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{]km-[Ipdnv

ckmyw cmw ]Xnv {]kn--s-Sp-m km[n--Xn AXn-bmb


ktmjap-v. Cu A-h-k-c-n CXns Hmw ]Xnv kmthiw kzoI-cn
klrZbtIc-f-tm-Sp
AssI-X-h-amb
IrX--X
R-fn-hnsS
tcJsSppp.
\qm-p-Ip tijhpw k-\-v Bthiw \Inbpw Ah-cpsS ka-c-fn-te-v A\-izc{]` sNmcnpw \ne-\np I_ebpsS Ncn-{Xhpw XXz-imkv{Xhpw bYm-ambn Nn{Xo-I-cn-p Da IrXn-sb \nev c-kmyw
Nnc-{]-XnjvTn-X-amtI--Xpv. CXmWv Cu cmw ]Xnv {]kn--s-Sp-m
Rp {]tNm-Z-\w.
Aen ico-A-n-bpsS Ncn-{X-t_m-[hpw Bhn-jvmckmayhpw hnImc Xo{hXbpw C{X-tmfw apn-\np Hcp IrXn thsd-bn. AXn-\m Hcp kmlnXy
krjvSnsb \ne-bnepw AXn-hn-in-jvShpw Aaqeyhp-amb c-kmyw Bh-iymv kZm kwe-`y-am-bn-cn-t--Xp-sv R Icp-Xp-p. cmw ]Xnv
{]knn-s-Sp-p-tm hnh-I hnh\w ]p\hm-b\ \S-p-Ibpw Nne
]cn-jvIm-c- hcp-pbpw sNbvXn-p-v. salvZn B_nZnbpw Jmcn sesP
tlmk\pw tNv FUnv sNbvXXpw Ata-cn--bnse Cdnkv {]kn--s-Sp-n-bXp-amb PnlmZv BUv ilmZ F t{ImUo-I-c-W-n ico-A-n-bpsS Cu
]pkvXIhpw Dsm-n-pv. AXpambn Hp- t\m-n-bmWv ]p\hm-b\ \SnbXv. AZy]Xn-n-\m-[m-c-amnbncp Aen AkvK Km-an-bpsS Cwojv
hnh-\-n ImWm GXm\pw t]Pp-I Cdn-kns ]Xn-n I-Xn-\m
AXp IqSn Ds-Sp-n-bmWv cmw ]Xnv ap{ZWw sNbvXncn-p-Xv. HSp-hn
sImSp-n-cn-p Ipdn-p-Ifpw Hmw ]Xn-nenm--XmWv. Ip-dn-p-I Cdnkv ]Xnns klm-b-tmSp IqSn hnh-I Xm-dm-n-b-XmWv. IqSmsX {K-Imhns Hcp eLp PohN-cn-{Xhpw CXn-eps-Sp-n-bn-cn-pp.
1991 BKv 14

CkvemanIv ^utj {]kv


Aco-tm-S v 67639

Aen- i-co-An
(19331977)
kmaq-lnIimkv{X-Im-c. Cdm CkvemanI hn-h-ns XmXznIm-Nm-cy. 1933
amn Cdm-\nse ako-\m {Kma-n P\np. {]Ya Kpcp- ]n-Xmhv apl-Zv XJo
ico-A-n.- a-ivl-Znse C_v\p kao, ^nZukn kvIqfn ]Tnp. 1958 {^nepw ]mkn-bnepw _n.-F.-_n-cpZw t\Sn-b- tijw D]cn ]T-\-n\v {^mkn-tev t]mbntkmt_m kh-I-em-im-e-bn tNp. kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-n-epw
Ncn-{X-nepw tUmIvS-td-p-I t\S-nsmv 1963 \mn-tep aSn. DSs\
Adv sNsSpIbpw Bdp -amkw Pbn-en InS-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. ]ns Aym]\ hrn-bn-tesp1969 ]ncn-p-hn-Sp--Xp-hsc. 1972 hopw Pbn-eneSbv-sp. 1975 tamNn-X-\m-sb-nepw XpSp cv hjw hop XS--en-em-bncp-p. 1977 Ata-cn--bn-tep t]mIpw hgn Cw-n-en-dn Hcp _phns
hk-Xn-bn Xma-knp. AhnsS shv khm-ns {Iqc lkvX- At-l-ns
Poh-\-]-l-cn-p 77 Pq19\v.
ico-A-nv sNKpthc, ^m\, km{Xv, eqbn amkn-tRm, sl{Sn temamkv
XpS-n-b-h-cp-ambn ASp _-ap-m-bn-cpp. sNKpth-c-bp-tSbpw ^m\-sbpw
km{Xnsbpw IrXn-I Atlw ]mkn-bn-tev ]cn-`m-jsSpn-bn-p-v.
sNdp--nXs ico-An cmjv{So-b-Imcy--fn Xc-\m-bn-cpp. ssZh-hnizm-kn-I-fp-sS tkmjy-env {]m\w (\lvksJpZm-]-d-kvms\ kqkn-bmenkvXv) F kwL-S-\-bn sNdp--nte Atlw tNp {]hn-ncp-p.
]noSv \kvls apJm-hn-as ann(tZiob {]Xn-tcm[ apWn), \kvls
Bkm-Znsb Cdm(Cdm kzmX{y {]m\w), APo-cn-b kzmX{y
{]m\w, Phm\ms\ \kvls annsb Cdm\--D-dp-m(bqtdm-nse Cdm
tZiob bph-P\ {]m\w) XpS-nb kwL-S-\-I-fp-ambn _-sv {]hn-p.
ico-A-n-bpsS IrXn-I Ccp-\q-dn-tesd hcpw. \mS-I-, D]-\ym-k-, Ihn-XI, B-IYm Ipdn-p-I, {]`m-j-W- Fn-h-bm-Wh. lpssk-\nm Cim-Zn shp \S-nb {]`m-j-W- {it-b--fmWv. Ah-bn 5000hpw 6000hpw
t] nc-ambn kw_nncp-p. Ckvem-anI Nn-I-fpsS {]Nm-cWn\mbn
GXm\pw t] tNv m]nXmWv lpssk-\nm CjmZv. XzmcosJ
AZvbm(aX--fpsS Ncn{Xw), Cmwi\mkn(Cmw hnm-\obw) Fo Xe-sp-I-fn ico-An AhnsS \S-nb {]`m-j-W- bphm--sfbpw A`y--hn-Zytcbpw Cm-an-t\m-S-Sp-n-p-Ibnw hn-thmkp-I-cm-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. lpssk-\n-bn Ign-- Im-e-L--amWv ico-A-n-bpsS Pohn-X-n Fhpw kPo-hhpw
k^e-hpw.

Ah-Xm-cnI
Fgp-]-Xn]cw In-bmbn ]ncnbpw Fs kap-Zmbw {]-hm-N-Is (k) Cu
{]h-N\w lZokp kam-l-c--fn-ep--cn--sp ImWmw. AXn-s- \n-th-ZI]c--cbn \bo- ap_v\plmZv Fsm-cm-fpv. lZo-kp-\n-cq-]Wimkv{X--m-cpsS
\nK-a-\-n A\-`n-a-X-\mWv \bow. AXp-sImv Abm aptJ\ dntmv sNs-n-p {]kvXpX lZokv Zpe-am-Ip-p. blvb-_v\p-ap-bo apX-emb lZokp
\ncq-]-I-m-cpsS ]w AXs{X.
Zp_-e-am-bn-cmw. ]t, lZo-kns Bibw Ncn-{X-]-c-ambn icn-bmWv. apnw
kap-Zm-b-n Fgp-]-X AXn-ep-sa-{Xtbm Ccn In-I-fpfhm-bn-p-v. Xs
In am{X-amWv kzK-n-\-h-Im-in-sbpw CXcIn-I-sfmw \c-Iml-cmsWpw Hmtcm-I-n-m-c\pw Ah-Im-i-s-Sp-p. kzhpw \c-Ihpw hoXn-phm\p A[n-Imcw Am-lp-hn-t\-bp-q-shv \ap--dnbmw. BI-bm Hu[-Xy-ntbpw ]m-]m-Xn-Xz-n-sbpw sImSp-ap-Sn-bn \np-sIm-p Cm-Xncn AhImihmZ-v eh-teiw hne-In-m-\n-.
\ne-hn-ep Hmtcm Inpw ]c--cm-K-X-ambn AwKo-I-cn-p-h-cp {]Xy-b-imkv{Xhpw I-im-kv{X-hp-apv. B imkv{X--fn AXmXp In-I ASnbp-dp
hniz-kn-p-Ibpw sNp-p. BI-bm GsX-n-ep-samcp {]Xy-b-im-kv{Xnttbm
I-im-kv{X-nttbm ASn-m-\-n apnw kap-Zm-bs GIo-`-hn-n-pI
{]bm-k-am-bn-cnpw. In-Xzhpw In-Xm]-cyhpw F{X- Xs `n-am-sW-nepw
apnw P\-tIm-Sn-Isf Hnp \np Nne auenI LS-I- Ctmgpw `mKy-him Ah-ti-jn-ppv. Ah-cpsS ssZhw HmWv; {]hm-NI- H-mWv; thZw
HmWv; Jn_vebpw tI{hpw HmWv. Am-lp-hnepw apl-Zv \_n-bnepw Jp-B\nepw IA_bnepw Hn-n-cn-p apnw In-Iv s]mXp-Xm]-cy--fn
Fp-sImv Hnpkl-I-cn-p-IqSm?
Cu Bibw Hp-IqSn Xd-np ]d-p-sIm-s. apnw aX-I-n-Iv {]Xy-bim-kv{X]c-ambpw I-im-kv{X-]c-ambpw tbmPn-p-hm\pw GtIm-]n-p-hm\pw
km[ya-s-n th. Hmtcm- I-n-bpw AX-Xns hnizm-k-{]-am-W-fnepw
I-im-kv{X]-Xn-Ifnepw Xs Ddp \np-Ibpw Ah-\-hs hnizmkw
Htcmcp--t\bpw cn-bpw sNbvXp-sIm--s. Fm s]mXp-i-{Xp-hn-s\-Xnsc
s]mXp-Xm]cykwc--W-mYw, ]c-kv]cw kl-I-cnv, Hcp-s]m-Xp-]-cn-]mSn BhnjvI-cnv \S-n hcp-p- ]w AXv Fm I-nIpw KpW-{]-Zhpw ^e-{]Z-hp-am-hnt? Fn \man-m-Wp A[x-]-X-\-n \npw \ma-\p-`-hn-p
Ah-a-Xn-bn \npw \s--sbpw s]mXpsh kaql-sbpw hos-Spp
Ic-I-b-m klm-bIam-tb-pw.
apkam-msc CXtc-Xcw ASp-p-hm\pw ASp-n-p-hm\pw i{Xp A\p-h-Znn. {]XypX, Ign-bp-n-S-tmfw AI-ep-hm\pw AI-p-hm-\p-amWv Ah
Hfnpw sXfnpw {ian-p-Xv. Cu Ipkq{Xw s]mfn-p-hm H t]mwh-gn-tbbpq: apnwI B hkvXpX a\-n-em-p-Ibpw i{Xp-hns D]-Pm-]-v
]m{X-am-hm-Xn-cn-p-Ibpw
sNp-I.
Cm-an-ssI-Iy-n\pthnhsmcp
{]h\hpw \S-m-\p-t-in-p-tmt-gpw Cm-an-tbpw apn-fp-tSbpw

i{Xp-hmb km{am-Py--zns GPp-am ]m Cm-an-ksa No-t


hnfnp ]pn-p-I-bpmbn. B kwc-`-s-Xnsc D]-Pm-]- ]b-p-I-bmbn. Cp C{k-tbcmjv{Sw aptJ\ Ata-cn-bpw A^vKm-\n-m-\nse ]mh
Khsp aptJ\ tkmhn-bv djybpw Cm-anI cmPy-sf \in-np sImncn-p-p. A:On{Zhpw sXmgp-n Ippw Imc-W-ambn Zp-e--fm-b- B
cmjv{Sp t\mn\m-\-msX h {][n-hn-[nbpw FSp-p-hm Ign-bp-pan-.
BI-bm
kap-Zm-b-ico-cs
_m[n-n-cnp
In-amk-cy-am-Ip
alm_pZw AXn-s -ti-jn l\n-v sI-ncn-p Zb-\o-b-Im-gvN-bm-Wn-v -GsXmcn-Spw \mw ImWp--Xv. s]mXp-i-{Xp-hn-s\-Xnsc H-s-m-bn-\nv {]Xn-tcm-[ntnbncp Cm-an-I-i-n-I Xn-n t]m-c-Snv kI-e-am\w \mi-a-Sbpp. AXn-\m lrZb-n ISp-a-Wn-qsa-nepw Cuam\pw Cmapw
Ahtijn-p Hmtcm apkam\pw DWp {]hn-t Imew AXn-{Ianncnpp. BZy-ambn thXv i{Xp-hn-t\bpw an{X-tbpw thXn-cnp a\-nempIbm-Wv. {]Xy-b-i-kv{X-]-c-ambpw I-im-kv{X-]-c-ambpw Fp-Xs Ac-apnepw apnwIsfmw ktlm-Z-cam-c-s{X. Fm Ip^vdvH-an--mWv;
H tNcn-bm-Wv. Cman\pw Ip^vdn\pw at[y Hcn-S-t-cn-bn-.
C\n hmb-\-m-cpsS aqn Ah-X-cn-n-q ilm-Zv F IrXn-sb-n Hcq
hmv: Fm cmjv{Sob hn-h-n-sbqw aqtmSn hnNm-c-hn--h-am-W-tm. Cdm-\n
Camw dqlpm Jpssa-\n-bpsS Cm-anI cmjv{So-b hnh-n\v aqtm-Sn-bmbn
{]hn-Xpw AXv Xs-bm-bncpp. hnNm-chnhn\v t\XrXzwhln hynXz--fnsemv Um: Aen-i-co-A-n-bptS-XmWv. Camw lpssk (d) I_-e-bn
\S-nb ka-c-nsbpw hcn c-km-n-Xznsbpw IY-bmWv ilm-Z-n
AXns Im-hmb Aen ico-An {]Xn-]m-Znn-cp-p-Xv. I_em kw`hw
Gsd-psd Fm-hpw Adn-p-sIm--W-sa-n-. B ]m--ehpw kml-Ncyhpw XabXzam kzcssienIfn hnh-c-n-cn-p-p-sh--XmWv ilm-Znse khn-ti-j-X.
iobo {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-n hniz-kn-p-I-bpw Camw Jpssa-\n-bpsS A\p-bm-bnsbp kz-s-p-dnv kzm`n-am\w hnti-jn-n-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp ico-An
Xs {]Xy-b-imkv{X \ne-]m-Sn-ep-d-p-\n-p-sIm-p-X-s-bmWv Cu IrXnv cq]w
\In-bn-p--Xv. AXn-\m CXnse hcn-In-S-bn ]teSpw iobn-k-ns
In-eqsS Ncn-{Xs t\mn-Im-Wp--Xmbn A\p-`-h-s-Spw. AXp apgp-h-\mbpw
hnh-It\m {]km-[-Iamtm AwKo-Im-cy-am-bn-sm--W-sa-n-. AXpsImv ilm-Zv ]cn-`m-j-s-Spn {]kn-o-I-cn--hscms Ah-cpsS hnizmkhpw Ncn{X ho-W-hpw amn iobn-k-n\p Iog-S-n-bn-cn--bm-Wv Btcm-]nt--Xn-. CXp ]d-bm- Imc-W-apv: Cdm-\n tkzm-[n-]-Xnbpw \njvTqc aZ-I\p-ambn hmW dnkm jm]lvehn-s-Xnsc \S hn-h-n ktm-jn--h-scsbmw Jpssa-\n-p-Ifpw inp-sN-p--h-cp-sav \mSp-\o-sfbpw adp-\m-Sp-I-fnepw
{]N-cn-np \S Nne am\yam-cp-n-hnsS (]p-d-p Hcu-tZym-KnI m]-\ns GPp-ap--h-cpsS Iq-n). hnhn\p-appw hn-hm-\--chpw iobo
{]Xy-b-im-kv{X-n hniz-kn-p--h-cmWv Jpssa-\n-bpw A\p-bm-bn-I-fpw. CmanIv dn]-nIv Hm^v Cdms `c-W-L-S-\-bn \np Xs Amcyw hy-am-Wv.
Fm Chn-sS-bp--h-cmcpw iobo {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-n hniz-kn-p-Itbm PA^co I imkv{Xw ]nXp-S-cp-Itbm sNp-n-. ]ns Ah-sc-ss\ Jpssa-\np-I-fmhpw?

