcp imJ-bn hnZ-Kv[-cm-W-h. Fnepw Ah GI Zni-bn Nnn-p--h-c, Cd-p-aXn sNbvX kIe bqtdm-]y kmwkvIm-cn-tIm-ev]--fpw hnai\w
IqSmsX hngp-p-Ibpw {]N-cn-n-p-Ibpw sNp Bh\ {]nb-c-. botdm]y aqe amXr-I-bn hms-Sp--s _pn-Po-hn-I-fn-a Ah. BKn-cWw
sN-s-Sp--Xnepw bqtdm-]y-h-cn--s-Sp--Xn-epw, XJn-km-Z-bpsS hmp-I-fn
]d-m 'B]m-Z-NqUw Ahkw-Xr-]vX-c-.
km{X hnh-cn--t]m-se-bp
{]_p hyn-I-fpsS KW-n-em-W-h-cps-Sp-I. kmXvcv ]dp; bqtdm-]ycpsS kavX-an-msX Bcw hmb Xpd-m ]ntm kaq-l--fnepw aqmw
temIpw a\-n-ep-Xv \n`bw Xpdp ]d-bp--h-cm-W-h. Cd-p-a-Xn-sNbvX
botdm-]y ho-W-n-s\-Xn-cmbn Ahv Fs-nepw ]d-bm-\p-mIpw
Xp thn kzbw Nnn-p-hm\pw a\-n-em-Im\pw kzw \ne-bn sXcs-Sp-m\pw Ign-bp--h-cm-W-h. ]d-bm I]n--s--Im-cy- Bhnp-I-bn Ah. ]Sn-m-d kw{]-Xym- hnX-cWw sNp--Xn-\p am[y-a-fp-am-hn-. Ah kzP-\-Xbvp thn ]cn-`m-j-Wn sNp b{--fp-a-.
Ah {]_p--cm-Wv. A\p-I-c-W-ns Zi ]nnp imkv{Xo-bhpw _pn-]-c-hpamb ]IzX kamPn Bfp-I. Ah I]S bqtdm-]y-c-. bqtdm-]y \mK-cn-I-Xbn \nv ka-Im-eo\ Kth-jW coXn-im-kv{Xhpw imkvX-cob ho-Whpw Ah
]Tn-p-Ibpw kzb--am-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-p-v. Fm Ah-c-Xp-]-tbm-Kn-p-Xv
kzw kaq-l-sbpw Ncn-{X-sbpw kwkvIm-c-sbpw a\-n-em-p--Xn-\m-Wv.
Ah-cpsS aX-n-sbpw P\-X-bp-tSbpw `K-t[-b-tm-Sp D-c-hm-Xnw Hcp
hipw ka-I-eo\ temIhpw Ime-hp-am-bp ]cn-Nbw adp-h-ipw D-Xn-\m
icnbpw ]pjvI-e-hp-amb Ckv emanI kwkvIm-c-sbpw hnizm-k-sbpw ASnm-\-amn Hcp kzX-{-{In-bm-Xv-aI {]m-\-n\v ]vXXp-d-m Ah {ian-pp. Ah-cpsS ey-n\v cv hi--fpv (H-v) hnZym-`ymkw knn Xe-apdsb h\-c-Xpeyw A\p-I-cn-p--Xn \npw km{am-Py-Xz-n\p Bn-b-ambpw
_un-I-ambpw ASn-a-s-Sp--Xn \npw tamNn-n-p-I. (c-v) kvXw`-\m-h-bn \np ]gb aX-k-aq-ls ]nn-cn- _-n \npw ]gIn achn ]mc--cy-n \npw t_m[-iq-\yhpw I]-S-hp-amb aX-{`m-n \npw
A-hn-izmkw A[--X\w Fn-h-bn \npw a\-ns BPn-Xhpw ss]Xr-I-e_v[-hp-amb ioe--fn \npw tamNn-n-p-Ibpw Ne\w sImn-p-Ibpw sNpI. kaq-l-nw AKm-[-X-bn Ipgn-p-aq-S-s-n-cn-Ivp hnim-e-amb atXmPs
Ign-s-Spv ]cn-jvI-cn-p-I. \vehpw ac-hn--Xp-amb DuP-ns cq]-n-ep
23

Cu in ss]Xr-I-n-sbpw A-X-bp-sSbpw In-Iq-Snb ]mfn-In-S-bn


ASw sN-s-n-cn-p-I-bm-an-tm. CXns\ \nam-Wm--Ihpw Ne-\m--I-hpamb DuP-am-pI Ah-cpsS ey-am-Wv. _pn-Po-hn-Iv AXn hnizm-k-anm\pw aX-P-\-Xbvv B t_m[w t\Sm\pw km[n-pw-hn-[-amhpw Cu DuP-kwkvI-c-Ww.
Cmew hsc kaq-l-n\v ]pdv Pohn-p-Ibpw kmwkvIm-cnI km{am-PyXzw
s]mXnp sImSp--b A`n-{]m-b-fpw Nn-Ifpw hne-p-hm-p-Ibpw
sNbvXn-cp \psS _pn-Po-hn-In-S-bn `mKy-h-km Hcp {]m\w Cv
cq]w sImn-p-v. I]-S-bp-tdm-]y B[p-\nIXmhm[n-Isf {]_p-cpw \mKcnIcpamn amm {]b-Xv\n-pp F-XmWv Cu {]m-\-ns khn-ti-j-X.
]Sn-m-c _m[-tb Bfp-I Cu {]m-\-n-eqsS _pn-]-c-amb ASn-a-n
\npw hntZ-im-\p-I-c-W-n \npw kzbw hntam-Nn-n-p-p. +a[y-hn-Isf
krjvSn-p--Xnpw bptdm-]ypw Xt-in-b pa-S-bn kwLjhpw A\yXbpw Cm-Xm-p--Xn\pw Cu \qm-n km{am-PyXzw G-hp-a-[nIw apX aS-nbXv _pn-]-c-amb ASn-a--n-\p thn-bm-Wv. ap--hsc ]qPn-p
AYhm ]mm-Xy-tcmSv ka-s-Sm-\p tcmKs P\-lr-Z-b--fn \nv CmS\w sNp-I-bmWv {]m-\-ns eyw. aqmw temI-k-aq-l--fnhn-injym
kmwkvIm-cnI tImtfm-Wn-b-en-k-ns B{I-a-W-n\v am-td-mfpw Cc-bmb
B{^n--mn-S-bn AXv hym]-I-am-b-npv Ien-m _pn Pohn-I-fmb
{^mkv ^m\, Fbvsa-kn-sk-bv, Pqen-bkv s\tc-sc,-sIbm-, Da ahveqZv
Fn-hsc tmse-bp--h-cmWv {]m-\-ns NpIv#m ]nSn-p--Xv. temI
tImfWn kaq-l-nse I]S bqtdm-]y I]-S-_p-n-Po-hn-I-fmb B[p-\n-I-hm-ZnIsf kz-n-tev Xncn-p-hn-Sp-I-bmWv {]m-\-ns eyw.
kmwkvIm-cnI Xe--fnepw aX-[m-c-I-fnepw cmjv{Sob ]cn-t{]-y-nepw kmaqlnI Dm-gn-N-bnepw kmln-Xyw, Ncn-{Xw, Ihn-X, Ie Fn-h-bnepw [man-I-Xbnepw a\p-jy-_---fnepw am{X-a Nnm coXn-I-fnepw Pohn-Xs t\mn-mWp coXn-bn-ep-samw Cu {]mw hnhw krjvSn-p-pv. kwkvIm-cs
Daq-e\w sNp-Ibpw Bm-hns\ izmkw apn-p-Ibpw sNp ]Sn-m-d
tImf\n h-c-W-ns Cc-I-fm-bn-cpp Cu Xe-ap-d.
kzXz-n \nv
A\yw \n-s--h. bptdm-]ysc I-S--\p-I-cn-p--h. Zb-b IS aX
{`mv sImv aX-aq-ey-fpw al-Xz-amPn-p--Xn-\p Ncn-{X-]-c-amb \nan-fpw kmwkvIm-cnI khn-ti-j-X-I-fp-samw Ah \in-np If-p. AXv
sImm-Wtm Cd-p-aXn sNbvX ]Sn-m-c aqey-v ChnsS CSw Inn-b-Xv.
Ch Iqw IqSn-bn-cpv kzbw sNdp-Xm-p-Ibpw kzw aX--sfbpw tZi-sfbpw [manI hyh--I-sfbpw ]cn-l-kn-p-Ibpw sNp-p. kzw aqey-sfbpw ]mh\ hkvXp--sfbpw Ah-a-Xn-p-Xnepw bqtdm-]ys Dcn-bm--fpw
hnIr-Xn-I t]mepw sXfn-hmbn kzoIcnp--Xn-ep-amWv Ahv Bm-Zw. hntZin-I-fpsS thZ\w ]m tkhI. A]-cn-Nn-Xhpw Xnf-p-Xpamb bqtcm-p-ambp Gp-ap--en Bm-`n-am\w \jvS--Sp-n-b-h.-Km-n-sbbpw SmtKm-dn-s\bpw
t]mep alZv hyn-Xz- hsc X-fpsS bP-am-\ hsc kvXpXn-n-cp-p.
A{X-tmfw hep-Xm-bn-cpp Ahcw Xon-bn-cp A]-Ij-Xm-t_m[w \qm-pI-fm-bp tImf\n h-c-W-ns Ccp-ns\ X-fpsS kp[o-chpw I-n-np--Xp-amb {]`m-hn-emkw sImv XI ]pXnb apJ- Cu Xe-ap-d-bn
\nv Dbv hn-p-v. Ah aqmw temIs {]Im-i-am-\-am-p-p.

24

kmwkvIm-cnI tImf\n h-c-W-n \nv hntam-N\w t\Sm-\p {iaw Ckv


emanI kaq-l--fnepw Bcw-`n-n-p-v. aqmw temI Iem-Im-c ampw Fgpp-Impw _pn-Po-hn-Ip-an-S-bnse kzXz-n-tev aS- {]m-\nsc kzm[o\w Ckv emanI kaq-l--fnse \h ]mmXy hIrX hnZym-k hn`m-K- nS-bn Xcw-K-ap-m-n-bn-p-v. ^m\-s\bpw knsU-bvdn-s\bpw
t]mep--h-cpsS Ccw {]m-e- hj- v aps apkv enw \mSp-I-fn
DS-se-Sp-n-cp-p. bqtdm-]y B{I-a-W--fpsS kmwkvIm-cnI am\w t\scs
Xncn--dn Ah-t_m-[-ap aX-Nn--I-dvn-S-bn-em-bn-cpp Cu BZy {]m-\-fpsS P\-\w. kvZv Pam-ep-o Ak-Zm-_m-Zn-bpsS ]qhoI-cn-tev (k-e-^nI) aS-pI apl-Zv A_vZp-hns Jp-B-\n-tev aS-pI Fo {]m-\-fpsS ]mX-bn-em-bn-cpp Ch. kzXz-ns (Jp-Zn) XXz-imkv{Xw aptmv shpIbpw Fm aX Nn-I-sfbpw Ckvemanse aX Nn-I-fpsS ]p\-kw-hn-[m-\-ntev Wn-p-Ibpw sNbvX Amam CJv_m-ens ]mX-bn-emWv asm-v.
Bi-b-p-g--n-e-I-s Ck emanI kaq-l-se hnfn-p-Wp-I-bm-bn-cp#v\p
Cu Nn-I-cpsS eyw.
knZv Pam-ep-o-sbpw A_vZp-hn-sbpw CJm-_m-en-sbpw {]h-\-
bmYm-hp-ambn _-an-em-em I]S _pn-Po-hn-I Btcm-]n-p-Xv t]mse
]nn-cn-t\m LSn-Im-c-n kqNn ]nd-tIm Xncn-tem Bbn-cp-n-.
Cu
hyn-Xz--emWv \ho\ imkv{X-sf BZy-ambn kzmKXw sNp-Ibpw aX-]-T-\tI-{--fpsS AS-p-]q-nb Npp-]m-Sn-\-I-tv ImenI ssNX-\yhpw ]p ]cnt{]-yhpw \h-bq-tdm-y \mK-cn-IXbpw ]cn-N-b--Sp-p-Ibpw sNbvX-Xv. Ah
]ptcm-K-a-\-hm-Zn-Ifpw ]gb kmwkvIm-cnI hnZym-`ymk tI{--fpsS B[p-\nI
\mb-I-cp-am-bn-cp-p. aX-_p-n-Po-hn-In-S-bn kzn-tev Xncn-p-t]m-hpI
Bcw-`n-Xv Ah-cm-Wv. Hcp iX-I-n\v apv CkvemanI _pnPohn-Ipw
B[p-\nI _pn-Po-hn-Ip-a-S-bn Cu {]m\w DS-se-Sp-Xv cavSv hyXykvX
{[ph-n\n-m-sWv tXmp-p. Fnepw Ctm Ccp {]-e-fpw Nen-pXv Htc ]mX-bn-eqsS Htc ey-m-\-t-m-Wv. AXv sIms{X AIv
\np\v Cu {[ph--fn \np {]_p hyn-I kam-\-amb t_m[-vsen-t-Xv. kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw Htc _unI kmaq-lnI C-c-hm-Xn---fmWv
Ah-\p-`-h-s-Sp--Xv.
F-t-Xn-t\-m-fp-a-[nIw ]c-kv]c kl-I-c-W-nsbpw sFIy-n-sbpw Bh-iy-IX Ah-\p-`-h-s-Sp-Ibpw sNp-p.
_mly-kmw-kvIm-cnI km{am-PyXzhpambn kl-I-cn-p-I- hgn BZyw
{]hv\ ns Cc-bm-bn-on-p Pohn-Xhpw Ne-\hpw hos-Sp-p-IbmWv \psS s]mXp eyw. Ncn-{Xhpw kwkvIm-chpw kmaq-ly-hn-Im-chpw
m]-\-fpw aqey-fpw Ckveman-\m cq]o-Ir-X-am-Ip CkvemanI kaq-l-fn hos-Sp--s-tS Ckveman\p t\sc-bp Hcp ImgvN-Ckvemanm-Sm-Wn-Xv.
CkvemantemWv \mw aS-t--Xv. \psS kaq-l-ns aXhpw Ncn-{X-ns
in]nbpw kwkvIm-c-ns Bmhpw P\-Xsb Iqn-bn-W-p i-amb
]mihpw Bo-b-X-bp-tSbpw [man-I-X-bp-tSbpw ASn--dbpw CkvemamWv FXv
sIm am{X-a CXv. \psS P\-X-bpsS am\p-jnI kXzw Xs AXm-sW--XpsImv IqSn-bm-Wn-Xv. ]Sn-m-d kmwkvIm-cnI tImtfm-Wn-b-\n-k-n-s\-Xn-cn
kmwkvIm-cn-Ihpw Bn-b-hp-amb ka-c-n-tes-Sp-tm-gpw, Bnb kzmX{yhpw hyn-Xz-an-msX A\ysc ]qPnp Ign-tbn hcp--K-Xn-tI-Sn\nv cs-Sm amK-a-t\y-jn-p-tm-gpw, kzw Imen \nm\pw am\p-jnI t_m[w
sIn--Sp-m\pw kzw Ncn{X kv#w-kvIm-c-sbpw [mj-WnI bmYmy25

sbpw
]p\-cp-o-hn-n-m\pw
{iap-p-tmgw
\mw
kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw
CkvemantemWv aS-t--Xv. tZio-b-X-bpsS AXnh-c-p-I-sfbpw Ncn-{XsCkvemanbpw AXn-hn-p aX-am-sW--XvsIm-snepw \mw Ckv
eman A`bw tXtS-Xp-v.
\psS Ctm-gs kmwkvIm-cnI iq\yX
Ckvemans k--amb kwkvIm-chpw Bo-b-Xbpw sImv \nI-pI
sImtfm-Wn-b-en-k-ns kwkvImc \naq-e\ X{--tfmSv s]mcp-Xm \mw
Ckvemw Bbp[-am-p-I. AXm-Ipp \ap Ckvemw. \psS ho-W-nepw
am\p-jnI aqey--sf-p-dnv X-fp-tS-Xmb Imgn-N-m-Sn \nv sImv
Ckvemans\p-dnv ]Tn At\Iw Aapkenw Ckvemtamf-Pn-p-I-fpsS A`n-{]m-bn CkvemanmWv
am\-hn-I-X-bpsS aXw. bqtdm-]y km{am-Py-Xzns
cmjv{Sob ssk\nI t\Xm- kzbw k-Xn-Xv t]mse CkvemanmIpp Ghpw
henb km{am-PyXz hncp LSIw AXv km{am-Py-Xzs sNdp-pI am{X-a-. AXns\-Xnsc Iem]w Dbp-Ibpw AXn\nv tamN\w {]m]n-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-pv.20
tbm-p-J-amb \psS kaq-ls kap--cn-m\pw hgn-apn \np P\Xsb Ne-\w-sIm-n-m\pw cmjv{S-ns kzmX-{y-n\pw \mw Ckvemans\
B{i-bn-Ww. \psS kmwkvIm-cn-Ihpw Ncn-{X-]-c-hp-amb X\na Is-p--Xn\p am-ambn Ncn-{X-]m-c--cy- hopw tbmPn-n-p--Xn\v CXm-h-iy-am-Wv.
am{X-a Cd-p-aXn sNbvX Cu ]Sn-m-d aqey-epsS \nm-n-Wy-amb Cu
IS-m-{I-a-Ws sNdp-phm\pw Fm-h-i--fn \np-ap AXns hebw
sN-ens\ AXn-Po-hn-m\pw \apv CkvemamWv B{ibw. \psS a\p-jym-h-iy \nhr-n-m\pw Zmi-\n-I-amb {]iv\-v Dcw \Im\pw Ign-hp
kXyw AXm-Wv. A]m-b-I-chpw Ie-l-{]n-b-hp-amb {]Xy-b-im-kv{Xw. \nn-X-X-Xz-fn\nv A`-b-a-cp-fm AXnt\ Ign-bq. aqey--epsS h-am\Ime An-c-Xbn\npw kmaq-ly-th-Z-\-I, sshcp-y-, hnth-N-\-, t]mcm-bva-I
Fn-h-bn\npw AXv tamN\w \Ipw. \psS apm-sI-bp Bk A]-IS--fn\nv c-{]m-]n-m \mw Am-lp-hns ]mis apdp-sI-n-Sn-m
(3:103) am{Xw t]mc Ckvemans\ Ah-ew-_-am-p-Ibpw thWw. ImcWw Cu \qmns Bo-b-Zmlw, ka-Im-enI a\p-jys t_m[{]Xnn, Cs \mK-cn-I-XbpsS Zmi-\nI Am-fn-v, B[p-\nI hyn-bpsS t]mcm ^e- Fn-hsbmw ]cn-K-Wn-p-tm tbmKy-X- sX-fn-bn aX-amWv Ckvemw. in-bpsS ]cya-X-bn-sen \ns XfhmXw ]nS-s]--h-cmWv a\p-jy. Ahs hnZy Ahs\
_mlym-Im-i-n\pw ]pd-tv \bn-n-p-s-Xv t\cp-X-s. Fm Cu `qanbn Akw-_-hpw ss\cm-iyhpw {]tbm-P\ iq\y-Xbpw hs-n-bn-cn-p-p.
]g-bXpw ]pXp-b-Xp-amb Nnm {]m-\--fn-ep hnizmkw \jvS-s-Sp-tm
ap-t-Xn-t\-m-tfsd Ah\v hnizmkw Bh-iy-am-bn-o-cp-p. imkv{X {]Xm-]ns ]-c-tIm-Sn-bn-en-cpv Hcp {]Xy-b-km-kv{X-n-\p-thn Ah Zmln-p lXmi-b-\mbn Ip-\o-p-I-bm-Wv. Xpd-Xpw ka-{Khpw bYmym-Xn-jvTn-X-hp-amb
temI hoWw F \ne-bnepw hyXykvX Ime-tZi ]cn-X-n-XnI-\p-cq-]amb ]ptcm-K-a-\-]-chpw ]cn-h-t\m-p-J-hp-amb \nb-a-L-S\ F-\n-e-bnpw
Ckvemw anIhv sXfn-bn-n-p-v. X\-Xmb Hcp Ncn-{X-Zi-\-hp-apv Ckveman\v.
GI-X, kmam-\y-amb imkv{Xob -\n-b-hmZw, am\p-jn-Ihpw Ncn-{X-]-c-hp-amb
ip`m]vXn hnizmkw, an-X-cp-sSbpw Zp-e-cp-sSbpw A\n-hm-cy-amb An-a-hnPbw Fo k-sf B[m-c-am-n-bp--XmWXv. P\-Io-bhpw ]ptcm-K-\m--Ihp-amb Hcp kmaq-ly-ho-Ww Ckveman-\pv. \oXn-bp-sSbpw ka-Xz-n-sbpw
AnX t\Xr-Xz-n-sbpw ASn-m\ aqey--fn AXv hnizmaIn-p-p.
kXyhpw AXn-{I-ahpw Xn, auen-I-Xbpw DS-a--Xbpw Xn, kaq-lhpw

26

hynbpw Xn D Hgnp IqSm-\m-hm kwL-\-n AXv hniz-kn-p-p.


Ckveman\v ]ptcm-K-\m--I-amb Hcp \c-hw-i-Zi-\-ap-v Fpw sXfn-bn--s-n-cnp-p. am\-hn-I-X-bnepw a\p-jys ssZh-k-Zr-i-amb k-bnepw Ahs `uXnIm-[oX A`ncpNn-bnepw ssZhn-Ihpw kmh-{Xn-I-hp-amb D-c-hm-Zn-nepw kXynepw A[n-jvTn-X-amWv B \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-Zi\w. a\p-jysd A\--amb ]cnWm-a-n AXv hniz-kn-p-p. {]Ir-Xn-bn-eq-sSbpw ]Zm-n-t-ep B[n-]Xyw-h-gnbpw {]IrXn in-Isf D]-tbm-K-s-Sp-nbpw ssZh-k-n-n-bn-tev
Dbp-t]m-hm AX-hs\ Wn-p-p. Fm h,-hw-i,-tKm-{X,-km-{-Zm-bnI
aqey--fp-sSbpw \ntj-[-am-Wnkvemw. `qap-Jv am\-hn-I, km-n-I, ka-Xznepw atlm-X ssZhnI Bi-b--fnepw A[n-jvTn-X-amb Hcp hnime a\qjy
kap-Zmbw (D-v) m]n-p--Xn-emWv AXv hniz-kn-p--Xv. C{]-Imcw {]Xybm-im-kv{Xhpw Znibpw amK-Zi-\hpw hnizm-khpw temI-ns Bob
hymJym-\-hp-am-Wnkvemw. ka-Im-eo\ a\p-jys _mjv]-{]m-b-amb Bm-hns\
{Kkn-p an ASn-m-\-tNm-Zy--fp-sSbpw D-c-hp-am-W-Xv. Atm \mw
Fp-sN--Ww?
\psS kaq-l-ns _un-Im--cow, hninjym B[p-\nI _pn-Po-hn-I-fpsS
taJe ]Sn-m-d Nn-bp-sSbpw A`n-cp-Nn-bp-sSbpw hn kzm[o-\-n-em-Wp-f-fXv. ]Sn-m-dn \npw Hcp kmwkvIm-cnI imkv{Xnb kzmX{yw Ctmgpw hnZq-camb B{K-l-n Ihn Hp-a-. \psS k-I-em-im-e-Ifpw imkv{X, hnZym`ymk m]-\-fpw \psS Fgp-p-Im, Iem-Im-cam, {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-hn-ZKv-F-n-h-cpsS imkv{X Bym-nI [mnI ]cn-X-n-Xn-Ifpw \ne-\np
cv ]gb ehn-ti-j-X-I-fp-v. 1. kzw kwkvIm-c-tmSpw aX-tmSpw BymnI kz`mh-tmSpw X-tfmSv Xs-bp-ff AI-bpw shdppw 2. ]Sn-m-dnt\m-Sp-ff hnt[-b-Xzhpw BIi-Whpw . ]mmXy hIpX B[p-\nI Ah
Al-m-c-]qw {]Zin-n-pI t]mepw sNm-dpv. C-c-sam-c--co--n-Fm-hcpw izkn-p-Xv ]Sn-m-d hmbp-hm-Wv. ]Sn-m-dv\nv Cd-p-aXn sNbvX
_unI _unI, Iem, kZm-Nm-c-D-- Fm-hcpw D]-t`mKw sNp-p.
A\y-kw-kvIm-c-ns IS-m-{I-a-W-ns sNdp-msX Fm-hcpw Ipnbncnpp. IjvS-mSv ISp--Xm-bnpw Ipd-p-t] am{X-amWv FXnp \np--Xv.
\ncm-bp-[-cmb {]Xn-tcm[ k--a-m Xe-ap-dsb Bbp-[-a-Wn-bn-m Bmcv-ambn {ian-p--hcpw Ipd-hv. P\--fn ihpw bphXzw Xpfp-p--Xp-amb
Hcp hnizm-khpw ]ptcm-K-a-\m--Ihpw kzX-{-hp-amb ho-Whpw Icp-n-Sn-n-pI-bmWv Cu \yq\-]--ns eyw; Hw Ctm-gs kmwkvIm-cnI aX-iq-\yXsb X-fpsS bYm Bob kmwkvIm-cnI hn`-h-sIm-v\n-d-p-Ibpw
bmtXm-cn-S-s]Sepw- IqSmsX \-psS kaq-l-n \ntem`w D]-t`mKw sN-sSp ]Sn-m-d D--sf]p-kvX-I-, ^oen-ap-I, tdUn-tbm, Snhn ]cn]m-Sn-I, Xntb-, p-I shp-hn-fn-m\pw
I]S _qn-Po-hn-I-sfbpw
kzmwio-I-c-W-m-scbpw XSp \nm\pw Bg-n thcp-I-f-fp-f-f-hn-hw
tXmS-p-hn-tS--Xp-v. Cu AKpeo-]-cn-an-Xv _pn-]-chpw {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-]-chp-amb Is--ep-Ifpw at\m-_-ehpw sXc-s-Sp-m-\p-f-f-I-gnhpw Dm-p-b-Ym {]_p hyn-Isf hms-Sp-m klm-b-I-am-b-hy-nXzw hfnsb-Sp-p-Ibpw thWw
t_m[w kamPn-p-Ibpw Xsmcp {]d-hm-NI XuXyw \n-ln-m-\p-sv
tXm\p-Ibpw sNp bYm {]_p-m-m- HsSp-I-bnt F {]iv\-apv. h-am\ iX-I-nse I\-I--ip-hn-s kmn-y-n Ah-cpsS ktiw
{ihn--s-Sptam? Ah-cpsS Nn-I-fp-sSbpw {]Xy-b-im-kv{X--fp-sSbpw {]Nmcw
Ah-cpsS h--fpsS ASp ]qnb Npa-cp-Ip-f-fnepw Ah-cpsS {K--fvpsS

27

GXm\pw Xmfp-I-fnepw teJ-\--fnepw kt-f-\--fnepw am{Xw ]cn-an-X-am-hp-Ibnt? NnX-dn-n-S-p-Ibpw am-fpw ]cn-]m-Sn-Ifpw