icn. ]s, iobo-ho--W-a-\p-k-cnv cq]o-Ir-X-am-bn-p C-c-samcp ]pkvXIw


ssIc-fn-bn hnh\w sNbvXp {]kn-o-I-cn-p--Xn\p {]k-n-bptm?
sshm-\nI {]k-n-bp--mWo teJ-Is A`n-{]m-bw. CXc {]Xyb imkv{Xnepw I imkv{X-nepw hniz-kn-p--h-cpsS IrXn-I hniz-kn-m--h-cpsS
CS-bnepw {]N-cn-p--Xn bmsXm-c-]m-I-Xbpw ImWp-n-. hnm\\n[m-csb
AW-sIn _n-p-Xv hnim-e-lr-Z-bp tN-X-. kap-Zmbw \mfn-Xp-hsc
A\p-hn-p-h \b-n-s\-Xn-cp-am-Wn-Xv. {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-]-c-ambn, apA-X-kne
hn`m-K-m-c-\mb Ama Pmdp-m-ln--a-Jvi-cn-bpsS Jp-B`m-jy-amb Im-^v,
sskZo(-in-b) hn`m-K-ns Aen-p-u-Im-\n-bpsS lZo-kp-hym-Jym\{K-amb
ss\epHum, iobm-hn-`m-K-m-cns Amam Aao-d-en-bpsS Cwo-jn-ep
kv]ncn-v Hm^v Cmw Fo IrXn-Iv kpo hn`m-K--fn {]Np-c-{]-Nmcw
knn hkvXpX Bpw Am-X-a-. auem\m knZv kpsse-am \Zvhn Atl-ns aB-cn^v amkn-I-bn D-cn Hcp hkvXpX F{Xbpw A`p-Xm-h-lhpw
ckm-h-l-hp-as{X:
apA-X-kn-ep-I-fpsS kp{]-kn Cam-amb Jmkn A_vZp Pm-cms injy-\mb
ssiJv A_vZp-m-ln_v\p bqkp-^n Jkvho\n Jp-B\v apqdv hmfy--fp
Hcp X^vko cNnnpv. lZm-CJp Zmp _lvP: Fs{X AXns t]cv.
bm^nbo At-l-ns anBp P\m F {K-n (hm.3, t]Pv 147)
Fgp-Xpp: {]kvXpX JpB`mjyw apqdv hmfy--fp Hcp _rlZv {K-am-Wv.
lmPn Jeo-^-bpsS Iiv^p-p-\q A Akm-anIpp_n h^p\q F
{K kqNn-bnepw Jkvho\n-bpsS {]kvXpX IrXn-sb-n ]cm-aiw ImWmw. CsX{Xbpw B-cy-Icw Xs-bm-Wv. Fm IqSp-X B-cy-I-c-am-bn-p-Xv asmm-Wv. {]kvXpX apA-X-keo ]WvUn-X cNn B X^vko-cns GI tImn
ssiJp Cmw C_v\p-ssXanxbpsS ssI-S-bn-em-Wp--Xv. apA-X-kn-ep-I-fpsS
_-ssh-cn-sbp k{X {]i-kvXn-bmPn Atlw B apqdv hmfy-fpw
kzw ssIsImv Fgp-Xn-sh-n-cn-p-p. (a-B-cn^v, {In: 1928 \h-, ln: 1347
Pam-Zp Duem t]Pv 324 & -325).
{]Xy-b-im-kv{X-]-c-amb A`n-{]m-b-hy-Xymkw ssiJp Cm-ans\ B {]K`
]WvUnXs altk-h-\s hne-bn-cp-p-Ibpw hnm\marXs ]nX-e-apdp ]Ip sImSp-p-Ibpw sNp--Xn \np XS-n-. hnime a\-kvI-\mb
C_v\p-ssX-an Fhn-sS-bn-cn-pp; IpSppa\-n-Xn-mcpw ]-]m-X-tm-a-c-fp-amb At-l-ns A\p-bm-bn-I-sf--`n-am-\n-p--h FhnsS InS-pp!.
Ah-km-\-ambn, A\phm-N-I-cpsS ssII-fn-e-n-bn-p Cu hnhnX IrXn-sb-nbpw Hcp hmv : efnX kp-c-amb ssien-bmWv hnh-I kzoI-cn-n-p--Xv.
A{]-k--sav tXmnb Hp-cp `mK- a\x-]qw Dt]-n-n-p-v. ]Zm-\p]-Xn-IXzw ]men-m ]c-am-h-[n ]cn-{i-an-n-cn-p-p-sh-nepw Nnte-S--fn AXp
ewLn-pI Xs thn hn-p-v. aqe IrXn-tbmSv A\oXn ImWn-m-sXbpw aebm-f-ssi-en-bpsS kpJ-n-p-th-n-bp-am-b-Xn-\m AXv hnh-\-n A\p-h-Z\o-b-hp-am-Wv. hnh-I-\n \nv Ccw tkh-\- C\nbpw {]Xo-n-psImpw Cu hnhnX {Kw am\y hmb-\-m-cpsS kaw Ah-X-cnnpsImpp.
knhlnkv,
25--11982

Sn. apl-Zv

apJ-hpc
Cdm-\n CkvemanI hn-hw hnP-bn--Xns\ XpSv Ata-cn- Nmc-kw-L-S-\bmb kn.sF.F ssIsm {][m\ \S-]Sn Aeo-i-co-A-n-bpsS apgp-h IrXnIfpw Cwo-jn-tev `mjm-cw sNbvXp-sIm-Sp-m Hcp h\n-Xsb Npa-X-e-s-Spp-I-bm-bn-cp-p. Ata-cn--bpsS \sv XIp-Ibpw Cdms\ temI-ns
{im-tI-{-am-p-Ibpw sNbvX {]kvXpX hnhw ico-AnbpsS {]Xn-`-bpsS ^eam-sWv B kwL-S\ [cn-n-p-m-h-Ww. Cdm hn-h-ns Ncn-{X-n A{X
AKm-[-am-bn-cpp At-l-ns kzm[o-\w.
Cdm hnhw hnP-bn-n-s-Sp-Xv CamwJpssa-\n-bpsS
\mb-I-Xz-n aX
]WvUn-Xam t\cnp cwK-n-d-n-sm-m-bn-cp-p. Bob Pohn-X-n-se-t]mse s]mXp Pohn-X-nepw aX ]WvUn-Xam-cpsS \nt-i-v {]mapJyw
In-pI inbm--sf \nev Cdm-\n-I-fpsS ]ccm-K-X-amb khn-ti-j-X-Ifns]-Xm-Wv. P\-v cmjv{Sob t\XrXzw sImSp-m aXn-bmbhcp-amWv
Ahn-sS-bp aX-]-WvUn-Xam. hn-h-L--n ka-c-ap--Wn-bnepw hn-hm-\cw cmjv{S\nm-W-cw-K-pw aX-]-WvUn-Xam-sc-bm-W-hnsS ap]-n-bn
ImWp-I.
Cs\bmsW-nepw aX-]-WvUn-Xamv BIjn-m Ign-bm Htsd
A`ykvX hnZycpw sNdp--mcpw Cdm-\n-ep-m-bn-cp-p. `uXnI {]Xy-b-im-{Xfns]p-t]m-b-hcpw Hcp {]Xyb imkv{X-nepw hnizm-k-an-m--hcpw cmP-hmgvN-bpsS A\n-hmcy^e-ambn hgn-sXnbh-cp-ap-m-bn-cpp Aq--n. A-cmsc Cm-an-t\mSpw CmanIhn-h-tmSpw ASp-nv Camw Jpssa\-n-bpsS
t\Xr-Xz-n-tev Hcp-n-sm-SpXv ico-A-n-bm-Wv. Atlw Cm-an-Im-[ym-]-\sf Ahv Imem-\p-Iq-e-ambn hni-Zo-I-cnp sImSp-p. ka-Im-enI kaq-lns kmaq-lnIcm-j-{Sobkm--nI {]iv\-sf Dp]Tn-p-Ibpw Ah ]cn-lcn-p Imcy-n\v Cm-a-m {]Xybim-kv{X--fpsS t]mcmbvI t_m[y-s-Spn-sm-Sp-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. As\ Cdm kaq-l-n\v _pn-]-c-am-b -maw
t\cn Ncn-{X-k-n-tbmSp ISa \nlnp sImv Cdm hn-h-ns BNmcy-s\v {]Jym-X-\m-hm ico-A-n- AlX t\Sn.
Cdm hn-h-n ico-A-n-bpsS ]n-s\-n tNmZn--Xn\v Camw Jpssa\n
\Inb adp-]Sn IuXp-I-ap-f-hm-p--Xm-Wv. Atlw ]dp: ico-A-n-bpsS
A[ym-]-\- aX-]-WvUn-Xamn-S-bn Nmhnj-b-am-hp-Ibpw hnhmZw
krjvSn-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-p-v. AtX kabw bphm--tfbpw _pn-Po-hn-I-tfbpw
XncnpsImp-h-cp Imcy-n Ahp-mb kzm[o\w hfsc al--c-amWv.
ico-A-n-bpsS A`y-\-b-\p-k-cnv At-lns A\p-Im- ]mc--cysf ]cn-tim-[-\p hnt[-b-am-p-I-Xs sNs. A{]-Imcw Xs bmsXmcp
hnjb-s--nbpw Hcp ]WvUn-X\pw Ah-km-\hmv ]d-p-sh-n-n-spw aX-]WvUn-Xamsc ]np-S-cp--h a\-n-em-n-bn-cn-p-Ibpw thWw.
hn-h-ns hnP-b-n ico-A-n-bpsS {]b-Xv\-sf bYmlw AwKo-I-cn-p-tXm-sSmw At-l-n\pw aX-]-WvUn-Xampw CS-bn {]-I-S-am-bn-cp A`n{]mb kwL--\--sfbpw Nqn-m-p-pv Bb-pm Jpssa-\n-bpsS tasImSp hmv. Cu A`n-{]mb kwL--\- hnm-\-n-sbpw Nn-bp-sSbpw
\ne-\nn\pw hfpw Hgn-p-Iq-Sm Hm-Wv. AmsX Aen ico-A-n- Hcp
`mKpw aX-t\-XrXzw adp- `m-K-p-amWv Cdm-\n {]hn-n-cn-p-Xv Fv CXn\Y-an. As\ hcp-n-om Ata-cn-bpw kn.-sF.Fbpw Imcy-amb {ia-

\S-p-p-v. Jpssa\n {Kqv, ico-A-n- {Kqv Fn-s\ Ata-cn- ]{X D]-tbm-Kn-p-Xp ImWmw.
Cdm-\-Iv D-X-hy-n-Xz-sf sXc-p-]n-Snv h[n-m ]cn-]m-Sn-bn-n-d-nb
Hcp `oIc kwLw {]hn-p-p-v. A^pJm F t]cn-em-W-h Adn-bs-Sp--Xv. taP P\-d Jp-B\n, Bb-Xp ap-Xlcn Fo cp {]apJ hynXz-sf h[n--Xn-s\-p-Sv ]pd-s-Sp-hn Hcp {]kvXm-h-\-bn X Aen icoA-n-bpsS A\p-bm-bn-Ifpw aX-]-WvUn-X-msc FXnp CkvemanIhn-h-sse\ns hmm--fp-am-W-sWv Ah Ah-Im-i-s-n-cp-p. Cdm P\-Xsb aX-]WvUn-X-m-cp-sSbpw Am--h-cp-sSbpw cp {Kqp-I-fmn `nn-np ak-cn-nm Ata-cn-bpw kn. sF. F.bpw Xn-q-nb Hcp {KqmWv A^pJm-s\pw
CXn\v Xs ] [mcmfw sXfn-hp-I-fp-spw Hcp Ata-cn- bqWnthgvknn
s{]m^-k-dmb lmanZv AKm Cdm CkvemanIv dh-eq-j F hnj-b-sn e-\nse apkvenw Cvn-yqv kwL-Sn-n {]`m-jW ]cn-]m-Sn-bn shfn-sSp-n-bn-cp-p.
Fm aX-t\-Xr-Xz-sbpw Aen ico-A-n-sbbpw ]c-kv]-c-]q-c-I--fm-bn-mWv
Cdm-\n-I ImWp-Xv. Jpssa\n Ahv Bo-b-t\-Xmhpw cmjv{Sob am-Zinbp-am-Wv. AtX-b-h-k-c-n Xs ico-A-nsb Ckveman-I-hn--h-ns _pn]-chpw Zi-\-]-c-hp-amb BNm-cy-\mbn Ah AwKo-I-cn-p-Ibpw sNp-p. Camw
Jpssa-\n-bpsS A\p-bmbn BIm `mKy-ap-m-b-Xn A`n-am\w sImp- ico-An-sb-bm-W-hv ]cn-N-bw. Xs Hcp Ihn-X-bn Atlw Jpssa-\nsb hnti-jnn-p-Xv ImWpI:-- Atlw Ime-ns hnf-nbmWv; ssZh-ns Bm-hmWv;
]Ime-v, B Hmtcm hnfnbpw Hmtcm Ne-\hpw Hmtcm DZy-ahpw \psS bpKns [z\n-bm-Wv. Imeta! Fp ]d-bs Rm Jpssa-\nsb ImWm sNp.
Atlw ZpxJmIpe-\mbn \ns \maw P]n-p-p-m-bn-cpp. ssZh-ns B
Bm-hv...........
ico-AnbpsS kzX-{-amb ]e- A-`n-{]m-b--sfbpw \nin-X-ambn hnain-n-cp
Hcp ]WvUn-X-\m-bn-cp-p Bb-Xpm apX-lvl-cn. k^ho iobn-khpw Ae-ho- io-bnkhpw F {K-n k^vho Im-e-L--n Pohn-n-cp apm-ap-l-Zv
_mJnaPvenkn F {]ikvX ]WvUn-Xs\ ico-An hnain-p-p-v. ico-An-bpsS ho-W-n bYm iobn-k-ns hnIe cq]-amWv aPvenkn {]Xn\n-[o-I-cn-p--Xv. Fm ]c--cm-KX iobm Ncn-{X-n Ah-K-Wn-m-\m-hm
Hcp hyn-bmWv aPven-kn. iobm- {]amWn-IX In-p _nlmdp
Ahm F alZv{K--apssS Cdm-\n Ctmgpw D]-tbm-K-n-ep- -]-e- IrXn-bp-sSbpw Im-hm-W-t-lw. aPven-kn-s-Xnsc ico-An \S-nb hnai-\-tfmSv apXlvl-cn i-ambn {]Xn-I-cn-p.
ico-A-nbpw apXlvl-cnbpw Xn ASn-m-\-]-c-ambns ]e- Im-cy--fnepw
hntbm-Pn-p-mbn-cp-p-sh-mWv tIhn. aXs cmjv{Sobey-mbn Zpcp]-tbm-K--Sp-p- -Hcp C{p-saenv. Fp-t]mepw Aen-i-co-A-nsb
apXlvlcn kwi-bn-n-cpphs{X! Ccp-hn-Sbn Cu ssh-cy-n\v NneIm-cWw
]d-bp-Xv IqSp-X ck-I-c-am-Wv. 1967 Aen ico-An Cdm-\nse lpssk-\nbm
Cim-Zn-se-p--Xp-hsc apX-lvl-cn-bm-bn-cp-p B m]-\-nse {][m\ A[ym]-I\pw {]`m-j-I-\pw. ico-AnbpsS hc-thmsS Atlw {it-b-\m-hp-I-bpw- ap-Xlvlcn ap-Ibpw sNbvXp.- C-Xn Akqb tXmn-bXp sImmWv apX-lvlcn
ico-An-s-Xn-cn Xncn-Xv FmWv B Ip-]n-Snw. F{X D-X-m-cmbmepw Ah-scmw a\p-jy--cm-b-Xn-\m CXv icn-bm-Im-\p km[yX \ntj-[n-t-

-Xn-. ]s, lssk-\nbm CimZv apX-lvl-cn-bmWv m]n--sXpw aivlZv


bqWn-th-gvkn-n-bn \npw _ln-jvIr-X-\mb Atlw Atmv Wn--s-Sp-Ibm-Wp-m-b-sXpw ChnsS HmWw. B-Zy-amZyw ico-A-n-tbmsSmw apX-lvlcn-bpw {]`m-iWw \S-n-bn-cp-p. ]noSv ico-A-nv IqSp-X kabw e`n-m
thn apX-lvlcn a\x-]qw Hgn-p-sIm-Sp-p. ico-An tlXp-hmbn aX-]WvUn-X-m-cpsS In \nv kap-Zm-b-ns ISn-m sXdnp t]mhp-I-bm-sWn AXv Zqc-hym-]-I-amb {]Xym-Km-X-v hgn-sh-p-sa Bi Hcp ]s
apX-lvl-cn-p-m-bn-p-m-hmw.
Aen ico-An tIh-e-samcp Fgp-p-Im-ct\m {]mkw-Kn-It\m Bbn-cp-n-. Xm
{]Xn-\n-[m\w sNp-- hn--h-ns `mK-sa \ne-bvm-Wv Atlw Fgp-Xn-bn-cpXpw {]kw-Kn-n-cp--Xpw. Xs IqsS-n-d-p-I-fmb Fm Ign-hp-Ifpw CkvemanI
hn-h-sa ey-n-te-p hgn-I-fm-W-t-l-n-\v. kzbw thZ-\-b-\p-`-hnpw
thZ-\-b-\p-`-hn-p kaq-l-tmSv XmZmayw {]m]npw Pohn--Xn-\m At-ln\v Hmtcm hmnepw A`nhm-Ny-amb Hcp {]mW-kv]-\w ImWmw. lpssk-\nbm
Cim-Zn At-l-ns {]`m-jWwtIm t]cv cPn- sNbvXn-cp--h
Bdm-bn-c-n-e-[n-I-am-bn-cp-p. t{imm--fpsS lrZ-b-n Bp-]-Xn-p-Xpw
Ahsc A-cm-n Xs ]nSn-n-cp-p--Xp-amWv ico-A-n-bpsS ssien.Hcp dwkmamk-nse cm{Xn-bn kqdx dqans BZy`m-K-nse GXm\pw
hmIy ico-An hni-Zo-I-cn-m XpSn. Ccp-]Xp aWn-q \op\nphs{X B hnh-cWw. ]ntv Hcp aWn ka-b-ambn Xo-tm. Fnpw kZky At-l-ns apJv Ipw \n-cn-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p.
Hcp Biqd \mfn lpssk-\n-m -Cim-Znshv ico-A-n- sNbvX {]kw-K-am-Wv
ilmZv. P\-Iob hn-h-{]-m-\-v tZi-Im-e-mXo-X-ambn Bthiw ]Icp I_-e-bpsS ka-c-N-cn-{Xhpw ]nX-e-ap-d-Iv AXp\Inb kt-ihpw
c-km-y-n\v Akm-[m-c-Whpw bpn-k-l-hp-amb hyJym-\-hp-am-WnXns DS-w. ]pkvXI-cq-]-am-n-b-tm Fsms Bibtmbpw ssI]n-i-Ip-amWv
CXn\p ]n-bn-p-m-hpI Fmthm? AsXmpw ico-A-n-bpsS ]cn-tim-[-\-bn
s]n-p-m-hp-I-bn-. GXm-bmepw aqe IrXnbpsS Cwojv, DZp, ]cn-`m-j-Ifn
I Bi-b- bmsXmcp tXam-\hpw ]msX hnh-\-p-dn-n ]Im
{ian-n-p-v.
Cs Pohn-X-n-sebpw kmaq-ly-a-WvU-e--fn-sebpw `oI-c-b-Ymy--tfmSv
I_em cIvXkm-n-I-fpsS at\m-hocyw kzmwio-I-cnv {]Xn-I-cn-m k-amtWm F-tNmZyw Cu ]pk-XIw hmb-\-m-cpsS apn Dbpp. A-kabw am{Xw a\-n Xp hn-h-I-c-amb Hc-\p-`q-Xn-bm-bn-cn--cpXv CXns ]mcmbWw sImp t\w.
]WvUn-tXm-Nn-X-amb Hc-h-Xm-cnIsImv Cu hnh-\s AwKo-Ir-Xhpw Bewr-X-hp-am-n- P: Sn. apl-Zv kmln-_n\v \n.
Aco-tmSv
22111983

hnh-I

c-kmyw
Camw lpssks (A) c-km-n-Zn-\-amb Cv Hcp {]kwKw sNpI {]bm-k-tadnb tPmen-bmbn F\n--\p-`-h-s-Spp. c-kmyw F hnj-b-s-p-dnmIptm B {]-bmkw hn-p-I-bp-am-Wv.
am\-h-N-cn{Xn lpssk(-A) \n-ln AXn-_r-lpw [otcm-Zm--hp-amb
IrXyw \nc-h[n teJ-\-pw `mj-W-pw hnjbo-`-hpIgnnpf-f-Xm-Wv.
]qnI ]Wv[nXam ]gb anepw B[p-\nI _pn-Po-hn-I \ho\ Img-vN-m-Sneq-sSbpw AtX-n hyXy-kvX- hn-e-bn-cp--ep-I \S-n-bn-p--ap-v. B N
XpSpsImncn-p-Ibpw sNp-p. Gm ilm-Z-ns\ kw_-n
bYm hoWw Dsm-s-nte lpssk(A) ImgvN-sh [oc-Ir-Xyns- s]mcp Ip-]n-Sn-m-\m-Iq.
lpssks (-A) amlmyw AXns ]cn-]q-X-tbmsS bYm-m-\-n-cn--s.
Fs ZrjvSn-bn lpssks(-A)hyn-Xz-t-m-fp-]-cn- D--X-amb kwKXn asmm-Wv. AXns Xnf-n-emWv lpssks(-A) alna {]Zo-]vX-am-Ip--Xv. AXn-\pthn Xs-bmWv Atlw PohXymKw-h-cn--Xpw. lpssks\(-A)pdnv ]d-bpt_m Atlw kzPo-hs\ DZm-c-ambn kan--sX-n-\p-thn F-\p-kva-cnm \mw sa\-s-Sm-dn-. I_em c-km-n-Isf aX-nepw a\p-jy-N-cn-{Xnepw D-X-m-\o-b-cm-n-b, {kjvSm-hn-sbpw krjvSnI-fp-sSbpw In Ah
almam-cm-Im-\n-S-bm-n-b, -Po-hn-X-Im-epw ac-W-th-f-bnepw Ah CbnnSn B auen-II-s-p-dn---A-Yhm ilm-Z-n-s\-n-dn-p hnh-c-W-amWv
Fs {]kw-K-nse {]Xn-]m-Zyw.
AXoh Zpjvchpw ti]phpamb Hcp {iaamWnXv. Gs AXbpw
_pn]camb A]cym]vXbpw Hcp hiv. AtXmsSmw sshcpy \nd
Ncn{XhkvXpsfbmWv Bkv]ZamtssXphcptm hnjbw ISpX
koambnocpp.
ilmZns\
kw_np
Cu
Nbn
ss[jWnIhpw imkvv{Xobhpw XXzNnm]chpamb kao]\coXn kzoIcnm
aXnsbn hnm\nsbpw \ymbimkvv{Xnbpw klmbtmsS kzw
_pnsb B{ibnm aXnbmbncpp. Fm CXn\pdw ilmZns
kw`h]ccIfpw
t{]cIkmlNcyfpw
AXyw
kqvahpw
t_mt[m{nbkwthZIhpamWv. BXvamhns DdIfn An Bfn---nhn[w hnIm-c-Xo-vWhpw A\p-cm-K-]q-hp-am-Wv. AhnsS Ximkvv{Xw Xfp
hogpp. hmNmeXbpHS Icpv \jvSsSpp. bpnNn {]h\
clnXambnocpp.
Hcp-h-iv Xo{hm-\p-cm-K-ns aq- ss\aeyw, adp-h-iv AKm-[hpw AXn
Kl-\-hp-amb m\-hpw bpn hnNm-chpw. Ch cn-sbpw kn{i ka-\zbamWv ilm-Z-v. Htc ka-bv Ch cpw Hcpanv hnhcnpI km[ya.
{]kwKtmSv \oXn]pem IgnbmXncnpIbmhpw Acsamcp {ians
^ew. hntijnv Fstmep Zpe NnIv AsXmcp hnjaw

XsbmWv. GXmbmepw
Bhp{X
Ipdpam{Xw ]dsmnmw.

]dbm

{ianmw.

]dbmhpXn

ilmZns Aw {KlnWsan B ]Zw Ahpw aqeyhpw kzoI-cnp aqe-t{km-X-mb BZi-]--Xn-sb-p-dndnhp-m-bn-cn--Ww. {]kvXpX


BZi]Xn DPze-ambn {]Xn-_nw-_n-p {]Xn-`m-k--fn-semv lpssk(A)
a\pjy
Ncn{Xns
BZn
apX
]pcpjmc-fneqsS
Ctmfw
XpSpt]mXpw
C\nbpw
Ahncmaw
XpScpXpamb
Htsd
kacmWfnsemcp In am{XamWv Atlns t\XrXzn \S
I_e.
{]hmNI\mb C{_mlnw(A) apX Bcw`n {]m\ irwJebpambn
lpsskp(A) _nemWv Atlns hynXzw kv]jSambn
Ism IgnbpI. Cu hkvXpX hyampXns\ B{ibnncnpp
lpssk (A) \bn hnhns hymJym-\w. lpssk-s\(-A)bpw I_e
kw`-h-sbpw Ncn-{X-n \npw kmaqly ]mmen\npw
ASnsbSpv ]cntim[npXm-bm \qm-p-I-fn-eqsS imiz-Xn-IXzw
t\Snb B A\-izc {]Xn-`mkw `qX-Im-es tIh-e-samcp Zu`m-Ky-ambn Npcppw. inbm-v Hmp-I-c-bm-\p Hcp Ncn{X ZpxJ-sa ]X-\-n
lpssk\pw (A) I_-ebpw \ne-sIm-p-I-bpw sNp-w. BZi-]-chpw Ncn-{X-]-chp-amb ]mm--e-tmSv _whnSpn {]kvXpX kw`hw ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am-pXv Poh-\p icoc--nse GsX-n-ep-samcp Ah-bhw apdn-s-Spv ]cn-tim-[np--Xn\v Xpy-am-bn-cn-pw.

cv
a\pjy Ncn-{X-n Ctm-f-ap-m-bn-p aXm[n--jvTnX {]m-\-sf cmbn
hn`-Pn-m-hp--Xm-Wv. aX--fpsS D-Sw, aXm-Nm-cyam-cp-sS-bpw aX-{]-hm-NIam-cp-sSbpw kz`mhw, Ah-cpsS kmaqly _w, P\-X-bpsS apn Ah
kan ktiw Fnh IW-n-seSpp sImp--XmWo hn`-P-\w. aX-m]-I-cmbn s]mXpsh Adnb-s-Sphcm-WnXn Ds-Sp-I. Ah-cpsS bYm
\ne-sb-sv ]cntim[nm\n-hnsS apXn-cp-n-.
C{_mlow (A) \_n-bm m]n-X-am-b-XmWv {]kvXpX cv irwJebnsem-v.
Ncn-{X-]-c-ambn Cu ]c--c-tbm-SmWv \apv IqSp-X-e-Sp-w. AXn-\m CXns
{]hm-N-Iam-sc-bmWv \mw IqSp-X Adn-bp-I. Cu ]c--c-bnse {]hm-N-Iam
DS-se-Sp-p-Xv km-n-Ihpw kmaq-ln-I-hp-ambn kaq-l-nse G-hpw Ah-iX-b-\p-`-hn-p--h-cpsS CS-bn \nm-Wv. apl-Zv \_n (k) ]d-n-p-Xv
t]mse Ah-cn `qcn-`m-Khpw Bn-S-bam-cm-bn-cp-p. ]nWn InSpw in-the
sNbvXpw Znh-k-hrn Ign-p--h-cm-bn-cpp ap Nne.
CXn\p XnIpw hn]-co-X-ambmWv cmw hn`m-K-ns aXm-Nm-cy-msc \mw
ImWp-Xv. GXp cmPy-m-sc-nepambn-sm-s Ah-scm-sm-gn-bmsX {]`p-m-cm-bn-cp-p. kaq-l-n Ghpw IqSp-X inbpw kzm[o-\hpw kpn-Xnbp-ap IpSpw_-fn ]nd--h-cm-bn-cpp. Cy, ssN\, Cdm Fn-hn-S-fn cq]w sIm Nnm ]-Xn-I-fp-tSbpw [manI {]m-\--fp-tSbpw D]m-Xm-, BXknse sshm-\nI kZm-Nmc Am-Z-an-I-fpsS m]-Im Fn-h-scmw Cu KW-n s]Sp-p.
in, kv, ]utcm-lnXyw Ch-bmWv Ncn-{X-n Fpw kaq-l-n-\p-ta

10

B[n-]Xyw hmWn-cp-Xv. i-mcpw khKhpw ]ptcm-ln-Xcpw P\--fpsS


hnizm-k-n-\p-ta knwlm-k\w ]Wn-bp-I-bm-bn-cpp. P\-sf `cn-p--Xns
Imcy-n Cu aqp- L-S-Ihpw kl-I-cn-p. ImgvN-m-Sp-I-fn-ep kmPm-Xy-sshPm-Xy-[o-X-ambn `c-WIqS- krjvSn-p--Xnepw \ne-\np--Xnepw
Ah-scm-npIbm-bn-cpp ]Xn-hv. AXv P\--fpsS KpW-n\p thn-bm-bn-cpn-.
Cy apX ssN\- XpSn BXkp-hsc C{_m-lnao ]c-]-c-bn DsSm kIe {]hm-N-I-mcpw A[ym-nI Kpcp--fpw GsX-nepw hn[-n
GsX-nepw cmP-Ip-Spw_tmtSm ]ptcm-lnXIpe-tmtSm {]`p-hK-tmtSm
_s-Sm--h-cmbnn. I^yq-jykv, tkm{I-okv, emthm-Svsk, {io_p-,
kucm-jv{S, am\n, akvZ-Iv, ttm, Acn-tm-n Fn-hsc kw_-n-smw Cu
{]mhw icn-bm-Wv. C{_m-ln-ao-]-c--c-bn-se {]hm-N-I-m-cpsS Ah-- t\-sc-adn-m-Wv. Ah km[m-c-W-m-cn \ns-gp-t km[m-c-W-m-cm-bn-cpp. JpB Dun--d-bp-Xv ImWpI: km[mcW-mn-S-bn Ah-cpsS Iq-n
\np-Xs Ah ZqXs\ \ntbm-Kn-p. CXp ]d-bp-tm {]kvXpX {]hm-NIam CXc a\p-jy-sc-tmse A]q-cm-sWtm Ahv Aam-\p-jnI knnI-sfmpw Dmb-n-cp-n-stm Rm\-am-p--Xmbn sXn-cn--cp-Xv. A`nPmX IpSpw-_-ntem {]tXyI Xd-hm-ntem s]-h-c, kaq-l-ns IogvX-n
\np-bp-h--h-cm-bn-cpp C{_m-loao {]hm-N-I-t{iWn Fv kan-p-Ibm-sWs eyw. Ad-_n-In-S-bn Ad-_n-kw-km-cn-p {]hm-N-Is\ \nbanp FmWv tasImSp Jp-B hmIyns kmcw Nne sX-n-cn-n-p-Xv. lo{_p-`m-j-m-c-\mb aqkm(A)sb F{_m-b-cmb bql-Zamv {]hm-N-I\m-n-b-Xvt]m-se. Ad-_n-Isf {Kontem ssN\okv `mj-bntem A Ad-_n-bn
Xs-bmWv A`n-kw-t_m-[-\-sN-t--sX Imcyw kmw-Ko-Ir-Xhpw bp--kn-hp-am-Wv. P\-X-bpsS `mj-bn kwkm-cn-p-I-sb-m kmam\y P\--fpsS
`mj-bn Ah-cpsS Bh-iy-hpw A`n-cp-Nnbpw a\-n-emn Ah-cpsS \ne-hm-c-adnv kwkm-cn-pI Fp hnh-n-Xw. XXzNn-Iam, Ihn-I, _pn-Po-hnI, hnZz--\- Fn-h-sc-tmse GsX-n-ep-samcp {]XyI hn`m-K-n\p
am{Xw {Kln-m-hp coXn-bn-e-. Ihn-Ifpw _pn-Po-hn-Ifpw Fpw Fhn-sSbpw
km[m-c-W-mv Zp{Km-ly-amb `mj-bn-emWv Bi-bm-hn-jv-c-Ww \S-pI
]Xn-hv. Ah-cpsS `mjm-ssi-enbpw `mh-\m-hn-em-khpw kmam-\y-P-\-v
Dsm-m-s\mn-.
C{_m-lo-ao- ]c--c-bnse {]mhm-N-Iam-sc- ]-n-bp N kmam-\y -P-\-Xsb kw_-n-p N-bm-Wv. Ahihn`m-K-ns] a\p-jysc kw_-n-p
N-bmWv
Ccp-hn-`mKw {]mhm-N-Iam-cpsS ZuXy-\nh-l-W-nepw Cu hy-Xymkw {]I-S-amIppv. C{_m-ln-ao-tb-Xc {]hm--NI-an-j\
- p-I {]N-cn-Xpw D-Xn-bn-se-nbXpw AXmXp Imes A[n-Im-c-i-n-I-fpsS klm-b-tm-sS-bm-bn-cp-p.
Hmtcmpw hnkvX-cn-v]-d-bm Ah-k-c-an-. C{_m-loao ]c--c-bns--h
{]mhm-N-Iam-cmbn \nb-an--s--tm-gm-Is `c-W-h-s-Xn-cn kaq-lnse Ah-i-hn-`mKw Ah-cpsS ]nn kwL-Sn-p-I-bm-Wpm-b-Xv
.
C{_m-loan(A)s\ t\mq: {]hm-N-IXz ]Zhn e`n DSs\ tImSm-en-bp-ambn
t{X-n ISp Fm hn{K-l--sf-bpw- X-p-S-p-I-bm-W-tlw. aqkm(A)bmI-s -B-n-S-bs hSnbpw ]nSnv ^tdm-h-bpsS sImm-c-n-\v t\sc BSn-p-Ibpw kacw {]Jym-]n-p-Ibpw sNp-p. [\-{]-`p-hmb Jmdqs\ an-\-Snbn Ipgn-p-aq-S-pp. Ah-km\w ^n-Hus\ sh-n apn-sm-p-p. Cu]-c-

11

-c-bnse Ah-km-\s {]hm-N-I-\mb apl--Zv(-k)s\ Hp-ho-n-q.- B--tI{oIrX in-W-fpw ]mI-s-Sp--ep-Ifpw hnIm-k-Lw {]m]n-p--tXmsS
Atlw ]pWy -bp--v XpSw Ipdn-p. ]p-hj-n-\n-S-bn Adp-]-nbv bpw \bnp Ahn-Sp-v. AXp Znh-k-n-sem-cn- Hcp bp-sa
tXmXn. C{_m-loan ]c--c-bnse {]hm-N-Iam Ah-cpsS ZuXy-ns {]m[m\yhpw IW-n-se-Sp-p-sIm-p Aam-\pj ZrjvSm-f-mWv {]Zin-n-n-cp-Xv. hSn k-am-bXpw Pme-hnZy ]cm-P-b-s-Sp-n-bXpw ^n-Hus knwlm-k-\n-s\-Xn-sc-bp IS-m-{I-a-W-ns ]cym-b-am-bn-cp-p.
Jp-B Ah-X-cn-m XpS-n-b-tXmsS DZbwsIm Hcp ]p aX-a
Cmw. am\-h-cm-in-bpsS Ncn-{X-n BI-msS Hscm aX-ta-bp-p. AXns\
Ime-ns KXn-hy-Xymka\p-k-cnv ]pXp-m\pw {]t_m-[n-m-\p-amWv CS-nsS
{]hm-N-Iam Paw sIm-Xv. aXw Hp-X-s. AXnkvemw am{Xw. {it-b-amb
Cu h-kvXpX hy-am-p-I-hgn Cm-ans kmh-eu-In-I-X-bn-tepw k-P\o\Xbnte-p-amWv Jp-B hncNqp--Xv. AXn-\m Ckv-em-ans Ncn-{Xsa-m apgp-h temI-n-sbpw apgp-h Ime-n-sbpw Ncn-{X-sa-mWw. apl-Zv \_n(-k) bpsS hnhw a\p-jy-cminbpsS kq kzmX-rn\pthn \S--s \nc-h[n hnhiywJe-bnse Hcp In am{X-hpw {]_-eh-n\pw apX-em-fn-Ipw h-Ip-saXn-cn kacw sNbvXv tamN\w t\Sphm temI-nse IjvSXb\p`hnp P\hn`mKv tZi -Ime hyXykw
IqSmsX Fpw Htcsbmcp kacw, Hscm tamN\ amw. Htcsbmcp ssNX\yw,
Hscm ap{ZmhmIyw AXpam{Xw DbnnSnmt\ Cmw Blzm\w
sNbvXnpfq7
JpB\nse Xmsg ]dbp hcn AXns Ncn{X ]m-X-e-n shsmp
]cntim[np t\mpI. AXnse sXcSp ]Zhn\ymkhpw hnhn[ Lsf
A\p{Ian \ncnshp sImp Ncn{XmhXcWhpw {]tXyIw
{iblnpp.
ssZhns
ZriSmsf
Ahnizknph
A\ymbambn
{]hmNIamsc h[nph, \oXn\nlWn\mlzm\w \Ip a\pjysc
sIme sNph thZ\mP\Iamb inbpaS hntijhm Ahsc \o
AdnbnpI''.8
Cu
JpB
hmJyneSnbnp
aqp
Imcy
]ckv]cw
_aphbmWv. Hv ssZhnI ZrivSm. cv, {]hmNIam. aqv
AhnizmknI-fpsS FXntNcnbn \np am\pjnI kaXzns
hm. ssZhhpw {]hmNIamcpw \oXn \nmlIcpw Htc AWnbnemWv
\n-s-p-cn-pXv.
ssZh\ntj[n-I,
{]-hm-N-Iam-cpsS
LmX-I
\oXn\nlWn\mlzm\w \Ip a\pjysc sImp--h Fo aqp hn`mKhpw Xpey \nehmcn GXn tNcnbnepw. kmaqlyaWvUefnepfhmb
kac, ]qIme kmaqly{]m\, am\hNcn{XZi\w FnhbpsS
kmaqlyimkvv{X]camb hymJym\w Cu JpB kqn kaambn
]Xn-p-In-S-p-p.
Ncn{Xn Fm {]hmNIamcpw {]t_m[\w sNbvX aXw Hmbncpp.
AXns t]cmWv Cmw. aplZv \_n(k)bnemWv Cu {]hmNI anj
Ahkm\npXv. JpB ]eXhW hyamnb{]Imcw Ah-scmw
apgph temIn\pw m\ns {]XoIamb {Khpw \oXnbpsS \nba
kwlnXbpw FnpsImSpm\mWv BKXcmbXv. BtKmf CmanI
{]m\ns Ghpw HSphnes ktihmlI\mbncpp aplZv(k).