Cm-Xn-cn-p-Ibpw
sNp Ah--bn Fs-nepw am-ap-m-m Cu {]_p hyn-Imhptam? B[p-\nI _pn-Po-hn-I Pohn-p-Xv ASn-m-\-]-c-ambn Ah-cpsS kaql-ns Acp-Ip-I-fn-em-sW hkvXpX ]cn-K-Wn-p-tm Cu tNmZy-
{]tXy-I-ambpw a\-n shWw. P\--fp-ambn Ahv _-an. X-fp-sSXv
am{X-amb hyn \njvT _unI Iem-km-aq-ly- temIv HXp-n--gn-bp--h-cmW-h. Ahv Ah-cp-sSXv am{X-amb `mjbpw ap{Zm-hm-Iy-fpw Iebpw kmlnXyhpw hnIm-chpw kmaqly kz`m-hhpw kwth-Z-\-fpw Bi-b--fp-ap-v. km[mc-W-m-cp-tS-Xp-ambn Ahbvv kmZr-iy-an-. kaq-l-ns Nnm-co-Xn-bnepw hoW-nepw kmaqly {]Xy-im-kv{X-t_m[-nepw hn-h-ap-m-m {ian-p
k{In-b\pw B-t_m-[-ap-f-f-h-\p-amb Nn-I _pn Pohn-I-fp-sSbpw A`y
hnZy-cp-sS-Xp-amb Hcp sImp hr-n sNdn-sbmcp kzm[o-\-ap-m-p--Xn
Xr]vXn-b-Sbpw. Xs h-n\v Ic-K-X-am-bn-p-ff am-n-epsS Xs Nn-I
]I-cp-Ibpw Ans\ Xs hnZymn-Isf Nnm coXn-bn am-ap-avSm-p-Ibpw
sNbvXp F Imc-W-n Ahv hnP-bnp F-tXm--ep-m-hp-p. _pn-Pohn-Ipw hnZym-k--pw henb hmb-\-mpw am{X-ap-ff GsX-nepw
{]kn-o-I-c-W-n Hcp imkv{X-{]-_w
{]kn--s-Spn F-XvsImv
Abm ktm-i-hm-\m-hpw. Hcp ]pkn-XIw {]kn-o-I-cn-p-Itbm Hcp {]kwKw
\S-p-Itbm As-n hfsc Ipdp t]v am{Xw a\-n-em-hp Ae-m-cfpw Dt{]--Ifpw _nw_-fpw \nd Zp{K-l-amb Hcp IhnX Fgp-XpItbm sNbvXm Abmv Xr]vXn-bm-bn. {]_p hyn shdp-samcp Zmi-\nIt\m imkv{X-t\m Iem-Im-ct\m kmln-Xy-]-n-Xt\m am{X-am-bn-cn-p-I-bn-.
.jmU ]d-bp-Xv t]mse {]_p Hcp Xcw {]hm-N-I-Xz-amWv. {]hm-N-I-\mb
apl--Zn-\p-tijw Ncn-{X-n {]hm-N-Is ZuXyw ]qo-I-cn-p-Xv {]_p
hyn-bm-Wv. t_m[-ap-ff hyn-bmWv {]_p-. t_m[-n-sepw kzmX-yn-tepw am\p-jnI ]q-X-bn-tepw P\-sf \bn-pI F ZuXy-hp-ambn
\ntbm-Kn--s B. A-X-bn \npw _lp ssZh-Xz-n\npw a-\n \npw kzbw c-s-Sp--Xn\v Ahsc Abm klm-bnpw. P\--fpambn CS-]-g-Ip-Ibpw ASn-a-I-fp-sSbpw an-X-cp-sSbpw hn[n-tbmSv D-c-hm-ZnXzw
A\p-`-h-s-Sp-Ibpw sNpI FXv {]_p--bpsS B-cn-I-k-hn-ti-j-X-bm-Wv.
Fm AXns D-c-hm-Zn-Xzhpw `mchpw hln-p--{]-hm-N-I-\mWv.
P\--fn \n-Iv kam-\-lr-Z-b-tcm-sSm-w-k-aq-l-ns Acn-In kh-I-emim-e-I-fntem {Km-e-b--fntem ]mT-im-e-I-fntem ]-X--fntem tZhm-e-b-fntem kzImcy `h-\--fntem
Ign-bp--XXz Nn-I, kmln-Xy-Im-cam,
jmkv{X--dv, k\ym-kn-I, Iem-Im-cam XpS-n-b-h-cn \nv hyXy-kvX-cmWv
{]hm-N-Iam-sc-tmse {]_p P\-X-bpw, BZyw ]d hn`mKw P\--fpsS Ncn{X-n hn[n-sb-p-dntm Ah-cpsS IjvS-m-Sp-I-sfbpw Bh-iy--sfbpw
Ipdntm Hp-a-dn-bmsX tPmen sNbvXp henb XXz-Nn--I-cp-sStbm m\w t\Snsb-Sp-p-p. CXn\p hncp--ambn {]hm-N-I Xs ZuXyw Gs-Sp DSs\ P\sf At\z-jnv kaq-l-ns lrZ-b-n-tev Cd-n-sN-p-I-bm-Wv. apl-Zv
\_nv e`n BZys Znhy kt-i- DZm-l-c-W-am-sb-Sp-p-I. Fsm-sbm-bn-cpp Atlw In--s--Xv? hyn-]-c-amb H-s]-S-en \n ]pdvISp-I. kzImcy PohnXw aXn-bmn P\--fn-tev Dgp-In-t-cp-I. Ahv {]Xobpw ap-dn-bnpw \Ip-I. \pW-I-fp-sSbpw A-X-bp-sSbpw A-hn-izm-kn-sbpw {]Xo-I-lvMsf B{I-an-p-I. Ah kzsb Dm-nb hymP ssZhsf XIpI . {]Xo--I-fn-mASn-a-Iv sNdp-kw-K- henb kwLsf AXn-P-bn k`-fw Ipdnp ktm-j-hm \Ip-I. an-Xpw
28

\nn-Xpw `qan-bpsS A\--cm-h-Im-ihpw t\Xr-Xzhpw \Im-\p-ff Af-fm-lphns Xocp-am-\-s-p-dnv Ahv hmv sImSp-p-I. \-I]n-m\pw Xn
XS-bm\pw P\-sf Blzm\w sNp-I. a-I-cmb ^tdm-h-am-cp-sSbpw Jmdq-m-cpsSbpw B`n-Nm-c-m-cp-sSbpw I]-S-k-\ym-kn-I-fp-sSbpw cmPyv \nv ASn-a-Isf
tamNn-n-p-I. P\-sf kzmX-{y-n-tepw hmKvZm `qan-bn-tepw la-Xzn-tepw \oXn-bn-tepw \bn-p-I. Ah-km\w `qan-bpsS \nIr-jvS-X-bn\nv
kz-n-tev Dbn-sm-p-t]m-hp-I. hyn-Iv ]Icw Am-lpsh
Bcm-[n-p-I. ap-a-X--fpsS A\o-Xnp ]Icw Ckvemans \oXn m]n-p-I.
Dnv F \ma-hn-ti-jW ]Z-ns Xm]cyw P\--fpsS Bfm-bn-cn-p-I,
Ah-cn\n-p-bp -h-cn-I Ah-tcm-sSmw Ign-bpI Fsm-s-bmWv (D-nv:
Fgp-Xm\pw hmbn-m\pw Adn-bm {]hm-N-I 2:156) P\-p-thn \ne-sImpI FXv {]hm-N-I-s-bpw {]hm-NI ]nKm-a-bmb {]_p--sbpw {]tXy-Iamb Hcp kmaq-ly kz`m-h-am-Wv. H-s-v, P\--fn\n--I-v, bqtdm-]y an
]d-m Z-tKm-]p-c-n, JpBs `mj-bn aqSp-]Sw ]pXp X Imcy t\mn Ign-bphcmbn Pohn-m Ahv Ign-bpIbn-. ttmbvv
Xs hnZym-\n-tI-X\ns hmXn-ep-I P\-pt\sc sImn-b-S-bvm Ignbpw. t{X KWn-X-a-dn-bm--hv Cu tXm-n-tev {]th-i-\-an Fv
{]Jym-]n-m Ignbpw. GXm\pw alm-hn-Zzm-m-tcmSv am{Xw At-l-n\p kwhm-Znmw. dn-n-v, bptm-n-b, IhnX kXyw, Xn, kZm-Nmc XXz-, \oXn,
ss[cyw Fn-h-sb-p-dnv N-bmhmw. GXkn At\-Im-bncw ASn-a-I
tImhI-gp-X-Iv ]Icw `mcw Npa-p-p-sh hkvXpX At-l-n\v {inm-Xn-cn-mw. apXp {]`p-Ip-Spw-_-v thn-bmWv Cu ASn-a-I tPmen-sNp--Xv. ttm-bpsS A`naX{]Imcw temI-s-p-ap samw a\p-jy-cn
\bpw Ipeo-\-Xbpw c-n Aen-p-tNXv Cu {]`p-Ip-Spw-_--fn am{Xam-Wv. mtm-sb-tmse ASn-a-Isf A-h-K-Wn-m apl-Zv \_nv Ign-bp-I-bn-.
{]hm-N-I Xs BZy-Ime PohnXw acp-`q-an-bn Bn-S-b-\mbpw JZo-P-bpsS
honepw lndm-Kp-l-bn [ym\y-n-ep-ambn Hbvv sNe-h-bnp. ]s {]hm-N-I\mbn \ntbm-Kn-X-\mb DSs\ GIm--X-bpsS \n_vZ ]-X-ns inJ-cvXXn\nv Atlw Cdn hcn-Ibpw am \K-c-ns lrZ-b-n-tev Kan-pIbpw sNbvXp. A`n-P-X-cpsS kt-f\ tI{-amb Zmdp--ZvhbpsS FXnh-iv,
Xs kaq-l-nse hymP-ssZ-h-s-Xn-sc, k^m ae-bpsS apI-fn Ibdn
\np-sImv Atlw Xs ktiw hnfnp ]d-p. hoSns ad-bp-t]-n-p
Atlw ]n-bn Xma-k-am-n. hmk--ev \nv ]n-bn-tev AYhm P\-fpsS `h-\-n-tev hmXn Xd-p. {]hm-N-I-\mbn \ntbm-Kn--s-Xp apX
Atlw P\- aqSn-p-X-p-d-m-\p-]-tbm-Kn-p ]pX-n-\p-n \np ]pd-ph-p Fm-W-Xn-\w. ImcWw Ctm-g-tlw ssZhns kti hml-I-\mWv. Cv Hcp imkv{X-\pw XXz-Nn--I\pw aX-`-\pw temI kw`-h-hn-Im-k-fn-tev {i-sIm-Sp-msX X-fpsS Imcym-e-b-ns aqe-bntem ]mTie-bntem
{K-ntem hoSns kuI-cy--fntem HXp-n--gn-bmw.
Fm kn--am-ep-o Ak-Zm-_m-Zn-sb-tmep-ff Hcmv ]mT-im-e-I
sImtm Bcm-[-\-I-fntem \nKqV {]tNm-Z-\--fpsS Ipcp--gn--entem I
imkv{X-n-sbpw kmln-Xy-ns XXz Nn-bp-sSbpw Xe-\m-cng Iodn icoc
]oV-tbntm Xr]vXn-s-Sm Ign-bp-I-bn-. Amam apl-Zv CJv_m-en\v ]n.
FOv.Un t\Sn, k-I-em-ime DtmKw kzoI-cnv, Xs Nppw ]Tn-Xm--sfbpw
htcWy imkv{X--tcbpw Hcp-anp Iqn, Cy-bnse {_nojv km{am-Py-Xz-ns
taIq-cp Xmsg Hcp aqe-bn-sem-Xp-n, kmaqly {]iv\- Ah-K-Wn-p, hniz-

29

Zmi-\n-I-]-w-sImv kzbw Bh-cWw tkh sNbvXp \nm ]p-I-bn-. Xs


m\hpw {]Xn-`bpw hne-a-Xnp tkm{I-o-kn-stbm mtm-bp-sStbm apmkZvdbp-sStbm Pem-ep-o ahve-hn-bp-sStbm IqsS XXz Nn-bpsS A\-hpw Dpw-Khp-amb hnlm-b-n ]mdn--fn-m At-l-tXsX Inn-. Acn-tm-n-ens\ shp
hnfn-p-tXm C_v\p-ko-\sb Jn-p--Xntem apm-k-Zvd-bpsS IrXn-Iv
`mjyw Na-p--Xntem ampw t\cs a\-n-em-m Ign-bm-Xn-cp Hcp
Imcyw Isn F-Xntem BmZw tXmp-I-bn At-l-n-\v. Cy-bnse
\nc-nX P\-Xbpw ]n \ne-bn-ep-ff apkvenwIfpw Xs Bi-b- {Kln-m
am{Xw {XmWn-bp-f-f-h-c F-tlw a\-n-emn Fp-I-cp-Xp-I. Fn At-ln\v Hp-In P\--fp-am-bp-ff kw Dt]-nv kzbw H-sp XXz Nnbnepw ]c-am-\{]-Zhpw \nKq-V-hp-amb B-m-\-nepw hym]-cn-p-I. Asn Bs-nepw hnm-\mbn Xs hne-]n-Sn cXv\--sf-m-sa-Spv \mSp-hnSp-I. ]ntmw \np kl-cm-Py-mv At-ls a\-n-em-m Ignn-n FXv kXy-am-Wv. Atlw {]_p--Nn--I-\m-b-XmWv CXn-\p-Im-c-Ww.
Atlw c-s-Smt\m H-s-Smt\m B{K-ln-n-.-P-\--fn-tev Hcp ZuXy-hp-ambmWv Xm \ntbm-Kn--s-Xv F-tlw Xncn--dn-p. At-l-ns kzXz(-JpZn) XXz-imkv{Xw Hcp-{]-tXyI knm--am-bn-cp-n-. Xs kaq-l-nsc AkvXnIq-S-n-tev kn-th-in-n-m At-la
- m-tK-c-ln hnh ssNX-\y-am-bn-cpp
AXv. tIm-I-Iv Ign-bp _pn-Po-hn-I-fn am{Xw ]cn-an-X-am-h-cpXv _pn]-c-amb ]cn-h-\w. {]_p hyn Z tKm]p-c-n \nv ]pd-t-n-dn
hcWw . ImcWw jmU ]d-bp-Xv t]mse, Bcp-an-m-t-Sv \nv P\-sfbpw Ipdnv kwkm-cn-p-Xv hy-am-Wv, As-n Im]-Syw. hS- sX{lm\nse at\m-l-c--fmb Imn IS-I-fn-en-cpv km{am-Py-Xz-sbpw aqmw temIsbpw kw_-np hmN-I-a-Sn-p--hv kmaqly imkv{X-, cmjv{Sn-bm ,im-kv{X-, Zmi-\n-I, Fgp-p-Im Iem-Im-cam,-F-sms kzbw
A`n-am\w sImm aXn. Ah {]_p--c-.
hnZym-k---cmb htc-\yn-S-bn B-t_m-[-ap-ff Ipsd-t]X--fpsS khntij kmaqly Npp-]m-Sns AXn-cp-I-Iv HXp-n-gnbm hnk--Zn-pp. {]_p--cm-bn-cn-pp F-Xnsc klP `mK-amb *+
kmaq-tlym--c-hm-ZnXzw sshb--Xn-Xtam hn`m-Ko-btam Bb Xm-cy--XoX-ambn {]hn-m Ahsc t{]cn-n-p-p. {]^-k hn, Fgp-p-Im-c
imkv{X-, Kth-i-I, ]cn-`m-i-I, -XXzNn-I, Iem-Im-c XpS-nb taen-I henp Iodm\pw AXv tlXp-hm-Ip-p. Cu amXncn Bh-c-W--H-cmsf
XnXs s]mXnp \np-I-bm-Wv. sshm-\n-tIm-Zv{K-Y\hpw imkv{X-Imc F-S-pw kwc-np \nm\pw P\--fp-ambn tNcp--Xns\ XS-bm-\p-amW-Xv. ]s kmaqly D-c-hm-Znw B-t_m-[-ap-ff _pn-Po-hn-Isf XfpsS H-s Kpl-I-fn \nv-m DX kmaqly ]Z-hn-bn \nv P\-fpsS \ne-hm-c-n-tev {]hm-N-I-s\-tmse Cd-n-h-cm t{]cn-n-p-p. AXv
aqew Xfpw a\p-jy Xs-bmWv F Xncn--dnhv Ahp-m-Ip-p.-km-[m-cW
P\--fp-ambn CS-]-g-Im Ah \n_-n-X-cm-Ip-p. km[m-c-W-m-cmb efnX
Pohn-I FmWv P\-sf hnfn-mdv; Ah-cn \nmWv A[nIw \mb-Icpw
Dbp h-Xv. F-XmWv hkvXp-X-sb-nepw kmaq-ly-D--c-hm-Znt_m[w
B-t_m-[-ap-ff {]_p hyn-Isf km[m-c-W-m-cp-ambn ssa{Xn m]n-m
\n_-n-p-p. t\cs ]d At\y\yw Gp-ap-p Ccp hymP hmKzm-Zmcpw sa\-s-Sp-p If-f--Y-Ifpw Ah-cn \n\v#p-m-Ip A]-am-\-fpw
Btcm-]-W-fpw Ah-tl-f-\-Ifpw KqVm-tem-N-\-Ifpw am-]qw kln-m
AX-hsc {]m]vX-cm-p-p. _pn Pohn-I-fpsS Iogv]Wnsb-Sp-mt]mepw tbmKyX-bn-m--h-cmb , i{Xp-Xbpw Akq-bbpw Ie-im-em-bp-ff tcmK-_m-Xn-X-cmb
30

Bfp-I-fpsS F-a hnai-\- Ah kln-t-n-bn-cn-p-p. GsX-nepw


imkv{X-im-J-bpsS km[m-cW i_vZm-h-en-sb-p-dnv tIpI t]mepw sNbvXn-nm, efn-X-amb _me-]p-kvX-I--fpsS Hcp Jn-I-t]mepw hmbn-m Ign-hnm \nc-c In-I-fpsS hnai-\- t]mepw kln--Ww.20 {]_p-
hnai-I-cpsS imkv{Xn-bhpw tcJ-I-fp-f-f-amb hnai-\-tIp-p.
Ahp adp-]Sn sImSp-p-I-bn-. ImcWw Ahv AXn-t\-m {][m-\-s
kmaqly D-c-hm-Zn-Xz- \n-ln-m-\p-v.
\ne-hn-ep iq\y-Xbpw hnizm-k-hn-tZz-jhpw Ah-K-Wnv kaq-l-n Hcp
_unI aXhnhw hfn-sb-Spv X-epsS Xe-ap-d-bpsS temI-ho--Wnepw imkv{X-Im-gvN-m-Snepw Bob Znim-t_m-[-nepw ]cn-h-\-ap-mm Cu {]_p hyn-I B{K-ln-p-p-. aX-hn-izm-k-n-t-Xmb hyhpw
bpn-k-l-hp-amb Hcp XcwKw krjvSn-p-I, hnkvar-Xhpw A\y-hI-rXhpw
h-am\ ]cn-tXm-h--bn icn-bmb Ckvemans Nn{Xw hc-bvpI.
CkvemanI \thm-m-\-n\v XpSw Ipdn-pI. X-fpsS Ie-L--n XfpsS kaq-l-n bpn-`-{Zhpw ]ptcmK-a-\m--I-hp-amb Hcp aX \ho-I-cWw
Bcw-`n--pI. {]_p- P\--fn \n-Iv Akw-L-Sn-X-cmbn NnX-dn-n-S-p
Ah--bn CsXmw Fs\ kmm-XvI-cnpw F-XmWv {]iv\w. Ahsc
sshhn-[y-am tkh-\- GXv Zni-bn-emWv tI{o-I-cn-pI? bph-X-e-ap-d-bn
XfpsS BZiw {]N-cn-nm Fsmw ]-Xn-I-fmWv Ahp-f-fXv? ZtKm-]p-c-n \nv ]pd-p-I-S-m FmWp amKw? P\--fn \nv Xsf
thXn-cn-p Bghpw ]c-p-ap hnS-hn\p aosX Fv Xcw ]me-amWv Ah
]Wn-bpI? Fv sNm-\mWv Ah-cm-{K-ln-p-Xv? Fm-W-h-cp-sS- ]-cn-]mSn?
Fsmw hn`h-fm-W-h-cpsS ssIbn-ep-Xv? Bsc-bmWv Ah B{i-bn-m-\pt-in-p-Xv? ]ns hfsc {][m-\-s- Hcp Imcyw_u-nI Pohn-I-fpsS `mKw
A`n-\-bn-p kmwkvIm-cnI km{am-Py-ns k-hpw i-hp-amb Ic-fm \nb-{n--s-Sp BIjhpw \m\m-hn-[-hp-amb _n-n-p ]pXp-amK hnZ-KvZ-ambn \S-m-p ]cn-N-b- k---cmb \S-m-cpsS Imcy-n FmW-hv sNm km[n-pI? adp-`m-Kv A-cmb P\--sfv sNpw? aXt\-Xm--fpsS `mKw A`n-\-bnp an-n--ens ]g- am- \S-m-p
hZ-KvZ-\-S-msc Fs\ ssIImcyw sNpw?
B-t_m-[hpw D-c-hm-Zn--hp-ap, i-amb aXhnizmkn-eqsS {]_p-X
t\Snb CkvemanI kwkvIm-cs ]ptcm-K-\m--I-ambn a\-n-em-n-bXv aqew
Ckveman-s\-p-dnv bpn ]q-amb hoWw ]pep, Cm-c-W--fm
CkvemanI ]WvUn-X-msc am-Zi\w sNp-Ibpw {]_p--cm-p-Ibpw sNpI
F ZuXyw Gs-Sp hyI-Xn-bpsS D-c-hm-Znw Iptd-qSn Zpjv-c-am-Wv.
I]S aX-_p-n-I-fpsS tdm \mS-I-im-e-bnse at `mK-p--h-tc-Xn-t\-m IqSpX _pn-ap-p--Xm-Wtm. AtX-t]mse ]c--cm-KX aX-]m-T-im-e-bnse(lu-k)
aX-]-c-ambn {]_p--X-t\-Sn-bn-p hyn-I-fpsS D-c-hm-Zn-hpw ITn-\hpw
{]bm-k-hp-ta-dn-b-Xm-Wv. Ckvemw Cm ]cn-n-Xn-bn-e adnv hnIr-Xhpw hymPhp-amb Ckvemw \ndp \np e-mWv Ahv {]hn-m-\p-Xv.
_pn-Po-hn-I tPmen-sN-p-Xv aXs \nn-p--h-cpsS CS-bn-em-Wv. aX-{]-_p Ckvemans lrZ-b-nepw. _po-Po-hn-Iv t\cn-Sm-\p i{Xp- iq\yl-kvXtcm ZrjvSn-tKm-N-c-amb hn{Klw Npa-p--htcm BWv. Ah-cpsS hgn hfsc
hyw. AXn-cp-I icn-bmbn \n-Nn--s-n-cn-p-p. Ckveman-s\bpw
A\nkveman-s\bpw Hcp ]pg thXn-cn-p-p. Fm CkvemanI ]mT-im-e-I-fnse
Jp-B ssIh-i-ap aX-{]-_p- Jp-B-\ns\ sImSn-Ipw _b-\-p-

31

Ipw D]-cn-bmbn D]-tbm-Kn-p Bfp-I-tfm-SmWv t]mcm-tS--Xv. tX\o--q-SpI-sf--t]mse X-fpsS hoSp-I-fn\nv {]m-\-I-fp-sSbpw Jp-B ]mcm-bW-n-sbpw aqf tIm-hp Bfp-I-sf-bm-Wv Ahv t\cn-tS--Xv. hfsc
{]bm-k-ap tPmen-bm-Wn-Xv. BI-bm \msap sNpw?
ey-
1. kmaq-l-nse aX-\n-jvT-bp-f-f-hcpw kzX-{-cp-amb Bfp-I Hn-p-I..
t_m[hpw am\-hn-I-Xbpw \nanw PmK-c-W-n-sbpw am Zi\nsbpw
\nm-bI D-c-hm-ZnXzw Gs-Sp-p-h
- -sc-bmWv Rm\p-t-in-p--Xv. AtXt]mse apl-Zv \_n-bpsS hntam-N\ Ckvemapw Aen-bpsS \oXn-tX-Sp Nnm-kc-Wnbpw (ioC-kw) Cm-an-I--am-\p-jn-I--ssZ-hnI aqy- kwc-n-p--Xn-\pff `mcn D-c-hm-ZnXzw Gn-n-p-ff Bfp-I-fpw.
2. Htc ssII hgn-bn Hcp-n-h cp NXn-s-Wn-I-fn \npw (\m-S-I-im-eI) P\-sf cn--Ww. aX-nsd t]cn P\- A-X-bp-sSbpw
A-hn-izm-k-nscbpw sshIm-cn-Itam Aaqtam A]-I-Stam {]tbm-P\
cln-X-tam-Bb ]mc--cy--fp-sSbpw Cc-bm-bn-o-c-cp-Xv. kXy-k--X-bp-sSbpw alXz-n-sbpw aXw \pW-I-fp-sSbpw kXw-`n-n--en-sbpw \n-bp-sSbpw hml-\-amh-cp-Xv. \psS bph-X-e-ap-dbpw _pn-Po-hn-Ifpw Hcp-hiw Ncn bmYmyIv aX-n \nv HmSn-b-I-em ]mSn-. c-s-S {]{In-b-n-S-bn{]XnNn _m[nX th-m-cp-sSbpw aS kZri A\p-Im--fp-sSbpw sIWnbn, kmwkvIm-cnI km{am-Py-Xz-ns koamb Nne-n-h-e-bn Ah-c-I-sSpw. temI-i-n-I-fpsS {]Nm-cW kap--b-am-W-Xv. iq\y-X-bn-tepw \njv^-eX-bntepw Ah \bn--s-p-Iq-Sm. Xncn--dn-bm\pw sXc-s-Sp-m\pw sNdp-p\nm-\p-ap-ff Ah-cpsS Ignhv \jvS-s-p-t]m-hpw. Ah-cpsS kmwkvIm-cn-Ihpw
am\p-jn-I-hp-amb Ignhv tNmv t]mhpw hmKvZm\w sN-s-Sp Bob `uXnI
D---tfXpw D]-t`m-Kn-p-, kXz-an-m-, Ffpw hg-p Pohn-I-fmbn
amdp-a-h. CXn-\m P\-sf cn-t--Xm-h-iy-am-Wv.
3. CXp-hsc \psS _pn-Po-hn-Isf ]Sn-mdv temI-s-p-dnv ]Tn-n-p-I-bmbn-cp-p. \mK-cn-IX AYhm kwkvImcw Fm-sWv AXv \tmSv ]d-bp-I-bm-bncp-p. ]uc-kvXyw, ]mmXyw, imkv{Xw, aXw, XXz-Nn-, hnZym-`ym-kw, kmaqly
hyh-, cmjv{Snb t\Xr-Xzw,-Po-hn-X-co-Xn-I, \h-[man-I-X, kmlnXyw, Ie,
ku-cy-imkv{Xw apX-em-b-h-sc-p-dn-smw AXv \apv hnh-cnv Xcn-I-bm-bn-cpp. Ah-sc-p-dnv Ah Nnn-p-Ibpw Ah-sc-]-n\mw Nnn--W-sa Ah-cm{K-ln-p--Xp-amb coXn-bn ]Sn-mdv \apv Imcy-lvM hni-Zo-I-cn-p-Ibpw
hymJym-\n-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. \psS aXhpw Ncn-{Xhpw kmln-Xyhpw Iebpw
am\p-jn-I-aq-y-fpw ]Sn-mdv \apv hni-Zo-I-cnp Xp. \s-p-dnv ]Tnm\pw \psS Ncn-{X,-a-X, Bym-nI kzXz- {Kln-m\pw Hm-a-Xmbn Cu
Ip A[ym-]-I\v Fm-W-tX-p-dn ]d-bm-\p-f-f-Xv F-dn-bm \mw Imp
\np. CkvemanI hni-b--fnepw t]jy
Ihn-X-bnepw ]Wn-sb-Sp-p
\psS Nn-Icpw imkv{X-cpw Fgp-p-Im t]mepw ]Sn-m-d kmwkvImcnI b{- Dm-Zn-n Cd-p-a-Xn-m-p-I-fpsS D]-t`m-m--fm-Wv. KthijI
]Sn-m-d k{-Zm-b-ns hnh-Iam am{X-am-bn-o-cp-p.
B{^n, Gjy, emnAta-cn Fn-hn-S-lvM-fn \nv Nnesc ]mm-Xybq-tdmn-tev sImavSp-h-p. ]mco-knepw e-Wnepw BwUm-anepw khm-cn-sN-n-mdp-v aqmw temI-tv ]Sn-mdv Ibn Ab-m-\m{K-ln-p Imcy--fpsS
{]Nm-c-Icpw a[y-hn-I-fp-am-b-`n-\-bn-m Bh-iy-amb bqtdm-y kz_mh
32

hnti-j- ]Tn-nv sImSp-m-\m-WnXv Fv ^m\s ]pkvX-I-n-s\-gp-Xn-bXv


BapIn kmXr Nqn-m-Wn-p-p. Cs\ Fgp-Xp-tm kmXr Dt-inXpw ta]-d--Im-cy-am-Wv. kzw \mn-tev Xncn-s-p-tm Gjy B{^n emn-\-ta-cn- hnZq-c---fn shv Ah ]Sn-mcv \nv ]Tn Imcy Bhn-pw. ss[cyw {]Zin-n-m\pw a\-n-ep-f-fXv Xpdv ]d-bm-\p-ff
ka-b-am-bn-cn-p-p. kmXr ]d-bp--Xvt]m-se, amXr-cm-Pyv bqtdm-y Bi-bfpw A\p-`-vfpw On-m-\p-ff XsSw \mw ImWn-Ww.
4. \mw \n-tev Xs aS-pI33. h-am-\s Xnc-kvI-cnp `mhnbpsS
t\sc ]pdw Xncnp ]pXnb Fn-s\bpw aX-{`m-p-Imn Xn--f-b-W-sa-.
\psS kzw am\p-jnI kmwkvIm-cnI [m-\p-jvT\ XXz--fn-tev aS-pI
F-XmWv Rm\-am---Xv. Hcp ]nn-cn- {]kvYm\w Bcw-`n-m-\p ap{Zmhm-Iy-a CXv. I]S _pn-Po-hn-I k]n-p--Xn\v hncp--ambn \n-tev
Xs-bp aSw. GXm\pw {]mtZ-inI ]mc--cy--fp-sSbpw BNm-c--ep-sSbpw
D]-cn-hn--hhpw A\p-I-c-W]
- -c-amb ]p\-cp-m-c-Wtam `qX-Im-es On-tem
A. \psS a\p-jym-h--bnepw kmwkvIm-cnI A[ym-nI k-bn-ep-ap
A\y-h-kvXp-sf \ow sNp-I hgn B-\naq-e-\-n \nv \s-s
cn-m-\p ]ptcm-K-\m-I {]m-\-am-Wn-Xv. sIm-b-Sn--s aqey-fpw
hn\n-jvS-amb kXyhpw Is-m-\p {]m-\w. \psS kzw thcp-Isf
B{i-bn-m-\p Blzm-\w. ap--h-cpsS \mhp-sImv kwkm-cn-p-Xpw A\ycpsS ]mZ-sImv \S-p-Xpw XS-bm-\p {]m-\w.
5. Ncn-{X-ns Ccp]m-fn-I-fn Ipgnv aqS-s-Sp-Ibpw hnkm-ar-X-am-hp-Ibpw
sNbvX {]hn-im-e-amb B[ym-nI kmwkvIm-cnI hn`-h- \mw Iphn-s-Sp-pIbpw \ho-I-cn-p-Ibpw thWw. AXns A\--cm-h-Im-gn-Iv B hn`-h-
{]tbm-P-\-s-Sp-m-\p-ff Ignhv \jvS-sp t]mbncnp-p.. Cu \jvS-nsc
^e-ambn a\pjy Ncn-{X-n Xpy-X-bn-m hnim-ehpw A\--hp-amb \n[n-tiJ-c-p aosX AXn-s A\--cm-h-Im-in-I hnip s]mcnp Zcn-{Z-ambn
hntZ-in-I-fpsS klmbw Bh-iy-s-p-I-gn-bp-I-bm-Wv.
6. imkv{Xn-bhpw _pn-]-c-hp-ambn A-hn-izm-k--tfmSv \mw s]mcp-XpI kaq-lns Nn-sbbpw ssNX-\y-sbpw XS-hn-em-p-Ibpw XfhmXw ]nSn-n-pIbpw sNbvX a\pjy hncp A\n-km-em-anI hnizm-km-Nm-c-sf \mw shp-hn-fnWw. imkv{X Kth-j-W--fn-eqsSbpw cmjv{Sob aX,-Zmi-\nI Zpcp-t-i-sf
bpn-]-c-ambn hni-I-e\w sNpw.-N-cn-{X-n-ep-S-\ofw {]h-\-\n-c-X-am-bn-cp
h LS-I- hnt-jWw sNpw. CXv \n-ln-m-hp--Xm-Wv. AtX-t]mse
aX-]-c-amb Is--ep-I-sfbpw hyXn-bm-\-lvM-sfbpw Ncn-{X-n-sepw ImWmhp \ntj-[m-I \ymbo-I-c-W--sfbpw Ah-bpsS \ntj-[m-I kmaqly
kzm[o-\--sfbpw apkv enwI-fpsS Pohn-X-n AXp-m-nb Zp-Ip\w ]nSn
{]Xy-b-imkv{X{]m-tbm-KnI {]Xym-Lm-X--sfbpw Xncn--dn-vsImpw CXv
\n-ln-m Ign-bpw. A[x-]-Xn-Xpw ab-n-In-S-p--Xp-amb aXs P\-a-\n \nv \nam\w sNm-\p-ff Ghpw i-amb amw ]ptcm-K-a-\m-Ihpw kpPm-{K-hp-amb aX-amWv Fv Ie-l-kz-`m-h-ap-ff {]Xy-b-im-kv{X--fpsS
ka-c-a-S--ap-ff Ncn-{Xm-\p-`-h- \s ]Tn-n-p-p. 23 CkvemanI Ncn-{Xhpw
CXn-\-]-hm-Z-a-. \psS hnizmk kwln-X-bn- B-ibpgw krjvSnpw ]Snm-dns\ t\cn-Sp--Xn \apv kzmX-{hpw a\pjy kz`m-hhpw Xcp Bob
Icm-dp-Isf ]nfnbpw kmwkvIm-cnI hyXn-bm-\- Dm-nbpw \psS kaq-