12

GIssZhn\p am{Xw IogvvhWn Pnhnphm\pw CXcmcpsS NespIfn\nsmw kzX{cmIphm\pamWv Atlw P\sf Blzm\w sNbXXv.
kmeuInI sFIynsd BZiamWv XulnZv. AXns\ ZrVambn
]SppsIm thnbmWp aplZv(k) \nbp\mbXv. XuloZneqsS
am\pjyItbpw am\hNcn{Xtbpw Hnnm\mbncpp Atlns
{iaw. XeapdI, cmjv{S, hyXykvX hn`mK, tKm{X, kaplns
hnhn[ XpIfn Ignbph Fns\ _lpssZh hmZs XpSpfhmb
Xcw XncnhpIsfmw AtXmsS \on. XuloZns i_vZw hntamN\nsd
ap{ZmhIyamWv. B ap{Zmhmyns alXzw BZyambn a\-n-em-n-bXv
A\ycpsS
Nnncbmbnsmncp
ASnaI,
]nWnmmh,
A{]ikvX, A[xnX Fnhcmbncpp. _pnPohnI, m\nI,
hnZymk, Zmi\nIam Fnhv AXv a\nemphm hfsc
Xmakw t\cnp. CtX ImcWm Xs Atln\p Nppwv AWn\ncXv
AhImi\ntj[nXcpw
AdnbsSm
taJeIfnephcpw
t]cpw
s]cpabpanmhcpambncpp. D]cnhnse GXm\pw t]sc am{Xta \mw
AhnsS ImWppp. FXnhip\nv At-l-n-\p-t\sc Db {][m\
Btcm-]Ww Xs CXmbncpp. "X\np Nppw henp tIdnbncnpXv,
kaqlnse \nIrjvS hn`mKamWtm". Cu {]m\s ]cnNbsSm CXp
Xs-bmWv
khntij
am\ZWvUw.
_paXns
Xehamscbpw
{][m\
{]NmcIamscbpw
t\mq.
Cybnsetbm
ssN\bnsetbm
{]`pIpSpw_ns hynIfmWhscmw. Cp aqeysmw amw
kw`hnncnpp.
temIspapmbnp
ASnaIsf
kw_nnStmfw
AhcpsS
PohnXnse Hcp hgnncnhp Xsbmbncpp aplZv \_y(k) bpsS
BKa\w. ASnaWn hn[nshcmWv Rsfv kzbw Ddnp
IgnbpIbmbncpp B ]mh. aXw, cmjv{{Sw, XXzNn, kmlnXyw, Ie,
A\p`hw Fo LSI, apgph ASnaItfbpw IogvPmXnmtcbpw
t_m[ysSpnsmncpp. taemfmsc tkhnemWv AhcpsS PohnX
[sav. ]nWnInSpw `mcw t]dnbpw A\ycpsS kwXr-]vXn-p-thn
{]bXv\w sNpIbmWv XfpsS AkvXn-Xz-ns ]nnse eysambncpp
AhcpsS hnizmkw.
AhKWns B ]mh C{XbpwIqSn hnizknm \nnXcmbn.
ssZh- Ah-cpsS i{Xp-hm-Wv. ]Wn-sbSppI A\ypthn the
sNpI, NpaSp t]dn \opI. CXn\mbnv ]SshcmWh. Ccpns\bpw
shfnsbpw
Ipdnv
kwkmcnpXn-\n-S-bn
am\n
{]hmNI
knmnXns hnhbpw Cu hnizmkn\pt`m_eambnmbncpp.
Atlw ]dp \oNamcpw ]cm-Pn-Xcpw Ccp-ns k-Xn-I-fm-Wv. t\Xm-fpw
iam-cp-am-Is shfn--ns kzpw. Acn-tm-n ttm t]mep Po\nb-p-I ]d-Xv ImWpI ssZhw AX-s-n {]IrXn Nnesc ASn-a-Ifpw
ap Nnesc kzX-{-m-cp-am-bnv krjvSnncnpp. Xmgv PmXnm XmWXcw
tPmenbpw Dbh Db tPmenbpw \nhlnm thn-bm-WnXv.
hnZym`ymkw, Ie, IhnX, kmlnXyw, {]kwKw, kwKoXw, cnjv{Sobw,
kmwkvImcnIw Fo taJ-e-I-fn Db hn`-m-K-m-cmWv htc-Xv.
h\, hymPw, _lpssZhXzw, Ass\-Iyw, Im]-Syw, BVy-Xzw, hn`m-Ko-b-X, D\o-NXzw Fn-h-s-Xnsc \nc-c ka-c--fpsS Cu {]m\w AXns ]cn-

13

]q-Xbn-se-n-bXv ap-l-Zv \_n (k) bpsS BKa\tmsSbmWv. Atlw


Xpdp {]Jym]np. a\pjycminbpsS apgph XdhmSpw DXv`h tI{hpw HmWv. {]IrXn Hv. {kjvSmhpw ssZhhpw Hv,. Fmhcpw kaam'. Ap
\nehnepmbncp XXzimkvv{Xn\pw kmnI hyhnXnpw FXn-cmsbmcp hnhambncpp CXv.
BibaWvUen am{XsamXpp hmNI IkpIfmbncpn AXv.
{]tbmKneqsS
kmmcnXpw
temIw
A\p`hndnXpamWXv.
aZo\bn ASndbn B amXrImkaqls t\mq. kmaqly PohnXns
kIe XpdIfpw kmnIhpw \nba]chpamb \oXnbpsS \nZi\ambn
\mahnsS ImWpp. Aphsc ]cnXycmbn Ign-n-cp A_vko\nbm,
ASna _nem-Atd-_y-bnse Acn-tm-{Im-p-Isfm D-Z-amb ]Zhnbpw
Db hnebpw \In BZcnsSpIbmWhnsS. Atlns ]Zhn kaqlw
a\-m-Xs AwKo-I-cn-p-I-bpw \nbaw AXns\ kwc-n-p-Ibpw sNp-p.
lpssZ^bpsS Hcp ASnasdp\mbncpp kmenw, CSpnb CShgnIfneqsS
AIp amdn \St lX`mKy\pw _lnjvIrX\pabncpp Abm Cse
hsc. CnXm Ad-_n-Ifpw PqXamcpw Jpssd-in-I-fp-a-S-p aZo\m \nhm-kn-I Abmsf AwKo-I-cn--`n-hmZ\w sNp-p. aZo-\-bnse Jp_m13 ]n-bn AbmfmWv {]m-\v t\XrXzw sImSp-p--Xv. D-Xamcpw {]am-Wn-I-fp-sams
Abmv ]nn AWn-\n-c-p-p. Abm Ahsmw {]nb--c\pw _lp-am\y-\p-am-Wv. BVy-a-\x-n-Xnbpw ]mhtfmSp Ah-K-Wbpw Ah-km-\n-nm {]hm-N-I t\cnv cwK-n-d-n. AtXmsS Ap-hsc \ne-hn-en-cp D-\oNXz ]cn-Wm-a-fpsS DuSpw ]mhpw Iogvta adn-p. \ofw IqSnb aoi apdnp
If-bm\pw \cn-bm-Wnp Xmsg Cdnb hkv{Xw Ibn DSp-m\pw Ahn-Spv
A\p-bm-bn-Isf ]Tn-n-p. ImcWw Am-ev BVy-Xz-ns AS-bm-f-ambn
KWn-n-cp-XmWv hkv{Xw hen-n-gp \S-epw \o sIm aoibpw. sXcp-hpI-fn-eqsS Alw-`mhw \Snp \S-p-Xv Atlw \nin-X-ambn hnen. Hcp
IpXnc-p-dp Cucp-t] hoXw Ccpp bm{X sNm ]Tn-n-p. Bscnepw
hml-\-p-dv Hv bm{X-sN-p-Xv Im asm-cmsf Abm-fpsS ]nn
Ibnbncp-p-am-bn-cp-p Atlw. Po\n AWbn-m \-amb tImh
IgpXpdp Ibdn BfpIn-S-bn-eqsS Ahn-Spv k-cn-m-dp-m-bn-cp-p.
BVy-Xz-ns koa-I t\cn-p -X-Ip-I-bm-bn-cpp AXn-s-sbmw ]nnse
Dt-iyw.
Hcn- {]hm-N-Is\ ImWm Hcp hr hp. hj--fmbn Ckvemw aX{]hmN-Is al-Xzhpw Kmw`o-cyhpw tI-dn-n-p-m-bn-cp- B hr kv{Xo Xncp-kn-[m-\-n-sen ]Ip \np. ]pcp-j-Xz-nsbpw hyn-Xz-n-sbpw
Kmw`ocyw Iv Ah BI-msS \ni-_vZ-am-bn. Hpw anm Ign-n-. Xncpta\n Ah-cpsS Npa-en arZp-e-ambn XS-hn-smv efn-X-hpw IcpW Ie-Xpamb kzc-n tNmZnp:
Fn-\mWo ]cn-{`aw? Rm Jpssd-in-I-fns Hcp ]mm-cn-bpsS aI-\m-Wv.
\n Bsc-bmWv `b-s-Sp-Xv

14

aqv
acp`q-an-I-fpsS aqI-X-bn\np s]s-s-gp--t-p-hv, ]-W--fnse hnt-izcampw {]_-eampsaXnsc B{I-a-W-a-gn-p-hn P\-X-bpsS Cu Ahkm-\s CSb-{]-hm-N-I Znhw-K-X-\m-b-tXmsS nXn-K-Xn-I BI-msS amn-tep hgp-Xn-hoWp. {]hm-N-Is hntbm-K-tmsS Ipg-- Ip-Xp-S-pI-b-mbn-cpp. Ncn-{X-KXn bYm amK-n\nv Hcp sko-ao--dn-e-[nIw
hyXn-N-en-n-cpn {]mcw-`-n. Cmans sskm-nI kc-Wnpw Cm-an-I-Ncn-{X-n-\p-an-S-bn {]Xy--s hnShv IqSn-q-Sn-h-p. Hcp tImWn\nv cp
hgnv k-cn-p cp tcJ-I t]mse-bmbncpp AXv. XpS--n Ah
Hcn-S-v k-n-p-p-sh-n-epw ey-n-tev \ofpt-m cpw Xn AI-ephm XpS-p-p. As\ Bbn-c--W-n\p Intem ao AI-epp. C{]-Imcw
Ncn-{X-ns aptm-p- -{]-hm-l-n-s\m-v- A-h-n-S-bnse AIew h[n-p-hp. Imc-W-fpw, t{]c-W-Ifpw Fp Xs-bm-bn-cp-mepw Cm-ansbpw
bmYmYy-n-sbpw am-n\nv _lp-Zqcw AI-p sImv Ncn-{X-ns
KXn -\o-n-b-XmWv \apv ImWm km[n-p--Xv.
Ncn{Xw aptmv Kan-p-tmdpw kXy-n\npw kXy-k--X-bn\npap
Cu hyXn-bm-\w {Iam-XoXw hfpsIm-n-cp-p. As\ ]Xn-\-p-hjw
ISv Dkvam\p_v\p A^v^ms Dug-sa-n. Cm-an-I-{]-kvYm-\-ns FXncm-fn-Ifpw {]Xnhn]vfh-Im-cn-Ifpw Ap-anpw NnX-dn--gn-bp-p-m-bn-cpp. Ahscmw Dkvam\p Nppw-X-Sn-p-IqSn. Ipkn-X-_p-n-I-fm Ffp--n h-n-s-Sm-hp--Xm-bn-cpp Dkvams {]IrXn. {]kvXm-\-n-sbpw `c-W-Iq-S-n-s-bpw
-tI-{--fn Atlw AhnSw \In. Cm-an\pw Pmln-en--n-\p-an-S-bnse
Hcp CS--n-bm-bn-mWv Dkvamhn--sXp ]d-m AsXm-c-n
icn-bm-bn-cnpw. C-m-ans DZ-b-tmsS Xnc-kvIr-X-ambn Ahn-sS-bpw -C-hn-sS-bpw
Npn-n \np-I-bm-bn-cp hrn-s Zpjv{]-`p-Xz-n\pw Dkvams Jnem-^v Xtl-X-I-ambn, aplmPn-dp-I-fp-sSbpw15 Akm-dp-I-fp-sS-bpw16 \nc-c
kacfpsS t\-amb A[n-Im-c m-\--fn {]-`p-am A\l-ambn Ib-dnqSn An-n-Sn-p.
i]n--s Zpjv{]-`pXzw Cm-an-I-cm-jv{S-n\np _ln-jvIr-X-ambn N{Iizmkw
hen-p-sIm-n-cn--sh-bmWv Dkv-amsh-p-sIm-Sp GWn-bn-eqsS AXv hopw
Akm-dp-I-fp-apsm-p,
Ib-dn-h--Xv.17 {]hm-N-I-sbpw, aplm-Pn-dp-Ifpw
Ahn-Sps A\p-N-cam-cp-sSbpw ]pWy-k-a-cw-sImv t\Sn-sb-Sp B[n-]-Xyns a--fn Zpjv{]-`pXzw thcp-d-n--XmWv ]ns \ne.
Dkvam Aa-hn-I-fpsS ssIbnse Hcp D]-I-cWw am{X-am-bn-cp-p. Cm-ans
Hmw InS i{Xp--fm-bn-cp _\p Dam hwi-P {]hm-N-Is Imev
Aht {]l-c-n\v {]Xn-Im-cw-sN-pI am{X-a Cm-anI hnh-ns Hw
\np AXns hnP-b-^-e--sfmw kzmb--am-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. AsXm-s -km[n--Xm-Is Dkvams `c-W-n Iogn-epw. ]nm-ev kw`-hn kI-e-Zp-c-pw hg-n-sbm-cp-n-bXv Aa-hn-I-fpsS Cu cwK-{]-th-i-am-bn-cp-p. F{X-tmf-sa-m hnhw AXns Bm-X-bp asf Xnp-I-fbpI F
Ncn{X \nbaw A\-c Ime-L---fn Cm-anI hn-h-nepw {]I-S-am-bn.
AsXmcp Aew-Ly-amb \nb-a-am-sW-smpw F\n--`n-{]m-b-an-. GXm-bmepw
BmY-X-tbmSpw Bm-W-tmSpw IqSn Cm-anI hn-h-ns hnP-bn\p thn JUvKI- Nen-n hniz-kvX-cmb hn-h-Im-cn-I ]ecpw
Ckvams A\p-a-Xn-tbmsS a-I-cp-tSbpw P\--fpsS Ah-Imi hn[z-w-k-I-cp-tSbpw

15

ssII-fm hI-h-cp--s-Sp-I-bm-Wp-m-b-Xv.- hn--h-Im-cn-I hn-h-h--I-cpsS


_en-]o-T-n BlpXn sN-sp. Dkvam-t\mSv _-ap--hcpw At-l-ns
a\pw akvXnjvIhpw AS-n-`-cn-n-cp--hcpw Atl-s-smv hn-h-ns
ASnv ]pgp-n-sb-dnbn-p. Dkvam-sbpw {]Xn-hn--h-n-eqsS Pmln-en--ns\
Xncn-p-sImv hcm Xw-]mp ]Wn-sb-Spncp-h-cp-tSbpw ssI Hm-aXmbn \oXv Aen (d) bpsS t\m-bn-cp-p.
Aen(A)-bpsS Nnm-I-Xn-Ifpw kmap-ly-hpw cmjv{So-b-hp-amb {]h-\-fpw Hcp
]pXnb ka-cs {]Xn\n-[m\w sNp--Xm-bn-cp-p. Hcp-`m-Kv ]pXnb PohnX
aqey--fpsS hm-fpw bYm- t\Xmfpw Ah-cpsS ]phnizm-khpw
]pXnb ap{Zm-hm-Iy-fpw bY Cm-ans\ {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cn-p. adp-`m-Kv \ho\
Pmln-en--ns GPvam--hn-tZz-jhpw i{Xp-Xbpw Xnf-p-a-dn-bp-I-bm-W-h-cn.
Im]Syw ]cn-k-c-amsI s]mXn-n-cn-p-p. Cm-anI hn-h-ns Da k-XnIs-Xnsc Hfn-pw sXfnpw AXyp{K-amb t]mcn-\n-d-n-bn-cn-p-I-bmWv
{]Xn-tbm-Kn-I.
ip-hn-izm-kn-I-fmb apnwssk\yhpw kwi-bm-Xo-X-cmb X\n Ahnizm-kn-Ifpw
Xn \S Xpd kwL--\fmbn-cpp {]hmN-Is Imes bp-.
Aen(A)mIs apnw kaq-l-nse Cm-anI hn-h-tmSv Iqdp kXy-k-cmb ssk\y-s-bm-Wv t\cn-tS-n-h-n-cn-p--Xv. hn-hn-tcm-[n-I ]pXnb Bh-cWhpw bqWn-t^mdhpaWnv- c-W-`q-an-bn {]Xy--s-n-cn-p-I-bm-Wv.{]hm-N-I
A_q-kp-^yms\18 t\cn--Xvt]m-se-b Aen(A)v apB-hn-bsb19 t\cn-tS-n-h-n-cnp cwKw. ImcWw hfsc kv]jvS-amWv. Hm-a-t-Xv _mlyin-tbm-Sm-bn-cpp. i{Xphpw i{Xphpw Xn-em-bn-cpp. CXm-Is B`y--c-hp-am-Wv. ssa{Xn- {]Zin-n-p B`y--c-i-{Xp-hn-t\m-Sm-Wv. AtXm-sSmw \odn-p-I-vsIm-n-cn-pXpw. _mly-i-{Xp-hn-t\mSv Xpd ssaXm-\n-bn shv \S-p Xpd bpZv[w
hnP-b-n-se-n-pI A{X-sbmpw {]bm-k-I-c-a. Fm B`y--c-i-{Xp-hnt\mSv \S-p Dtm-cn ]cm-P-b-n-mWv Gsd -km-y-X. Jp-B\ns
Ah-X-c-W-Im-ev Cm-anI {]m-\-ns {]Xn-tbm-Kn-I-fn kXy-\nt-j-[nI, _lp-ssZ-h-Xz-hm-Zn-I, I]-Sam Fo aqv Xc-m-cp-m-bn-cp-p. Iqn I]Shniym-knsb Ghpw ZpjvS\pw A]S-Imcn-bpambn Jp-B ]cn-N-bs-Sp-n-b-Xn-\n-XmWv Imc-Ww. inn-sbpw Ip^vdn-sbpw in-Isf Xpd
bp-n tXmnv Cm-an-I-{]-kvXm-\s hnP-b-n-se-n {]hm-N-I
(k)bmIs B`y-c cwKs I]-S-i-n-bn \nv Cm-an-t\ sImSpw ]cm-P-bns {]Xo-I-am-bn -`-hn--bm-Wp-m-b-Xv.
bmYmyns aqSp-]-S-a-Wnv CkvemanI\oXn-bpsS {]tW-Xm--fmbn {]Xy-s-Sp-Ibpw As\ {]m-\-ns lrZ-b-n I-S-p-Iq-Sp-Ibpw sNbvX
Cu ]p-Xnb Pmln-en--n\pw ]p {]`p-Xz-n-\p-sa-Xnsc {]Xn-tcm-[-ns
Dcpp tIm-bp-ambn \ne sIm Aen(A), XuloZns thjanv cwK-n-d-nb
inn-t\m-Sm-bn-cpp At-l-ns bpw. Cm-ans Xe-m-h-Wn Ip^vdnt\mSv. Jp-B Ip-n Ipn-n-Snp ImWn-p20 hn{K-lm--cm-[-I-tcmSv. Ahkm\w hn-hcw sI-hcpw X{]qw ]Wn-sb-Sp-n-cp i{Xp--fpsS D]-I-c-W-fmbnXohcp-amb Nne ip KXn-m-cpsS ssIbm Aen(A) c-km-n-bm-hpI-bm-bn-cpp.21