33

l-ns D-am-Zi--sfbpw AXns _pn-Po-hn-I-sfbpw \in-n-pI F


Dt-i-tmsS {]N-cn-n-vs-Sp hnj-en-]vXhpw hgn ]ng--Xp-amb Nn-I-fpsS
ihpw \nc--c-hp-amb AXn-{I-as \mw sNdp-Ww kzX-{-amb Hcp
_unI {]m\w cq]-s-Sp-n-smv am{Xta \apv sNdpp \nm
Ign-bp-I-bp-f-fq. Bh-iy-ap-ff _pn]chpw {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-]-c-hp-amb hn`-h-
{][m\w sN-Ww. hnak\ tijn ]cn-t]m-in-n-p-Ibpw hfn-sb-Sp-p-Ibpw
thWw. bphm-pw _pn-Po-hn-Ip-an-S-bn kz{]-Xyb sscyw hn-n-Ww.
7. \psS kaq-l-n-s, hntijnv bphm--fp-sSbpw _pn-Po-hn-I-fp-sS-bpw,
[mn-Im-[x-]-X\w eyw shv Bkq-{Xaw sN-s hnhn[ ]-Xn-Ifpw ]cn-]mSn-Ifpw {]{In-b-Ifpw \psS FXnln-p-p. ImcWw Ah-cpsS inbpw
Nnn-m-\p-ff Ah-k-chpw am\p-jnI {]Xn-_--Xbpw D-c-hm-Zn-Xzhpw [man-Im[]X\w aqew \jvS-sp t]mhpw. XXv^-e-ambn Ah-cpsS hnizm-khpw
BZihpw B t_m[hpw am\-hnI \qey--ep-samw Agn-a-Xn-bpsS Sfn--etv henv hmhv-sSpw . aq-bp-ff Hcp Nnm-{]-m\w Bcw-`n--Ww.
t_m[-nsc ]cnZn hnI-kn-nWw. kmaqly D-c-hm-ZnvXz-fpw _unI
{]iv\-fpw N sNWw.-A-ns\ X-fpsS vXnsb Ipcn-m-tem-Nn-m
P\-sf \n_-n-p-I. i-amb ASn-m-\--fp-ambpw bph-X-e-ap-dsb _s-Sp-p-I. Cs\ Cubpw hnP-bn-mw. Npcp-In-I-n _pn-Po-hn-Iv
ey- Dm-n-sm-Spv \psS eyw \nd-th-m Ign-bpw -F-p-sIms-m Ae-Ivknkv Imd-ens\ ]cm-h\w sNbvXp ]dbmw, PohnX ey-anm Bfp-I am{Xw Bp-t]m-hp NXpp \ne-amWv Bm-Zm-t\z-j-Ww.
8. temI-sbpw B[p-\nI \mK-cn-I-X-sbbpw ]Sn-m-d kwkvIm-c-sbpw
km{am-Pyz in-I-sfbpw Ingpw ]Sn-mdpw Xn-ep-ff {]Xy ]tcm
_--sfbpw \mw IrXy-ambn a\-n-em-Ww Hcp aXw F \nepw Hcp
kwkvmcw F \nepw a\pjy kap-l
- ns hen-sbmcp hn`m-Ks _m[np Ncn{Xw F \nepw Ckv emans i{Xp--fpsS khn-tij ey\mw Xo-bmbpw Adn-n-cn-t--Xp-v. temIv Ctm \ne-hn-ep-f-f-{]h-W-X-Iv Pw \Ip Fm _unI {]iv\-fpw Nnm-[m-c-Ifpw {]Xy-bim-kv{X-fpw \mw N sNWw . \apv CjvS-am-bmepw Ah \psS Nn-Isfbpw hnIm-c--sf-bpw-kzm-[o-\n-p-p-v. {]tX-tb-Inv _pn-Po-hn-I-fpsS .
hkvXp \njvT Am-cmjv{S bmYmy-s
- fbpw Ah-bn-e-`-hn--L-S-I-fpw
in-Ifpw e`y-amb hn`-h-fpw \ne-hn-ep-ff Ah-Ifpw \mw a\-n-em-Ww.
Npcp--n \psS Imes cq]-s-Sp-p-Xpw \psS hn[n-sbbpw hnizmk-sbpw kwkvIm-c-sbpw Pohn-X-sbpw A\p-Iq-e-amsb {]nIq-e-amsb
kv]in-p--Xp-amb apgp-h hni-b-fpw \mw a\-n-emvWw ImcWw Cv
_lp-P\ am[y-a-fpw Bi-b-hn-\n-ab am-fpw {[pX-K-Xn-bnhym-]np hcp
Hcp Imev , ASp ]qnb ]mc-cy Zp- \new s]mp-I-bm-av. P\-Xn-Isfbpw cmjv{S--sfbpw Hu]-Nm-cn-I-ambn GI-cq-]-am-nbpw A\y-a-X--fp-sSbpw
aX-Io-btam tZio-bsa Bb kwkvIm-c--fpsS ta BtKmf Xe-n kzw
kwkvmcw ASn-tnv sImpw ]Sn-odv Cu {]{InbbpsS thKw Iqp-p.
kzw Adn-bpI, kzkw-kvm-c-n-tev t_m[-]qw Xncnv t]mhp-I.
As-n CJv_m ]d-bp-Xv t]mse Ckvem-an-eqsS aX-Nn-IfpsS ]p\-kw-hn[m\w km[n-pI CXp-am-{X-tam-Xp-d-Xpw hnim-e-hp-abm temI-ho--Whpw
Ime-sbpw a\p,#v-bm-h--sbbpw Ipdnv IrXy-amb [mc-W-bp-ff Hcp hn`m-Kn\v {]mtbm-Kn-I-amb Hcp {]h\ ]Xn Hcp-p-I-bp-f-fq.

34

9. \mw CkvemanI \thm-m-\-n\v apI-s-Sp-p-I. AXm-bXv Ckv emans


Hcp ]p\ P-n\v AXns hnh ssNX\yw, sXen-a, ]cn-ip-n,-am-\-hn-I-X,
Apw D-c-hm-Zn-Xzhpw P\n-n-p hnizmkw Fn-h-bpsS DWn\v
bYm Ckemw bpn-]-chpw bmYmym[njvSn-Xhpw kmaq-ln-I-hp-amb
ho-Ww-\n-c-p-Ibpw am\-hn-Im-i-b- FSpp Imnbpw sNbvXn-p-v. Cu
ktiw \mw hopw ]cn-N-b-s-Sp-p-I. a\pjy Ncn-{X-ns XIXpw
oWn-Xhpw Ccp-f-S--Xp-amb lrZ-b-n A\-iz-chpw ASn-m\ ]c-hp-amb
hn]vfhw s] krjvSn kt-i-am-W-Xv. P\--fpsS [mnI aqy-pw
Nn-Ipw hnIm-c-pw AXv A[n-bmb Dt-P\w \In. acp-`q-an-bn
alm-{]-Xn-`-Isf hms-Sp-p. ImS--n \nv \mK-cn-I-X-I \p hfn.
kvXw`-\-n \nv Ne-\-ap-m-n. _e-lo-\-X-bn \nv in P\n-n-p. A[-aXz-n \nv al-Xzhpw ASn-a-Xz-n \nv kzmX-yhpw Dmn an-X-cnepw
\n-lm-b-cnepw B-t_m-[hpw \oXn-Zm-lhpw Ap-cn-n-p. B kt-i-sbmWv\mw ]p\-c-h-X-cn-n-t--Xv.
Cu ey- t\Sm Fv sNWw F tNmZyw Cu L-n Xo-bmbpw
D-bn--s-Spw. Iptd-IqSn IWn-i-am-bn--d-m Fhn-sS-bmWv \mw Bcw-`npI24 Fv. Cu tNmZy-p Dcw kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw kmh-{Xn-Itam
nctam Bb kq{X-hm-Iy-am-bn-cn-p-I-bn. ImcWw, H-am-Xmbn Hmtcm
hynbpw Cu tNmZy-n-\p-cw \IpI Xs temI-ho--W-n\pw {]tXyI
Nnm-[m-cbvpw A\p-kr-X-am-bn-m-bn-cn-pw. cm-a-Xm-bn, P\--fpsS D-c-hm-Zn- Ah-cpsS kmaq-lnI h--fp-am-bn-cn-pw Gdnb Iqdpw Xocp-am-\n-p-I
Fm t{imXmh hyntbm hn`m-Ktam Hcp {]tXyI htam F-Xns ASnm-\-nepw Cu tNmZy-n-\p Dcw hyXy-kvX-sSpw. AXn-\m ChnsS
Hcp-cw \Ip--Xn\v \mw \psS ho-W-sbpw kmaq-ly-h-sbpw
thXn-cn--dn-tb--Xp-v. AXm-bXv GXv Nnm-{]-m-\-n-\-\p-cq-]-ambpw h-ho-W-n \np-amWv \mw kwkm-cn-p-Xv Fv \n-bn-p-I. \mw kwkm-cnp-Xv {]_p apkvenwI25 F-\n-e-bvmWv.
t_m[-an-m- _lp-P-\-sf ]c--cm-KX kaq-l-n {]_p--hy-n-I-fpsS
{]Ya D-c-hm-ZnXzw X-fpsS P\- t_m[w \I-em-sWv Hcp s]mXp-Xz-Xz\r-ambn \msa-m-hcpw hniz-kn-t--Xp-v26. \mw FhnsS XpSpw F tNmZyn\v Dcw \Im \mw C\n--d-bp Ah-km\ ap{Zm-hmIyw \nt-in-pp:
Ckvemans ]p\w. Cu ]p\-\vaw Fs\ km[n-Xammw F-tNmZyw Ah-ti-jn-n-p-p. Ckvemw Xs AXn-\p adp-]Sn Xn-pv. Ncn-{Xn hgn-sX-n-tm-hp-tmgpw \qm-p-I-fpsS Xa-n hg--Sn-p hn`m-K-fmbn hn`-Pn--s-Sp-tmgpw Bi-b--fpsS ]cm-h-c-n ]cn-{`m--cm-hp-tmgpw
Ah {]bmWw \np-Ibpw Ass\-Iys shv s]mdp-n-p-Ibpw Duw
]mgm-p-Ibpw sN-cptX Fv AXv A\p-bm-bn-Isf ]Tn-n-p-p. ]Icw Ah
Jp-B-\n-tev aS--Ww. apkvenw kaq-l-nse Hmtcm hn`m-K-fpw X-fmWv
bYm Ckvemans\ {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cn-p-Xv Fv hmZn-p Ctm-gs kmlN-cy-n \nw-ibw \mw Ckvemans Bhn`m-h-Im-es BZy apkvenw
IfpsS Ah--bn-tev Xncn-p-t]m-h-Ww. XXz-Nn--bp-tStbm \nKq-V-hm-X-nstbm ap aX ]mc-X{y Ncn-{X-L-S--fp-tStbm klm-b-an-msX Ckvemans\
a\-n-em-m Ahv Ign-n-cp-p. Ch-sbmw DS-se-Sp-Xv ]nm-evX-XmWv. C\n Hcp hnh D-cn-h\w hgn Ime-ns XS-- Xn-\on B

35

Ah--bn-se-m Ign-p Fp shp-I. Atm asmcp {]iv\w. GXp


JpB\n-te-mWv \mw aS-t-Xv?28 Jpssdin {]`p-Xzs ]p\x-m-]n-pIbpw A_q-Z-dvdns\ sImp-Ibpw sNbvX aqmw Jeo^ Dkvams sImm-cn-ep]-tbm-Kn Jp-B-\n-tetm? {]hm-N-Is ]n-bpsS Hcp-aq-e-bn Xma-kn im-{]-Ir-X-\mb Camw Aen-bpsS sImp-Ip-Sn-en D]-tbm-Kn Jp-B-\n-e-tetm?
hwio-b-hm-gvN-sbbpw {]`p-Xz-sbpw kwc-n-p--Xn\pw thn Awdp_v\p
Bkvv Ip-n Ipn-bp-bn Jp-B-\n-tetm? Ch-bn GXv Jp-B-\n-temWv \mw aS-t-Xv?
CXn-\p icn-bmb Dcw Ip-]n-Sn-p-tm \app a\-n-emhpw Fp-sImmWv Cdm P\X BZy-Im-ev Iq-tmsS Ckvemw kzoI-cn-m [rXn-Iq-nbXv Fv. GXv W-tm-Sp-ap {]Xn-I-cWw Hcm-h-iy-n-sbpw t\-nsbpw \n-l-W-am-sW Imcy-n kwi-b-an-. h-hn-th-N-\hpw kmkm\n
cmPm--m-cpsS a-\hpw kucm-jv{Sn-b ]utcm-ln-Xy-ns ac-hn-n-epw
aqew IjvS-X-b-\p-`-hn Cdm P\X bmYm Ckvemans kt-i-n
hnizm-knbpw \oXnbpw t\Xr-XzhpwZin-p. icn-bmb Ckvemans Cu aqv
LS-I- apgp-h P\--fp-sSbpw ey- cq]o-I-cn-p-p. Cm-ept]mepw kXy-n ka-Im-enI temIv Cv \S-p-sIm-n-cn-p kwLjw
Cu XXz--fpsS Npp-amWv Id-n-sm-n-cn-p-Xv. Cs apkvenwI-fpsS
{][m\ eysf AXv Dw shp-Ibpw sNp-p.
Ahy--amb Hpw Ath-ti-jn-m-Xn-cn-m GXm\pw Da amXr-I-I-fpsS
DZm-l-cWw ImWp-I. Hm-a-tXv Camw Aen. hnizm-kw, \oXn, t\XrXzw Fnh-bn A[n-jvTn-X-amWv At-l-ns aXw. Aen BhpI Fm P\--fpsS
bYm t\Xr-Xz-ns hnfw-_cw Fm-Ww. At-l-ns {]h\w
Cs\ kzXz-{]-Zn-]m-Z\w \S-p-p. BZy-s 23 hjw Atlw hnizm-k-n-\pthn s]mcp-Xn. ASp 25 hjw Atlw apkvenw kaq-l-ns sFIy-n\p-thn kl\w sNbvXp. Ah-km-\s Ap-hjw \oXn-p-thn bpw
sNbvXp. Camw lpssk-\mWv cm-as amXrI. Atlw am Zi-\-ns
{]Im-i-\hpw hntam-N-\-ns hm\hpw Pohn-p c-km-n-bp-amWvF-mIm-e-tpw Fm Xe-ap-d-Ipw. amXr-tbm-Ky-amb Pohn-X-n-eqsS Xs kaIm-epw {]tZ-ipw Dchm-Zn t_m[-ap Bpw kzoI-cn-p--Xn-\v
thn Aen-bpsS Ckveman\v hymJym\w \In-bXpw AXv Pohnp ImWnp
XXpw At-l-amWv.29 Hcp apkvenw _pn-Pohn Xs Ime-sbpw
esbpw Pohn-X-sbpw tPmen-sbbpw Camw \ne-hmcw shv Xn-s-SpWw. CXp-hsc \s A\p-[m-h\w sNbvX Hcp _pn-Pohn \ap-smcp
CkvemanI \thm-m\w Bh-iy-amWv F Imcy-s-p-dnv t_m[-hm-\m-bncnpw. \n-tev Xs-bp Xncnp t]mns knm-hpw bYm
Ckvemans\ ]p\-cp-o-hn-n-t--Xns Bh-iy-I-X-sbbpw Ah\v t_m[y-am-bnp-v. HcnkveanI kaq-l-n Fs-nepw eyw km[n--W-sa-n Jp-B-\ntev aS-t--Xpv. Camw Aen a\-n-em-nb Jp-B-\n-te-v--F Imcyw
Abmv t_m[y-am-bn-pv Fv \mw {]Xo-n-p-p. Ah-km-\-ambn \psS
_pn-Pohn kplrv, \psS Ime-L--n Aen-bpsS Jp-B-\n-te-p
aSw hnizmkw, knm-w, sFIyw, \oXn, t\XrXw F hfsc ASn-m\
]c-amb ap{Zm-hmIyw Dsm-p--XmWv Fv AwKo-I-cn-p-sapw \mw {]Xon-p-p. Cs\ PohnXw {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-]-chpw ka-c-hp-amb P\-sf
36

Dt_m-[n-n- ZuXy-ambn kzoI-cn {]_p _pn-Po-hn-bpsS D-c-hm-ZnXzw


Fsv hy-ambn Xncn--dn-b-s-n-cn-p-p.

Ipdn-p-I
1. Ckvemans {]hm-N-I ]dp: Hmtcm-cp-cpw Xm kmZr-iy-s-Sp hn`m-Ktm-sSm--amWv. kmaqly imkv{X-cpw {]_p--cmb km{am-Py hncp-cpw
BKn-cWw Fv hnfn-p kwK-Xn-bp-ambn Cu \_n-h-N-\-ns cq]hpw Df-f-Shpw tbmPn-p-p. bqtdm-y km{am-PyXz hmZn-I tImfWn P\-Xsb hfsc
IrXy-ambpw NSp-e-ambpw cv hn`m-K-ambn Xncn-n-pv. ap coXn-bn ]dmtIm-f-\n-I-fnse P\- bqtdmy in-I-tfm-Sp-ff kao-]\w shp
t\mn-bm cpv Xc-m-cmWv. Hp-In Ah X-fpsS ]c--cm-KX aqy hyh-tbmSv Iqdp ]pen ]gb an Ign-bp-p. As-n ap-f-f-h-cpsS aq#v-yhy-h--bn-tev BKn-cWw sN-s-Sp-p. B[p-\n-I, B[p-\nI hmZn-I,
]mmXy hIr-X, _pn Pohn-I Fv t]mepw, hnfn--s-Sp-Xv Ch-sc-bmWv. Fm Ipsd-IqSn IWn-i-amb hnti-jWw BKn-cWw sN-s--h FXm-Wv.
2. i-co-A-n-bpsS IrXn-I-fn Bhnp hcp Hcm-i-b-am-Wv. kmwkvIm-cnI
hyXn-cn-X. XA-ps_ ^lKn (kmw-kvIm-cnI Bth-iw) F Bi-bwsImv Atlw CXv {]I-Sn-n-p-p. At-l-ns A`n-{]m-b-n kln-jvWpX-sb-p-dn Xhpw kmwkvIm-cnI hyXn-cIvXXbn-ep-ff Ipd Duepw
]mm-Xy-c-m P\--fpsS hynXzw \in-n-m-\p-ff ]mm-Xy-cpsS Hcp amamWv (F-Un).
3. ^m-\s The Wretched of the Earth F ]pkvX-I-n\v km{Xv Fgp-Xnb
apJ-hpc (Newyark: Grove press Inc 1963) bn Cmcyw hnh-cn-n-cn-p-p.
4. ]m-cokv XS-h-d-bnse kw`m-j-W- ImWp-I.
5. lm-anZv AKm-dns Mirza Malkumkhan: A study in the History of Iranian
modernism F ]pkvX-I-n \nv aIpw-Jms Pohn-Xhpw {]h-\hpw
a\-n-em-m-hp--Xm-Wv. (Berkely and Los Angeles: Universityof California
Press)- FUn-
6. Cu {]iv\-n t]mepw Atlw ]d-bp-Xv \pW-bm-Wv. Ip{]-kn-n-bnepw
A]-am-\-nepw IqSn XJn-km-Zv hnizm-ky-X-bn Fv CXv ImWn-p-p.
aokm aIpw Jm\mWv CXmZyw ]d--Xv. XJn kmZ-b-.
7. C-dm Ncn-{X-n ]pI-bne {]Xn-tj[w F-dn-b-s-Sp Ime-L-s
(18911892) bmWv ico-An kqNn-n-p-Xv. ]pI-bne hym]m-c-n\v Hcp {_nojv
I-\n--\p-h-Zn Cf-hn-s\-Xn-sc -P-\- i_-Zn-p. aokm lk iodm-kn-bpsS
^Xz-bmWv ]pI-hen \nm Imc-W-am-bXv (F-Un).

37

8. {i-t-b-\mb Hcm-{^n- Ihnbpw hn-h-Im-cn-bpw. B{^n- cmPy-


kzmX{yw t\Sp-Ibpw {^v ssk\yw ]nam-dp-Ibpw sNp--tXmsS B{^n-bnse {^v sImtem-Wn-b-enkw Ah-km-\n-p-I-bn-, hntZi _mp-I ChnsS
\nv A{]-Xy--am-hp--tXmsS am{Xta AX-h-km-\np F-tlw ]d-bm-dp-m-bncp-p.
9. Jp-B-\nse I]Shnkzm-kn-I (ap-\m-^n-Jp) F 63mw Aymb-am-Wvkq-N\. lnPvd 4mw hjw aZo-\-bn Ah-X-cn kqd-m-Wn-Xv. (F-Un)
10.{]-hm-N-I ]f-fn-bn hp sNbvX Ah-km-\s {]`m-j-W-n Cs\
]dp: P\-sf, Ccp Ime- Hn\p]ndsI Hmbn hp sImn-cn-pI-bmWv.
11. ]-{-m-bncw `S-m-cp-ambn _phm-km tKm{X-tmSv bpw sNm t]mIsh
\_n Acp-fn-b-Xm-Wn-Xv.
12. lp-Pv_n BZn Camw Aen-bp-sSbpw Camw lk-sbpw Hcp {][m\ kJm-hmbn-cp-p.
13. Jm-Zn-k-b-bn Ckmemans ssk\yhpw kmkm-\n-Ifpw Gp-apn. CXn
kmkm-\n-I ]cm-P-b-s-Sp-Ibpw \in-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. baq-In shmWv
ss_kss km{am-Py-hp-ambn apkvenwI Gp-ap-n-bXv (F-Un)
14.XS-h-d-bntem hmfp-I-fntem AmsX \apv ac-W-an Hcp inbm-Camw ]d-np-v.
15. \nv aXhpw hnizm-k-hp-an-s-n Npcp-nb ]w Cu temIv kzX{m-m--fp-ff Bfp-I-sf-nepw BhpI Fv Bipdm Znhkw Camw lpssk
]d--Xmbn dntmp-v.
16. lv thf-bn a-bn _en-sIm-Sp--s-Sp Zi-e---W-n\v S
amwkw An-n-c-bmn IpgnpaqSp--Xn\v ]Icw Fv sImv kpUm-\n-tev
sImSp--bvIqSm Fv tNmZn--tm_-en-amwkw AapkvenwIv hnX-cWw
sNm ]mSn F XXzw adp-]-Sn-bmbn ]d--h-cpv. kpUm apkvenw `qcn-]-\m-Sm-sW Imcyw t]mepw Cu amXncn {K-Im--dn-bn-.
17. \n-b-a-hn-t[-bhpw (l-em) \nba hncp-hp (l-dmw) amb [\s Ipdn-
A_p-Zdv ]d--Xv. aX-]-c-amb A\p-hm-Z-ap-ff amcv--fn-eq-sS-bmtWm At
[\w km-Zn-Xv F Atlw N sNbvXn-n-. A_p-lp-ssd-d-sbbpw
Ilv_p Alv_m-dn-s\bpw t]mep-ff Bfp-I Dkvams tImS-Xn-bn CuamXncn N-I \S-m-dp-avSm-bn-cp-p. A_p-Zdns A`n-{]m-b-n GXv Xc-nep-ff [\hpw DS-a-bp-amb apJv s]mf-fp {hW-am-Wv. ImcWw aX-]-ctam AmtXm Bb X{--fn-eqsS P\--fn \nv Ihs-Sp--Xp-am-hp-a-Xv. AenbpsS A`n-{]m-b-n Iqn-sh--s-n-p-ff GXv [\hpw Bcp-sStbm Ah-Imiw
ewLn--s-n-pv F-Xns kqN-\-bm-Wv. hyn-bp-S-a-bn [\-ti-J-chpw aqe[-\hpw Dm-hp-Xv Ipcvd-I-c-am-sWv Jp-B-\n-ep-v. \nb-a-]-c-amb X{-]noSv Ip-]n-Sn--Xm-Wv.
19. Cu \mep hn`m-K- (A-[n-Im-cn-I, k-, I]-S-_p-n-Po-hn-I, _lp-P-\) ico-An Nn-bn {][m\ ]v hln-p-p. BZys aqv hn_m-Khpw
38

\mem-as Iqs-Xnsc kwL-Sn-n-n-cn-p-I-bm-Wv. Chn-S-bn-ep-ff \nem ka-c-amWv Ncn-{X-ns Nme-I-in (F-Un.)