16

\mev
Imew ]nn-Spw-tXmdpw CkvemanI hn]vf-h-ns bYm ASn-d Zp_-e-sp- h-cp--Xmbpw AtX-k-abw ]p Pmln-en--ns thcp-I IpSp-X Bgn in-s-p-h-cp--Xp-amWv \mw ImWp--Xv. Cu L-n-emWv Aen(-A)bpsSbpw ^mXzna (A) bpsSbpw {]Y-a-]p-{X-\mb lk(-A)22 cwKphcp--Xv.
]nXm-hns ]np-Sm-h-Imin F \ne-bn-emWv Camw lk (A) B[n-]Xyw
GsSp--Xv. At-l-n\p e`n ssk\y-am-Is I]-Samcpw Ipkn-X_pnIfpw \nd-Xpw. B-an-{X--fmbn KWn--s--htmepw Cc apJ-ap--h-cmbn-cp-p. ssk\n-tKm-tZym-K-amcpw tk\m-[n-]amcpw Aa-hn-I-fp-ambn clky
_-ap--h-cm-bn-cp-p. Aa-hn-I A[n-Im-chpw ]Whpw hmKvZw sNbvXv
Ahsc hnev hmn--gn-n-cn--bm-bn-cp-p. PqKp-]vkm-h-lamb Hcp h\bpw KqVm-tem-N-\bpw ssk\n-I-]m-f-b
- n DS-se-Sp-p-h-cn-I-bm-bn-cp-p.
apB-hn-b-tbmSpw Uam-kvI-n a\p-jyXzw hne-p-hm-nbncp Abm-fpsS Zmfp-am-tcmSpw X-fpsS Bm-hns Imcy-n hne-t]-i \S-p-I-bm-bn-cpp
DtZym-K-am. kndn-b-t]mse X{-{]-[m-\hpw IqSp-X i-hpw Fm
A]m-b-I-c-hp-amb {]tZ-i--sfmpw lks(A) A[n-Imchr-n s]Sm-Xncn-p-amdv Ahn-S--fn Aa-hn-I-fpsS ]nSn apdp-In--gn-n-cp-p. Cdm-Jn Xs
P\- ]e In-I-fm-bn-n-cnv ak-c--fn Gs-n-cn-pIbmbn-cp-p.
Ae-hn-I-fpsS `c-W-tmSv {]`p-amv Iqdp ]pem Ign-n-. _lp-P\--fm-Is A{i-cpw A\m--cpw.
Xo{h-amb ]-]mXw shp-]p-ep Hcp aX-km-l-kn-I In-bmWv Jhm-cn-Pv.
kmam\y P\-n-S-bn Ahp ssIh-cn-m Ign-bm kzm[o-\-am-Is
hn-Xpw A]-I-S-I-c-hpw. Ah-cp-apv ka-tcmkp-I-cmbn FXntN-cn-bn.
Ckveman-I-{]-m-\-ns Xt-S-ap \mb-I\pw AXns ]ptcm-K-a-t\-p-fmb A\p-bm-bn-I-fpsS HSp-hn-es {]Im-i-tc-Jbpw Ctm Camw lk-\m(-A)Wv. {]m-\s cn-m-\p Ah-km-\s {iaw At-l-n-eqsS am{Xsa
ImWp-p-q. ]s I]-Sam-cp-sSbpw B`y--c-i-{Xp--fp-sSbpw apn
Atlw AXn-am{Xw Zp_-e-\m-bn-Im-W-s-Sp-p. F{X-tm-f-sa-m {]`p-fpsS Ckveman \np ka-Xz-nsbpw kmaqly \oXn-bp-sSbpw aX-amb
Ckvemans\ cn-m-\p ka-c-ns Zptcym-K-]qhpw thZ-\m-P-\-I-hp-amb
Ay-Lw hsc Atlw s]mcp-Xn. HSp-hn i{Xp-hn-t\mSv kn-bm-hp-I-b-msX
thsd t]mwh-gn-bn-m-Xm-bn. \n-lm-bX At-ls kn-bn-tes-Sm \n_n-p. {]Xy--n Camwlk(-A)]cm-Pn-X-\m-bn. ]s Hcp Imcyw \mw
ChnsS {in-t--Xm-Wv. ]cm-P-b-s-Sp In-b km[m-c-W-K-Xn-bn knhyh--I \nt-ip-m-dv. ]cm-Pn-X tPXm--fp--bn-p hyh--Iv hgp-I-bmWv ]Xnhv. Fm ChnsS kn\ntZ--i- Camw lk\m(A)Wv
D-bn-Xv. AXn-\m Atlw ]cm-P-b-s-p-shv hne-bn-cp-p-Xv icn-bm-hn-.
At-l-n-s-ta ASn-tn--s B kn tXmhn-bpsS thsdmcp t]cmsW-n-epw.23
]pXp-Xmbn
cwK-{]-th-iw
sNbvX
Pmln-en-nt\mSv
]S-sh-m\pw
hnhssNX\yw DuXn--nv t\XrXzw \Im\papm-bn-cp Bim-In-c-W-ambn-cpp Camw lk(A). Atlw cwK-p-\nv ]nam-dn aZo-\-bn kzw
hon t]mbn Ccn-p-I-bmWv. Hcp km[m-cW ]m-f-m-c-s\-tmse At-lhpw
Bbp[w XmsgshpIgnp. i{Xp- B P\-t\-Xm-hn\v honepw sskzcyw
sImSp-n-. Ahn-sSbpw At-ls Ah ieyw sNm XpSn. Aa-hn-I-

17

fpsS ZpjvS Nmcam At-l-ns Krl-n kz-m-sc-tmse Hcp-anv


`Ww Ignp hmk-ap-d-n-p. At-l-ns PohnX kJnsb hi-s-Spn.
kzw `mcy-bpsS ssIbm At-ls hnjwsImSpp sImn-p.24 P\-
F{X-am{Xw Zp_-e-cmbngn-n-cn--cpp-shpw kzmX-{hpw \oXnbpw Fpam{Xw Xcw-Xm-Wp-t]m-bn-cn-p-pshpap kwKXn \psS khn-tij
{ibln-p kp{]-[m\ hi-am-Wn-hn-sS. Cpw \ne-\np CkvemanI
{]m-\-sa alm-in hnti-j-ns Aa-c-m-c-\m-bn-cpp Camwlk(-A)
]cn-Xy-PnsXv F{X-tm-f-am-bn-cp-p-shv Imn-X-cp--XmWv At-l-ns
arX-tZ-l-tm-Sp-t]mepw FXn-cm-fn-I s]cp-am-dnb coXn. aZo-\-bn kzw ]nXm-al-\mb {]hm-N-I(-k) kao-]-m\v Xs arZ-tZlw adhp sN-W-sa
Aym-`n-emjw t]mepw sIm-s--Xn\p tijw \nd-th--s-Sp-I-bp-m-bn-. ]nXmhv, amXm-hv, ]nXm-a-l BZn-bmb IpSpw-_mw-K--fp-sSbpw aplm-Pn-dp-I, Akmdp-I Fn-h-cp-sSbpw \K-c-amb aZo-\-bn A`n-em-jn-X-amb BdSn ap-t]mepw
e`n-msX _JoA25 F s]mXp-iva-im-\-n-emWv At-l-ns arX-i-cocw adhp-sN--s--Xv. Camw lk(A) Cm-anIkaq-l-n H-sv GIm--X-bntev cwKw hntSnhp. AXpw {]hm-N-Is ]-W-n. bmYmyw Atb-s Ah-IKW-\pw A]-P-b-n\pw ]m{X-ambnoqsh--Xns {]I-Sam-sbmcp \nZi-\-am-WnXv. AtXm-sSmw ]nn-cn- in-I Cm-an-I-k-aq-lns Fm-ta-J-ebpw ]q-ambn ssIb-Sn \m\m`mK-tpw hnP-b--XmI
]d-n--Xn\v {]Xy-tm-Zm-l-cWhpw. C\n Chn-Sp--tmv Camw lpssks(A)
Dug-amWv.

Av
Ckvem-anI{]m-\-ns t\XrXzw Camw lpssks (A) ssIbnse-n-bncn-bmWv. {]hm-N-I-\m m]n-X-amb, Aen (A) \ne-\nn-tm, lk (A)
Ah-km-\-izm-khpw sImSp-v kw-c-n {]m\\mb-I-Xz-ns ASp AhImin lpssk\m (A) Wv. Fm Camw lpssks (A) ssIbn hptNn-cn-p hnh{]m-\-ns nXntbm? ssk\y-an-, Bbp-[-an,
k-n, A[n-Im-chpw in-bp-an-. Bm-amb Hc-\p-bmbn hrw
t]mepw kwL-SnX cq]-n-en-. GXp-an-m ]q \n-lm-bm-h!
lnPvd Adp-]-Xm-amv IS-p-h-n-cn--pIbmWv. {]hm-N-Is (k) tZl-hn-tbmKw
Ignv A_vZn-I AXp ]nnp.
hnj-b-n-tev {]th-in-p-I-bmWv. AXn-\m Chn-S--tmv {]tXyIw a\ncppI.
Hcp- t\-Xmhpw ]S--e-h\pw Xs hyn-]-c-amb A`n-{]m-b-tbpw A`n-cpNntbbpw am{Xw Bkv]-Z-amn bp-{]-Jym-]\w \S-p-Itbm ka-c-amw sXcs-Sp-p-Itbm sNm-dn. bp-n\v cq]w sImSp-t kml-N-cy-, D]m[n-I, ]cn-nXnbpsS Blzm-\-, ssk\y-nse hnhn[ hyql--fpsS \ne]mSv, {i{Xp-tk-\-bpsS inb-\p-]mXw Fo LS-I--sfmw hne-bn-cp-n-bXn\p tijta bp-n\p cq]w sImSp-m-dpq. CX-\p-k-cnv lpssk (A)
]S-sbm-cpw Iqnb ]m--e-nse D]-cyp LS-I--sfmw IWnseSpp-thWw At-l-ns khn-tij ka-cs ImWm.
lnPvd Bdmw Zi-I-ns Ah-km\hjw. Ahn-S-mWv lpssks (A) `mKt[bw Bcw-`n-p-Xv. Imehpw P\--tfm-Sp IS-mSpw Hcp hynsb Imncn-p-I-bm-Wv. AXyw B]-c-amb {]Xn-kn Lw...Hcp BZi-nsbpw

18

hnizmkkwln-X-bpsSbpw kwc-Ww, Hcp Nnm-]-Xnsb Imp-c-n-t


ISa, Hcp kaqlw, Hcp Xe-apd CsXms Fs\ aptmp \bn--W-sa-Xns amK\nti-n-\v
Hcp hyn-p-th-n--A-Yhm Hn-tesd hynIp-thn A-h-sbmw Dp-t\m-nsmn-cn--bmWv. Cu IS-a-I-fpsS ayntemWv hn-h-ns \mb-IXzw ssIbn-se-Sp-m lpssk(A) ISph-cpXv. Fm-{]-Xn-tcm[ tI{-fpw hn\n-jvS-ambncnpp. ]nXm-a-ls
A[n-Im-c-n \nv, ]nXm-hns {]h-\-a-WvU-e-n \nv Fmw
tNmcWw sN-s-n-cn-p-p. Ctm Ckvemans tI{-n, kXy-n-sbpw
\oXn-bp-sSbpw tNcn-bn, Hcp KUvKwt]mepw Ah-ti-jn-p-n-. Hcp
]mfmc\pw Imh-en-cn-p-n-.
kaq-l-ns apgp-h Bm-\--fpw Aa-hn-I I-Sn ssIImcyw sNm
XpS-n-bnp hj-fmbn. Jpssd-in-I ]p Pmln-en--ns kt-X-n
aqey-sf Xf-n-Sm\pw Ckvem-anIhn-h-ns hn`ht`m-Pn-I-fm-bn-I-gn-bm\pw
XpS-n-bnv Imew Ipsd-bmbn. Ime-Lw ]cn-h-\--sfn IS-p-t]mbn.
Ckn-em-anIhnh`c-W-Iq-S-ns tI{w Pmln-en--n-tev ]nh-enp. hnh-ns BZy-Ime kl-Nm-cn-Ifpw t]mcm-fn-I-fp-am-bn-cp hninjvS hyn-Ifpw
kzlm_n t{ijvTcpw apl-Zv \_n (k) bpsS injyK-W-fpw aqv tNcn-Ifmbn Xncn-n-p-m-bn-cp-p. Ckvemans bYm-]m-X-bn \nv hyXn-N-env
Pmln-en--n-tep Cu Xncnp t]mv kln-m-\m-hmsX in-bmb
Aajw tcJ-s-Sp--b-Xns t]cn {Iqc-ambn sIme-sN--s--h-cmWv Hmas hn`m-Kw. lnPvdm_vZw Adp-]-Xn\v apv Ah-scm--Sw \mam-h-tijamsp Ign-n-cp-p. A_q-Zdv26 t]mbva-d-p. Am27 cwKw hnp.
A_vZp-m-ln_v\p akv-DuZv 28 A{]-Xy--\mbn. aoYw29 h[n--s-p. lpPp-dp_v\p
AZn30 ac-W-ns IShp ISp A-c-]-n.
cwK-p-\np hnp-amdn Bcm-[-\m-e-b--fpsS aqe-I-fn B-km-bqPyw Isn-b-h-cmWv cm-as hn`m-Kw. Ejn-Xp-ey-amb `n-]-c-h-i-X-tbmsS {]mY-\m\n-a--cm-bn--bn-gp-I-bm-W-h. Hcp- b-Ym- ap-kam ]S--fs Bcm-[-\m-an-c-ambn KWn-t kml-N-cyw. hnP-bw-{]-Xo-n-p-n-s-nepw ka-cm--Wn {]th-in--Ww. bYm ap-n-am-Ip--Xns A\n-hm-cy-^-e-sa-tmWw
ITn-\-a-\--fpsSbpw B]-p-I-fp-sS-bpw-I-hm-S- Abm-fp-sS-ap-\zn Xpd-s-Sp-I-bmWv. Fm XZ-h-k-c-n t]m-f-n-en-dn c-km-n-Xz-ns
]Zhn t\Sn kzw- I-c-kvX-am-p--Xn\v ]Icw Cu hn`mKw asmcp am-amWv
sXc-s-Sp-p--Xv. bp-ns QW-Q-Wm-can-m-, _l-f-c-ln-X-amb
A-co--n \nc-c {]m-\-I-fn hne-bn-v, Pohn-X-ssh-cm-Ky-n-eqsS,
\o {hXm-\p-jvTm-\--fn-eq-sS, kzmXval-\-\-n-eq-sS, ]cn-{hm-Py-]-cn-io-e-\-n-eqsS- Zn-hym-\p-cm-K-n-s- ]-c-aImjvT-bn-se-n -kzKw {]]nmw! Cu hn`m-Kns {]Z-tam-Zm-l-cWw A_vZp-m-ln_v\p Da 31 Xs. Aa-ho-In--cam-cp-sS-N-n-{]-l-c-tav ]pf-bp-Ibpw JUvKtf-v ]n-S-bp-Ibpw sNp kmam-\y-P\w
Cu am\yam-cpsS t\sc Zb-\o-bambn ZrjvSn-I-f-bpp. ImcWw {]hm-N-Is
Imev CkvemanI hn-h-n-\p-thn tXmtfmSp tXmtNv kacw sNbvX
]mc--cy-ap hyn-I-fm-Wn-h. ]t, C-h ]n-aq-e-I-sf icWw {]m]n-ncn--bm-Wv. PohnX hnc-n-bpsS \ni-_vZ-X-bn B-km-bqPyw sImp-I-bm-Wv.
Ckvem-ans al k-Xn-Isf B{I-an-I-fp-sSbpw Ahn-izm-kn-I-fp-sSbpw ssIIfn-ten-v -B-cm-[t\m]mk-\-I-fn Ign-n-cp--h Bcp-X-s-bm-hs AhcpsS ssI B ]oUn-X-cpsS c-n\n-sm-cn-epw ]cn-ip--a-. B \njvI-famb tNmc-sImv Id-]n-Sn ssII-fm-W-h-cp-tS-Xpw.
Bh-iy-n\p hnhchpw IS-m-Sp-I-sf-n t_m[-hp-ap Hcp a\p-jy.
bYmhpw AbYmhpw Abmp Xncn--dnbmw. Fnpw Ccw Hcp