20. i-co-A-n-bpsS ]nZam-Zam-ap--laow F IrXn-bn Cmcyw hni-Z-ambn
{]Xn-]m-Zn-n-p-v.
21. Cu-am-Xncn IYm-]m-{X--sf-p-dn ]d-bp-tm ico-A-n-bpsS a\-n Atl-ns hnai-I-cpsS hy-amb Nn{X-apv. At-l-n\v hfsc shdp-p-f-fhcpw hfsc tamiw A`n-{]m-b-ap-f-f-hcpamb Bfp-I (F-Un)
22. kz--n-tev aS-p-I. tZko-bhpw Ncn-{X-]-c-hp-amb ]mc--cys B{i-bnpI CXmWv B{^n- _pn-Po-hn-I aptmv sh ap{Zm-hmIyw Idp
h-n\v kmwkvIm-cnI {Inbm--I-X-bn Fpw AXv kz-amb kwkvImcw
Hcn-epw Dm-n-bn-n Fpw Bb-Xn-\m bqtdm-yp thn ]Wn-sb-Spp-Ibpw ]Sn-m-dns kmwkvIm-cn-I-A-\p-Im--fm-hp-I-bp-a-msX Ahv
thsc am-an Fpw Nn{Xn-I-cn-p ]mm-Xysc t\cn-Sm-\p-ff Hcp am-am-WnXv. AXn-\m kzw BZn kwkvIm-c-n-tev Xncn-p-t]-hpI F B{^n-
_pn-Po-hn-I-fpsS ap{Zm-hmIyw ]ptcm-K-a-\-]-c-am-Wv. alpw Pem Aen AZns K_vk-ZKn (]m-jvNm-Xy-_m-[) F {K-nse \ntZ-i-hp-ambn Cdm-\nb kml-N-cy-n CXv Xmc-X-ay-s-Sp-p--Xm-Wv.
\psS A`n-{]m-b-n, Fm-bvepw, Ak emapw Cdm-\p-am-bp Gp-ap--en
\psS {]mcy kwkvIm-c-ns AkvXnXzw Ah \ntj-[n-n-n-. Ah
\psS kwkvIm-cs AwKo-I-cnp hfsc s]cp-np Imnb coXn-bnev Xs
Ah-cXv sNbvXn-p-v. sXc-s-Sp Nne hi- am{Xw Dbn-m-Wn-p-sImmWv AXv \psS kwkvIm-cs D]-tbm-K-s-Sp-p--Xv. \psS kmwkvIm-cnI
`qX-Im-e-ns al-Xz-h-cWw \mw sN-W-sav ]Sn-m-dm-{K-ln-p--Xm-Wv-\-psS Hcp {]iv\-fpw ]cn-l-cnpn-. s#v am{X-a ]Sn-m-dn\v Zpc-]-tbm-Kw-s-Sp-m-\p ]pXnb Xe-
krjvSnp Fpw-h-cpw. \psS tZio-b-ss]-Xr-I-fpw kz`m-hfpw hos-SppI F hymtP\ \psS hwi-{]--cy-fpw BNm-c-fpw ]p\-cp--cn-pI
F t]cn ]Sn-mdv \s Hcp ]pXnb ]nn-cn- L-n-tev Xn-hn-tmw. irwIm-c-n-sbpw A\p-I-c-W-]-c-amb ]g- kz`m#v-h-n-sbpw ]Snm-d coXn-bn-ep NpW-sI Iyq-Wn-k-n-sbpw cq]-n ]pXnb ]nncn--ns Nne kz`m-h- t\scs Xs {]I-S-am-bn-p-v. ]mm-Xy-_m[n-X-cpsS bpn-bn-m-bva-bp-tSbpw hnUvVn--n-s-bpw-kq-N-I--fmb sshcp-mb--fmWv Ch-sb-mw. CuIr-{Xna ]uc-kvXy-hI-cWw ]Sn-m-dm-h-iy-s-Sp-sXpw Hmm-\n-p Bfp-Isf Hma-bn-ep-Wp-p. kp aXp-c-ap--XmWv
Fv Hcp ]mm-Xy ]d-Yv sImv am{Xw kp-bpsS am[pcyw cpNn
]uc-kvXys\ AtXm-s-Sp-p-p. Npcp--n Cdm-\nepw an-Ck emanI
\mSp-I-fnepw Cu coXn-bn-ep ]mc--cy-n-te-p Xncn-p-t]m-v Ata-cn-
]nn-cn-w Fp hnfnmw CXns\ kvXw`-\
- nsc Hcp ]pXnb cq]-amWv
CXm-Is At-bw hrn-sI--Xpw.
\n-te-p-X-s-bp aSw Fv \mw ]d-bp-tm \psS ]nn-cn- `qX-Ime-t-p F \mw A-am-p--Xv. {]mNo\ anp-I-fn-tepw Ah-bpsS

39

{Zhn An-Isf al-Xz-h-cn-p--Xn-tepw aS-pI Fpw \mw


Aampn-. Acw aS---sfmw Ck emw Xn--f-bpp: \n
]nn-cn-tm-Sp-I-bmtWm? (3:144) \psS am\-hnI kzXz--fn-tev aS-pI
FmWv \mw Dt-in-p--Xv. \psS hyn-Xzhpw kz`m-hhpw Ip-]n-Sn-p-Xn\p thn \psS Ncn-Xv]-chpw tkm-n-I-hp-amb kzXz--fn-te-p aS-w.
\psS {Imbm-I Bm-hn-sbpw DZm Bob aqey--fp-sSbpw ]p\-cp-oh-\w. C{]-Imcw \n-tev aS-pI F ap{Zm-hm-Iy-n \mw tNmZn-Ww:
GtX kzXzw ? CXn-lm-k-]-chpw ]pcm-W-]-c-hp-amb kzXzs Ipdn-mtWm \mw
]d-bp-Xv ? hwiob kzXzw ? Ncn-{X-kz-Xz- ? ]c--cm-K-Xhpw P-tZ-in-b-hpamb kz-h-? {]mNo\ kzXz- ? aX-]-c-amb kzXz- ? \psS aX
kzXz-sfp-dn-mWv \mw ]d-bp--tX-n GtX aX-s-bmWv \mw Dt-in-pXv? skmdm-kv{So-b-\kw ? aPq-kn-aXw? As-n Ckv emw aXw? Ckeman-s\p-dn-m-sW-n GXv Ckvemw? inb ? kpn? in BsW-n GXv inb ?
Aehn? kehn?
kzXz-n-te-p aSw Fm Ncn-{X-n-ep-S-\ofw cq]o-Ir-X-am-bn-p-Xpw
\apv Bob hyn-Xzhpw kmwkvIm-cnI hyn-Xzhpw \In-bn-p-Xpw
\psS _pn-]-c-amb Znibvv cq]w \In-b-Xp-amb \psS khn-ti-j-amb
am\p-jnI kzhw FmW Fv GXv kzXz-n-te-mWv ? F Fs
\n_--n Rm hy-am-n-bn-p-v.
Ncn-{Xm-h-in-jvS-pw kw`-hpw cwK-pw Xmsg Ipgn-p-aq-S-s-Sp-Ibpw `qX-Im-e-ns `mchpw
h-am-\-ns Ipg--fpw aqSp-Ibpw sNbvXn-p-spw ka-Im-en-I-cn-te-sp CS-X-S-hn-m Ne-\-amb ss\ccyap bYm ssNX-\y-am-W-Xv.
\psS Hgp-p-Iq-Sm-\m-hm a\p-jy-Xzhpw DZm {]Xym-b- imkv{X ssNX-\yhpw
\psS Aym-nI aqey--fp-w kuI-cy-fpsamw hln-p B bmYmys-bmWv Rm\-am-p--Xv. h-am-\-amb `qX-am-W-Xv. Pohn-p-Ibpw Nenp-Ibpw sNp Ncn-{Xw. acn-p-t]mb aX-n-tetm imkv{X-cpw Ncn-{XIm-camcpw Ah-cpsS ]pkvXI Xmfp-I-fnepw tcJ-I-fnepw ]pcm-W--fnepw
Hmp-sh-p XI-sIm-m-c--Iv \qm-p-I-fpsS XmgvN-bn ad-pIn-S-p {]mNo\ XXz--fn-tetm D aS--a- AXv. ]pcm-hkvXp ivkvXc J\\w sNbvsX-Spv Poh\pw Ne-\hpw sImSp `qX-Im-e-ns ih--dnse arX-tZ-l-hp-\-. Fs a\-n-ep kzXzw Hc-\-izc a\p-jyamWv. ]e-\qm-p-I-fn Pohn-p-Ibpw am-pw hn-h-pw _lp-hn[ kwkvIm-cpw kmn-bm-hp-Ibpw sNbvX Zi-e---W-n\v \ap-jy-cp-ambn kmo-IcWw t\Snb {]mbw sN Hcp hyn-bm-WvXv. Cm-ev \mamWm hyn..
Cu Fm A\p-`-h--tfmSpw IqSn Cu kzXzw Hcp shXn-c-X t\Sp-Ibpw
\l-mb Hcp ssNX-\yhpw {]hn-im-ehpw Ihp-sm-gp-Ip--Xp-amb hn`-h
- fpw
kuI-cy-fpw kz-am-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cn-p-p. ApX in-I-tfmSv IqSnb
tbip-hn-s\-tmse! AsX-k-abw kmwkvI-cnI km{am-Py-Xz-hm-Zn-Ipw Ah-cpsS
aqSp-Xm-n-Ipw Ahs\ `b-am-Wv. Ahs\ \nho-cy-am-m\pw \in-n-p\pw
Ah{i-an-p-p.. \mw Ah\w Xncn--dn-p-t]mhpw F-XmWv ]Sn-m-dns
`oXn. Ahsc Bcm-[n-p--Xn\v ]Icw \mw Ah-cn A`bw tXSpw.
Pohn-Xns HmSp-hn-es Ay-b-n Ckveman-tev Camw Aen-bp-sS ]cnh\w sNbvX-h-\m-W-h. Ah \psS kzw kzXz-am-Wv. ]Sn-m-dn\pw
kmwkv{InI kmw{am-Py--h-n\pw ]nn-cn---n\pw hnIrX aX-n\pw
A-Xbvpw _e-lo-\-Xbvpw A-amb {]-cym-\p-I-c-W-pw aX
40

{`mn\pw hymP B[p-\nIXbvp-sa-Xnsc \ne-sm-p \psS kzXzw. \mw


s]mcp-tX Fm A\y hkvXp-p-sa-Xnsc \ne-\np \mw Bkz-Xz-nte-mWv \psS aS--hpw.
23.
24.
25.
26.

27.

28.
29.

Fs aX-n-s\-Xnsc F IrXn ImWpI


Du ]pkvX-I-ns cmw Ambw t#mp-I.
dpi^nIv h akv-Duenmv ( {]_p-cpw D-c-hm-Zn---fpw) s#
IrXn-bn CXv hnh-cn-n-cn-p-p.
kmaq-ly-km-l-N-cy-, Ncn-{X-L-w, Hmtcm kaq-l-n-sbpw kwkvImcw
Fnh B{i-bnv Cu t_m[-n\v tZin-b, kmwkvIm-cnI hK,
cmjv{Snb {]m-\--fpsS cq]-ap-m-hpw. DZm-l-c-W-n\v emn-\-ta-cn-bn AXn-\p-Xv Hcp kmaq-ly-cm-jv{Snb kz`m-h-am-Wv. AtX kasb
hwi-hn-th-N\w Hcp k]-am-hp tImf-\n-I-fn AXn-s\mcp tZinb
kzc-am.bn-cnpw Dm-hp-I. B{^n--bn kmwkvIm-cnI t_m[-ns
cq]-am-W-Xn-\v.
]c--cm-KX Ckv emanI kaq-l--fn aX-hm-Zntbm atX-X-ct\m Bb {]Xn_--X-bp GsXmcp _pn-Po-hnbpw \n_--ambpw Ak emans\ B{ibn-tn hcp--Xns Imc-W-an-Xm-Wv. aX-_p-n-Po-hn-I AXns\ Hcp
{]tXy-im-kvX-c-ambpw atX-X-c-_p-n-Po-hn-I Hcp kwkvIm-c-ambpw ImWpp.
Hn-[nIw Jp-B-\p-s- kpN-\.-Jp-Bs ]e-Xcw D]-tbm-K-fpw
hymIym-\--fp-amWv.(-Un)
Camw Aenbpw Camw lpssk\pw icn-A-n-bpsS cv {][m\ \mb-I-cm-Wv.

41

cv

FhnsS XpS-Ww
(1971 \h- amk-n sSlvdm-\nse sSIv\n- k-I-em-im-e-bn \S {]`m-jWw).

A_p-ZdmWv Fs BNm-cy. Ckveman-s\bpw iobn-k-sbpw kw_-n


At-l-ns Nnbpw Adnhpw Bth-ihpw BZk ey-fpw kzmb--amm Rm Xo{h-ambn {ian-p-p. At-l-ns ]mc-cy a\p-k-cnv Rm
Fs kwkmcw an-X-cpsS1 ssZh-ns \ma-n Bcw-`n--s.
Hcp {]tXyI hni-b-s-p-dn-mWv Rm kwkm-cn-p--Xv. {]iv\-sf imkv{Xob-amb coXn-bnepw `mj-bnepw kao-]n-m Bfp-I, Fs {]`m-jW hnj-b-hpambn t\cnp _-s--sXv Ah Icp-Xp Nne {]iv\-kw-km-c-n
Ds-Sp-m--Xns t]cn ]-tmgpw Fs hnain-m-dp-v. Fm Hcp
{]`m-j-It\m Fgp-p-Im-ct\m Hcp hnjbw sXc-s-Sp-m-A-bm-fpsS
_myX B hnj-b-ns ]cn-[n-bn \np-sImv Xm aptm-p-sh-p
Bi-bs IWn-i-ambn A]-{K-Yn-p-Ibpw AXn\v sXfn-hp-I \Ip-I-bp-amsWv \n-dn-bmw. DZm-l-c-W-am-bn,-Ckveman-s\-Xn-cn AXns i{Xp-fpw
AXn-s\-p-dn--dn-bm--hcpw D-bn-p Btcm-]-W--fmWv {]Xn-]mZy hni-bsav Icp-Xp-I. Ah-cpsS Btcm-]-W--tfmSv bpn-]q-I-ambpw imkv{Xn-bambpw {]Xn-I-cn-m-\m-{K-ln-p Fgpp Imct\m {]`m-j-It\m \n_--ambpw
Xs hnj-b-n-tev kzbw HXpn \nWw. Ckveman-I-amb apgp-h Nnmhn-j-b-fpw Btem-N-\-bn hcpwhn[w Ckveman-s\m-cm-ap-Jhpw ka{K ]cn-Nbhpw \Ip--Xm-bn-cn--cpXv Abm-fpsS Fgp-v, As-n {]`m-j-Ww. Nne
{]tXyI hnj-b--fn Ckvemw sXn--cn--s-n-p-sv am{Xta Abm AhIm-i-s-tS--Xp-f-fq. B sXn-m-c-W-I \ow sNp--Xn hnP-bn-m AbmepsS D-c-hm-ZnXzw Xop. _lp-P-\-n-S-bn s]mXp-hnepw {]_p-n-Sbn hnti-jnpw Do-X-am-bn-sm-n-cn-p Hcp \nnX tNmZy-n-\p-ff D-camWv Fs {]`m-jW hnibw. tNmZy-an-XmWv: Fhn-sS-bmWv \mw Bcw-`n-pI?
tNmZyw km-eu-Io-I-amb Hm-Wv. AtXm-sSmw hfsc AKm-[hpw ASn-m-\-]c-hpw.. Fs kzw ]T-\-stbm hyn-]-c-amb A`n-cp-Nn-sbtbm `mh-\-sbtbm
Bkv]-Z-amn Rm\p--bn-p--X Cu tNmZyw. \psS Ime-L--ns tNmZyan-XmWv. AXvs\m-cp-cw \Im-\mWv Fs {iaw.
hniz kmaq-lnI hnImkNcn{Xw ]cn-tim-[n-p-tm \mw Fhn-sS-\n-m-cw`npw?. Ftm FmWv sNt-Xv?. Ftm ioj-I-ap-ff At\Iw IrXnI cNn--s Hcp Ncn{X L-s \mw Is-p-p. Npcp-n-bXv Hc-mdv
{K- Fs Hm-bn Ctm-hp-. Fm-nscbpw t] FhnsS \nv
XpS-Ww? As-n Fv sNWw? Fp Xs. kmaqly ]cn-h-\-fn-eqsS Nne {]tXyI L--fn {]kn-o-I-cn--s--XmWm {K--fn an-Xpw.
Ahv kam-\-amb Xe hmN-I-ap-ff Hcp IrXnbpw aZy-Im-L---fn shfnw
In-cp-n-. kaqlw Hc-h--bn \nv asm-c-h--bn-tev kw{I-an-p
{]{In-b-n-S-mWv B hI tNmZy- Db-s#p-I. AXm-bXv kaq-l-n\pw
42

Ime-L--ns tNX-\pw AXn-s-Nn-, hnizm-kw, _mly-Po-hnXw Fn-hsb


kzm[o-\-s-Sp-nb hyh-n-Xnbpw kml-N-cyhpw sImp-h-tc--Xn\v hXpw
sN-W-sa--B-hiyw A\p-`-h-s-Sp L-n. Atm FhnsS XpSlvMasa N kmaqly X{-]-c-am-Wv. {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-]-c-a-. AXn-\m Rm
Hcp Nnm kc-Wn-btbm aX-stbm kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-stbm Nnm-co-Xnsbtbm kw_-nvkwkm-cn-t--Xn-. Hcp \nkvNnX Ime-L--n \psS
kaq-l-n \mw ]p-sh-p ey- t\Sp--Xn\pw h-am-\-Im-ev
kmaq-ln-Ihpw kmwkvIm-cn-Ihpw _pn-]-c-hp-am-bn-B-{I-an--s-Sp \psS
aqy ]cn-c-n-p--Xn\pw thn kmaqly X{-ns ASn-m-\-n
\mw FhnsS Bcw-_n-aw F-Xn-tev {i[---Wn-p-I-bm-Wv Fs Dtiyw.
A`y--hn-Zypw s]mXp-P-\-Mvlp-an-S-bn ho-W-hn-Xym-khpw Bi-b-hn-\nab cmln-Xyhpw \ne-\npp. ]c--cm-KX kaqlfn s]mXp-thbpw apkv
emw kaqlfn hnti-jnpw Zriy-am-Ip-- Ghpw henb Zpc--an-Xm-Wv.
]mmXy hyh-kmb \mSp-I-fn hnZym-`ym-khpw A-cm-`ym-khpw _lp-P-\-am-[ya-fpw htXm-Xn {]N-cn-pI hgn s]mXp-P-\-fpw _pn-Po-hn-Ifpw Gsdpsd \ \ne-bn ]c-kv]cw a\-n-em-p-Ibpw Xmc-X-tay\ kam-\-amb Imgv]mSv ]p-sh-p-Ibpw sNp-p-v. bqtcm-nse Hcp k-I-em-imem s{]m^kv A-cm-`ym-k-an-m s]mXp-P-\--fp-ambn A\m-bmkw Bi-b-hn-\n-abw
\S-m kmZnpw .s{]m^k Xs kzbw Hcp henb hv{Kl-ambn ImWp-I-bn. P\-l-fpw At-ls A{]m-]y-ambn IW-m-p-I-bn-.
_pn-Po-hn-Ipw2 s]mXp-P\p-an-S-bn Ctm ImWp h hnShv
BZn-Ime Ckv emanI kaq-l-fn Dm-bn-cp-n-. I-im-kv{X-]-Sp- (^p-Jl), ssZh-im-kv{X-m-\n-I (ap-X-I-n-ap), Jp-B hymJym-Xm-(-ap-^-n-dpI), XXz-Nn--I, kmln-Xy-Im-cam Fn-h-c-S-nb al-mb ]c--cm-KX
apnw _pn-Pohn hn`mKwD-e-a--aXw hgn s]mXp-P-\--tfmSv KmV k-ap-f-fh-cm-bn-cpp. kaq-l-hp-ambn ths-p-\np--sXv tXmn-n-p aX-]m-S-ime-I-fn A[ym-]-\hpw ]T-\-hp-am-bn--gn-bp-I-bm-bn-cp-np IqSn Ah P\-kw Cm-Xm-bn-tm-hp--Xns\ hnP-b-I-c-ambn Hgn-hmn. Cm-ev t]mepw
Dea bpw P\-Xbpw Xn Dujva-f-amb ]c-kv]-c-_w \ne-\np-p-v.
\nim-]-T-\-m-kp-I-fnt]mepw t]mIm `qcn-]w hcp \psS hnZym-`ym-k-anm P\-v AXyp--X-amb ]mWvZnXyw Ic--am-nb De-a-bpsS kao-]-ancpv X-fpsS {]iv\- N-sN-m km[npw. XlvM-fpsS Bh-iy-fpw
]cm-Zn-Ifpw hyn-]-ctam IpSpw-_-]-ctam Bb {]iv\-fpw ]n-X-t{i-jvTamtcmSv Btem-Nn-p-hm\pw Ah-cpsS ASp-n-cpv aX-]-c-amb \pIp-Xn-I IW-mp-hm\pw ]pkvX-I-tPyyw 3 t\mp-hm\pw \nb-tam-]-tZiw tXSp-hm\pw Bhky-amb Bizmkw Ah-\p-`-h-s-Sp-p.
Zu`m-Ky-h-im tKm]yhpw _-h-m-n-b-Xp-amb tIm-I-I-mWv B[p\nI kwkvm-c-n-sbpw hnZym-`ym-k-hy-h--bp-sSbpw Iogn \psS bphm-

kaq-l-n-tev
hnZy-b-`y-kn-ppw ]cn-io-e\w t\Sp-Xpw Hcn-
Xncnp hcp-tm P\--fn \nv ]cn-]q-ambpw AI
sXmgn taJ-ebntem kmaq-ly-]-Z-hn-I-fntem BWv Ah {]Xn-jvSn--s-Sp-I. Cu _pn-Pohn
hn_mKw Pohn-p-Xpw Nen-p-Xpw ^e-n P\--tfm-sSmw Xs; ]s
X-fp-sSXv am{X-amb hr-pf-fnse ASp ]qnb Im-\-q-Sp-I-fn-emW-h. XXv^-e-am-bn, Hcp hiv _pn-Po-hn- hw X-fpsS kzw kaq-ls
Ipdnv bmsXmcp [mc-W-bp-an-msX Z-tKm-]p-c-n PohnXw \bn-p-p. adp-h-

43

iv A-cm-_ym-k-an-m P\X X(-]-tcm--am-sb-nepw ) hfp-Ibpw


t]mjn-n-p-Ibpw sNp _p-Po-hn-I-fpsS hnm-\-n \npw Adn-hn
\npw AIn \n-s-Sp-Ibpw sNp-p.
kaq-ls ]pXp-n--Wn-b-W-sapw inYn-e-am-bn-n-S-p-, Nne-tm-sgms
i{Xp-Xm-]-c-ambn s]cp-am-dp, hnhn[ kmaq-ly-L-S-I-sf Xmssf-Iy-ap-ff Hcp
kmI-y-n-tev CW-n-t-W-sapw B{K-ln-p--h-cpsS Ghpw henb
D-c-hm-ZnXzw Cu cp-{[p-h-n-S-bnse kn-m--{[p-hhpw {]tbm-K-{[p-h-hpw-hn-Shv \nI-p-Ibpw P\-fpw _pn-Po-hn-Ifpw Xn-ep-ff Kw`o-c-amb A\yXzw
Cm-Xm-p-I-bp-am-Wv. {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-hn-izmkw Fp Xs Bbmepw,h-Xpw
km[n--W-sa-m-{K-ln-p GsXmcp _pn-Po-hn-bp-sSbpw I-hy-amWv _pnPo-hn-I-fpsS at\m-l-chpw Aaqy \n[n-I-fp-ffXpw \nKq-V-hp-amb Zzo]ns\ P\-fsS Ic-bp-ambn tbmPn-n-p ]mew \nn-pI F-Xv--P-\-pw _pnPohn-Ipw-]-c-kv]cw CS-]-g-Im kl-b-I-am-hp Ipdp-I-s\-bp-ff ]mew. \mw
FhnsS XpSpw F tNmZy-n-\p-ff Fs D-chpw Fs D-c-s-Sp-ff
\n-fpsS {]Xn-I-c-Whpw Fp-X-s-bm-bmepw Cu ASn-kvXm\ hkvXpX AwKo-Icn-msX \nhr-n-bn. Hm-a-Xmbn sNt-Xv ta]-d--Yp-t]m-se-bp-ff Hcp
]mew ]Wn-bp-I-bm-Wv.
\mw FhnsS XpSpwF tNmZyw tNmZn-p hynbpw Abm-fpsS t{imXmfpw Bcv XpSpw Fn\v? Fo cp tNmZy--v apIqn kam-[m\w
In-cnpw F Imcyw B tNmZy-n Aeo-\-am-Wv. X-fpsS Imesbpw kaq-l-sbpw ka-_-nv D-c-hm-Zn t_m[-ap--hcpw AXv kw_-ambn Fs-nepw sN-W-sam{K-ln-p--h-cp-amWv FhnsS XpS-pw?
F tNmZyw tNmZn-pI Fpw hyw. Ah {]_p--cm-m--fm-sW- Imcyn kt-l-an-. Fp-sIm-s-m Acw hyn-Iv am{Xta kmaqly
D-c-hm-Znw A\p-`-h-s-Sp-Ibpw kmaqly ZuXy-s-p-dnv t_m[w Dm-bn-cnp-I-bp-ap-q. {]_p--\-m hynv Cu D-c-hm-Zn-tam t_m[tam Dmbn-cn-p-I-bn-.
_ncpZw km-Zn--h, {]_p-mWv Rm Du \Ip-Xv F
Imcyw {in-p-I. {]_p- F-Xn\v _pn-Pohn F-an-. _pn-Po-hnsbap Cve-IvNz F-]Zw {]_p- (dq-i ^nIv) Fv
t]jy `mj-bn-tev sXmbn ]cn-`m-j-s-Sp-m-dp-v. am\-kn-I-ambn (im-cocnIw F-Xns hn]-co-Xm-n) A[zm-\n-pbmsf-bmWv _pn-Pohn F
]Zw kqNn-n-p--Xv. An-s\-bp Hcm {]_p- Bhp-Itbm Bhm-Xn-cn-pItbm sNmw. DZm-l-c-W-am-bn, ^mIvS-cn-bn ]Wn-sb-Sp-p Hcm _pn-Po-hnbm-I-W-sa-n-. Fnepw Abm s#mcp {]_p--\m-Imw. Ch cn-\p-an-S-bnse
_w ]c-kv]cw _-s cm-i-b-n-S-bn-ep--X-. Fm _pn-Po-hnIfpw {]_p--cm-hp-n-. ]s Nne-cm-hp-p. adn-pw. hfsc Ipd-p-t] cp-amWv. kmJm {]_p--\m-bn-cp-p, _pn-Po-hn-bm-b-cp-n-. Amam apl-Zv
Jkzn\n _pn-Po-hn-bm-bn-cp-p, {]_p--\m-bn-cp-n-. sZlvJpZm cp-am-bn-cp-p.
]ecpw cp-a-. Ah-cmWv Ah-cmWv _lp-am-\ycpw al-p-fpsav hnfnp am\yam!
BcmWv {]_p-? Xm Pohn-p Imew Ncn{X kmaqly hn\ymkw Fn-hbn Xs a\p-jym-hsbp-dvvt_m-[-ap-, Bt_m-[-ns ^e-ambn A\n44

{hy-ambpw kmaqly D-c-hm-Znw Dm-hp hyn-bmWv Npcp-p--d-m


{]_p-.
Abm hnZym-k---\m-sW-n IqSp-X Imcy--a-X-bp-m-hpw.
As-n AXn Ipd-hpw. F\v#m #nsXmcp s]mXp \nb-a-a-. ImcWw hnZym-`mb-k-an-m B Nne-tm Itd-IqSn {][m-\-s ]v hln-s-n-cn-pw.
km{amm-PyXz _m[-tb Ah--bn \nv t\sc ]ptcm-K-a-\m--Ihpw t_m[hpw
DuP-kz-e-hp-amb Ah--bn-tev IpXn-p-Nm-Snb kaq-l--sf-p-dnv ]Tn-ptm Ah-cpsS t\Xm-fpw, hn-h-\m-b-Icpw imkv{X-km-aq-ly {]m\ kmc-YnIfpw ]e-tmgpw _pn-Po-hn-I-fm-bn-cp-n- Fv ImWm-hp--Xm-Wv. hfsc Ipdv
A]-hm-Z--fp Cu XXzw B{^n--bn-sebpw emn Ata-cn--bn-sebpw Gjybn-sebpw kmaqly {]m-\- n{]w sXfn-bn-n-p-v. A]q-amtb hn-h\m-bI A`ykvXhnZy-cpsS hK-n \nv hn-p-q-shv Dd-nv Xocp-am-\nm-hp--Xm-Wv.
a\p-jy Xs kmaqly ]cn-Wm-ans Ne-\-a Hcv FnsSpIbpw AhnI-knX cmPy- AkwJyw _pn-ap-n-I-tfmSpw t]mcm-bva-I-tfmSpw a-Sn-p-Ibpw
sNp k`-n P\--fn D-c-hm-Zn-hpw t_m[hpw Ap-cn-n-m\pw
Ahv _pn-]-chpw kmaq-ln-I-hp-amb am-Zi-\w \Im\pw Ign-bp
hyn-sb-bmWv B[p-\nI Imev {]_pZv[ Fp ]d-bp-I. Keo-en-tbm-bptStbm tIm\n--kn-ttbm tkm{I-o-kn-ttbm Acnk-vtmnenttbm C_v\pko-\-bp-sStbm ]Wn-I A-c-sa-Sp-p-Ibpw ]np-S-cp-Ibpw sNp Bfm-hWw
{]_p- Fv \n_--an-. sFo-s\bpw thm {_us\bpw t]mep
B[p-\nI imkv{X- Ah-cpsS t\- \ne-\np-Ibpw ]cn-t]m-jn-n-pIbpw sNp-p-v. Cm-es {]_p--cpsS ]pw D-c-hm-Zn-hpw {]hm-N-Im-cp-tS-Xn\pw aXm-Nm-cy-m-cp-tS-Xn\pw, XXz-n, kZriam-Wv. Ign--Im-ev
ASn-m-\-]-c-amb LS-\m-am---fp-m-nb kmc-Yn-I-fm-W-h. {]hm-N-I-m XXzNn--I-cp-tStbm imkv{X--cp-tStbm kmt-XnI hnZ-KvZ-cp-tStbm Iem-Im-c-m-cptStbm KW-n-e-. kmam-\yP\X-bn \nmWv an {]hm-N-Iamcpw Dbv
h-Xv. Ah \ho\ ey- ]cn-N-b-s-Sp-n. ]p Zi\w Ah-X-cn-np. ]pXnb {]m-\- Bcw-`n-p. X-fpsS Ime--fn-sebpw{]tZ-i--fnsebpw P\--fpsS t_m[-a-WvU-e-n \h-DuPw krjvSn-p. CXn-s\mw
thn _lp-P-\--fp-ambn Bi-b-hn-\n-abw \S-m Ahv Ign-n-cp-p.
{]hm-N-Iam \bn al-Zzn-hw aqse ac-hn-Xpw kvXw`n-p-In-S-p--Xp-amb
kaq-l--fpsS Zni, PohnX ssien,-ho--Ww, kwkvIm-cw,-`m-K-tZbw Fnh amn-adn--sp. Cm-c-W-m,Cu-{]-hm-N-Iam Ign Imes imkv{X--cpsStbm XXz-Xn--I-cp-sStbm Iq-n s]Sp-n-. t_m[w \in km[m-cW P\ns KW-n-ep-a Ah. Ahcv Ah-cp-tSXv am{X-amb Hcp hn`m-K-n-em-Wv.
s]mXpsh ]gb ]mc--cy--fp-sSbpw kma-ply aXr-I-I-fp-sSbpw LS-\-Ifp-sSbpw
C]--epw XS-hp-Im-cp-ambv km[m-c-W-cpsS Iq-nepw Ah-cps-Sp-n-.
Aaq Bi-b--fpsS XS-hp-Imcw X-fpsS imkvX-co-btam A-cn-Itam Bb
{]b-th--W--fnepw ks--ep-I-fnepw aXn-a-d-p--h-cp-amb imkvX-c-,
Zmi-\n-I, Iem-I-cam,-an-n-p-I k\ym-kn-am, ]ptcm-ln-Xvam s#n-hcpsS kaq-l-nepw Ah-cn-. {]hm-X-Iam-sc-tmse {]_p-m-m-fpw kmivXc kaq-l-nse t_m[-a-Xpw \njvtN-jvS-hp-amb s]mXp-P-\--fpsS emh-Wntem A. #vh t_m[-ap-evf-hcpw D-c-hm-Znap-h-cp-amWv alpw ssZhkn-n-hp-amb B-t_m[w t]mXp-P-\-v ]IvsIm-Sp-p-I-bmWv AhcpsS G-hcpw {][m-\-s eyhpw D-c-hm-Zn--hpw. \n-ehpw aen-\-hp-amb
P\-X-bn\nv alm P\n-n-p-Xpw h IpXvp-Nm-- \S-p #qP-kz-e-Xbp {Inbm--I-i-n-bmbn Ahsc ]cn-hn-n-p-Xpw kzt_m[w am{X-am-