19

kml-N-cy-n Bcm-[-\m-e-b-ns kuJy-ta-J-e-I-fn-te-mWv Abm Xs


\bn-p--sX-n, A{I-a-ns Xm]-cy-n\p thn D_p--\mb Hcp hnh-Im-cnsb _en-sIm-Sp sImSpw]mX-I-am-W-bm sNbvX-sXp ]d-bm-hp-XmWv. Ip-Ir-Xy-n-\-cp-\np-Ibpw Ip^vdns Xm]-cy-n\p thn Cuam\ns hkvXphlI _en-sIm-Sp-p-I-bpw sNpIhgn A{I-a-ns Im
B-lXy sNp ZpjvS-m-cm-W--c-m. cwKw hntm-Snb C-h {]hm-NIs(k) A\p-N-c-m-cns-h Xs-bm-bn-cp-p.
_Zvdnepw DlvZnepw lpss\-\nepw ]s-Sp-m `mKyw-e-`n--h-cm-Wv aq-m-as
hn`mKw. {]mhm-N-I-\p-samv kztZiw shSnp ]mem-b\w sNbvXn-p-hsc
al-Xzhpw Ahpv. {]hm-N-Is(k) kmn-yhpw kl-hm-khpw A\p-`-hn
A\p-{K-lo-X-cp-am-W-h. a\-m-ey tei-at\y Ah apB-hn-b-bpsS lcnX
sImmcnsen32 Ah-\-hs D]-Po-h-t\m-]m-[n-I Dd-p-h-cp-p-Ibpw kpcnXamp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Ahv apS-msX km-nIt\- e`n-vsImp-an-cp-p. A_pZm,33 A_q-lp-ssddm34, A_q-aqk35 Fn-hp lZokv \nthZ-\-n\v Io-j- \n-bn--s]-p. lZo-skm-n\v Hcp Zo\m hoX-am-bn-cp-phs{X Io-j. {]hm-N-Is kXklNm-cnbpw lZokpimkv{X-n hnZ-Kv[\p-amb Hcp klm-_n-bm-bn-cpp A_q-lp-ssdd. Aa-hn-I-fpsS sImm-c-n
Db ]cn-K-W-\bpw ]Z-hn-bp-amWv Atlw Ae--cn-n-cp--Xv.
Ccw Hcp Npp-]mSv \ne-hn-en-cn-p kml-N-cy-n bph-P-\- Fss\bm-bn-cnpw Nnn-pI? lnPvd Adp-]Xmw hkcw. CkvemanI hn-hns
cmw
Xe-apd
ISn-m
ssIbn-te-p
Ime-L--amWv
Camwlpssktd(-A)Xv. hn-h-ns BZy-L--n-ep-mb A\Lhpw A`n-am\-I-c-hp-amb hnP-b-]-c--c-I, ]c-kv]c kvt\l-n-sbpw ipjvIm-n-bp-sSbpw
hnip--Im-e-Lw CsXmpw A\p-`-hn-p-Ibpw ]cn-N-bn-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-n-m
Hcp Xe-ap-d-bm-W-hnsS hfphn-cn-p-Xpw hfp-sIm-n-cn-p--Xpw.
Fnepw Hmw Xe-ap-d-bn\np tI-dn Cuam-\n-sbpw Znhym-\p-cm-K-nsbpw IY-I Ah-cpsS bph-lr-Z-b--fn Bth-i-I-c-ambn ]Xn-p-Im-Wpw.
AXns ^e-ambn hn-h-L--n ]cn-io-e-\-amPn klm-_n-I-sf-tmse
Ahcpw Bbn--gn-n-p-m-IWw. Znh-tk-s\-sb-tmWw X {]Xo-bpw
hnizm-khpw tI{o-I-cn-n-p {]kvXpX klm-_n-h-cyam-cpsS ]X\w Iapn ImWp-tm Fp-am{Xw ss\cm-iyhpw Cm-an-s -Im-cy-n Fp-am{Xw
Akzm-y-hp-am-bn-cnpw B A\p-`-hw Ah-cn P\n-n-n-p-m-hp-I. hn-hns BZy-L--nse {]hm-N-Is Ime-L--nse klm-_n-I-fpsS nXnbmWo ]d--Xv.
Fm cmw Xe-ap-d-bnXm Bth-i-`-cn-X-cm-bn, Dkm-l-n-an cwK-n-dp-p. ]cn-io-e\w e`n--hcpw e`n-m--hcpw ]pXnb Pmln-en--n-s-Xnsc
]S--d-n-en-d-p-I-bm-Wv. nXn-K-Xn-I-sf-p-dnv XnIpw t_m[-hmam-cm-bnsmp Xs-bmWv Ah cwK-p-h-cp--Xv. lpPvdp_v\pAZnv BWv Cu
cmw Xe-ap-d-bpsS {]Xo-Ihpw Xe-h\pw. {]hm-N-I(-k) Imev sNdp--am-bncpp lpPv. Aen(-A)-bpsS `c-W-th-f-bn Atlw ]S--f-n-en-dn bpw
sNbvXn-cp-p. ]noSv Camw lk(-A)-t\m-Sw Hcp XnI tbmmhpw D-chm-Z-s cmjvSo-b-t\-Xm-hp-sa \nev tKmZ-bn-en-d-n. Xs hn-h-a-t\m-`mhw
ImcWw Camw lk-\pw(-A) apB-hn-bpw Xn-ep-mb DS--Snsb Atlw
A\p-Iq-en-p-I-bp-m-bn-. DS--Sn-bn Hpsh-Xn ITn-\-ambn {]Xn-tj-[n-pIbpw Camw-l-k-s\(-A) ISp `mj-bn hnain-p-Ibpw sNbvXp At-lw.
_lpP\--fpsS A`n-am-\-n\p X-tan \ny-amb \ne-]m-sS-mWv
{]kvXpX DS--Snsb lpPvdv hnti-jn-n--Xv. Atlw Hcp HXp-m hynXzhpw hn-h-ns An-kv^p-enw-K-hp-am-bn-cp-p. Fnepw aZo-\-bn Camw

20

lk-\p(-A)-ambn \S clkykw`m-j-W-tmsS lpPvdv im-\m-hp-I-bm-Wp-mb-Xv. ka-tcmkp-I-\mbn cwK-n-d-nb Cu hn-h-Im-cnsb im-\m-nb


{]kvXpX kw`m-j-W-ns hni-Z-hn-h-c-sampw Ncn{Xw hy-am-n-X-cp-n-.
lpPvdv kw`m-jWw Ignv im\pw kp-jvS-\p-ambn ]pdph--cp-Xp am{XamWv Ncn-{X-n \mw ImWp--Xv. lpPvdv Xs A`n-{]mbw kk-tmjw Xncpn-p-dn-Xv A{X efn-X-ambn a\-n-em-m-hp kwK-Xn-b-. kam-[m-\w, kl\w, a, \tbm-]mbw Fsm-s--dp HXp-n-\n-dp-m-hp {]Ir-X-m-c-\-mbn-cpp At-lw. A]-ISw Hgn-hm-m-s\ \ymbw At-l-n-s\mv kzoIm-cy-amhp-I-bp-an-. Camw-l-k-s (-A) hyn--Xztm-Sp B`n-apJyw sImv A`n-{]m-b ASn-b-d-sh-m am{Xw lpPvdv Hcp hyn-]q-P-I-\p-a.
kpsseam\p_v\pkpdZv JpkmCu36 {]kvXpX knbpsS Imcyn Camw
lks(A) asmcp ISp hnaiI\pw AtltmSv Aajw shp
t]mncp Bfpambncpp. Atlhpw Camwlks(A) kzhkXnbnshp
kzImcyambn IqSnmgvN \SnbtXmsS {]kvXpX DSSnsb kljw
]npWpIbmWpmbXv. CuPn]vjy NnI\pw FgpImc\pamb
Xmlmlpssk37 AtXn C{]Imcw ]dbpp. Camw lk(A) Ccphscbpw
Cs\ t_my-s-Sp-n-bn-p-m-bn-cn-Ww. Xpd
ssk\nIkwL\w
{]tbmP\w sNpIbn. D inbpw \inpIbmbncnpw AXns ^ew.
XpSv Hcp clky kwLS\p cq]wsImSppIbmWtlw sNbvXXv. ap
hmpIfn {]Xykacs A{Kuntep amn. \nehnepmbncp
`cWhyhkvYnXnsXnsc Hcp hnhkwLS\ cq]oIcnp. Cu hnh kwLS\
cp \qmp Imew AYhm inbmfpsS HSphnes Camans Imew hsc
apgph apnw \mSpIfnepw clky{]h\w \Snsmncpp. Aaho
Amko ImeLfn-semw inbm{]kvYm\ns A{Kup {]h-\ Cu kwL-S-\-ap-tJ-s\-bmWv km[n-n-cp--Xv.
lpPvdn\pw AZnp\plmnw38 XpSnb Atlns kacklNmcnIfmb
bphmpw
\nehnepmbncp
aI
`cWtbpw
Ccp
GIm[n]Xysbpw klnm Ignn. \mp\m s]cpphcp
a\w, GIm[n]Xyw, NqjWw AhImilXy, kXyamKn\n-p
hyXnNe\w
CXnsemw Ahp Aklyamb Aajw tXmn.
kXynsbpw
Ckvemansbpw
\oXnbpsSbpw
sNehn
A\p{Iaw
hfphnIknp hcp hgn]ng `cWIqSns\Xnsc hn`htijnbpw
inbpw th{Xbnmbncpp.
lpPvdn t\XrXzn hnh{]h\w ]ptcmKanphcnIbpw IqSpX
ss[cyw
kw`cnpsmcnpIbpw
sNbvXp.
h\m]camb
Hcp
KqVmtemN\sbXpSp
AtmtgpaXm
Hcp
^Xvvhm
hcpp.
lpPvdp_v\pAZnv aXn\p ]pdmsWv. ^Xvhmp NphsS Ir{Xnaamb Hp-v
ti-J-c-W-hp-ap-m-bncp-p. Fmw AahnIfpsS lnXa\pkcnv XpSv
CkvemanI hnh-ns cmw Xe-apd H-S-w ]nSn--s-Sp-p. UamkvIknse
`cW-IqSns\Xnsc {]hn--Xns t]cn Aen(-A) bpsS Nnm-k-cWn
]np-S-Xns t]cn B amK-n ]mZ Dd-n-p-\nn-b-Xns
t]cn. Xma-kn-bmsX kndn-b-bnse aPp-A-Zvdm-bn shv AhcpsS inc-pI tOZn--s-p.

21

Bdv
CXmWv lpssk (A) cwK-p-h k`w. Ctm hn-h-{]-m-\-n\v
A[n-Im-c-tI{w ]q-ambpw A\ym-[o-\s
- -p-I-gn-n-cn-p-p. Bm-Xbpw
B-k-a-Whpap AXns sImSn-hm-l-I H-Sw \njvTq-camw hn[w h[n-s-p. \mep-]mSpw aqIX hym]n-n-cn-pI-bmWv. hnip--cmb klm-_n-I
t]mepw XymK-n\p k--cmbn ]pd-p-h-cp-n. kXymkXy--fpsS Ipgw
]nSn Xe-th-Z\ hne-p-hm-msX, cmjv{Sob kmaq-ly-a-WvU-e--fn CS-s]-Sp-I
hgn B]v hnfnp hcp-m-sX, kz-ambn GsX-nepw Adn-b-s-Sm aqe-Ifn Bcm[\m-\n-a--cmbn Ign-p-Iq-Sp-I-bt `wKn? AXt Daw? P\-sfbpw Ah-cpsS `mK-t[b-tbpw `c-W-Iq-S-ns Imcp-Wy-n\v hnp
sImSpmw. Cs\ t]mIpp B km-[-p-fpsS Nn! GIm X]-ky-bp-tSbpw
A[ym- t{]a-nsbpw kzmY-]q-amb tXmSn-\p-n- GIm{KNn--cmbn
Hfn-n-cn-pIbm-W-h. {]hm-NIintcm-a-Wn-bpsS kp{]kn klm-_n-I-fn
]ecpw apB-hn--bpsS lcn-X-sIm-m-c-n\p Nppw ss_pam-en Ipw\p
Ign-bp-I-bm-Wv. Cm-anIhn-h-ns cmw Xe-ap-d-bmb bph-\nc hn-h-{]-m\s cn-p-hm thn Aa-hn-I-fp-ambn ]S-shn ]cm-P-b-s-n-cn-p-I-bm-Wv.
A[n-Imchw JUvK-ns aq-sImpw ]W-ns hiy-X-sImpw m\am-\- \In BZ-cnpw h-\- amK-am-nbpw kI-e-scbpw \ni-_vZ-cm-n-bncn-p-p.
`bm-i--I-fpsS kw, kpw ]Z-hnbpw sImp {]tem-`\w, kmaq-ly-Zqjy-pw kpJ-Xr-jvWpw btY-jvSw hnl-cn-m-\p kzmX-{yw, AtX-kabw _pnpw Nnpw Ii\ \nb-{Ww, hnizm-k-n\pw D-c-hm-Zn-Xzt_m-[-n\pw _-\w CsXm-s-bmWv ]pXnb Pmln-en-b-ns khn-ti-j-X.
AYhm _\-n\v kzmX{yw, kzmX{yn\v _-\w. P\-sf hnUvVo-Icn-m Icp-Xn-q-n-bp {]h-\-fpw \S-n-cp-p AtXm-sSmw . a\pw
a\-m-nbpw akvXn-kvIhpw ac-hnn-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p B {]-h-\--fpsS
eyw. Cuam-\nsbpw XZ-Sn-m-\-n-ep hn-h-n-sbpw {]`m-hhpw \ne\npw P\- D_p-cpw hnh-c-k-vYcpw Bhp--Xns\ B{i-bn-mWv Ccnp--Xv. AXn-\m hnm-\-tI-{- \in-n-p-I, Ah \ntjw iq\y-ampI, a\pw akvXn-ivIhpw ac-hn-nv {]h\clnXamno-p-I.
]pXnb Pmln-en `c-W-hy-h-nXnv \m-b-dn-bm-am-bn-cpp: {]hm-NI IpSpw_s Dq-e\w hcp-n-bXpsImtm Aen (A)sb h[n--Xp-sImtm hn-h{]-m-\-nv A]-ISw Ipd-bvm-\m-hp-I-bn-s-v. Aen (A)p tijw lk
(A) h-tm At-ls ssk\n-I-ambn ]cm-P-b-s-Spn Bcp-a-dn-bmsX
lo\-ambn sIme-N-bvXp. ]s AXpw {]iv\n\v ]cn-lm-c-am-hp-I-bn-sv
Ahv icn--dn-bm-am-bn-cp-p.
hn-h-ns Fm- A-Sn--d-Ifpw ]Xnefpw XIpI, Akz-X apf-s]mp apgp-h in tI{-fpw On-`n--am-pI, lpPvdn-s\-tmse Dincpw hnhm-th-i-hp-ap kIe sNdp--m-sc-bpw- \njvTqcw sIme-s-Sp-p-Itbm \mSp-I-Sp-Itbm sNbvXp. Cuam-\nI inbm {]tNm-Xn-X-cmbn hn-h-n-s\m-cp-nb
klm-_n-Isf ]n-Wn-npw Ah-Im-i- \ntj[npw, h[n-pw HSp-pI apXemb \S-]-Sn-I \njv{]-tbm-P-\--fm-sW hkvXpX Ah a\-n-em-n-bn-cp-p.
hnm-\-ns ssh]p-eyw, P\-fpsS {]_p-X, kXy-hn-izm-k-ns aq,
Ckvemans ssNX-\yspdn-p AKm-[-amb t_m[w, {]t_m-[-\amKs
kw_-n bYm-m\w, {]hm-N-I-an-js bmYmyw, hnj-a- XcWw
sNm-\p AXns Ignhv CsXmpw ASn--a-ep-I sImpw a-\-

22

sImpw AhImi \ntj[w sImpw \no-cy-am-m Ign-bm--Xm-sWv Aahn-Iv ]q t_m[y-ap-m-bn-cp-p. A_q-Zdn-s\-tm-ep Icp-m hynXz-sf ItTmc]oU-\-n-c-bm-nbpw A{I-a-n\pw GIm-Xn-]-Xy-n-\p-saXnsc [oc-ambn {]Xn-tj-[n A_vZp-mln_v\pakv-Du-Zns\ an-p-sImv Aa-hnI Xs-Xn-sc-bp hn-h-`o-jWn Cm-Xm-m {ian-p-I-bm-bn-cpp. Npcp-n FXnn-\p hnZqc km[y-X-It]mepw ]c-Xn-nSnp ]dn-s-dn-bp-I-bm-bncpp Ah-cpsS \bw. CkvemanI hn-h
- ns \-h-cmb t\Xm-sf sImsm-Spntbm {][m-\-hy-n-Xz--fn ]e-scbpw X-fpsS tkh\ k--cm-n-bpw
AhcpsS tbmKy-X-I NqjWw sNbvXpw {]b-Xv\- ]ngn-s-Sppw
apkvenfpsS hn-hm-th-is DuXn-s-Sp-nbpw {]Xn-] apWnIsf-sbmw
BXn-Pbn-p-sImv Za-mkvIv apX Jpdm-km hsc-bp apgp-h apnw \mSpIfpw Aa-hn-I Ah-cpsS B[n-]-Xy-n-\[o-\-am-n. Fnpw CkvemanI hn-hns thc-dp-m Ahp Ign-n-. \njvTq-c-amb Ccw \S-]-Sn-I-sfmpw
Aa-hn-I-fpsS A]-I-S-ap--amb `c-W-`-{Z-Xp ]cym-]vX-am-b-Xp-an-. `c-W-Iq-Sns
\ne-\nv Ddvhcp-p-hm\pw sskzchpw kzX-{-hp-ambn Imcy- \nh-lnm Imcy-kvYamscbpw DtZym-K-am-scbpw A\p-h-Zn-p Hcp- kvYn-hntijw kwPm-X-am-p-hm\pw Ahmbn. Aa-hn-Iv C{X-am-{Xta thn-bn-cpp-f-fq. ap-hm-p-I-fn ]d-m Iog-S-pI, ISn-m ssI]nSnbn-em-p-I,
P\--fpsS hntam-P-\-{]-m-\s X-pS-pI, `c-W-Iq-S-ns apgp-h \nb{-Whpw ssIh-iw-sh-pI, BZi-kw-c--Isc hI-h-cp-pI, kzmX{-ykvt\ln-I-tfbpw Ah-Imiw tNmZn-phscbpw sRn-sm-p-I, \oXnsb \ncm-bp-[am-pI C{Xbpw Dt-iy-p-th-n-bmWv _\q Da--m {ian-n-cp-Xv. Cmans ]S-p-Xn-c-I, ]S-b-n-I, ]cn-N-I apX-emb Fm ]S-tm-p-Ifpw Ah
Xn--dnp. Nn Hmn P\--fpsS inc-p-Isf `c-W-Iq-S-n-\-\p-Iq-e-am-n.
_pnbpw Xt-S-hp-ap Aa-ho- cm-jv{S-X-{-am-dn-bmw, Cu I]-S-X-{sfms shdpsX-bm-sWv . P\--sfbpw Ime-ns tNX-\-tbbpw Ahp \ ]cn-N-b-apv. al-mb Cm-anI hn-h-n\v ]nd-hn-sIm-Sp--h-cpsS sXmSp ]nX-e-ap-d-bm-Wn-hnsSbpXv. ss[j-Wn-Ihpw kmaq-ln-Ihpw cmjv{So-bhpw
Bo-b-hp-amb taJ-eIsfbJnew kv]in-p B hn]vfhw Ign-nv hf-scsbmpw Ime-am-bn-n. adp-h-iv `c-W-h-am-hs Pmln-en--nsbpw A\nkvem-an-I-Xznsbpw sXmp-]n-nse Xe-ap-d-bp-amWv. _Zvdnepw DlvZnepw JZJnepw {]hm-N-I-s\-Xn-cn Ahn-izm-k-sbpw _lp-ssZ-h-hm-Z-sbpw {]Xn-\n-[oIcnp bpw sNbvXn-cp ASn-a---h-S-m-cmb apX-em-fn-am Cu t\Xm--fpsS
]qn-Iam-cm-Wv. Ccp-hcpw Xn Hscm--X-e-ap-d-bp-sS hn-Shpam{X-ta-bp-q.
Aa-hn-I-dnbmw, A]-P-bns Ccp shoIqm-c-v Iosg, c-d
]pc `oa-amb Cu ]mm--e-n\p ]nn AXn-i--amb s]mn-s-dn-I-fpsS
Nph `oj-Wn-I ]Xn-bn-cn-p-p-sv, Ah GXv k-a-bhpw kvt^mS\w
krjvSn-m sh sImp-I-bp-am-sWv. hnizm-kn-I-fpsS ssk\yw IqtmsS acnp hoWn-p-v. ]t hnizmkw NpW-tbmsS Pohn-n-cn-p-I-bmWv.
\oXn-bpsS t\Xm-fpw kXyns ktmamcpw kzmX-{y-ns kt-Xfpw hn-h-ns {]Xn-tcm[\ne-b-fpw CSn-p-\n-c--s-p. Fm- \oXn-pth-n-bp AS-m-- A-`n-emjw? kXy-tm-Sp HSp-m {]Wbw? a\p-jyXztm-Sp D-S-amb B`napJyw? Aen(A)sb {]m\m an-c-hv
sIme sNbvXp. Fm Aen (A)bpsS Znhy-\p-cm-K-ns Antbm? A_qZdns\ d_vZ-bnse hnP-\-X-bn-tep \mSp-I-S-n. AhnsS \n-_vZ-\mbn Atlw
Ay-im-kw henp. ]s A_q-Zdns t]mhnfn A-co--n apg-pnt? At-l-ns ap{Zm-hm-Iy- Nppw KPn-p-nt? lpPvdns\ kndn-b-

23

bnse aPp-A-Zvdm-bn sImp-t]mbn h[np. Fm At-l-ns hn-hmth-itam? A\o-Xn-s-Xn-tc-bp At-l-ns B-Sn- tcmjs FpsN-m-s\mpw?
Cu alZvhyn-Xz- IpSn-sIm-p-Xpw hn-h-n-\m-lzm\w sNp--Xp-amb
bYm tI{w aZo-\-bm-bn-cp-p-sh-n AhnsS\S Iq-sm-e-bn Ah-km\np t]mtbs\. IA_-bn-em-bn-cp--n It-dn NX-vt]m-tb-s\. Iq^-bnB-bn-cps-n
ISn-m
CSm-am-bn-cpp.
{]hm-N-Is(k)
]ffnbnembncpsn
IpXncIfpsS
ImNhntv
NXbpambncpp.
]mfmcpsS IpXncI AhnsSsbpw NmWIw hogvn Npn\Sppv.
{]hm-N-I(k) Krl-am-sW-n Ahn-S-an-tm iq\y-amWv. ^mn-a-bpsS `h-\n-emtWm? AXp-a-. AsXms Npp-Nm--em-n--gn-p. ]ns JpB\nemtWm? AXm-Is Ip-ap-\-bn Xpf-p-]n-Sn-n-cn-p-I-bp-am-Wv.
]ns Fhn-sS-bm-WXv? Fhn-sS-bmWo hnhm-n-bpsS Dhw? Cu H-Sp-m
A]-I-S- ]Xn-bn-cn-p--sX-hnsS? a\-pw akvXn-jvIhpw- \ne-\np Imetmfw Cu Pbn--S--ep-Ismpw bmsXm-cp-hn-e-bp-an-. Fm-`u-XnI inIfpw A]-I-S-ns Icn-\n-g-en Ign-tb-n-hcpw. a\pw ajvXn-jvhpapt-Ssmpw Aen(A) A\p-bm-bn-I acn-p-I-bn-. c-km-n-Xz-n-eqsS Pohn-pI-tb-bp-q. acn-p--Xn-\p-apv A\-iz-c-ambn Pohn-p--Xn\p thn Ah
Poh\pw chpw \Ipw. a\pw akvXn-jvIhpw \njv{In-b-am-Im Ime-tmfw
A_q-Z hopw P\npw. Amdpw lpPvdpw amenv Aiv-dpw -D-bn-scSppw.
Ah ]pXnb ]S-b-Wn-Isf kn^o-\n-te--b-p sImn-cn-pw. B ssk-\n-I-{]hmlw \ne-p-I-bn-. Aen(A)bpsS Nnm-{]-m\w acn-p-Itbm ac-hn--p-Itbm
C. Iq-h-[w- B-scbpw Hcp-\n-an-j -t\-c-t-p-t]mepw c-s-Sp-p-I-bn-. ac-Wns ih--dntem c-p-g-bpsS {]hm-l-ntem Bpw \n-I-n-bp-mbn-cn-p-I-bp-an-.
ssZhnI hn-h-ns ktiw JpB\n-e-, Chn-sS-bm-Wp--Xv. Aen (A) Iq^bnse {]m\m an-c-n-em-Wn-m-Xv. Atlw Chn-sS-bpv. \mw h[n
hyn-I, Pbn--S-nb {]tZ-i-, ]cm-P-b-s-Sp-nb ssk\y-, ]nSn-sSp Bbp-[-, A[o-\-s-Sp-nb tIm-IA-sXmsbpw kXy-n-s-XmWv.
kzmX-{y-n-sbpw \oXn-bp-tS-X-pam-Wv. kXyhpw kzmX-{yhpw \oXnbpw kwc-nm-\p ka-c-hmRvO AtX-]Sn \ne-\np-pv. Ah-bpsS bYm Xmh-f-fn ka-c-k-mlw Xncp-X-Ir-Xn-bmbn \S-p-p-v. a\pw akvXn-jvI-hp-amWm
Xmh-f-. Ah-bmWv XIt--Xv. Bth-ihpw hocyhpw ]I-cp, Xobpw shfnhpw \Ip, Ne-\-n\pw inpw A[n-jvTm-\-amb B cp tI{-fpw
AS-p-]q-Ww: Xcn--W-am-Ww: Fn am{Xta \app \ne-\np-q. AXn-\pti-jta AS-n-bn-cn-m-\m-Iq.
Hpw Xma-kn-n. \io-I-cW ]c--c-I-fpsS IY-bmWv ]ns. A]-I-S--fpsS aqet{km-Xmb {]kvXpX cp tI{-p-saXn-cnA-Yhm a\-n\pw a-kvXnjvI-n-\p-sa-Xn-cnB-{I-aWw \S-m ssk\yw Xm-sd-Spp ]Wn-Xp-Sn.
]s Cu B{I-a-W-n\v asmcp Xcw Bbp-[-am-Wm-h-iyw. ssk\yhpw
ssk\ym-[n-]amcpw thsd thWw. ]pXn-b-Xcw ]S-b-n-Ifpw ]S-tm-p-Ifpw
thWw. \bhpw Bkq-{X-Whpw ]pXnb coXn-bn-ep--Xv. \nb-a-fpw
{]h\am-fpw CXx-]-cy--ap-Xp t]mcm. B ]pXnb t]mcm--n
s]mpw ]Whpw hne-tm-hp-I-bn-. Ah-Im-i- A\p-h-Zn-p-sIm-Sp-Xv
sImtm Cdm-Jn\v `c-Wm-[n-Imcw hnp sImSp-Xv sImtm {]tbm-P-\-an-.

24

Awdp-_v\p Bkn41s X{fpw _pkvdp-_v\p-A-A-bpsS42 JUvK-fpw


hn^-ew. bko-Zp_v\p apl-_pw 43 lPvPmPp_v\p bqkp^pw44 sIme--bdpw
]nSnp shdp-sX-bn-cn-t-n-h-cpw.
Cu bp--f-n Jp-B-s\-bmWv Bbp-[-am-t--Xv. {]hm-NI Ncy-bmWv ]Sb-n. bp-k-o-I-c-W- _pnbpw hnm-\-hpw. {]Xn-tcm-[-tm sItXv Cuam. ]XmI Ckvemw. ]m-f-m-cm-Is Jp-B hymJym-Xm-,
lZokp ]WvVn-Xam, Jp-B ]mcm-b-W-m, {]kw-K-I, ssZh-im-kv{X-a-dnbp--h, Cam-ap-I, \ymbm-[n-]am. Cu bp--n ]S-\-bn-t-Xv {]hm-NIs kl-hmkw knn klm-_n-I, {][m\ ]ptcm-ln-Xam, aX-hn[n ]pds-Sp-hn-p ap^vXn-I Fn-h-cpw.
B{I-aWw Bcw-`n-p. t\cs Fm- F-Xnp-Ifpw Xn-\on `uXn-I-tk\ hnPbw-h-cn `qan-bn Ctm aX-tk\ \njv{]-bmkw hnP-b-I-c-ambn apt-dp-I-bmWv. hn-h-ns bYm in ZpK--fmb a\-p-I-fnepw akvXn-jvI--fnepw
Ah IS-p-sNp \nt_m[w {]h\w \S-p-p. {ItaW Ahsb Iog-Sp-p. Imcy-amb FXnsmpw t\cn-SmsX AIpshv A]-I-S-I-c-amb
Huj[w hgn Ahc-hn-S-fn {hW-ap-m-p-p. Fm-Im-epw Fm aX-m-cnep-ap-mb HutZymKnI km ]WvUn-Xampw ]cn-N-b-ap Znhym-arXw
Xs-bmWv Chcpw {]tbm-Kn-p--Xv. B a-cp-tme Ncn-{X-L-- ]eXpw
]nnv Ch-cpsS ssII-fn Fn-t-Xm-Wv. ^n-Hu-s\bpw Jmdq-s\bpw \inn-m aqkm(-A) sb Icp-m-nb knu-j-[-am-W-Xv. Fm ]noSv
^nHut\m Icm-famcpw Jmdp-s\-m hen-b- [-\-]-qN-Icpw _-B-ans\45
IS-n-sh-p h-Iamcmb blq-Zamv Pa-ta-In-bXpw AtX Huj--[w-Xs. kam-[m\-ns kwm-]-I\pw kvt\l-Im-cp-Wy--fpsS Ah-[q-X-\p-amb
{InkvXp-hn\nv aX-\n--I\pw ss]im-Nn-I-{]-Ir-X-\p-amb koksd CnXm AXp
Bhn`-hn-n-n-cn-p-p.
akvXn-jvI- hn]-\-N-c-p-I-fmbn amdn. Bo-bX sImmcw ]pIn. hn[n\nW-b-n kaq-e-amb ]cn-h\ns ]c--c-Xs Ckveman Zriy-ambn-p-S-n. aqey- acn-p. ssNX\yw \in-p. CkvemanI hn-h-ns amKtc-J-I AmsS amdn. aX-ns _en-]o-T-n kmam-\y-P-\- Ipcp-Xn-sIm-Sp-spancn-p. aX-]ptcm-ln-Xam-cpsS klm-b-tmsS `c-W-Iq-S-ns ssItb-n-c-bm-Ip-I-bm-bn-cpp Ckvemw BZyambn.
Imcy--sfmw ssZh-tmSp _-s-Sp-nbpw aXns ]cn-thjw \Inbpw
sImm-bn-cn--W-sav aXm-[n-Ir-X \n_--ambpw hniz-kn-p. ssZh-nsbpw aXnsbpw t]cn cp-Xcw alm_p-Z--fmWv AXp-aqew P\-fpsS ta hp-`-hn--Xv. Hv, apPnB In-bm-bn-cp-p. {]Xy--n, aX-]WvUn-Xam, apkvenwI-fpsS Bob t\Xm-, hmn-I, t\Xr-am-\yam
Fn-h-c-S-p--Xm-bn-cpp {]kvXpX In. HutZym-KnI ]Z-hn-Itfm km-cptZym-K-tfm hln-m--h-cm-bn-cpp Ah-sc-mw. `c-W-Iq-Sns a-\-{]h-\--fn-sempw Ahp t\cnp ]n-m-bn-cp-p. ]mT-im-e-I-fp-sSbpw
hnm-\-tK-l--fp-sSbpw aqe-bn sshPvRm-\nIKth-j-W--fnepw A[ym]\hrn-I-fnepw hym]r-X-cm-bn--gn-bp \ncp-]-{Z-h-Im-cn-I. apPn-B-I-nbpsS hmZ-an-Xm-bn-cp-p. ]m]ntbm ipt\m Bcm-I-s, Bscp Ipw
sNbvXmepw \oNhpw \nIr-jvT-hp-amb {]hr-n-I-fn-tes-mepw sImSpw h-\Xs ImWn-mepw {]]--\m-Ys Imcp-Wy-nepw amnepw Bi-bp--h-\m-bncn--Ww. Hcn-epw {]Xo \jvS-s-p-t]m-Im ]mSn-m--Xm-Ip-p. ImcWw
ssZh-hm-Iy-anXm: asmcp hn`mKw ssZh-ns Xocp-am-\s {]Xo-np Ign-bp-

25

-h-cm-Wv.46 ssZhw IW-n-m ]m]-t]mepw s]mdp--cp-fp--h-\m-Wv.


Icp-Wm-h-cn-[n, ]c-a-Im-cp-Wn-I, Fm ]m]-fpw s]mdp-p-sIm-Sp-p-p-h.
AXn-\m Ip-hm-fnsb A[nt-]n-p-hmt\m Abm-tfmSv FXnp-hmt\m
]mSn.
\n Hcp-s\ Ip-hm-fn-sbp hnfn-p-p. asmcp-s\ aZ-I-s\pw
thsdm-cmsf D]-Pm-]-I-s\pw Bt-]n-p-p. an-Xcpw ASn-a-I-fp-amWv ap-Nne \n-fpsS ZrjvSn-bn. BcmWv \n-fn-sXms ]d-bm? a\p-jy-Xz-ns
]cn[n hnv ZnhyXzw hmZn-m-\mtWm {iaw? ssZh-at AsXmtm Xocp-am-\n-t-Xv. Ah-\s Ghpw D-X-\mb hn[n-Im-hv? AsXms Ay \mfn-em-Wv.hn-[n- ]-d-bepw Xocp-am\w In--epsa-mw. P\-v Ah-cpsS {]h\w
hne-bn-cpn XZ-Sn-m-\-n hne-Iq-Sp-Xpw hne-bn-Sn-bp-Xpw t]cpw ]Zhnbmbpw \I-s-Sp--Xp-sams B Ana hn[n Znhkw ssZhn-I-\o-Xn-bpsS
Xpem-knshp aXn. Cl-tem-I-p-h-p-Xs ]m]n-tbbpw ]pWy-hm-f-s\bpw
Xcw Xncn-m-\mtWm `mhw? ChnsSXs \oXn-bpsS Xpemkv n]n-p-IbmtWm? \n-fmtWm ssZhw? \a-Xna-Ip {]Xn-^ew sImSp-m-\pff
ssZh-ns A[n-I-c-n-\p-t\sc ssItbw \S-p-I-bmtWm? Acp-Xv. CXp
\psS tPmen-b-. \mw Ip-hm-fn-I-fpsS Imcy- hn[n-Xop-In-m
_m[y-tcm A\p-h-Zn--s--htcm A. Hcp In-tbbpw ]np-W-p-Itbm
FXnp-Itbm sNmsX, Fm-h-scbpw Ah-cpsS ]mn\p hnSp-I. ssZhs
`mc-tanv kl\w ssIsm-p-I. AXmWv \psS _m[y-X. Fmw ssZhn\p hnSp-I. Cpw \psS \mn\pXpn Xn-\np Cu i_vZw
apPnB In-m-cpsS krjvSn-bm-Wv.
apPnB In-m {]N-cn-n Cu hgn-]n-g knmw CkvemanI ]mT-im-ebn th{X ]cn-io-e\w knn-n-cp-n-n-m, {]hm-N-Is(k)tbm Aen(-A)bp-sStbm aplm-Pn-dp-I-, Akm-dp-I Fn-h-cp-sStbm Pnlz-I-fn-eqsS JpB\pw Ckvemapw ]Tn-n-n-m ]pXnb Xe-ap-dsb Hcp alm_p-Zw-t]mse IWn\p _m[n-p. BZihpw _pnbpw ]W-bw-sh Kpcp--fn\npw tI-`ykn skUv lmUv aX-]m-T- am{X-a-dn-bp Ahv adn-p-Nnnm Ign-p-an-. Cm-c-W-m A[n-Imcn hK-ns ]n_-e-tmsS
{]N-cn apPnB knmw Ah-cpsS aX-]-c-amb ImgvN-m-Sn-s\bpw aX-t_m-[sbpw BZyta aeo-a-k-am-n. BZ-iZmVy-Xbpw D-c-hm-Zn-Xz-t_m-[-hpw
D hyn-Iv \a In-t-Xnsbpw Xna hne-t--Xn-sbpw
Bh-iy-IX
{]Xn-\n-anjw
Akz-kvX-I-c-ambn
A\p-`-h-s-p-sIm-n-cp-p.
Bm-cmb P\- ]nim-Nn-\pw ssZh-n\pw at[y Fp-sN--W-sa--dnbmsX IS-p-I-fn-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. cpw IqSn s]mcp--s-Sp-p-an-.
kaq-ls _m[n cm-as tcmKw hn[n-hm-Z-am-bn-cpp. AYhm P{_nm
In-bpsS knm-w. Aa-ho-Im-e-L--n Pw sIm Hm-as aXm[njvTnX Nnm-{]-m-\-am-bn-cpp apPn-B. Pnlm-Zn-t\-p-dn-p-]-d-bp Fm
Nn-Ifpw hnizm-k-fpw Jp-B-\p-]-tbm-Knp Xs B In-X-Ip-I-f-p.
Aahn Ime-L--n cq]w-{]m-]n BZys ssZh-im-kv{X-]-c-amb Zi-\-amWv
P{_n F t]cn-e-dn-b-s-Sp hn[n-hm-Zw.
{]Xy--n ]ca ]cn-ip--sa-p-tXm-n-p ]hn-{X-ap-J-p ]nn ]nq-Snb Agp-p-I F{X hrn-lo-\-am-sWv \mw ImWm-\n-cn-p-t-bp-q.
FmWo hn[n-hm-Z-sap ]cn-tim-[n-mw. ssZh-amWv ]cn-]q hn[n-Imhv