45

Wv. A-s\-bXv \mK-cn-I-X-bp-sSbpw kwkvIm-c-n-sbpw alm-km-c-Yn-I-fp-sSbpw


Bhn`-h-n-\p {]K-Xn-m-\-am-bn-op.
{]_p-m-m--fmWv XpSw Ipdn-t--sXv CXn \nv kv]jvSamhpp.
Fp-t-i-n\v F-tNm-Zy-n-te C\n \mw Xncn-bp-I.
ChnsS Rm
AXns Hcp hpi-Zo-I-c-W-n-tev am{X-ta-I-tm-Sn-p-p-p. Cu hnj-b-hpambn \ ]cn-N-b-ap t{imXm-v AtX-p-dnv kzbw Btem-Nn-m-hp--XmWv. {]_p-m-mhv {]hm-N-I-\-s-nepw Xs kaq-l-n\v thn {]hm-N-Is
`mKw \nd-th--Ww.
t_m[-n-tepw kzmX-{y-n-tepw tamN-\-n-te-pap Ww P\--fpsS IW--fn Abm {]t_m-[\w sNWw. Ah-cpsS
lrZ-b--fn ]pXnb hnizm-k-ns An Abm DuXn--n-Ww \n-eamb kaq-l-n #vbm kmaq-lnI amKZi-\-a-cp-fWw. CXv im{X-Im-camcpsS tPmen-b-. ImcWw Ahv hymb asm-cp--c-hm-Zn--ap-v. \ne-hn-ep-Xns\ a\-n-em-p-I, P\--fpsS `uXnI PohnX ]ptcm-K-Xn-mbn a\p-jysbpw {]Ir-Xn-bp-sSbpw in-bp-d-h-Isf Is-p-Ibpw {]tSm-P-\-s-Sp-pIbpw sNp-I Fh-bm-WXv. a\p-jy-hw-i-n\pw X-fpsS \mSp-Ipw
imkv{X-k-lmbw \Ip-I-bmWv imkv{X-cpw kmt-XnI hnZ-KvZcpw Iem-Im-cm-cpw sNp--Xv. ]ptcm-KXn ssIh-cn-p--Xn\pw X-fpsS nXn sa-s-Spp--Xn\pw Ahsc klm-bn-m thn-bm-Ipp CXv. adp-h-iv {]_p-m-m X-fpsS kaq-ls F-s\, GXv Zni-bn amdWw Fv ]Tn-n-p-p.
Bbn-o-c-ens Hcp ZuXyw Ah hfn-sb-Sp-p-p. v\mw FmbnocWw F tNmZy-n\v Dcw \In-smv Hcp amw k-am-p-I-bm-Wh.
imkv{X- k-hpw ihpw ]c-am-h[n hn{i-a-thf e`n-p--Xp-amb PohnX-n-\m-h-iy-amb kml-N-cy--sfm-cp-p-Ibpw sNp-p. Ihn-m Abm-fpsS
tPmen hkvXp-X-I Is-p-I-bmWv. AtX kabw {]_p-m-mhv kXyw
Xncn--dn-bp-p. sXtm icntbm Bb Dt-i-v D]-tbm-K-s-Sp-m-hp
shfnw imkv{X- D]m-Zn-n-p-p. tKm{X-amK Zin (dm-Cu-Zv)7
sbtmse, a\p-jy-I-ns km-hm-l-Ik
- w-L-n\v ]mX-sbm-cp-p ap-Wn-S-sb-tmse, {]_p--hyn \app hy-amb hgn ImWnp Xcp-p. Hcp
bm{Xbvv Bcw`w Ipdn-m Abm \sf Wn-p-p. \psS Ana
ey-m-\-tv \s \bn-p-p. imkv{Xw ihpw {]_p-X {]Im-i-hp-amW. imkv{X- Ftm-gpw-a-\-n-sbpw A-X-bp-sSbpw Xm]-cy-sf
tkhn-p-p. Fm {]_p hyn A\n-hm-cy-ambpw GIm-[n-]-Xy-sbpw
A-Im-c-sbpw FXnp-p. CkvemanI kwkvIm-c-ns ]m--e-n
Nnn-m {]_p--Xbvv \mw I]n Aw Xs-bmWv ImWm Ign-bp-I.
Jp-B-\nse lnI-aXv8 (m-\w) F ]Zw B A-amWv tZymXn-n-p--Xv.
hnm-\s(Cav) Ipdnv N sNp-tm t]mepw AXv kmt-Xn-Itam
imkv{Xo-btam XXz-Nn-m-]-c-tam Bb ]T-\-sf Ipdn-p-n-. aX-]-c-amb Adn-hpa (a-X-hn-Zymn-I ]Tn-p I-im-kv{Xw, \_n-N-cy, {]hm-NI Pohn-Xw,
Jp-B hymJym\w, kZm-Nmc XXz-, ssZh-imkv{Xw apX-em-b-h) A-amp--Xv. AXv euInI hnm-\-hp-a (km-aq-ly, imkv{X--{]-IrXn imkv{X
hnZymn-I-fpsS ]T\ hnj-b-fmb Du-X{w, sshZyw, kmaq-ly-im-kv{Xw,
kmln-Xyw, a\-im-kv{Xw, Ncn{Xw XpS-n-b-h). Hcp {]tXy-I hnZym-`ymk hyh-bn khn-tij ]mTy-]--Xn-I-fpsS ASn-m-\-n ]Tn-n--s-Sp {]tXyI
hnh-c--fp-sSbpw kmwkvIm-cnI hnm-\-n-sbpw kam-lm-c--fm-W-h. aX-]-

46

chpw atX-X-c-hp-amb Adnhv {]_p-m-]-t_m-[-n\v klm-b-I-ambn hn--Ww.


{]_p--hy-n-I-fpsS ssIbn AXv hne-a-Xn-m-\m-hm D]-I-c-W--fm-bn-o-cpIbpw sNmw. Fm Ah kzw \ne-bn \mw B{K-ln-p {]Im-itam
t_m[tam A. Ckvemw Du \Inb Bbn\w hnm\w a\p-jy-\v a\pjy\v am{X-ap Hcp t_m[-am-Ip-p. Hcp Znhy {]Imiw; kmaq-ly-t_m-[-ns
Dd-hn-S-amb tNX-\. {]kn--amb Hcp lZokv AXn-s\-p-dnv Cs\ ]d-bp-p:
Xm CjvS-s-Sp--h-cpsS lrZ-b-n ssZhw sImfp-p shfn--am-Ipp
Adn-hv. hnfn-p-Wp-Ibpw Zo]m-ew-Ir-X-am-p-Ibpw hgn-Im-p-Ibpw D-c-hm-Zn-t_m[w P\n-n-p-Ibpw sNp Cu Adn-hn-s\-bmWv \mw Znhy-{]-Imiw
Fv hnfn-p--Xv. AmsX Du X{-n-ttbm ck-X-{-n-ttbm kmlnXy-n-ttbm \nb-a-im-kv{X-n-ttbm A[ym-]-\--sf-b-. BZyw ]d hn[ap Adnhv hnZym-`ym-k-an-m A_q-Z-dvdn\v Dm-bn-cp-Xv t]mse-bp hnizmkhpw D-c-hm-Zn-hpw Dm-p-p. C_v\p-ko-\bvtm apm-k-Zn-dtm AXv
Dm-bn-cp-n-. AXp-sImmWv Nne k,-`--fn A`y--hn-Zy-\-m Hcm
Dbp-h-cn-Ibpw \ni-N-e-a-m kaq-l-n\p Poh ]Ip AXns\ Hcp
ey-n-tev \bn-p-Ibpw sNp--Xv. AtX-k-abw F{Xtbm imkv{X-
X-fpsS kaq-l-ns t_m[-]-Y-n\v am--fpsS kzt_m-[hpw krjvSn-p-Xnt\m Ahp-thn Hcp s]mXpeyw cq]-h-cn-p--Xnt\m, Ah-cn
]pXn-sbmcp hnizm-khpw knt\-lhpw Icp-n-Sn-n-p--Xnt\m H NphSv t]mepw
shn-p-m-hn-. t\sc adnv imkv{X- X-fpsS tZio-l-k-aq-l--fp-tS-sb
t]mse a\p-jy-I-n-sbpw ]ptcm-K-Xnsb XS--s-Sppw hn[w {]hn-mw.9
AXp-sImv {]_p-m-m--fpsS Npa-X-e- X-fpsS ka-Im-en-I-cmb kl-a-\pjyv Ne-\m--I-amb Hcp s]mXp-hn-izmkw {]Zm\w sNp-Ibpw kzt_m[w
t\Sp-Xn\pw ey- cq]o-I-cn-p-n\pw Ahsc klm-bn-pIbp-am-Wv.
Fs\?
C\n \mw Fns\ F tNZy-n-tev {]th-in-p-p. Hm-a-Xmbn {][m-\-s
Hcp hni-Zo-I-cWw \Ip-I-bm-Wv. {]_p-X F-Xn\v IrXy-amb Hcp \n-N-\an-m--Xpw- -Xp-f-gm-p D-c-hm-Zn---fpsS Ahy--amb tlXp-hmbn am\-hcm-inv s]mXp-shbpw ]uc-kvXyv hnti-jnpw I\ hne \tIn hcpp. km-Xn-im-bn-bmb Hcp a\p-jy C-n s]mXp-aq-ey--fpw kz`m-h-hn-tijfpap {]_p--X-bpsS {]m]-n-I-amb HcmZn amXr-I-D
- m-hpI km[y-a-.
s]mXp-k-hn-tj-i-X-Ifpw \nnX aqey--fp-ap km-Xn-im-bn-bmb imkv{X-sc-p-dnv ]d-bm km[n-pw. Fms]mXp e-W-ap {]_p--hy-nI Dm-hp-I-bn-. kh-I-em-ime hnZym-`ym-k-s-p-Sv A`ykvX hnZy-\mb
Hcp-hyn Ah ]Tn-Xv Fn-\m-b-dnwtKm sshZytam tPymXn-im-kv{Xtam Bhs--im-kv{X--\m-bn-o-cp-p.
Ah
B{^n-
tKm{X-h-m-ct\m
CkvemanI teIv \np Btfm _p-\n-hm-kntbm shfp--ht\m a \ndm-ct\m Nphv \nhm-kntbm apX-em-fn kaq-l-n s]-ht\m tkmjy-env
P\-X-bn s]-ht\m hym]m-cntbm _qjztbm Bcm-bn-cp-mepw icn. Npcp-n Ah GXv ]m--e-n \nv hcp Bfm-bmepw {]iv\-an-. a\p-jys\bpw {]Ir-Xn-sbbpw `cn-p s]mXp \nb-a-sf ASn-m-\-amnbp-XmWv
imkv{Xw F-XmWv AXns Imc-Ww. Ch A`y-kn-p Bpw GXv N-qSnepw kml-N-cy-nepw AXv D]-Im-c-s-Spw. Ime, tZi cmjv{Sobm[n]Xyt`Z-Xo-X-amb {]tbm-Kn-m-hp Hcp Iqw \nnX XXz--fmWv imkv{Xs ]T\ hnjbw Fv Npcp-w.. {]_p--hy-n-I-fpsS Imcy-n Cs\
kw`-hn-pI km[y-a-.

47

bqtdm-n t]mhp-Ibpw Hcp {]tXyI Nnm-[mc ]Tn-p-Ibpw Hcp Untma ]Tnp-Ibpw sNbvX Bsfb {]_p hyn Fp ]d-bp-I. {]_p-X t\Sn-bh, imkv{X-, _pn-Pohn Fnh ]cm-b-]-Z--fm-sW \psS
k]w BdmWv {]_p- Fv \s A{]m-]vX-cm-p-amdv, \s Bi-b-p-g-n NmSn-n-p-v. X GXv Iq-n-em-WpsSpI-sbv {]_p--hy-nIdpbp-an-. {]Xm-]-ap Hcp kh-I-em-im-e-bn \nv ]Tn-m Ign-bp-X {]_p KpW-. {]_p- A`ykvXhnZy IqSn-bm-sWp hcn-In khI-em-imem hnZym-`ym-k-ns ^e-ambn knn--Xm-hn Abm-fpsS {]_p--X.
{]Xyp-X, kh-I-em-imem ]T-\-n\p appXs {]_p--Y-t\-Sn-b-h-\m-bn-cnpw
Abm.
Hcm hntZ-iv t]mhp-Ibpw hnhn[ kmaqly cmjv{Sob{]-Xy-b-imkv{X Nnm[m-c-I ]Tn-p-Ibpw sNbvXm Abm {]_p--\mbn F-XmWv asmcp sXnm-c-W. Fm A-s\-b-. Abm amIvkv, km{X, dqtm, skv sska
apX-em-b-hsc ]Tn-n-n-p-sv AwKo-I-cn-p-I. (]-Xn-s\-v--C-cp-]Xv iX-I--fn
bqtdm-nse {]_p--hy-n-I-fpsS {]tNm-Z\ tI{-fm-bn-cp-, bqtdm kaq-l-fn cN-\m--Ihpw hn-hm--I-hp-amb ]v h-ln {]Xy-b-im-kv{X--ep-sSbpw
kmaqlyknm---fp-sSbpw D]-m-Xm--fm-bn-cpp Ch). Cu ]T\w Abmsf
Hcp kvs]j-env BpI am{Xta sNppq. sshZy-im-kv{X-nepw {]Xy-b-imkv{X-n-epw ]T\w \S-n-b-h-sc-tm-se-s. kh-I-em-im-e-I-fn Cu Nnm]Xn-Ifpw {]Xy-b-im-kv{X--fpw ]Tn-n-m Ign-bp Hcp-km-aqly imkv{X-\m-W-bm. Cu BZi ]-Xn-I ]Tn-n-p-v F-Xp-sImp am{Xw Xs kaql-n Hcp {]_p--hy-n-bm-bn-cn-pI F D-c-hm-Zn-w G-s-Sp-p--Xn\v
Abm Ign-hp-t\-Sp-n-. kh-I-em-imem ]T\w Xm sNp-t-S-smw B
hnjbw ]Tn-n-m tbmKy-\mb Hcp kmaq-ly-im-kv{X--\m-p-I-bm-W-bm-sf.
]s Xs kaq-l-ns D t\mhp-I a\-n-em-m Ign-bp hn[-ntev Absf AXp-bp-n-. P\--fn kzt_m[w hfm\pw Abm Ignhmn-p-n-. s]mXp ey-fpw amXrI-Ifpw cq]o-I-cn-p--Xn P\-sf
klm-bn-m\pw Abmv Ign-bp-I-bn-.
Npcp-n--d-m {]_p--\m-bn-cn-pI F-Xn\p km-Xn-im-bn-bmb Hcp aqeam-Xr-I-bn-. ]e-Xcw {]_p--cp-v. Idp B{^n--bn {]_p-m-m-hm-Ip
B CkvemanI kaq-ln An-s\-bm-h-W-sa-n-. {^mkntem bp-]q
hyh-km-bnI bqtdm-ntem {]_p--\mbn ]cn-K-Wn--s-Sp B Xs kaqln ]cn-h-\--fp-m-nb kXy-k--\mb bYm {]_p- Xs.
Fm Cy-bn Abm {]_p--\m-bn-cn-p-I-bn-. AhnsS Hcp {]_p-s
]v hln-m Abmv Ign-p-sIm--W-sa-n-.. gmMv t]m km{Xv DZm-lcWw. At-l-ns XXz-Nn--sbbpw hyn-Xz-sbpw Rm At-bw _lpam-\n-p-p. Fs {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-sf B[m-c-amn Rm\-hsb Bt-]n-pIbn-. ]ptcm-K-an apX-em-fn hyh--bpw {]tXyI kmaq-lnI Xp-Xn-cn-hp-I-fpap, iXm-_vZ--embn a[y-Ime aX-N-cn-{X-n\nv hgn amdn \S-p-, hyhkm-bnI bqtdm-n km{X Hcp {]_p-m-m-hm-Wv. Al-a-ln-a-Ibm km{Xns
Zi\w AwKo-I-cn-p-Ibpw AkvXn-Xz-hmZw F At-l-ns {]]--hoWhpw kmaqly km-nI A]-{K-Y\ k{-Zm-b-fpw A\p-[m-h\w sNpIbpw sNp---Np-cp--n km{Xns Im_ ]Xn-mb Hcm asmcp
cmPyv sNm Ahn-sSbpw {]_p--hy-n-bmbn IW-m--s-Sptam?
{^mknepw P-\n-bnepw Cw-nepw Ata-cn--bnepw Abm {]_p--\m-bn-cnpw. Fp-sIm-s-m Ahn-S--fnse {]iv\-f
- pw ImgvN-m-Sp-Ifpw BZi48

fpw P\-fpw cjv{So-b-hy-h-bpw Ncn{X kml-N-cy-fpw kZr-i--fm-Wv.


Cu ]Sn-m-d kaq-l-v s]mXpsh Bh-iy-amWv km{Xns hn-hw.10
a\p-jy D]-t`m-K-kw-kvIm-cns Cc-bm-bn-o-cp-Ibpw km[-\--fpsS DmZ\w Fm am\p-jnI aqey--sfbpw km[y-X-I-sfbpw \nb-{n-p-I-bpw, Aan-tXm]-t`m-Kw, ssewKn-I-kzm-X{yw Fne \ne-\np-Ibpw sNp me--fn
km{Xpw At-l-ns Zi-\- ]np-S-cp--hcpw {]_p--cm-hp-p. D]-t`m-Kmk-n-bn \nv tamNn-n-p c-I-s\-bmWv Cu kaq-l--fm-h-iyw. Cs\-bp Hcp {]_p c-I-\mWv km{Xv.
P\- Zmcv{Zhpw hnipw A-Xbpw av Cm-bva-Ifpw XpSp \om-\p
t]mcm---fn-tes-n-cn-p-, hyh-km-bnI hf t\Sn-bn-n-m Gjy-\m-{^n--em#n\-ta-cn- \mSp-I-fn km{Xn-s\-tm-ep Hcp c-I-\p-m-hp-Xv
Zpc--am-bn-cnpw kmt{Xm-f-Pntm km{Xn-b Zi\w ]np-S-cp Btfm Cu
kaq-l-n {]_p--\m-bn-cn-p-I-bn-. Abm-epsS kZp-t-i-tm-sS-bp XymKw
D]-{Z-h-ambn `hn-pw. Zmi-\n-I-kvXw`amh t\cn-Sp-Xv a[y-Im-em-\-c ka-Imeo\ hyh-km-bnI kaq-l- am{X-am-Wv. Ah Ah-v Fs-nepw Xc-nep s#mcp hni-Zo-I-csW At\y-jn-p-I-bm-Wv. Ahv #mo-bX Bh-iyapv; As-n aXm--I-amb Hcp \nKq-V-hm-Zw. X-fpsS kp-Nn-Xhpw ]c-an-Xhp-amb ]ZmY-hmZ temI-ho--Ws adn-I-S-p--Xn\v thn-bm-Wn-Xv. Cu
k`w DsImv Xs P\-Xbvv [#m-[n-jvTn-Xhpw Ah-ew-_-\o-bhpw D]t`mK kwkvImc hncp--hp-amb PohnX coXn hfm A\p-tbm-Py-amb amK
kqN-\I\fpw ey-fpw ap{Zm-hm-Iy-fpw {]Zm\w sNt-W-S-Xns ASn-b-n-cmhiyw Dsm-p hyn-bmWv ]Sn-mdv {]_p--\m-hp-I. A-c-samcp
hyn Bo-bbpw mt\m-Z-b-Zi-\hpw kzoI-cn--Ww. am{X-a bm{n-I-I-Xsbbpw Imn-jy bnn-hm-Z-sbpw FXnp-Ibpw thWw.
Cy-bn km{Xns Hcp-]nKm-ansb k]np t\mp-I. Abm-fpsS hmpIfpw {]hr-n-Ifpw Cy-bnse ]n-Wn-m-h--fmb P\--tfmSv D]-t`mKw Ahkm-\n-n-m Bh-iy-s-Sp-Ibpw `uXnI hkvXp- ssIsh-Snp Bc tNX\-Ifnepw Bh-iy--fnepw {i-bq-m Ahsc Wn-p-Ibpw sNpp. hdpXnbpw ]n-Wnbpw \nansw acn-p-sIm-n-cn-p B P\-Xsb `uXn-I-tem-Iv
\nv ]nhm-m Blzm\w sNp ImgvN-mSpw aX-hp-amWv Ah shp
]pep--Xv. B P\-Xsb kw_-n-n-S-tmew km{Xn-b {]h-N\- Hcp
Zpc--lm-ky-am-bn-cn-pw. \psS Npp-]m-Sp-I-fn Xs CXn\p kam-\-amb kw`-h ImWmw. sSlvdm-\n \ Bib kwth-Z-I-\m-hp aX {]`m-j-I ap
{]tZ-i--fn An-s\-bm-h-W-sa-n-. sSlvdm-\nse {]ivkvX-\mb Hcp aX-{]-`mj-Is\ a-cn-n-p Hcm-fpsS {]kwKw Hcp sImp ]-W-n\n Ipdp
app tIm-\n-S-bm-bn. Abm Bhnp: aln-f-I-sf, am\y-m-sc, henb
ImUn-em-p-I-fn khmcn sNbvXv Cu sXcp-h-Ifn-eqsS HmSnp t]mIp
\n-dn-bmtam \ Hcp tPmUn jq t]mep-an-m Bfp-I Cu \mnepsv? \nsf klm-bn-p-n-s-n Ahsc _pn-ap-n-m-Xn-cn-m-s\-nepw
{in-p-I. h kZy.-I-fn ]s-Sp-p-Ibpw hnkvIn-bn thhn Xmdm-hn-dn
Xnp-Ibpw sNp \n NqSp Amgw Ign-p--Xn-s\-p-dnv IYm-]pkvX-I--en am{Xw hmbn--dn--h-cp-sv Hman-pI. a\-n Xp--hbmWv Cu hmp-I. ]s sSlvdm-\n am{Xta AXn\v A-ap-q. sImp
]-W--fn C. B ]-W--fn Cu {]kwKw \S-nb a\p-jy XF {]kwK-]o-Vs Hcp Zpc--lm-ky-am-n--e-p.

49

aX-{]-`m-j-I {]_p--hy-n-bm-Wv. Ans\ Bhp-Ibpw thWw. Fm AtX


{]_p--hyn sS{lm-\n am{Xw ^e-{]-Z-amb kmtcm-]-tZi {]kw-K- hnh[
e--fn-tev sImp t]mhp-tm Abm Bcp-ambpw kwh-[n-m Ignbm A\y-\m-bn-o-cp-p. ap-hm-p-I-fn ]d-m {]`m-j-I k-eu-In-I\-. Abm GXp \m#v-S-Sp-Im-c-\m-sWp \mw tNmZn-t-Xp-v. AtX-t]m-se,
k-eu-In-I-\mb {]_p hyn-bp-a-. Npcp--n {]_p-X FXv Imew,
tZiw, kmaq-ly-]-cn-tXm-h-, Ncn{X kml-Ncyw Fn-h-bp-ambn _-s--Xm-Wv.
DZm-l-c-W-ambn {^mknkv t_ a\pjy Nnm-N-cn-{X-nse Hcp alm-hy-nXz-am-sWv \ap-sms Adn-bmw. A-hn-izm-k- ssIsh-Sn-b-W-sa
Bibw Atlw D-n {]Jym-]n-p. imkv{Xs B \njvT-X-bn \npw
]c-temI knm--n \npw ths]-Sp--W-sapw Atlw hmZn-p. AXn-ep]cn {]Ir-Xnsb Adn-bp--Xn-eqsS imkv{Xw `uXn-I-Po-hn-Xhpw P\--fpsS PohnX
\ne-hm-chpw t]mjn-n-p--XmhWsapw Atlw ]d-p.
Xs Imev t_ Hcp {]_p hyn-bm-bn-cp-p. At-l-ns Ime-L-SNvS-nepw kaq-l-nepw Aaq-amb Bi-bepw A]-{K-Y-\-fpw \ymbo-I-cW-fpw aX-{]-am-W-fpw ]ptcm-ln-X-m-cpsS \nth-Z-\--fp-am-bn-cpp imkv{Xw.
Cu kml-N-cy-n imkv{X-sbpw, bpn-sbbpw P\--sfbpw ]n-bpsS
\nb-{-WvX-Xn \nv tamNn-n-pI hgn t_av a\pjy kaq-ls htXmXn klm-bn-p. t_ Cp Pohn-n-cppshn Atlw Ap ]d-Xns hn]-coXw ]d-tbn hcp-am-bn-cp-p ({]-_p--hy-n-bmbn ]cn-K-Wn--sSm Atlw B{K-ln-p-p-sh-n). t_s Im]m-Sp-I ]np-Sv
Cs bqtdm-n imkv{Xw km-n-c-hpw, ]Zmn-I-hp-amb D]--n
am{Xw {i tI{o-I-cn--W-sapw D^-t`mK kwkvImcw Dun hfp--Xn\p
thn IqSp-X in-kw-`-cn-p--Xn-\mWv a\p-jy-ti-jn hn\n-tbm-Kn-t-Xv
Fpw-]-d-bp--h Xosc {]_p--c-. _tm-Wn-b XXz-imkv{Xw {]N-cn-n-pIbpw ]cn-io-en-n-p-Ibpw sNp-p-s-nepw Ah \s Ign-m \nehnse hyh-n-Xnsb klm-bn-p imkv{X- am{X-am-Wv. FpsImsm imkv{Xw amdn-tm-bn-cn-p-a-p. Bh-iy- hyXy-kvX-am-Wv. Cs
{]iv\-fpw {]Xn-k-n-Ifpw hyXy-kvX-amb ]cn-t{]-yhpw kao-]-\-hp-am-Wv
h-am\ Ime bqtdm]y c-I-\n \npw Bh-iy-s-Sp--Xv.
{]_p Nn-I (Fp hnfn--s-Sp--h) hyXn-bm-\-pw ]ng-hp-Ipw
aqmw temI-cm-Py-, hnivjym CkvemanI kaq-l-, kmyw hln-n-p-v.
\n`m-Ky-nsd hf-bm-Wn-Xv). {]iv\-sf Iqn-p-g-bvp--Xns Ncn{Xw
Fp Rm\n-Xns\ hnfn-p-p. apkvenw hnZym-k--cpw, ap ]uckvXy kaq-lfpw sNbvX AS-m-\-]-c-amb sXns IYbm-Wn-Xv. X-fpsS \mn-tev
acpv Cd-p-aXn sNp Cd-p-a-Xn-m-sc-tmse {]_p-cpw Cd-p-aXn sNmsav Cu Bfp-I hniz-kn-p-p. Ah kzb-tah {]_p hyn-I-fpsS `mKw
A`n-\-bn-p-I-bm-Wv. ]uc-kvXy CkvemanI kaq-l- X-fpsS Ghpw \
a\-p-I-fn\n-v--X--fpsS ]ntmm-h amn-sb-Sp-p--Xn\v klm-bn-m
sI]p hyn-I-fn \nvA-In \n-s-Spp F-Xm-\n-Xns Zpc--]qamb ]cn-Wm-aw. tamN-\-n-te-pfve ]mX ImWnp Xcn-I-bm-sW- hnNm-c-n
sXmb kt-i- Fnp X Cu {]_pcmbn-cpp hj--tfmfw
apsS P\-X-bpsS hnIm-e-fpw t_m[hpw Nnbpw kwhn-[m-\n-n-cp--Xv. AhcpsS sXmb tcK-\n-bhpw ka-c-co-XnIfpw ]np-S-cpI aqew Ah-k-c-
\jvS-am-bn. P\--fpsS in hy-am-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. \n-lm-bXm t_m[hpw
ss\cm-iyhpw shdppw D-c-hm-Zn--tm-Sp hnap-J-Xbpw H-s-Sepw \nKq-Vhm-Zhpw ]e-Xcw AkvXn-Xz-hm-Zm-`m-k--fpam-bn-cp-p HSp-hn-es ^ew. sXmb
50

asmcp Zni, DNn-X-a-m asmcp eyw, Asn icn-b-m tcmK-\nbw


Ch ]Icw hcp-Xv hsc {I{]-hr--ambn XpSp-sIm-n-cpp CXv. Cu kmaqly
shfn-]m-Sp-Im-cp-sSb Nppw IqSn-\nv P\- X-fpsS Ign-hp-I ]gm-n.
amlm-\mb ]o DZm-l-c-Ww. s\Xemnse ]T-\m-\-cw Xs P\-X-bp-sS tan-\p-thn {]hm ]o tamkvtIm-bn-tev Xncn-p. Atlw {]_p--\mbn-cp-p. ]s hgn icn-bm-bn-cp-n-. Abm-cm \nc--cw-tXm]n--s
cmPy-am-bn-cpp djy. Cdm B cmPys ]e-hw tXm]n-p. s\Xem-p-Im
Icbpw ISepw ASn `cn-p-p. djy hf-sc-tbsd ]ntmw \np-p. CsXp-sImv? alm-\mb ]o kzbw tNmZn-p. kpZoL-amb Btem-N-\bvv
tjiw Atlw ImcWw Is-n. XmSn! `c-Wm-[n-Imcw Gs-Sp--tm
Atlw apgp-h-\m-fp-I-tfmSpw XmSn-h-Sn-m Bm]n-p. Um\njv P\X Znt\\
XmSn-h-Sn-Xv sImmWv Ah ]ptcm-KXn t\Sn-bXv Fm-bn-cpp At-l-nsd
hmZw. djy-m Um\n-I-sf-tmse ImWm XpS-n-sb-nepw ASn-m-\-]-c-amb
Hcp amhpw kw`-hn-n-. XmSn A{]-Xy--am-bn. djy-m HcSn aptmp \on-bn.
Fs kvIq Pohn-X-Im-es Hc-\p-`hw asm-cp-Zm-l-c-W-ambn ]d-bmw. aivlZv
\K-c-n R-fpsS Hc-[ym-]-I-\p-m-bn-cp-p. Xms\mcp {]-_p kmaqly NnI-\m-sW-\p Atlw Icp-Xn. Nn{XcN-\-bm-bn-cpp Atlw ]Tn-n-n-cp--Xv.
\psS {]iv\-p GI ]cn-lmcw Nn{X-c-N-\-bm-Wv F-tlw hmZn-m-Wpm-bn-cpp. kaq-l-nsd _pn-ap-p-Ifpw Ah-bpsS ]cn-lm-chpw Rv
Imn--cm Nn{X cN-\bvv Ign-bp-sav Atlw hniz-kn-p. Xs Bibw
Ah-X-cn-n-p--Xn\v Atlw amXr-I-I XcnI ]Xn-hm-bn-cp-p. Cdm-\n kl-hnZym-`ymkw t{]mm-ln-np--Xp-ambn _-s--Xm-bn-cpp At-l-ns
CXn\nhr- Gjy-bpsS ]ntm-m-h-bvv ImcWw kl-hn-Zym-`ym-kns A`m-h-am-sW-v Atlw Nnnp. bqtdm-]y kvIq k{-Zmbw
Atlw sXfn-hmbn Nqn-m-n. kv{Xo ]pcpj kzX-{-ambn CS-]-g-Ip an{i
kvIqfp-Ifpw p-Ifpw kwL-S-\-Ifpw Cdm t{]mm-ln-n--sW-sapw
Atlw ]d-p. Xs t{]a-ss\-cmiyw X\np hcp-nb hn\ kaq-l-n-s\mmsI _m[-am-p-I-bm-bn-cpp At-lw.
ssewKI \nb-{-W--fm CkvemanI kaq-l--fnse Zpcn-X-v tlXp-shv
cn-Xm--sfbpw bphm--sfbpw hniz-kn-n-m {ian-p Fgp-p-Imcpw
Nn-Icpw Cm-e-p-ap-v. then-s-p-I \ow sNbvXp kv{Xo ]pcp-j-m
kzX-{-ambn CS-]-g-In-bm ]uckvXy kaq--fpsS kIe Zpcn-X--fpw Xocp-samWv Ah-cpsS hmZw. F{X AKm-[-amWv Cu Zpc--sapw bpX-e-ap-d-bpsS {i
F{X-am{Xw CXn-tev Xncn-n-p-spw CXn-tev t\mp-I. cn-Xm- \nb{-W- Gs-Sp-p-Ibpw sNdp--m iTnp \np-Ibpw sNp-tm
kaqlw ssewKnI kwLjw \nanw ]oVn-n--s-Sp-p-. ssewKn-I-amb
kzX{yamWv Fm IjvS-m-Sp-I-fp-tSbpw thcv Fv cn-Xm- Icp-Xp-p.
Ah-cpsS Ba-fpw s]WvU-a-fpw AXns\ hntam-N-\-n-sbpw ]ptcm-K-Xnbp-sSbpw \mK-cn-I-X-bp-sSbpw kzmX-{y-n-sbpw \nan--ambn ImWp-p. Cu
t\- sImtfm-Wn-b-enkn\v Kpcp-X-c-amb ]cn-p-I-tfn-pp Fs{X
kw! B{^n--bnepw Gjy-bnepw hninjym CkvemanI kaq--fnepw
ssewKnI kzmX-{y-n-\m-bp kacw hn {]m[v\yw t\Sn--gn-p. bYmn kw`-hn-t km{am-PyXz hncp ka-cs XS-p-\np--Xn-\p Hcp
PmSbmWv hmkvX-h-n-enXv. temIw `cn-p- in-Iv A]m-c-I-am-hp
t]mcmw Dbp hcmsX ASn \np--Xn\v thn Hcp-n-b-XmWv ssewKnI

51

kzmX{y kacw. ap-X-c-n-ep kzmX-{y-v _Z-embn ssewKnI kzmX{ys D]-tbm-Kn-p-I. bph-X-e-ap-d-bpsS {i sXnpw cmjv{Sob, km-nI
kzmX-{y-n\v thn ]cn-{i-an-p--Xn \npw Ahsc \ncp-m-l-s-Sp-nbpw
sImmWv AXv km[n-p--Xv.
Xebvv kzmX{yw \ImsX Imen\v kzmX{yw \I-emWv ssewKnI kzmX{yw. Gjy-\m-{^n- cmPy--fn Cu hn[-ap kzmX-{yhw hp Ign-p.
Fnpw kmaqly {]iv\- ]cn-l-cn--s-SmsX tijn-p-p. kucy
kwhI hkvXp--fpsS D]m-Z-\-n CXns kzm[o\w {]I-S-am-Wv. 1955
aqX 1965 hsc-bp Ime-b-f-hn kucy kwhI hkvXp--fpsS D]-t`mKw
Aqdv aSv hn-p. ]s Fp-sImv? D-c-an-Xm-Wv. Hcp s]sImSn
]mT-im-e-bn t]mIp-p. ]pkvX-I- hmbn-p-p. Adnhv hn-n-p-p.
kmaq-ly--am-\-hnI aqey-n Hcp _ncpZw t\Sp-p. B[p-\nI a\p-jys D-chm-Zn--sf Ipdnv Hcp [mc-W-bp-m-p-p. Ah-fpsS a\-n am\-hnI amXrI-I hnSp hcp ka-bw. Ah-fpsS _pn-]-c-amb hf apc-Sn-p-p.
Iogv`mKtv am{Xw Xncn-p-\np--h-bmWv Ah-fpsS amXr-I-I.
ssewKnI kzmX-y-s-p-dnv Fgp-Xnbpw {]kw-Knpw Ah-fpsS Duw ]mgmhp-p. ssewKn-I-Xsb Ipdnpam{Xw hymIp-e-s-Sp Hcp hn`mKw adp-h-iv
Ahsf FXnm hcp-p. kaq-l-n\v ]tm ]Xn-\tm hjw ]mgm-hp-p
F-XmWv CXns A\--c-^-ew.
t]jy A-c-am-e-bp-ambn _-s--XmWv asm-cp-Zm-l-c-Ww. 1941 53 Ime-L-nse Cdm-\n-b cmjv{Sob kwLj--fpsS aq-\y-th-f-bn 11 Hcp-Iqw
_pn-Po-hn-I Cs\ {]N-cn-np: Gjy-mtc! apkvenwI-sf, Cdm-\n-I-sf,
]ntm-m-h-bpw At[m-K-Xnbpw IjvS-mSw hnipw tcmKhpw A\p-`-hn-p-h-sc, Hm-a-Xmbn \nsf {Kkn Zpcn-X--fpsS aqe-Im-cWw \n a\-n-em-pI. ]s Ah ]cn-K-Wn ASn-m\ ImcWw FmWv? t]jy A-c-ame
Fv D-cw. Nne ]Z--fnse A-c- Bi-b-p-g--ap-m-IvIp-Ibpw kabw
\jvS-s-Sp-p-Ibpw sNp-p. CXm-bn-cpp Ah-cpsS {][m\ FXnv. Fgpn\v A]w kabw hn\n-tbm-Kn-m,, Bhn-[w, hn\m-i-I-c-amb ^e--fp-f-hmm am{Xw A{X IWn-i-ambn hI-bn-cp-n-b-XmtWm \psS ka-bw? t]jy
A-c-ame Ip-a--Xm-sW- Rm ]d-bp--Xv. A-c-am-e-bnse \yq\-X-I-fmWv
kIe Zpcn-X-pw ]nm-m-h-bvpw ImcWw F-hmZw P\--fpsS \nc-c-X-bmWv tdmUnse Ipgn-Iv ImcWw Fp Icp-Xp-Xp t]mse-bm-sWmWv Rm ]d-bp--Xv. Ipgn-I \ne-\n-W-sav CXn-\-an-. \psS
_pn-Po-hn-I sXmb hnj-b--fnepw Bi-b-p-gw _m[n {]iv\--fnepw
Duw Xpe-n-p-st CXn-\-ap-q. C\n \mw A-c-ame amn-sbv
k]n--pI. Fn \mw asmcp Xpn-bmbn Xocpw. \p-tS-Xn-\m-m \tm
Xpn-I-fpsS nXn? Xpn-tb-m Gsd ]nd-In-emtWm \mw? BsWp
shpI Fm-e-Xns ImcWw \psS A-c-am-e-bmW? A-c-am-e-bmWv
]ntm-m-h-bvv tlXp-sh-n Pm\pw ssN\-bp-am-tI-n-bn-cpp temInse Ghpw ]ntm cmPy--.
Cdm-\nse apgp-h {]iv\--fp-sS-b-s-nepw Npcp-nb ]w \nc--c-X-bp-sS-sbnepw ASn-m\ ImcWw \psS A-c-am-e-bm-sWv t]mepw Nne ]d-p.
P\-sf \nc--c-cmn \ne-\np-Xn m]nX Xm]-cy-ap Bfp-I-fmWv
\nc--c-Xbvv ImcWw. Fv Rm hmZn-p-p. Bbn-c-n-tesd A-c--fp
`mj-I-fpv. ]s Ah km-c-X-bpsS hgn-bnse {]Xn-_--am-bn-n-. kvs]bn
52

Ckvenan--Xo-X-am-bn-cp aqp apX HXp hsc-bp iX-I--fnse


CkvemanI Ncn{Xw DZm-l-c-W-am-sb-Sp-p-I. \nc--cX B Imev ]q-ambn
XpSp \o-s-n-cp-p. Bbncw hjw apv sImtUm-h-bn Hscm \nc--c\pw
Dm-bn-cp-n-. en]n-bpsS ko-X-bmWv Zpcn-X--fpsS \nanw Fv Btcm]n-p--h P\-{i bXm {]iv\--fn Xncnp hnSm {ian-p-I-bm-Wv. \nc-c-X-bn \nv apX-se-Sp-p--h-cm-W-h.
]pkvXIw In- {]iv\-amWv asm-cp-Zm-l-c-Ww. Cu {]iv\w Ipdp Imetv \psS kaq-ls B Ipe-s-Sp-n.12 \psS {]iv\- `q {]`p-Xz-nttbm _mly kml-N-cy--fp-tStbm B-cnIm[x]-X-\-n-ttbm krjvSn-b-.
Fv hmZn-p _pn-Po-hn-I Dm-bn-cp-p. Ihn-I XfpsS bP-am-\-nIsf hn coXn-bmWv Zpcn-X--fpsS \nanw ]-m \psS Ihn-I-fpsS,
hnivjym, lm^n-kn-s, hnIm-c-h- \psS kaq-l-s Ae-y-`m-h-ntepw `mh-Ko-Xn-I-fn-tepw Ihn-X-bn-tepw kmln-Xy-n-tepw \bn-n-p-s-XmWv Ah-cpsS \ymbw. CXns ]cn-lm-cmw Cu Bfp-Ifpw Ah-cpsS A\pbm-bn-Ifpw BgvN-bn Hcn- Hcp-anp IqSn sXc-s-SpXv ]pkvX-I- Inp. {]kw-K-fpw Bth-i-{]-I-S-\-fpw D-h-{]-Xo-Xn-bpsS AI--Sn-bp-ap NSm-bn-cpp CXv. ]c--cm-KX Cdm-\n-b IhnXsb \ymbo-I-cn-p-I-b Fs
eyw. Cdm-\nse {]iv\--fpsS bYm Imc-W- hnkvar-X-am-p--Xn\v
thn sXmb am-kq-N\ \IpI F Dt-iy-tmsS Dbn-smavSp hXmWv Cu {]iv\w Fv Nqn-m-Wn-pI am{X-amWv Fs Dtiyw. ]pkvXIw
In--ens\ \ymbo-I-cnpw A[n-t-]npw anI Ah-k-c-fpw anI {]Xn-`Ifpw ]mgm-bn. AtX-k-abw bYm Ip-hm-fn-I kam-[m-\-tmsS kpc-n-Xambn Pohn-p-I-bm-Wv.
{ioam Inkvd-hn-sb-p-dn-v Hcn- Ftm-Smtcm A`n-{]mbw tNmZn-p. F\n-tsXmcp Imcy-hpa amp-cp t\mp-hm XXz-ap-sp Rm adp-]Sn ]dp. Cu
bmfp-I-fpsS Fm Bi-b-fpw Rm N sNp-n-. Bdm-as inbm Camw
PAv^ kzmZn-Jn-s\ Ipdntm kpn-k-s-Ip-dntm ioC-ks Ipdntm Ckv
eman-s\bpw AXns Ncn-{X-sbpw kmlvXy-sbpw Ipdn-p knkvd-hn-bp-sS
hnai-\- km[p-hmtWm At Fp Rm At\zjn-p-n-. Ah km[p-hmsW-v Xs Rm k]n-p-p. 194149Ime-b-f-hnse \psS kaq-l-ns
khn-ti-j-amb Nncn-{X-Z-ibpw Inkvdhn IrXn-I \psS bph Xe-ap-dbnepmnb Bg-ap kzm[o\w IW-n-se-Sn-p-tm Atlw hnh-cn kwKXn-I Dbnb hnj-b--fp-am-bn-cptm Gw Bh-iyhpw ASn-k-Ym\ ]c-hpamb {]iv\- F-XmWv {]iv\w. B {]tXyI ka-bv (1949\p tijw) Fm
B{I-a-W-fpw aX-]-c-amb Imcy-s-Xn-scbpw lm^nkvs Pocn-Wn-s-Xnscbpw Xncnp ]nSn--sX-n-\m-bn-cp-p? \psS kaqlw t\cn-Sp Ghpw henb
Zpcw AXm-sW an? Bwtm Cdm-\n-b Hmbn In-\n-sb-p-dnv Hcp
kqN\ t]mepw Dm-bn-.. CsX-\vXp-sImv? Xmc-X-tay\ P\m-[n-]Xym`n-ap-J-amb
Cm-e-L--n Db-s-tS-n-bn-cp Ghpw A\n-hm-cy-amb ASn-m\
{]iv\w Fm-bn-cp-p? Cdm-\nsc Zpc---fpsS- apgp-h tlXp lm^nkv Isp-I-bm-bn-cptm? AtXm temIv \ne-\n-n-cp- km-n-I, cmjv{So-b,
km{am-PyXz kml-N-cy-sf hne-bn-cp-p-Itbm? cmjv{Sob kmaqly {]iv\-
A]-{K-Yn-p--Xn-\p k`w ]e-tmgpw kzbw kwPm-X-am-hp-I-bn-.
ta N-bn \nv Hcp s]mXp-XXzw \nm-cWw sNbvsX-Sp-mw. imkv{Xobhpw Zmi-\n-Ihpw kmt-Xn-Ihpw Iem-]-chpw Xp-ey-hp-amb thsdbpw {]iv\sf Ipdn hmZ-{]-Xn-hm-Z- Xmn-I-amb hne-bn-cp--en\pw ]p\-]-cn-tim-[-

53

\bvpw hnt[-b-am-pI F [mcm-fnw Am-Z-anI m]-\--fn \S-m-dpv. Hmtcm-cp-cpw X-fp-tS-Xmb {]tXyIm`n-aXw {]I-Sn-n-pw. ]co--W-
_e-s-Sp-p-Ibpw imkv{Xob \nb-a
- -fpsS ]co-sb AXn-Po-hn-p-Ibpw
sNp ImgvN-mm-SmWv \ne-\np-Ibpw kzoI-cn--s-Sp-Ibpw sNp-I.
kmaqly {]iv\-sf Ipdn knm--v bpn-]-c-am-b-L\w am{Xw aXn-bmhp-I-bn-. hmZw AYhm knm--ns k`w IqSn ]cn-K-Wn-t--Xp-v.
A\p-tbm-Py-a-m ka-bpw ImeL-n-ep-amWv {]I-Sn-n-p--sX-n
A\y{X icnbpw {]kvXm-h\ Xs \njv^-e-ambn `hn-mw. sXfn-hnsc ]n\v_-ean-m hmZw Nne {]tXyI A-co--n {]k--amb ^e-ap-m-n-sbp
hcpw. B{^n--bnse kao]Ime ka-c--fn Ahn-Ss t\Xm-fpw {]_p
hyn-Ifpw X-fpsS eyw t\Sp--Xn\v P\--fpsS \mtSm-Sn--YstXm-Xn
B{i-bn-Xv DZm-l-c-Ww. Hcp-h Xs i{Xp-hns\ ]cn-t]n-p hnSpI am{Xw
sNbvXm Bmhv ]Icw hop-sapw apdn-s-Sp-n-b-hs\ sImp-sa-p-ap
_lp-P\ hnizmkw Ah apX-se-Sp-p. i{Xp Bm--fpsS {]Xn-Imcw Hgn-hmp--Xn-\v, kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw B{^n-m-c Xs i{Xp-hns\ sImm Xs
Ign-hns ]c-am-h[n {ian-p. imkv{Xo-b-Svim-\-an Cu hnizm-k-n-\v. bpn-]-cambn t\mn-bm hymP-hp-am-W-Xv. Fnpw km{am-PyXz hncp t]mcm--n
{]_p hyn-I AXns\ ^e-{]-Z-amb Hcm-bp-[-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-p. tZio-bXbmWv asmcp DZm-l-c-Ww. a[y-Im-e-L--ns Ah-km-\-n bqtdm-]y\
cmPy-fn hfsc {Inbm--I-amb ]mWv hln--Xv. Fm B{^n--bn-eXv
Ctm \ntj-[m--I-amb ]v hln-p-p. s]mXp-hmb hn[nsb A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-bm H-s-mbn \nt h Ic-bmb Idp B{^n-sb tZio-b-X,
km{am-Py-Xz-ns aqn\p apn shv, IjWw Ij-W-am-p-p. CXn\p hn]co-X-ambn bqtdm-ns\ Iog-S-p--Xn-\p-thn ss{IkvX-h-Xsb Bbp-[-am-nb
t]mns \pI-n \npw tZio-bX bqtdm-]y kaq-ls a[y-Im-e-L--fpsS Ay-n hntam-Nn-n-p.
1950Ifn APo-cn-b-bn P\ `nn-n-p-Ibpw hnhn[ hn`m-K--fm-p-Ibpw
Ans\ D-cm-{^n--bn h \miw hnX-bvp-Ibpw sNp--Xn-\mbn km{amPyXz in-I dqtm, thm-b, tamdnkv XpS-n-b- Nn--I-cpsS]ptcm-K-a-\m-I-amb NnI {]N-cn-n-p. imkv{Xo-bhpw tZio-b-X-bn Dun--h-bp-am-bncpp B Nn-I. Hmtcm tZmio-b-Xbvpw kzamb cmjv{S-ap-m-h-W-sa
tZio-bhmZ-ns tI{-kn-m-w, AXp-hsc CkvemanI hnizmkw aqew sFIyn-em-bn-cp Ad-_n-Isf `nn-n-p--Xn-\mbn D]-tbm-K-s-Sp-n. As\
Ah {^v km{am-Py-Xz-ns Cc-I-fm-bn-op.- s]m-Xp-i-{Xp-hn-s\-Xnsc AWn\n-c-p--Xn\p ]Icw Ac-_v--s__ tZio-b-hm-Zn-I At\ym\yws]mcp-Xn-IbmWv14. Npcp--n Hcp kmaqly knmw Ah-X-cn--s-Sp-tm, AXns
hn[ym--Ihpw [rWm--I-hp-amb hne-bn-cp-p--Xn\v apmbn, AXv aptmv
sh-s k`hpw AXns {]Xym-Lm-Xfpw a\-n-em-t--Xp-v. hymP-Icm-dp-I As-nhymP-k-a-tOZw F kwK-Xn-bmWv Fs N-bnse
asmcpZm-l-c-Ww. _p--fmb cp hn`m-K-n-S-bn D]-cn-X-e-n-ep
As-n sXmb In-I-fp-m-m\pw km[npw. B{^n--bnepw emn-\-a-cn-bnepw CkvemanI ]q tZi--fnepw ]nb X{-am-W-Xv. s]mXp-hmb aXw, tZiobX, am\-hn-I-Xm-hm-Zw, Fo XXz-sf Zpcp-]-tbmKnpsIm-n-cpp CXv. \nb-am\p-kr-X-amWv Cu aqp Nn-Ifpw Fm sXmb ka-bpw epw {]tbmKn-m ]c-kv]cw s]mcp-tX P\-hn-`m-K-n-S-bn sFIy-ap-m-m\p
D]-I-c-W-ambn Ah Ffpw amn-sb-Sp-mw. tZio-bXm hmZ-hp-ambn Gp-ap-p--Xn\p-]-tbm-Kn-p Nnm]-Xn-bmWv am\-hn-I-Xm-hm-Zw. B{^n-, Gjy, emn-\-tacn Fn-hn-S--fn tZio-b-Xm-hmZw ]ptcm-K-\m--I-amb km{am-PyXz hnc-p--ap54

-Wn-bm-bn-o-XmWv CXn\v Imc-Ww. aqmw temIv hninjym B{^n-bn amIn-kn-k-t-m ]ptcm-K-\m--I-amWv tZio-bXm hmZw. HutZym-KnI
amIvkn-k-n \nv AXv kzmX-{y-k-ac \mb-IXzw ssIh-i-am-n-bn-cn-p-p.
CXc cmjv{S--fpsS `mK-t[bw \nb-{n-p hniz-i-n-I am\-hn-IXm
hmZs D]-tbm-K-s-Sp-p-p-v. tImfWn cmPy-pw km{am-PyXz inIp-an-S-bn hymPhpw _ln `mK--hp-amb _w m]n-p--Xn\v thnbm-WnXv. Cu cv FXn {[ph- Xn {]IrXymbp sshchpw kwLj
i{Xp-X-Ifpw Cm-Xm-p-Ibpw Ah-bvn-Sb
- n \nKq-Vm--Ihpw am\-hn-I-Xm-hm-Z-]chpw kmam-\y-hp-amb kam-[m-\-ap-m-p-I-bmWv AXns Dt-iyw. am\-hn-I-Xm-hmZns Zmi-\n-Itam imkv{Xo-btam Bb hi--sf-p-dn--, Xo-bm-bpw,
Rm kwkm-cn-p--Xv. am\h hwi-ns GIX ]mh-\-amb Hcp kXy-am-Wv.
Cu ]mh\ kXys B Ftm Fp-t-iy-n\v D]-tbm-K-s-Sp-pp Fo
tNmZy--fmWv Rm\p--bn-p--Xv. ]mm-Xycpw ]uc-kvXycpw, tImf-\n-bp-m-p-hcpw tImf-\n-bm--s--hcpw Htc emh-W-nse AwK--fm-hptam?
Hcp {]tXyI tZis Dt-inv sXmb coXn-bn {]tbm-Kn-p-tm tZio-bXm
hmZw Hcp ad-bmbn `hn-p-p. tNmc-bpsS ASn-m-\-n IrXn-a-amb
sFIyhpw _hpw m]n-p--Xn-\p Hcp amw. Fm bYm-n
Ahco Bi-bn hniz-kn-p-n-. tZio-bXm hmZ-ns t]cn P\--epsS
cw IpSn-p-I-bm-W-h. CXn Hcp {]O lmky-ap-v. c-ns am{Xw
ASn-m-\-n-em-Wtm Cu _w. A-bp-sSbpw AXns Cc-bp-sSbpw cw
Hp Xs-bm-Wv.
s]mXp-hmb aX-hn-izm-k-fpw BNm-c-fpw \ne-\npp F `mth\ NqjIpw Nqjn-Xp-an-S-bn hymPhpw IrXn-a-hp-amb _w krjvSn-p--Xn-\pthn aXs D]tbm-K-s-Sp-m-dp-v. aXm-Nm-c-fpw ap{Zm-hm-Iy-fpw sXmb
knm {]t_m-[-\hpw Cu Dtiy km[y-n-\p-thn Ffpw Zpcn-]-tbm-K-s-Sp-s-Sp-p. XXv^-e-ambn bYm-n i{Xp--fmbn hn-t--h aX-kmtlm-Pcyw F hymP-k--n At\ym-\yw-_-n-sSpp.
Cu ]d--Xn \nsmw {]_p-m-m--fpsS Ghpw henb D-c-hm-Znw
Xs kaq-l-ns kaq-l-ns ]ntm-m-h--bpsS Imc-W- Xncn--dn-bpIbpw Xs Npp-]m-Snse P\--fpsS A[x-]-X-\-n-sbpw kvXw`-\m-h--bpsSbpw icn-bmb ImcWw Is-p-I-bp-am-sWv knn-p-p. AXn-ep]n, \n{Zm[o\cpw A-cp-amb kaq-ls AXns Zp-Ip\w _m[n Ncn{X kmaqly
]cn-Xm-h--bpsS ASn-m\ ImcWw ]Tn-np sImSp-Ww Abm. XpSv
Xs kaq-l-ns hn`-h--sf-bpw D-c-hm-Zn---sfbpw Bh-iy-fpw IjvSm-Sp-I-sfbpw ASn-m-\-s-Spn Xs P\-Xsb \ne-hn-epfvf hyh--bn \nv
tamNn-n-m-\p-X-Ip ]cn-lm-c-fpw ImW-Ww. kaq-l-ns hn`-h- DNn-Xambn {]tbm-P-\-s-Sp-n-bpwZpcn-X- IrXy-ambn \n-bnpw {]_p--hyn
Zpcn-X-pw kmaq-ly-Zo-\-pw hne--W-X-IpanS-bnse BI-kvanI
_hpw a-\-h[n B`y--c--_mly LS-I- Ip-]n-Sn-m {ian--Ww. Ahkm-\-ambn Xs Is--ep-I kl-{]-h-I-cpsS ]cn-an-X-amb hr-n\p
]pds samw kaq-l-n-tev kmw{I-an-n-p-Ibpw thWw.
GXv kaq-l-nepw {]h\-a-amb Zzm-I sshcp-[y- kaq-ls
\n_--ambpw kzmX-{y-n-tepw hn-h-n-tepw \bn-p-sapw Ans\
Hcp ]pXnb Ah ]nd-hn-sb-Sp-p-sapw ka-Im-en-I-cmb _pn-Po-hn-I
55

s]mXpsh hniz-kn-p-p. Cu \ymb-{]-Imcw Zmcn{Zyw AYhm h hyXym-k kmaqly kwLj- \ne-\np-p F-Xns {]XoI kqN-\-bm-Wv.
CXv C\n-hm-cy-ambpw Hcp ZzmI sshcp-[vbvX-Xn-tev hgn Xpdpp. X^-eambn kaq-l-n Ne-\-ap-m-hp-p. hmkvX-hvX-Xn hen-sbmcp anYy-bm-Wn-Xv.
h hyXym-k- \ne-\nppsh-Xp-sImp am{Xtam k-pw Zcn{Zp-an-S-bn hn Ak-aXzw Dv F-X-n-\mtem Hcp kaq-lhpw Nen--s-SpItbm kzmX{yw t\Sp-Itbm sNp-n-. LS-\m-]-c-amb bmsXmcp ]cn-h-Xn\pw Imc-W-am-hmsX Zmcn-{Zhpw h-kw-Ljhpw Hcp kaq-l-n kl-{km_v-Z--tfmfw \ne-\np-p. Zzm--I-Xbvv B-cnI Ne\w Dm-hn-.
kmaqly kwLjs kaq-l-n-\-Iv \nv AXnse AwK--fpsS t_m[X-en-tev kmw{I-an-n-p-tm-gmWv Ne-\-ap-m-hpI F hkvXpX ]cn-K-Wn-ptm {]_p hyn-bpsS D-c-hm-Znw Fsv hy-am-hp-p. Npcp-n Xs kaq-lns t]mcm-bva-Ifpw hne--W-X-Ifpw kaq-l-nse AwK-fpsS t_m[-n-tepw a\-n-tepw kmw{I-an-n--em-W-Xv. kaqlw AhnsS
\nv AX#v Gs-Sp-p-sIm-pw. \ne-\np kmaqly kwL-j--sfbpw
Ah-bpsS icn-bmb Imc-W--sf-p-dnpw t_m[-ap, Xs Ime-L--n-sbpw
Xe-ap-d-bp-sSbpw a\-n-em-p-, kaq-ls tamNn-n-p--Xn-\m-h-iy-amb ]cnlmc am- {]Zm\w sNm-\p D-c-hm-Zn--tap, kaq-ls
AXns s]mXp-e-y-fpw Dt-iy-fpw cq]- sSp-p--Xn\pw\nh-Nn-p-Xn\pw klm-bn-p, Ah-km-\-ambn hgn apn \np hnh-c-an-m kaqls ]Tn-n-p--Xnepw Nen-n-p-epw ]p hln-p hyn-bmWv {]_p. CXv thsdmcp \n-N-\-am-Wv. H-hm-n ]d-m ka-ImenI {]_p-hyn {]hm-N-I-m-cpsS ]mX-I-fn-eq-sS-bmWv aptmv \ot-Xv. am-Zi\w
Acp-fp-Ibpw \oXn-p-thn {]hn-p-I-bp-amWv Abm-fpsS ZuXyw. Xs
Imev tN `mj-bm-bn-cnpw Abm-fp-tS-Xv. kaq-l-ns kmwkvIm-cnI aqeyv A\p-cq-]-am-bn-cnpw Abm \nt-in-p ]cn-lm-c-.
\mw FhnsS XpSWw F tNmZyw Cm-c-W-m A{]-k--am-hp-p.
\psS kaq-l-n \mw FhnsS \np XpSWw FmWv tNmZnt--Xv.
Ncn-{X-]-c-ambn ]d-m apkvenw kaqlw FhnsS Fn-\npp Fp
t\mp-I-bmWv \psS Gw hepXpw Hgnp IqSm-\m-hm--Xp-amb D-c-hm-Zn-w.
Ccp-]Xmw \qm-nse bqtdm-nse AtX kml-N-cy-n-emtWm apkvenwI Pohnp-Xv? bqtdm-]y ]cn-lm-c-fpw {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-fpw Fgp-p-Im-cp-sams
apkvenw Iv {]tbm-P-Io-`-hn-ptam? apkv enwI \ne-sIm-p-Xv hyh-kmbn
Ime-L--n-emtWm? hyh-kmbnI kaq-l- A\p-`-hn-p {]iv\- XsbmtWm apkvenwI-fp-tSXpw? B[p-\nI _qjzm ImeL--n-se-n-bn-ptm
apkvenwI? aX-`-c-W-ns bpKw Ah ]nnp Ign-pthm? GsX-nepw
Xcn-ep aX-\-ho-I-cWw Ah-cn \S-p-pthm? \thm-m\ Imetm
{^p hn-h-Im-etm bqtdm-n-ep-m-bn-cp kml-Ncyw Xs-bmtWm
apnwIfp-tS-Xv? apkenw kwkvIm-c-ns khn-tijX Fs\ \n-bnpw?
apkvenw kaq-l-ns Ncn{X kml-N-cyhpw kwkvIm-chpw Hcn- a\-n-em-nbm X-fpsS D-c-hm-Zn--fpw Npa-X-e-Ifpw Fm-sW-v {]_p-cpw km[mc-Wmcpw a\-n-em-pw.
a[y-Im-e-L-n-nse Ay-nepw \thm-m-\-ns Bcw-`-Z-i-bnepw ]mm-Xy
Fhn-sS-bm-bn-cp-p-thm Ahn-sS-bmWv, Ncn-{X-]-c-ambn ]d-bpIbmsW-n, Cmes apkvenwI. A-t-Xp-t]mse kmaq-lp-Ihpw _pn-]-c-h-]-amb ]cn56

h-\-ns Zi-bm-WnXv apkvenwIv. km-n-I-ambn ImjnI hn]Wn


AYhm CS-cw _qjzm k{-Zm-b-amWv CkvemanI kaq-l--fn {]apJw. ap
hmp-I-fn, Imjn-tImm-Z-\-amWv k-Zvhy-h--bpsS Gw hepXpw ASnm-\-]-c-hp-amb ASn--d. AmsX s]mXpsh a\-n-em--s-Sp-Xp t]mse \Kc-hn-]Wn k-Zvhy-h-tbm apX-em-fn-tam A. ImcWw {^v hn-h-n\v
henb kw`m-h-\-I \Inb bqtdm-]y _qjzmkn Cs Cdm-\n-tetbm
as-hn-S-ttbm CkvemanI kaq-l--fn \npw hyXy-kvX-am-Wv. N-bnew Ih-S-m-c-\mWv CkvemanI kaq-l--fn _qjz; \ho\ hyh-kmb _mnwKv
{]amWnamc. Iptd-IqSn IrXy-am-bn--d-m Am-Sn-bnse hym]m-cn-Iv
B[p-\nI _qjzm-kn-bpsS hodpw NpW-bp-an-. ImjnI taJ-ebvpw D]-t`m-mhn-\p-an-S-bn a[y-hn-I am{X-am-W-h-. ]Xn-s\mw \qm-n bqtdm-n
Dm-bn-cp--Xn\v kam-\-amb Hcp ]pXnb _qjzm-hn-`mKw Dm-bn-cp-p-F--Xn
kwi-b-an-. ]s AXn\v Am-e-s-b{X kzm[o-\-an-. Cdm-\nse ]pXnb
_qjz-I X-fpsS ]gb ]oSn-I-Iv ]Icw ]pXn-bh m]n-p. ]c--cm-KX
kaq-l--fn ]Sn-m-d kwkvImcw {]N-cn-n-p--Xn-\p CS-\n-e-m-cm-bno-cpI am{X-amWv Ah CXn-eqsS. {Kmao-tWmmZ-\ns sNe-hn \Ktcm]m-Z\w h[n-n- ]Xn-s\mw \qm-nse X-fpsS bqtdm]y adp-]-s-t]m-se-b Ah. \K-tcm-ev]m-Z-\-n\v Hcp apXq-p-ap-m-msX \K-tcm-`t]mKw hn-n-pI am{XamWv Cdm-\n-b _qjzm-I sNbvX-Xv. \K-tcm]m-Z\-n\v XpS--an hyn-I-fp-apv Fv Xo. ]s Ah NnX-dn-n-S-p-I-bmWv. tZiob B[p-\nI _qjzm Fv AXns\ hnfn-m ]n-.
\psS kmwkvIm-cnI hKo-I-cW X{w--I-d sSIvtkm-W-an IqSn \mw
Adn-n-cn-t--Xp-v. DZm-]-c-W-n\v {Kokn-tXv Zmi-\nI kwkvIm-c-am-Wv.
tdman-tXv ssk\nIhpw Iem-]-chpw. A[ym-n-I-amWv Cy-bp-tS-Xv. \psS kaql-v aX-]-chpw Ckv eman-I-hp-am-b-kw-kvIm-c-am-Wp--Xv. Hcp \nnX kaql-nse P\--fpsS hnm\w khn-ti-j-X-I, hnIm-c- ]mc-cyw hoW- Fn-hsb `cn-p {]_-e-amb sNX\yw FmWv kwkvIm-cnI hKoI-c-W-X-{-sa--XvsIm--am-p--Xv.kaq-l-ns
tasNm
khntijXIsf Iqn-bn-W-p-Xpw Ahbvv Aw \Ip--Xp-amb s]mX-]ssN-X\yw kwkvIm-c-amWv.P-\- AXn\nv {]mW-hm-bphpw t]mj-Im-lmchpw kzoI-cnp hf-cp-p. Hcp kaq-l-ns kwkvImcw a\-n-em-p-I-sb-m
AXns B-cnI kwth-Z-\--sfbpw hnIm-c--sebpw Adn-bp-I- F-m-Ww.
DZm-l-c-W-ambn XXz-Nn--sb-p-dnv ]nSn-]m-Spw-hn-h-c-hp-an-mXw {Kov kwkvIm-cs-p-dn--dn-bm-sa--h-Im-i-s-SpI Akm-[y-am-Wv. AtX-t]mse _p-Zi-\hpw
thZm--hp-a-dn-bmsX Cy kmaq-ly-imkv{Xc-n hnZ-KvZ-\m-sW--h-Im-i-sSm\pw ]n-. Xs kaq-ls t_m[skw_-nv Adnhpw AXn km\n-[yhp-an-m B {]_p hyn-bm-sW Ah-Im-i-hmZw kzoIm-cy-amhpn-.
{]_p--amb Cy-m-c\v _p-Zi-\-nepw thZm--nepw ]qW-m\w
Dm-h-Ww. C\-Xy kwkvImcw sshZn-I-am-b-Xn-\m B[p-\nI ]mmXy hnZym`ym-kw-kn-n kmaqly imkvX-c-\v Cy-bn hf-sc- Ip-d {]k-I-Xntb
Dm-hp. Xs kaq-l-sbpw Xs kl Cy-m-cpsS a\pw a\-n-em-m
Ign-Xv sImv Hcp Knv ap--h-tc-m-tfsd kaq-ls aptmv klnm Ign-p. Hcp {]_p Ckvemans Imcy-nepw CXv icn-bm-Wv. Xs
kwkvIm-c-ns apJy khn-ti-jX CkvemanI ssNX-\y-am-sWpw Xs kaq-lns Ncn{X {]{In-bbpw AXns \nb-am-h-enbpw Ckvemw Nn-s-Sp-n-b-XmsWpw Ah a\-n-em-Ww. CXv a\-n-em-p--Xn ]cm-P-b--m, \psS
_lp-`q-cn-]w _pn-Po-hn-I-sfbpw t]mse, Abm Xs A{]-k--amb Npp-h\nb-{n-X-\p-am-bn-o-cpw.
C-c-mv
-n-tev
Npcp-p-Iq-Sn-b-h\pw
57

s]mXpth aX-hn-izm-kw- Dm-bn-cn-p-I-bn-. bqtdm]v hnZym-`ymk ]m--evXXn-sbpw A\p-`-h--fp-sSbpw AXn-cp-I-I-m-Wv Ah s]cp-am-dn--Xv.


Am-c-W-m Xs kzw P\-X-bp-ambn _w m]n-m Ah\v IgnbmsX t]mhp-p. kaq-l-n Ah-s\m-cn-epw kzoIm-cy-\m-hp-n-.
{^mkv ^m\s\ F\nv t\cn--dn-bmw. At-l-ns IrXn-I R t]jy-\ntev `mjm-cw sNbvXn-p-v. kmaqly {]m-\-n\v aXw \Inb hn[ym-I
kw`z-\-I-sf-p-dnv At-ln\v ip`m]vXn hnizmkap-m-bn-cpp. kwkvIm-cn aXw {][m\ LS-I-ambn Nne kaq-l--fn aX-n\v, AXns hn`-h--fneq-sSbpw am\-knI {]`m-h--fn-eq-sSbpw {]_p hyn-Isf D]-I-c-W-amn, kaql-s, Atlw Xs Hpw aX-]-c-a-m amn-n-eqsS Fnp AtX
ey-m-\-tv \bn-m Ign-bp-sav Rm t_m[y-s-Sp-n-sm-Sp-p-Xp-hsc ^m\\v aX-hn-cp--amb ImgvN-m-Sm-bn-cpp Dm-bn-cp--Xv. a[y-Im-e-L-nse bqtdm-ns A\-\y-amb aXm-\p-`-h-n \npw AXns ^e-ambn ]Xn-\v, ]Xn-\mdv \qm-p-I-fn bqtdm-]y kaqlw ssIh-cn kzmX-{y-n
\np-amWv ^m\s aX-hn-cp hnImcw D-gn--sXpw Rm Iqn-tp. Cu
A\p-`-hs CkvemanI temI-tv hym]n-n-pI km[y-a-. ImcWw Ckv
emanI kaq-l-n\v D-hw \Inb kwkvIm-chpw ss]Xr-Ihpw a[y-Im-e-Ln aX-ns t]cn bqtdm-n \ne-\n-n-cp--Xn \npw k-bn
At-bw `n-am-Wv. cp aX-sbpw Htc Xe-n \np-sImv hne-bn-cp-pXpw A[n-t-]n-p-Xpw bpn-b-. B{^n--bn Ckvemw hln ]pw
emn-\-ta-cn--bn ss{IkvX-hX hln ]pw Xne\w sNbvXm Fs Bibw
hy-amhpw15.
]Xn-\mdpw ]Xn-t\gpw \qm-p-I-fn bqtdm-nse {]_p hyn-I ss{IkvX-hXsb FXn-Xp-t]se Ckvemant\mSv ]S-sh-p-Xv Kpcp-X-c-amb ]mX-I-am-bn-cnpw. ImcWw aX-ns t]cn a[y-Im-e-L--n \ne-\n-n-cp--Xn \npw
XIpw hyXy-kvX-amWv Cdms aX-]-c-amb hnIm-c-epw aX-kw-kvIm-c-hpw. Ckv
emans\ {InkvXym-\n-k-hp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNbvX Htc Xocp-am--Xn-se-p-Xv
A_--am-Wv. Ncn-{Xm-Im-ct\m XXz Nn-It\m Fm aX-sfbpw Htc coXn-bn
ImWp-Xv kln-mw. Fm Hcp {]_p hyn-bp-tSXv A-s\-b-. Xm
Pohn-p kaqlw GXv XcvX-Xn-ep--Xm-sWv Abm Xncn--dn-bp-Ibpw P\Xsb a\-n-em-p-Ibpw AtX kabw Ah-cpsS Ncn{X kml-Ncyw hne-bn-cp-pIbpw thWw. apkvenw _lp-P-\-n-S-bn \ne-\np aX-]-c-amb hnI-c-fmWv Ah-cpsS bYm Ncn-{X--kmw-kvIm-cnI aXw Fv sXn--cn-p-Ibpw
Zpc---fpsS \nanw F \nebvv AXns\Xnsc t]mcm-Sp-Ibpw sNpI Ckv
emanI temIs Hcp {]_phynv kw`-hn-m-hp A_--am-Wv.]sm--ZXmw-\q-m-W-Snse Pa hyh-km-bnI kaq-l-n\v tNc {]Xym-bivkv{Xw kzoIcn-p--Xn\v Abm Xs P\-Xsb Wn-t-mw.
Ans\ Abm Xv\sd
kaq-l-n hgn-sX-nb ]v hln-p-p. Acw _pn-Pohn P\-se hnZymk---cn \nv A\yw \nn `b-s-Sp-pw. XXv^-e-ambn ]nn-cn-\pw hgn]n-g-Xpw km{am-Py-Xz-]-c-amb aqe-L-S-I-n A`bw tXSm Ah \n_-n-Xcm-hp-p. aX-hn-cp--cmb A`ykvX hnZy-c \nv c-s-Sm-\m-Wn-Xv. Ckv emanI
kaq-l--fnse _lp-P-\--fn _pn-Po-hn-I A]-cn-Nn-X-cm-hp--Xns {][m-\Im-c-W-an-Xm-Imw. IWn-i-amb Hu]-Nm-cn-IX ]pep icn-bmb Hcp _pn-Pohnv _lp-P-\-nnS-bn m\-an-. Abm Ah-cp-ambn Bi-b-hn-\n-abw
\S-p-hm\pw ]p-I-bn-. s]mXp-hmb `mjtbm kwkvIm-ctam Ahn FXv
t]mse.

58

kZm P\-s-Xnsc \ne-bp-d-n-p-Ibpw Ah-cpsS `K-t[-b-hp-ambn Ifn-pIbpw Ahcw NqjWw sNp-Ibpw sNp hgn-sX-nb ]nn-cn- LS-I-
P\--fpsS hnIm-c--sfbpw {i-sbbpw h-amb {]iv\--fn \nv Xncn-phnv Ahsc `qX-Im-e-s-p-dnv am{Xw Nnn-p--h-cm-p--Xn-\p ^e-{]-Zamb Bbp-[-amn avsX-Zp-cp-]-tbm-K-s-Sp-p--Xns\ {]_p--hyn t_m[-hm\m-h-Ww. Ah P\-sf bYm, `uXnI B\p-Im-enI {]iv\--fn \nv
hgn-Xn-cnp hnSp-p. aX-ns t]cn P\-Xsb ac-Wm-\-c Pohn-X-hp-ambpw
Aaqhpw A-\n-jvS-hp-amb {]iv\--fp-ambn sIp-]n-W-bp--cm-p-p. CXp
aqew kpc-n-Xhpw sFiz-cy-]qWhpw kzX-{-hp-amb Pohn-n-\p-thn {ian-p-Xn \nv apkv enwI XS-b-s-Sp-p. CXp-ambn _-s Ah-cpsS NnIfpw Bi-b-fpw t]mepw ]c-tem-I-ntI-{o-I-cn--s-Sp-I-bm-Wv. in-bpsSbpw {]tNm-Z-\-n-sbpw Ghpw henb Dd-hp-Shpw `an-bn A]qW-amb
PohnXw \bn-p--Xn-\p amK-Zi-\-hp-am-bn-cpp aXw, Cqew hnIr-X-am-s-Sp-p. F{X-tm-f-sa-m aXm-\p-bm-bn-I-fpsS Ipw ImXpw lrZ-bhpw ]ctem-I-n am{Xw tI{o-I-cn-p-p. sFln-I-Po-hn-X-n {i-]-Xn-n-pXv
ns Dd-hn-S-ambn KWn--s-Sp-p. \pKq-V-hm-Zhpw ]c-tem-I-im-kv{Xhpw hfsc-tbsd t{]mkm-ln--n--s-Sp-p.
kam-In-e-I-cmb an {]_phy-n-I-fpw And-bp-Ibpw A\p-`-hn-p-Ibpw
sNphbmWv Cu {]iv\-. Fm icn-bmb Xocp-am-\-n-se-m am{Xw
KmV-a Ah-cpsS hne-bn-cp--ep-I. P\- bYmhpw `uXn-I-hpamb PohnXs Ah-K-Wn-m hgn-sbm-cp-pp F Imc-W-m aXw--A-YhmCkv
emwkaq-l-n \ntj-[m-I ]v hln-pp F-hI-cpXp-p. KqV-{]h\n-tes-Sp ]nn-cn- LS-I- ZrjvSn-tKm-N-c-a-m hntZi
lkvX--tfm-sSmw Cu sXmb Cu Xocp-am-\-n \nv apX-se-Spv P\fpw {]_phyn-Ipw Htc t]mse FXn-cmbn Cue \nmbI in
D]-tbm-K-s-Sp-p-p. Hcp {]_p apkvenw A\p-I-c-Whpw kmaqly {]iv\-sf
kw_-n sXmb [mc-Wbpw Dt]-n--Ww. AXw P\--en Ctm hlnp Zpjn ]n\v, Xs kaq-l-ns Zmi-\n-Im-Sn-d Hcp-p aXambpw
bYm CkvemanI kwkvIm-c-ambpw _-an F hkvXpX IqSn Ah a\n-em--Ww. kthm]cn a[y-Im-e-L--n ss{IkvX-hX t\cn aX-hncp A\p`hw Ckv emanI temI-tv hym]n-n-cp-Xv. `qX-Imepw ham\
Imepw {]Xy-b-imkv{X t_m[- Fm-bmepw CkvemanI kaq-l-nse Hcp
{]_p hyn A\n-hm-cy-ambpw Ckvemtam-f-Pn-m-hWw. Ckv eans\ a\-n-emn--gn-m sXmb XpSw, sXn-m-cW, A{]-k--amb hne-bn-cp-
bpn ]c-a-m- _- Fnh Imc-W-ambn P\--fpsS A[zm-\hpw
_pnbpw `oI-camb coXn-bn hn\-jvS-am-hp--Xns\ AXn-i-b-tm-sS Abm
Xncn--dn-bpw.
Ign cp iX-I-fn \psS aXs \nb-{n--h Hcp hiv AXns\
Ctm-gs \n-emh--bn-tev ]cn-hnnp. adp-h-iv ham\ Imesbpw \psS Xe-ap-d-bp-sSbpw Ime-n-sbpw Bhiyfpw a\-n-emn
{]_p P\X aXs a\-n-em-n-b-Xp-an-. CXmWv \psS Zpc-w. CXns ^eambn \psS CkvemanI kaq-ln\v AXns hntam-N-\-n\v Bh-iy-amb aX
t_m[w kzmb--am-m Ign-n-. TamN\w t\Sp--Xn\v AXns\ {]m]vXamm Ign-hp kar--amb Ncn-{Xhpw kwkvIm-c-hp-ap Ckvemw ssIh-i-apm-bncpnp IqSn. _pn-Po-hn-I Ckv eman-t\mSv sXmbn kacw sNbvXp.
kzw t\- s]cp-n-m ]nn-cn--m P\-sf ab-n-n-S-n. AtX-

59

kabw bYm Ckvemw Am-X-am-bn-n-S-p, Ncn-{X-ns ASn--n XShn-em--s Ah--bn P\- X-fpsS \n-ehpw ]cn-an-X-hp-amb ]mc--cy-fn Ipgnp aqS-s-p. _pn-Po-hn-I P\-n \nsm--s-Sp-Ibpw Ah-cm
shdp--s-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
sFlnI Pohn-X-ns bYmhpw hkvXp-\n-jvT-hp-amb {]iv\--fn \nv P\hn-Im-cs ]c-tem-I-tpw Aaqhpw B-\n-jvT-hp-amb ]cn-K-W-\-I-fntepw Xncnp hnSp hyn-KX Nnm-k-c-Wn-I-fmWv It-en-m-a-Xhpw _pZi-\hpw thZ-a-Xhpw Xmthm-bn-khpw Fv ]mm-Xycpw ]uc-kvXy-cp-amb _pnPo-hn-I-dn-bmw. AXn\pdw X-fpsS AXn-\-pdw X-fpsS kaq-l-v
A[n-Im-chpw D-c-hm-Zn-hpw hkvXp-\n-jvTXbpw {]Zm\w sNpIbmWv AhcpsS Ihyw Fpw Ah Xncn--dn-bp-p. Fm \psS aX kwkvImcw
hninjym Ckv emans Hc-Xp-ey -hym-Jym-\-amb ioC-kw]qambpw {]kvXpX
Nnm-[m-c-I-fp-tSbpw aXfpsS-bpw hncp knm--am-sWv Ah a\-n-em-pn-. Apkv enwIfp-sS- ham\m-h a[y-Ime ss{IkvX-h-cp-tS-Xn\v kam\amsWp Icp-Xp {]_p hyn, ]sm-Xmw \qm-nse _pn-Po-hn-I
ss{IkvX-h-Xsb FXnXpt]m-se, Ckvemans\ FXnpI F A_w
sNpp. t\ct kqNn-n ]nn-cn--m-cp-m-n-b-XmWv Cu Bibpgw.
]Xn-\mdv apX ]Xn-s\v hsc\qm-p-I-fn {]_p {InkvXym\ns{]m--v
Fm-bn-cpp sNbvXp-sIm-n-cn-Xv? ss{IkvX-h-X-bpsS ]pc-K-\m-i hi-se
Ah-c-Wn-p-sImv Npw ]ptcm-ln-Xyhpw ]oV\pw Zpcn-X-pw hgn
shp-I-bm-bn-cpp Fv Nqn-m-Wn-p-I-bmWv Abm sNbvXXv. AXn-ep-]-cnbmbn Ah k\ym-kn-aT{]m\--sfbpw AZin-Xz-sbpw t{]mm-ln-np. Cs\ aX\hoI-cWw \S-n hcp-p--Xn\pw {InkvXy s{]m-mnkw
hfp hcp--Xn-\pw Xs aXns DW-cp--Xpw A`n-t{]-cW \Ip--Xp-amb
hi-sf ]p\-cp--cn-p-Ibpw kPo-h-am-p-Ibpw thW-sap {]_p hyn a\n-em-n.16 ]s, Ckvemans nXn CXp-t]m-se-b-. Ckvemw Hcn-epw Dn{Zhpw A`n-t{]-cW \Ip--Xp-amb hi-sf Ah-K-Wn-n-n-. chpw
JUvKhpw, t\Xr-Xzhpw \oXnbpw Fo-cp ap{Zm-hm-Iy- hfsc hy-amb
coXn-bn ioC-kns cp {]Xo-Im-I k-I-fmbn AwKo-I-cn--s-n-p-v.
{]m-\hpw Ah-t_m-[hpw hfn-sb-Sp-p {]{I-b-bpsS {]k--amb am\v cq]w \Ip-Xv Ch-bm-Wv. CkvemanI Ncn-{X-n-ep-S-\ofw Cu ap{Zm-hmIy- \ne-\n-n-pv. CkvemanI {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-n-tbpw kwkvIm-c-nsbpw apgp-h hi--fnepw P\- Xo-bmbpw lpssks hnhw17 hmey-]qw \ne-\nnbnp-v. At-l-ns c-km-nXzw Ah hjw
tXmcpw A\p-kva-cn-p-Ibpw AXn hne-]n-p-Ibpw sNpp. Ckvemans
{]hm-N-I\pw ap aXt\Xmfpw P\se kZm ka-cn-tev (Po-lm-Zv) Wnn-p-v. Fnpw Fp-sImv Cpw bYm-n ^e-sampw Zriy-am-Ip-n? Ap{Zm-hm-Iy- B[n-Im-cn-Ihpw bYm-hp-am-bn-cp-s-n hymJym\w
\ntj-[m--I-am-bn-cpp F-XmWv CXn\v ImcWw. cq]w tISp-]-msX kqn-v]s]-p. D-Sw hnIr-X-am-bn-cp-p. lpssks c-ns Xnf-ns\ hne-]n-p-I-o-cmn ac-hn-n- b{w {]hnp-sIm-n-cn-p-pshXp t]msebmWv. I_e hnkva-cn-n--s-n-n-.. Ckvemans hm hnkvar-X-ambn hnem-]-Zn\--fn At\ym\yw Igp--dp-p--Xn\v thmn-bmWv Ctm Cu hm D-]tbm-Kn--s-Sp-Xv.
{]_p--\mb apkvenw Cs\ hn-X\m-h-cp-Xv.18 Cy kwkvIm-c-s-tmse
apqSpw B[ym-n-Itam ssN\-m-cp-tS-Xpt]mse XnIpw \nKq-Vm--Itam bh-\60

cp-tSXp t]mse Xopw Zmi-\n-Itam ]mm-Xy-cp-tSXp-t]mse ]qambpw


`uXn-I-tam kmt-Xn-Itam Am Hcp kwkvImcw X\n-p-v F\v hkvXp-X-sbp-dnv Ah t_m[-hm-\m-h-Ww. hniz-mk-n-sbpw BZi-n-sbpw Bob-X-bp-tSbpw ka-\y-am-W-h. ka-X-bp-sSbpw \qXn-bp-sSbpw ssN\-X\yw \ndp
\np Poh XpSn-pp NpW-p-n. Cu {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-amWv Ckv emanI
kaq-l-pw ]c--cm-KX ]uckvXy kaq-l-pw Gsd Bhiyw AXn\m A\y {KIm--fp-sS- cN\I ]cn-`m-j-s-Sp-p--Xn\p ]IcwHcp
\nebvpw AXv s]mXp-P-\-v KpWw sNn{]_papkvenw Xs kaqlns Poh-Zm-b-Ihpw in-bp-a-p-amb k-I
- p-]n-Snv Dun-sb-Sp-p-Ibpw
kwkvI-cn-p-I-bp-amWv sNpI. Ah Ne-\m-I kwkvImc k`-nepw
kaq-l-nepw Xs P\-h-X-bpsS t_m[-nepw m\-ap-dnpw.
ap aXfn \nv `n-ambn Ckvemw Zmcn-{Zys i]n-p-p. CXmWv Cu
k-bpsS Hcp khn-ti-j-X. Ckvemans ]mT-ime-bn ]cn-io-e\w t\Snb alm\mb A_q-Zdv ]d-bp-p: Zmcn{Zyw Hcp hmXnqSn hon {]th-in-p-tm
aXw at hmXn-enIqSn ]pdp t]mhp-p. ]n-Wnbpw IjvS-m-Sp-ambn Ignbp Bfp-Iv Id-I-f-Xpw hn\-bm-\zn-X-hp-amb lrZ-b-ap-m-Ip-sapw AXn\m AZriy {]tNm-Z-\- kzoI-cn-m ]Mi-amhpsapw Ah-Im-i-s-Sp
aXn\v hn]-co-X-am-Wn-Xv. Hgn hb-dn\v Fmw \jvS-am-hp-p. km-nI
{]iv\--fp kaqlw Bob [\w IqSn \jvSsSp-pp. Zcn{Z cmPyv kZmNmcw Fp hnfn-p-Xv hgn ]ng BNm-c--sfbpw ioe--sf-bpw am{X-am-Wv.
Bo-b-Xsb A.
Camw Aen-bpsS Pohn-X-co-Xnsb t]mn-t-Xp-ambn Xmc-X-ay-s-Spn t\mp-I.
Cm-anI kwkvIm-c-ns Ne-\m--I-hi
- - hlnp--Xn-\p Hcp am-anXm-Wv. Aen A[n-Im-c-ta--tm \ne-hn-ep hyXykvX if kvsIbn-ep-I apgph dmn Fm-hpw Xpey-i-fw \Im XpS-n. kaq-ln kp{]-Zm-\amb kmaq-lnI cmjv{Sob \ne-bn-ep DX ]Z-hn-bnse ssk\n-tIm-^o-kpw
Abm-fp-Ss `rXy\pw Htc -i--fw. kaXzw F XXz-tmSp C{X-am{Xw {]_p
]pep h `c-W-Iq-Shpw Cm-e-ptm? C-s\-sbmcp \S-]-Sn-sb-Sp-m
Xbmdp GsX-nepw tkmjy-env hyh-n-Xn-bptm Cv? Ckveman\v cq]w
\Ip Nmbvhp-Ifpw ey-fpw A`n-ho--Whpw \mw kv]jvS-am-p-I. XfpsS kaq-l-nepw kwkvIm-c-nepw m\-ap-d-n-m\pw P\--fp-ambn [mc-Wbn-em-hm\pw Ah-cn\nv A\y-hcn-s-Sm-Xn-cn-m Ah-cpsS aXs
(Ckveman\v) Ah-ew-`n-p-hm\pw am{X-a. aXns LS-I- {]t_m-[\w
sNph-am-\-n\v ]Icw `qXIm-e-s-p-dnv Nnn-m-\ Fv kXy-k-ambn Nnn-m\pw {]_p--hy-n-I-tfmSv \mw ]d-b-Ww. \nc-p-iamb t]mcm-hpw
(Pn-lm-Zv),\oXn (A-Zm-e-v)bpamWv. Cu LS-I-. Ckvemw A-ns Imcyw
{in-p-p. Cl-tem-I-nse kPoh Pohn-Xs ASn-m-\-am-n-bpXmWv
AXns ]c-temI imkv{Xw. AXns ssZhw a\p-jys A-ns\ am\n-p-p.
{]hm-N-I Bbp-[-[m-cn-bm-Wv.
\oXn tIh-e-samcp aX-X-Xz-a-. Ckvemans apgp-h-i--sfbpw `cn-p tNX-\-bmW-Xv. {]hm-N-I-m-cpsS \ntbmKw Cu eym-am-bn-cp-p. Hcn- Camw Aen
Xs kplr-p--fn Hcm-fmb aokw Imc--I cv Iqm-c-ambn Xncnp
hyXykvX hnpXv ImWm-\n-S-bm-bn. ]g- ]e-X-c-amn Am-lp-hns P\sf hnhn[ Xp-I-fn hn`-Pnp \nm X\nv A\p-hm-Z-an-sv Atlw
aok-ans\ tZjy-tmsS Hmn-p. Fn--tlw kzw ssIIsImv Imc-I Iqn--en. Ah Hcv hnebvv hnm Iev]np. A_q-Z-dvdns
61

{]h-\s skv t]mfntXp-ambn Xmc-X-ay-s-Sp-p-I. cavSp t]sc-p-dnpw


Htc hn[n-{]-kvXm-hn-p-Xv {]_p--X-bm-hn-. {]XypX tIhew hnh-c-t-Sn-sbpw
A\o-Xn-bp-sSbpw A`ym-k-m-gvN-bmhpw bYm-n-e-Xv. Pohn-X-Imew apgp-h
Nqj-W-n-s\-Xnsc s]mcp-Xp-Ibpw B t]mcm--n acWw hcn-p-Ibpw sNbvX
B_q-Zdns\ hni-nta-emWv ssZh-ns Be-b- ]Sp-p-b-s-n-cpp-Xv Fpw hni-ns\ XpSv ssZh-ns shfn-]m-Sp-m-hpp Fpw
hmZn skv t]mfp-ambn Xpe\w sNm-h-X-.
XXz-Nn--I\pw Ncn-{X-Im-c\pw X-fm-{K-ln-p GXv coXn-bnepw aX-s-p-dnv
]Tn-m-hp--Xm-Wv. {]_p--hyn Hcp tIh-e-{]-Xn-`mkw F \ne-bvv aXs
imkv{Xo-b-amtbm B-\n-jvT-amtbm hne-bn-cp-m-h-X-. Xs aX-ns kmaqly-\n-tbmKw Fsv Hmtcm {]_p--hy-nbpw kzbw Ip-]n-Sn--Ww. hfsc
{][m-\-am-Wn-Xv. ImcWw Hcp {]_p--hy-nv kw_-hn-p A_w Hcp Fgpp-Im-c\v ]p A_--n\v ka-a-. AsXmcp kaql \mb-I-s, hntam-N-Is, {]hm-N-Is a\pjy Ncn-{X-nse Fm {]hm-N-I-m-cp-tSbpw ]np-S-mcs A_--am-Ip-p.
ChnsS D-bn--s hmZ-ap-J- kw{K-ln-mw. {]hm-NI Xpey-amb Zu-Xy-ap
hyn FmWv {]_p- F-Xns kv]jvS \n-N-\w. apsS kwkvImchpw CXp-X-s. An-s\-bm-hp-tm \ne-hn-epfvf kmaqly kwLj-sf
kmaqlyk`-n \nv AXnse AwK--fpsS Bt_m[hpw hnIm-cfpambn ]cn-hn-p-I-bmWv A-c-samcp hyn-bpsS eyhpw D-c-hm-Znhpw ka-Im-enI kaq-l-n \npw kmaqly Pohn-X-n \np-amWv
{]_p hyn Akw-kvIrX hkvXp- tiJ-cn-t-Xv. {]_p--hy-nv
s]mXp-hmb aqey-fpw khn-ti-j-X-I-fp-ap Hcp amXr-I-bn-. {]_p- Ftmsgms Xs aX-n \nv ]nn-cn-bp-pthm Atm-sgms kaq-lhpw Abmfn \nv ]pdw Xncn-bpp shv kmy-s-Sp-p-pv \psS kzbw Ncn{Xhpw A\p-`-h-hpw. aX-amWv \psS kaq-l-ns {]Ya ssNX-\yw. {]_p--hyn-bpsS aX-hn-tcm[w {]_p--cmb bph-X-e-ap-d-bn\nv ^ehpw em`hpw t\Sp-Xn-\p km[y-X-sb-p-dnv t_m[-ap-m-hp--Xn \npw kaq-ls XS-bpp.-X--fpsS \nkvXpe temI-ho--Whpw Ah-t_m-[hpw ImcWw {]_p
hyn-Iv X-fpsS X-fpsS kaq-l-nse _lp P\-sf Nen-n-p-Xn\pw ]Tn-n-p--Xn\pw ^e-{]-Zhpw kpZoL-hp-amb ]p hln-m Ign-bpw.
A]mbw, ]nn-cn--w, Agn-a-Xn, Ime-sm-cp--an-m Imcyw, Bi-b-p-gw
XpS-nb sshhn-[y-am LS-I--sf-p-dnv {]_p--hy-n-I Xsf ]Tn-np-sav kaqlw Xo{h-ambn {]Xo-n-p-p-v. \oXnbpw t\Xr-Xz-hp-amWv Ckv
emanI kwkvIm-c-ns apJyssNX\yw. Ckv emw ap aX--sf-tm-se-b-. ap
aX- AXns\ shphnfn-p-p. Ah-bn-ep hnizmkw Xpdp ]d-bp-p. Ah
s]m-bm-sWp {]Jym-]n-p-p.19 ka-Im-eo\ P\-msI Da amXr-Ibmb aX-sbpw ImgvN-m-Sn-s\bpw Bkv]-Z-am-n-bp--XmWv apsS kaq-lw.
Fp-sIm-s-m \psS aXw c-km-n-Xz-ns ]mc--cy-ap--XmWv.
Cu aX-ns ]pWy-hm-f-mcpw H-s Kpl-I-fntem aT--fntem shv kzm`mhnI Imc-W--fm arXn-bSnn-. cWm--W-ntem Icm-{K-l-ntem ckmn-I-fm-hp-I-bm-bn-cpp Ah-scmhcpw.
P\-sf hgn \S-p--Xn\pw tamNn-n-p--Xn\pw thn, \hy-am-sbmcp kvt\ln\pw hnizm-k-n\pw DuP-kz-e-Xbvpw Pw \Ip--Xn-\p-th-n, P\-lr-Zb--fnepw a\-p-I-fnepw {]Imiw sNmcn-bp--Xn\p thn, A-X, A-hn-

62

izmw, {Iqc-X, ka-Im-eo\ CkvemanI kaq-l--fnse A[--X\w Fo hnhn[


hnj-b--sf-p-dnv Ahsc t_m[-h-Xv-cn-p--Xn\p thn {]_p hyn
aXw sImm-cw-`n--Ww. \psS {]tXy-I-amb aXw kwkvImcw FmWv Rm\nXvsImv Dt-in-p--Xv. Cv apgp \np aXw F-. a[y-Im-e-L--nse
ss{IkvX-h-Xbp-tS-Xn\v kam-\-amb HcnkvemanI s{]m-mn-k-n \nmWv
Bcw-`n-t--Xv. kaq-l-ns hn[n-sbbpw Nnm-L-Xn-sbbpw Ckv emans
t]cn hnUvVo-I-cn-p-Ibpw XSv \np-Ibpw sNbvXv A[x-]-Xn-n-p-
LN-I-sf apgp-h \in-n--Ww. tbip-hns\ hntam-N-I-\m-b-h-X-cn-n-p-Xns\ \ymbo-I-cn-t-n-bn-cp iq\y-l-kvX-amb {InkvXy s{]mkvn-k-n\v
hn]-co-X-ambn CkvemanI s{]mkvn-k-n\v hen-s-Sp-m A\-h[n t{kmXp-Ifpw LN-I--fp-ap-v. A-c-sam-cp-{]-m\w [mcmfw Duw {]k-cn-npw. {]_p--cmb apkvenwIsf AXv Xmsg ]d-bp Imcy-v {]m]vX-am-pIbpw sNpw.
1. \psS kaq-l-ns kmwkvIm-cnI tiJ-c- ]pd-s-Sp-p-Ibpw ]cn-jvIcn-p-Ibpw sNp-I. tbm-p-Jhpw Xnn \np--Xp-amb LS-I-sf
Ducvhpw Ne-\-hp-ambn ]cn-hn-n-p-I.
2. \ne-hn-ep- kaq-ly, h kwL-j-sf, Iem-km-ln-Xy-fpw kwkmc
ssh`-h-fpw, ssIh-i-ap A[n-Im-cw, ap-km-[y-X-I Fn-hbpw D]-tbmKnv, kaq-tlym--c-hm-Zn-m-h-t_m-[-hp-ambn cq]m--c-s-Sp-p-I.
3. _pn-Po-hn-bpsS Zzo]n\pw s]mXp-P-\--fpsS Xoc-n-\p-an-S-bn A\p-Zn\w
hnkvXr-X-ambn hcp hnShv \nI-p-I. Ccp-hp-an-S-bn ASn--nsbpw
]cn-N-b-n-sbpw [mc-W-bp-sSbpw Iqmb hn\n-a-b-n-sbpw Hcp-]mew ]Wnbp-I. As\ Ne-\m--Ihpw Poh-Zm-b-I-hp-amb aXw Pohn-Xs tkhn-p-Xmbn amd-Ww.
4. aXw AXv A\l-ambn [dn--hv A{]m-]y-am-p-I. sshb-n-Im-h-iyv aXs D^-tbm-Kn-p-I-bmWv Ah-cpsS Dt-iyw. AXp-hgn P\-sf
{]tNm-Zn-n-m-\mhiy-amb Duw kw`-dn-p-I-bpw.
5. Hcp aX-\-thm-m-\-n-\v kam-cw`w Ipdn-p-I. kPo-hhpw Ne\-\--I-hp-amb
A[n-Im-chpw \oXn-bp-ap aX-n-tev Xncnp t]mhp-I-h-gn, AXn-eqsS adp-hiv kaq-l-nse ]nn- in-Isf \no-cy-am--Ibpw adp hiv P\sf ab-p-a-cp-p-sIm-Spv ab-p-hm-\p-]-tbm-Kn-p LS-I--fn \nv
Ahsc cn-p-Ibpw sNp-I. C-c-samcp \thm-m\w sXmSpp hnSI
hgn CXp-hsc ab-p-I-bm-bn-cp LS-I- ]p\-cp--cn-p--Xn\pw t_m[#w
\Ip--Xn\pw A hnizm-k-n-s\-Xnsc s]mcp-Xp--Xn-\pambn D]-tbm-Kn-s-Spw. AXn\pw ]pdsa kaq-l-nse B[n-Im-cnI kwkvIm-c-n-tev aS-pIbpw AXns\ B{i-bn-p-Xv ]Sn-m-d kmwkvIm-cnI {Ia-Ws {]Xntcm-[n-p--Xpamb kmwkvIm-cnI kzmX-{ys ]p\P-\n-n-p-Ibpw kPo-ham-p-Ibpw sNpw.
6. Ah-km-\-ambn, P\-Iob aX-ns e-W-amb Aamb A\p-k-c-Whpw
A\p-I-cW hmgvNbpw XpSp \on AXn\v ]I-c-ambn kzX-{m-t\z-j-W-ns(-C-PvXn-lm-Zv) A{I-a-tWm-p-Jhpw hn-hm--I-hp-amb ssNX-\ys
sImp-h-cn-I. kaq-l-nse Kw`o-c-amb Du tiJ-cs \ho-I-cn-pIbpw Dun-sb-Sp-p-Ibpw sNp, Ime-L-s {]_p--am-p-Ibpw ham\ Xe-ap-dsb DWp-Ibpw sNp Hcp aX-\-ho-I-cW {]m-\-n-eqsS
Ch-sbmw ]qo-I-cn-m-hp--Xm-Wv. ta-d Imc-W-m-em-Wv Xs
P\-X-bpsS Ncn-{X-n-sbpw A\p-`h
- -fpsS Bg--fn \nv Dbph
t_m[-ap Hc-[ym-]-I-s\-tmse, Rm {]_p hyn ]ptcm-K-a-\m--I-amb

63

kzbw t_m[-n-se-p-sav {]Xo-n-p--Xv. ImcWw \psS P\-X-bvmhiyw kzbw t_m[-am-Wv. {]_p--cmb apkvenw Pohn-Iv hnizm-khpw.

Ipdn-p-I
1 CXn-^mZv F Jp-B-\nI ]Z-n\v \n-lm-b-\m--e, _e-lo-\-\m Fsm-s-bm-Ww.
CkvXn-_vZm-Zv(-G-Im-[n-]-Xyw), CkvXn-Avam(-km-{am-PyXzw), CkvXn-kvam(-Nq-jWw) XpS-n-b-hbvv kam-\amb Hcp \njv]--am-W-Xv. Ncn-{X-ns hnhn-[L---fn kw`-hn CkvXn-Zv-B-^ns(a-\w) ]e-cq-]--fmWv hmkvX-h-ne-h. P\- km-n-I-ambpw (Nq-j-Ww) cmjv{So-b-am-bp(-G-Im-[n-]-Xyw)
tZio-b-ambpw(km-{am-Py-Xzw) kmwkvIm-cn-I-ambpw(kvXw`n-n-) Zp_-e-cm-s--tmtgm, Chbv Hp-am-{X-amtWm IqSn-t \ne-bntem, CkvXnZv B^v
Dm-bn. AXns Cc-I-fmWv apkvXZv A^q (aZn-X). a-cp-`q-an-bn a\w
\ntcm-[n-p-Ibpw B hs tamNn-n-p-Ibpw sNp--Xn-s\-p-dnv JpB\v ]d-bp-p. AXn-\m AXns ktiw A\-iz-c-am-Ip-p. Fm
AXn\p ]I-c-ambn a-\ns {]I-Sn-Xb cq]--fmb ASn-aw, km{amPyXzw, GIm-[n-]Xyw apX-em-b-hsb Ipdnp am{X-amWv AXns {]Xn-]m-Zy-san AXns kt-i-n\v, kzmX-{yw, P\m-[n-]-Xyw, en_-d-en-kw(-A-Yhm
ASn-a \ntj-[w) Fn-h-bpsS kwm-]-\s XpSpfvf {]m[m\yw
\jvS-s-Sp-I-bm-bn-cp-p. Ans\ Ncn-{X-]-c-ambn aqeyw am{Xta AXn-\p-m-Ipam-bn-cp-p-q. ap Zpcn-X- {Kkn-p-am-bn-cp-p. h-Nq-jWw aqe-hpw, Ie,
kml-Xyw, Zi-\w, {]Xy-b-imkv{Xw {]Nm-cWw, B-m-\-hm-Zw, hyn-hmZw, Bi-b-hm-Zw, el-cn-I As-n P\--fpsS D-c-hm-Zn-hpw
t_m[hpw \in-n-p ap am- Ch-sbm-s-bmWv ap Zpcn-X-.
AXn-ep-]cn Jp-Bs ktkw hyXy-kvX-amb Hcp bpK-n {]tbm-Kn-m-hX-. a\p-jyXz ]c-a-m hyh-n-Xn-I-sfbpw LS-\-I-sf-bpw FXnm\pw
hymJym-\n-m\pw Ign-bp Hcp ]pXnb {]Xy-im-kv{Xs tXSn-sm-n-cn-pI-bm-bn-cpp _pn-Po-hn-I. ssZhs an-Xs Xp-cm Fp hnfn-Xns t]-cn bYm-n-XnI aX-t\-Xm- Fs hnain-p--Xmbn Hcp
kplrv Hcn- F\nv XmoXv \In. {]`p--mpw `c-Wm-[n-Im-cnIpw hyXy-kvX-amb ssZhw Dsp hy-ambn kNn-n-p-I-bm-bn-cpp
AXn-eq-sS. {]hm-N-I-sbpw Camw Aen-bpsSbpw Imev Cu hnai-I-m
Pohn-n-cp-s-n Fv Rm\m-{K-ln-p-I-bm-sW-n Fv Rm {]Xn-I-cn-p.
Fn Ahv Cu Dm-gn-N-bp \nt-i- \Im Cq-v
Ign-bp-am-bn-cp-p. B Ah-kcw Ahv \jvS-am-bn. ssZh-ns {Khpw
Camw Aen-bpsS \lvPp_em-Kbpw Ah Xncp--Ww. Fnv Ahsc Cu
_lp-ssZ-h-Xz-n(-inn) \nv ipo-I-cn-p-Ibpw thWw. hnti-jnv
Jp-B-\nse HSp-hn-es A[ym-bw Ah Xncp-t-vXp-v. B A[ymbw
ssZh-s apgp-h-\mbn P\-tfmSv _sSppp. ]d-bpI: P\--fpsS
\mY-\n Rm\-`bw tXSp-p. P\--fpsS cmPmhv, P\--fpsS Bcm[y(14:13) P\-(A-m-kv) F-]-Z-n\v ]Icw temI (A Beao)-Fv Ah Xncp--s. (A-[nIw ]cn-`m-j-Jcpw hyJym-Xm-fpw Amkv
Fv JpB {]tbm-Kn Ad_n ]Z-n\v am\-h-cmiv F P\-

64

Ccp-]Xmw \qm-n AXn\v Iev]n--s-Sp A-n--F-mWv Aw


\Ip-Xv Fv ChnsS Nqn-m-Wn--Ww.
2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

dqi^nIv Zzbm-ap Hcp t]jy ]Z-am-Wv. ap\-n-dp ^nIn


F Ad_n ]Z-n \nm-Wn-Xns D`-hw. Pem Aen A-Zns
JnZvav hJn-bm-\s dqim^nIv (sX-lvdm;dhmJv1358/1979) F
]pkvX-I-n CXns hnh-c-W-ap-v. CXns\ Cwo-jnse Kem-X-Xm-aqtlmX F ]Z-tmSv Xmc-X-ay-s-Sp-p-I-bmWv km[m-cW sNm-dv.
]s Cu ]mTw ImWnp Xcp-Xp t]mse tUm.-i-co-An AXn\v
cvhy-XykvX A- I]n-p-p. Nne-tm Atlw AXn\v
_pn-Pohn Fpw ap-Nn-e-tm kmaqly {]hm-N-I Fpw Aw
\IpXv ImWmw. k`-n-\-\p-k-cnv Cu ]Z-n\v _pn-Pohn
Ftm {]_p--hyn Ftm ]cn-`mj \In-bn-cn-pp (F-Un-)
t]jy-m-cpsS Hcp km[m-cW kmwkvIm-cnI C\-amWv ]pkvXI
tPmyw. Jp-Bt\m ]{mw \qm-nse alm-\mb Cdm-\n-b Ihn
lm^n-kns kam-lm-ctam CXn-\m-bp-]-tbm-Kn-pp. Kpcp-X-c-amb Fsnepw [ k-Stam Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-t {]iv\tam hm Hcm Chbn-semcp {Kw Xpd-p--In-p t]Pnse D-Sw Hp-In-b Ddv
As-n \ncp-mlw \Ipw.(-F-Un-).
JmPcm-Pm-am-cnse D]m-y-\mb apl-Zv Aen-jm-bpsS ]m-fms-Xnsc X_vco-kn sNdp-n]v {]m\w \bn cp t\Xm-fn-sem-cm-fmWv kmJm (a-cWw 1292/1913). X{_o-knse s#mcp km[p
I-h-S-m-c-\m-bn-cp-p. lmPv lk Jdm--`m-Kn-bpsS ]p{X-\m-bn-cp-p-km(-F-Un-)
Amam apl-Zv Jkvhn\n (18771949) Ccp-]Xmw \qm-nse Cdm-\nse
kmln-Xy-N-cn{X cwKs Hcp {]apJ ]WvUn-X. #nkv emanI amXr-Ibnepw bptdm-]y amXr-I-bn-ep-ap knIq-fp-I-fn Atlw ]c-io-e\w
t\Sn-bn-cp-p. `c-L-S\m hncp {]m-\-ns Xe-h-\mb ssiJv ^Zn-epm-\q-dm-\n-bmWv I imkv{X-n At-l-ns Kpcp.(-F-Un-)
Aen AIv_ sZlvIpZm(18801955) ]WvUn-X\pw `mjm-im-kvX-c-\pw
hnm-\-tIm-i-\nm-Xmhpw ]{X-{]-h-I\pw `c-L-S\m {]m-\nse kPo-hw-K-hp-am.#n-ep-p. sX{lm-\nepw hnb--bnepw ]Tn-p. Cdm-\ntev Xncn-p-h--tm `c-L-S\m hn-h-ns \Sp-hn-em-sW-n-b-Xv.
#vt-l-ns
D]-lm-k-te-J-\-
{]apJ
Zn\-]{X-ambkq-Ckvdm^oen {]kn--s-Sp-n. cmjv{Sob kz[o\w sNep-p--h-bm-bncpp Ah. a{X-a ]{X-{]-h-\-n Hcp ]pXnb ssien-bpsS XpS-hpw. ]noSv Atlw {]en-sa-sn-tev Xnc-s-Sp--s-p. cmj-{So-bn Xv]cyw \in--tm Atlw Xs Ghpw henb kw`m-h-\bmb {K-n-s--Xs Xs t]cn \maIcWw sN-s epK-vsaZvlvJpZm F hnm-\-tImi kZr-i-amb \nL-p cN-\-bn-tev Xncnp.(F-Un-)
`hn-bn IpSn-tb-dp--Xn\v thn ^e-`p-bvjvS-amb ew In-]n-Sn-m\p At\z-j-W-hp-ambn aptmv Hcp tKm{Xw Npa-X-e-s-Sp-p hynbmWv Adm-CZvAbm ^e-`q-bn-jvS-amb \new Is-n-bm am{Xw
t]mc kpc-n-X-Xz-ns \ne-hmcw Xn--Sp-p-Ibpw i{Xp-tKm-{X--fn
\npw km[yam-bp A]-I-S--fn \np-ap AIew IW-m-pIbpw thWw.
65

Ck emanI teI-ho--W-n lnIvaXv F ]Z-ns Aw Fm


a\p-jy-hn-m-\--fp-tSbpw ASn-d Fm-Wv. ikv{X--fpsS hKo-I-cW-s-Ip-dn {]_--n C_v\p-ko\ (A-hn-k-) Am-es Fm
imkvX-c-ta-J-e-I-sfbpw kqNn-n-m lnIvaXv D]-tbm-Kn-n-p-v. ]no-Stlw sskm-n-Ihpw {]mtbm-Kp-Ih
- -]-\mb hn`m-K-mn hn`-Pnp.
lnI-aXv Bn-p--tXmsS Hcm {]_p--\m-hp-p-shpw Xs
AkvXnXzsp-dnp t_m[-hm-\m-hpp Fpw k]n--s-Sp-p.(-FUn-).
9. Am-kn-b- Fns\ P\-sf cmjv{Sob cln-X-amn Fpw imkv{X]p-tcm-K-Xnbpw Ie,- km-ln-Xyw, imkv{Xob Ip-]n-Sp--, Zmi-\nI
kwhm-Z-, hnh\w, A\y-P-\-XI
- -fpsS ss]Xr-Ihpw kwkvIm-chpw
A\p-In- Fn-hbpw t{]mm-ln-n-p-sImv sXv icn {]iv\-fn\npw cmjv{Sob {]iv\--fn \npw Ah-cpsS {i Xncn-p-hn-p.
Fpw Ckvemw i\mkn(a-ivl-Zv,1968) bn Rm Nqn-m-Wn-p-p-v.
aX imkv{X--epsS hnImkw aX-ns kp{]-[m\ {]iv\-sf hyXy-Xbn-tev Xn.
{^mkv ^m\-s\-tm-se-bp--h-sc-bmWv ]Sn-mdv bqtdm-]ym-hiyw Fv
km{Xv Icp-Xp-Xv IuXp-I-I-c-am-Wv. ^m\s the wretched of the erth F
IrXn-bpsS apJ-hp-c-bn km{Xv ]d-bp-p: B{^n--m-c-s\-gp-Xnb Cu
]pkvXIw Hcp t_mw_m-Wv. Cu ]mmXy hncp IrXn apX-em-fn \mK-cn-IX-bpsS lrZ-b-hpw _qjzm-th-iym-e-b-hpamb ]mco-kn {]N-cn-n-p-Xv
Rm\n-jvS-s-Sp-p. ]Sn-m-d km[m-c-W-mv C-c-samcp s]mn-sdn
Bh-iy-am-Wv.
1941\pw 1953\pan-S-bvp Imew Cdm-\n `c-W-L-S\m ]p\-cp-o-h\ (Clvbmsb aivZqXn-bm-Xv)-ns hj--fm-bn-cp-p. Cu Ime-b-f-hn Cdm-
DX \ne-hm-c-n-ep P\m[n]Xy kzmX{yw A\p-`-hn-p. GI O{Xm-[n-]Xn-bmb dnkm-jmsb kJy-tk\ Cdm-\n \nv ]pd-m-n. Abm-fpsS aI
Fs-nepw \nb-{Ww m]n-m Ign-bm-{X sNdp--am-bn-cp-p. Cu
L-s-bmWv ico-An kqNn-n-p-Xv (F-Un-).
AlvaZv Inkvd-hnbpw Abm-fpsS A\p-bm-bn-I-fp-amWv kqN-\. D]-cn--h-sav
Ah hne-bn-cp-p ]pkvX-I- BgvN-bn-sem-cn- Ah In-m-dpm-bn-cp-p.(-F-Un-)
Ccp-]Xmw \qm-n Cdm-\nse Ghpw kzm[o-\-ap ]WvUn-X\pw \nb-a\pw Ncn-{X-Im-c\pw Fgp-p-Im-c-\p-amWv knZv AlvaZv Inkvd-hn. Atlw
1890 X_vkn P\n-p. inbm hncp--Im-gn-N-m-Sp-I ImcWw 1946 ^Zm-Cbms\ Ckveman (C-kvem-an\p thn Dgn-p-sh--h)s A\p-bm-bn-I-fm
h[n-sp.
8.

10.

11.

12.
13.

Ad_n, {^v, Cwo-jv, djy `mj-I At-l-n-\-dn-bm-am-bn-cp-p. Cdm


Ncn-{X-sbpw kmaqly cm{ob Pohn-X-sbpw kw_-nv GXmv Fgp]Xv IrXn-I cNn-p-p-v. {]apJ IrXn-bmb XmcosJaivdq-Xmlpw CXn
s]Sp-p. Chbvp ]pdsa ]w F\hv\ Zn\-]{Xhpw ss]am Fsmcp
tPWepw {]kn-o-I-cnp (F-Un-).
14. Dkvam-\nbm Jnem-^v \ne-\n-n-cp Imev tZio-bX Ckvemans\ \in-nm-\p km{am-PyXz JUvK-am-bn-cp-p. Cwo-jp-Im-c-\mb temdkv Hm^v
Atd_y(18881935)bpw ss^k cmPmhpw (`-c-W-Imew 192123)am-bn-cpp
CXns t\Xm-.

66

15. emn-\-ta-cn--bnse _pn-Po-hn-I Fn-s\-bmWv It-enm aXs


hymJym-\n--Xn-s\-p-dnv tUm.-i-co-An t_m[-hm-\ Fp hyw. Hcp
]WvUn-X Nqn-m-Wn--Xp-t]mse ico-A-n-bpsS Ckvem-an-t\mSp kao]\w hntam-N-\-im-kv{X-ns hmm--fpsS ss{IkvX-h-aX hyJym-\-n\v
kZri-am-sWv hmkvX-hw. _m _mm-cn-bpsS Religion and Politcs:
The middle East and Latin America \nv CXv a\--em-mw. ]n.-F-.Un
{]_-w hnPo-\nb kh-I-em-ime1984(-F-Un-).
16. s{]m-v t\Xm- ]d-bm-dp-m-bn-cpp: P\-tf, Pohn-X-ns `uXnI
hi- Ah-K-Wn--W-sa-pw AXns B-cnI k-bn am{Xta {i
]Xn-n-mhq Fpw ]q-ambpw hncn t\S-W-savv {InkvXp-aXw Hcnepw \n-tfm-Sm-h-iy-s-n-n-. \apv A[n-Im-chpw kmaqln kpc-n-XXzhpamm-bm ssZhw kt-jn-p-I-bmWv sNp-I. Npcp--n ]nn-cn-m aX-ns ]ptcm-K-a-\m hi- Acn-In-tev ASn-p-Iqn amn
sh-tm ]cn-jvIm- B hi- Dbn-m-p-Ibpw {]N-cn-n-pIbpw sNbvXp. sFlnI PohnX kw_-n-bm-W-h.
17. kqN\ I_em kw`-hw. lpssk(-d) c-km-nXzw inbm--fpsS apJy
{]tZm-\-am-Wv. ico-A-n-bpsS c-kmyw (C-kvem-anIv ^ut-j
{]kv) hmbn-p-I. (hnh-I)
18. hnhw, \oXn, bpw Fo {]iv\--fp-ambn Pohn-X-n Hpw sNm-\nm asmcp Cam-ans IY Xo-bmbpw hnj-b-am-hp-Ibpw {]m-\-Iv
Du sImSp-p-I-bp-am-sW-n _pn-Po-hn-I F \ne-bn \mw kw`-h-fpsS Cu ]ptcm-K-a-\m hi--fn Du-Ww. {]m-\hpw hnc-nbpw
{hXhpw Bcm-[-\bpamWv aX-ns XqWp-I Fp ]d-bp--sX-n
\oXnbpw t\Xr-Xzhpw ka-c-hp-amWv aX-ns kvXw`- Fv ]dvsImv {]_p hyn-I AXns\ FXnt--Xp-v.
19. Jp-B-\nse Jm^n-dp-I-sfms aXclnX A. Cu kqw {in-pI:
kzhpw shnbpw ]qgvn shp-Ibpw Ah ssZh-am-n hybw
sNm-Xn-cn-p-Ibpw sNp--hv (ap-l--tZ) thZ\m ]q-ambn Ays-p-dnv \o hm-b-dn-bn-pI.(9:34); CXpw Am-lp-hn-s kti-fn Ahn-iz-kn-p-Ibpw {]hm-N-I-msc A\ym-b-ambn sImp-Ibpw P\-fn \oXn A\p-im-kn-p--hsc h[n-p-Ibpw sNp--hsc thZ-\-tb-dnb
in-sb-p-dnv hm-b-dn-bn-p-I.(9:20)Im^n-dns aX-sa-sp CXn
\np {Kln-mw. Hcp hiv P\-n-S-bn {]hm-N-I-m-cpsS ]mc-cyw
\ne-\n-dp-m\pw \oXnbpw ka-Xzhpw kpm]n-p-hm\pw ITn-\-bXv\w sNn-h-cm-Wp--Xv. adp-h-iv {]hm-N-I-m-cpsS \oXnpw ka-Xz-n\pw FXnsc
\nesImp-h-cpw. aXw, \ntj[w Fn-h-bn \nv Ckvem-ans Ncn-{X-]chpw hm-[n-jvTn-X-hp-amb a\-n-em--em-W-nXv. aX-\n-tj-[nsb \o
Ipthm?, A\m-Y-Isf Bn-tbm-Sn-p-Ibpw AKXnv Al-X-s Blmcw
sImSp-m t{]cn-n-m-Xn-cn-p-Ibpw sNp--h-\m-W-h (10713).

67