26

AYhm ]c-am-[n-Imcn F Jp-B iI-es A]-lm-ky-am-b- a-n hen-p\on sImv P{_nm In-m-cpsS hmZw Cs\ t]mIpp: {]]--n
A\p-`-h-s-Sp GXp-Xcw bmX-\bpw ssZth--b-\p-k-cn-mWv kw`-hn-p--Xv.
GsXm-cp-h-sbpw GXp-Xcw sNbvXnbpw ssZh-ns C {]Im-c-amWv \S-am-Sp-Xv. a\p-jy Fn-s-Sp kml-N-cy-fpw t\Sn-sb-Sp-p \ne-Ifpw ssZhnI-amb knn-I am{Xw. Bscv Xnc--Sp-p-p-sh-nepw Fsv {]hnp-p-sh-nepw AXv ssZh-n-s Xocp-am-\-{]-Im-cta `hn-p-p-f-fq. AXv \abm-Is, Xna-bm-Is, sIme-]m-X-I-am-h-s, sIme-bn\np cnemIs. h[in-p hnt[-b-\m-Ip-Xpw h[-in- hn[n-p-Xpw {]h-\-fpw, {]Xn-{]h-h-fpw Fmw A-s\-X-s. ASn-abpw bP-am-\\papm-Ip--Xv, Nne
`c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-Ifpw ap--h `c-Wo-b-cp-am-bn-o-cp--Xv, Hcmv in-In-p--Xv.,
asm-cm-fn \npw in t]mIp--Xv, Poh l\n-p--Xv, Poh sImSp-p-Xv, Akpw A`n-am-\hpw {]Zm\w sNp--Xv, \ny-Xbpw \oN-Xbpw hn[nv CIgvp-Xv Fmw ]S--hs ]Wn. krjvSn-I-fpsS CjvSm-\n-jvS-tm Cm-\n-Itm CXn-sempw bmsXmcp ]p-an-.
F{X kaX-Yhpw \ymbm-[n-jvTn-X-hp-amb hymJym-\-amWv hn[n-hm-Z-n\p kzX-{ambn \I-s-n-cn-p--Xv. {]Xy--n icn-sbp tXmp-sa-nepw Fpam{Xw h\ \nd Hcp hymJym-\-am-WnXv! Am-es hnizm-khpw aX-\njvSbpw ssZh-`-n-bp-ap Xe-ap-d-bpsS apmsI Cu Bibw AXn\pt]m_eI-ambn Jp-B kq-fpw lZo-kp-Ifpw Iqn-tbm-Nn-nv kan-m
AXn\pmIp {]Xym-KmXw Fp-am{Xw hn--Xm-hp-I-bnt! Cu knmm sXfn-hm-bp--cn-n-cp lZo-kp-I-fn-e-[n-Ihpw A_q-lp-ssdd hgn \nth-Zn-Xam-bn-cp-p. \mep ew lZo-kmWv A_q-lp-ssdd dntmv sNbvX-Xmbn ImWpXv. {]hm-N-I (k) cm-I \nc--c-ambn hnh-cn-p-I-bm-sW-n Xs Hcp
]pcp-jm-bp-n-e-[nIw thn-hcpw Ah ]dp Xom (Fm A_q-lp-ssddbpw {]hm-N-I\pw IqSn--gn Ime-b-fhv hfsc ]cn-an-X-am-bn-cp-p--hnh:).
GXm-bmepw A`p-X-I-c-amb ^e-amWv P_vcn-m-hmZw kaq-l-n-ep-f-hm-n-bXv.
ssZh-hn[n ]q a\-tmsS kzo-I-cn-m am{Xw hnizm-kn-I-fpsS a\-p-Isf
]mI-s-Sp-n-sb-Sp--Xn\ptijw B aX-]-WvUn-Xam ]dp: Cv B[n]Xyw Aa-hn-ImsWn AX-hv ssZh-Z--ambn e`n--Xm-Wv. Aen ]cm-Pb-s-p. Bcm-W-Xn-\p--c-hmZn? Atlw ]cm-P-bns ssIp-ckw A\p-`-hn-W-sap Xocp-am-\n-Xv? Bcp \-h-\v, Bcp No? AXpthsd-mcyw. Aenbm-bn-cp-p \-h Fnt]mepw Atlw hn[np hgn-am-dn-sm-Sp-m
_m[y--\mWv. Cp ISn-m ]nSn-p--h tami-m-cm-sWp Xs
shp-I. Ah-cpsS ssIn A[n-Im-c-sa-n-Xv B ]c-a-bp-n-bpsS ssIth-ebt? \ap-s--dn-bmw. \psS at\m-hr--n\v ]pd-p Fsms \nKq-Vc-l-ky- AXn\p ]nnepm-bn-cn-nt? BIbm `c-Wm-[n-Im-cnsb, Atl-ns `c-W-Iq-Ss, AXn-{I-a-, {Iqc-X-I, Agn-a-Xn-I, \mnse nXnK-Xn-I, hyn-I, Ah-cpsS {]h-\- Ch-bn-te-sX-n-ep-sam-ns\
hnai\ hnt[-b-am-p--Xn-\Yw ssZhn-I-hn-[nsb hnain-pI Fm-Wv.
Ahs Xocp-am-\s tNmZyw sNp--Xn\p kam-\-am-WXv.
lnPvdm_vZw Adp-]Xv XnItX-bp-p. shdpw Ac-\q-m-vImew sImv
CkvemanI {]m-\-n\p AXns t\- apgp-h hn\n-jvS-am-bn. {]hm-NI(k) sImph thZ-{Kw Aa-hn-I-fpsS Ip-nta-emWv nXn-sN-p-Xv. \ncc XymK-]-cn-{i-afpw ka-c-]-cn-io-e-\fpw hgn lrZ-b--fpsS D-dI-fn Ckvemw hnf-bn hnizm-khpw kwkvIm-chpw \mK-cn-I-X-bp-samw Xs
Aa-ho-hmgvNsb \ymbo-I-cn-m-\p am[y-a--fmbn amdn-bn-cn-p-I-bm-Wv. A{Ian\pw _lp-ssZ-h-Xzn\pw _lp-P-\-hn-VvVo-I-c-W-n-\p-ap Xmh-f--fm-bncn-p-I-bmWv ]n-I. ]pWy-bpfn Nen-n-n-cp hmfp-I Bcm-mam-

27

cpsS ssII-fn-se-n-bn-cn-p-p. kIm-papXepw K\oav kzpw lcnX-sImm-c-ns `WvUm-Im-c-n \n-]vX-am-Wv. Cse hsc hnip Jp-B,
{]hm-N-I-N-cy, Xulo-Zv, kXyw, Fn-h-v {]-k-wKn-n-cp \mhpI apB-hn-b-bpsSbpw {]`r-Xn-I-fp-sSbpw ]nSn-bn-em-Wn-v. Cam-ap-I, Jmkn-am, Jp-B
hymJym-Xm- thZ-]m-T-Iam ]WvUn-Xam, {]kw-K-Iam apqSpw AdpsIme sN--s-Sp-Itbm \n-_vZ-cm--s-Sp-Itbm sNbvXn-cn-pp. AX-s-n
Fen-I-sf-tmse amf--fn Npcpv Ign-bp-I-bm-Wv. AXp-a-s-n Uam-kvknse `c-W-Iq-S-ns {Smkn--dp-I-fmbn {]Nm-c-the \S-n-sm-n-cn-pp.
apl--Zv\-_n(-k)\p-Iqe-ambn kwkm-cn-m Atlns tI{-n
t]mepw Hcp hm-hp-an-. Hcp andpw anlvdm-_p-an-. tdmw, t]jy,-A-d_v
\mSpI Fn-h-b-S-p AXn hnim-e-amb km{am-Py-n-sem-cn-Spw \_n-IpSpw_ns] hyn-Itfm CkvemanI hn-h-ns BmY-cmb A\p-bm-bnItfm Ah-cp-ambn GsX-nepw \nev _-ap-htcm ImW-s-Sp-n-. aplm-Pndp-I-fp-tSbpw A-km-dp-I-fp-tSbpw Azm-\-^-e- apA-hn Ab-Xv\-e-fn-X-ambn
I-Sn sImmcw ]WnXv kpJ-tem-ep-]-\mbn hmW-cp-fp-p.
BZy-Ime hn-h-Im-cn-I A-Ise d_vZm-bpsS sskI-Xm-c-Wy-n A{]-Xy-am-hp-Itbm AZvdm-]-d-n-shv sIm-s-Sp-Itbm sNbvXp. hn-h-ns
cmw Xe-ap-d-bn \ne-hn-ep hyh-n-Xn-s-Xnsc {]hn--h Iq-tmS
sIme-sN--s-p. Ah-ti-jnh sN-cn-bmnIpn-I-sf-tmse hn[n-hm-Zn-I-fpsS
XXz-im-kv{X-n IpSn-n-bn-cn-p-Itbm, ]ptcm-ln-Xam-cp-sS- \n-w-K-hm-Z-n-\Sn-s-n-cn-I-Ip-Itbm BWv. ]cn-h-\-n-\m-bp GsXmcp ]cn{iahpw ]cm-Pb-nte Iem-inq FmWv Fm-h-cp-tSbpw IW-p-Iq-. Ckvemans kwc-W-n\pw kXyhpw \oXnbpw ]p\-m-]n-m\pw thn, A\p-Zn\w hfp-hcp \ho\ Pmln-en--n-s\-Xntc \S-nb Fm ka-chpw ASn--a-s--Xmbm-W-\p-`-hw.
lnPvd Adp-]-Xm-amv F-m\n-epw a-I-`-c-W-ns ssIn-Sn-bn-em-W-an-cp-Xv. aqey- \n-bn-p-Xv `c-W-hK-amWv. Nn-Ifpw Bi-b-fpw cq]oI-cn-m `c-W-Iq-S-n\p {]tXyIw GPp-am-cpv. akvXn-jvI- {]m-f\w
sN-s-Sp-p. km-dn-\m hnX-cWw sN-s-Sp ]pXnb Nn-Ifpw Bi-bfpw sImh \ndbv-sSpp. hnj-en-]vX-am--sS-pp. hnizm-k- amn-adn--s-Sp-p. hn-s-Spp. Xf-s-Sp-p. Cu {ia-sfmpw hnP-bn--sSm-n-S-p- ]ns JUvK--fmWv ]Wn-sb-Sp-pI.

Ggv
Cu A[n-Im-c-i-n-bpsS apn-emWv lpssk(A) Fgp-tv \np--Xv. AhcpsS In _pnbpw aX-hp-apv. Jp-B\pw in-bp-apv. ]Whpw hmfpapv. {]Nm-cWamy-a-fpw Fm-Xcw Bbp-[--fp-ap-v. s]mXp-J-P-\mhpw
{]hm-N-I(k) hnp-t]mb A\--cm-h-Im-i--f-In-ehpw Ah-cpsS In-em-Wv.
lpssk(A) cwK-p-h-cp-p \ncm-bp-[-\mbn, shdpw ssItbmsS. FmWv
sNm IgnbpI? ap- ]-e-tcbpwt]mse GIm--X-bn-en-cpp D]-h-k--Wtam?
Aen(A) bpsSbpw ^mXzna (A)bpsSbpw ]p{X-\mWv: {]hm-NI t{ijvTs
]u{X-\mWv AXns t]cn kzKw Dd-m-sWp IcpXn anm-Xn-cn--Wtam?
F{Xtbm hnizm-kn-I a\--am-[m-\-tmsS AS--n-gn-bp-p. lpssk\v(A)
AXn\p Ign-bp-n-. Atlw Xs Npa-X-e-b-dn hyn-bm-Wv. Pnlm-Zns

28

]mX-hnv ssZh-km-ao-]y-n-\p Ffp--amKw {]m-\m-{K---fn ]c-XpItbm? kmy-a. lnPvdm_vZw Adp-]-Xm-Wn-Xv. {]-\m-{Kw A-Sn-m XpSn-bn-p-an-.
cv amK--fmWv lpssks(A) apn-ep--Xv. Hv Xpdv ]d-bpI: Aa-hn-Ifp-ambn cmjv{Sob kwL--\-n\v Rm\n-. AXn\p in-th-Ww. AsXs ]en-. Rm AS-n-bn-cpv sshm-\n-Ihpw Nnm-]-c-hp-amb kacw sNmw.
]t Camw lpssk (A) AXn\p Xbm-dm-bn-.
]nm-ev Bdm-as Camw PA-^-dp-m-ZnJv(A)47 C-c-samcp \ne-]mSv
kzoI-cn-s-n AXn\p Imc-W-an-Xm-bn-cpp: Aa-hn-I-fpsS Ah-km-\hpw Amkn-I-fpsS Bcw-`-hp-amWv At-l-ns Ime-L-w. Hcp hiv apnw-I-fpsS
Nnm-K-Xn-I ANn-tcW {Kov XXzimkv{X-m kzm[o-\n--sp sImn-cnpI-bm-bn-cp-p.48 adp-h-iv Cy k\ym-khpw Cdm-\n-b kq^n-khpw
AeIvkmWv{Unbbn hfp-h sam-^n-knIvkpw \ho\ ttm-Wn-khpw
Ahp {]nb--c-ambn hcn-I-b-m-bn-cpp. As ]WvUn-Xamcpw _pn-Po-hnI-fp-am-Is asmcp temI-m-bn-cpp Ah-cpsS hnlmcw. cmjv{So-b-cw-Ks
hnIm-c-sf Ipdnv Nnn-p--Xn\p ]Icw Iim-kv{X-ns Ipcp-p-I-fn
AI-s-p-I-gn-bm-\mWv Ah kzb-tahm CjvS-s-Xv. Aen(A) \njvIm-kn-X-\mhp-Ibpw apBhn A[n-Im-c-n Ah-tcm-[n--sSpIbpw- sN-bvX-Xns
]nnse cl-ky--sfmpw Npgn-p- ]-c-Xp--Xn Ahtijw Xm]-cy-anm-bn-cp-p. \ne-hn-ep P\-k-aq-l-ns `c-W-sN-tm AcmWv In-te-pXv Fvam-{X-am-bn-cpp Ahv {]iv\w. Bcm-bmepw Ahsc ]npW--Ww.
IqSmsX A\p-cm-K-ns k]vX-\-K-chpw49 Npnb-Sn-p-sImv a\-m-S-amn aSn
hcp--Xn-\mWv Amkn ]WvVn-Xam apgp-h _unI sshRv\m-\nI
inbpw hybw sNbvXp sImn-cp--Xv. AhnSw hnm ]ns PK ]ndhnpap\zp \ncm-Im-c-h-bpw AXn \nv cPKXv cq]m-cw {]m]n kmImcm-h-bpw Ah-n-S-bnep-f-hmb \nc-h[n ]cn-h-\-L----fp-am-bn-cpp AhcpsS hnRvPm\ aWvU-e-nse ASn-m-\-Nm-hn-ibw. ssZhw {]]-s
krjvSnm-\p-]-tbm-Kn aqe]-ZmY-taXv? B aqe-]-ZmYhpw {kjvSmhpw Xnep _-sa-s\? XpS-n-b-k-o {]iv\--fn hym]r-X-cmbn kabw
sNe-h-gn-p--Xn-em-bn-cpp
As ]WvUn-Xampw Nn-Iampw
lcw. {]]-tm]-nsbpdnpw krjvSn-n-e-S-n-bn-p-- A`pX-c-l-ky-sf-p-dnpw, Jp-B-\n ]cm-ar-jvS-amb XXz-im-kv{X-\n-Kq-V-X-Ifpw, kqN-\-Ifpw
Ip-]n-Sn-p-Xn-em-bn-cpp Ahv henb Xm]-cyw. Dcw Inngn-bp-tXmsS ]mSp-s]--X-{Xbpw shdp-sX-bm-bn- F-v t_m-y-s-Sp-amdv \nc-I-amb
At\z-j-W-v ]nmsebmW-h- k-cn-n-cp--Xv.
{ItaW Bm-hv, ico-cw, aqe-I-, k, kvt\lw, Bcw-`-L-w, ]c-am-\-w--CXymXn hnj-b--fn-te-mWv N ]ptcm-K-an--Xv. D-c-hm-ZnXzt_m[w, kmaq-ly_m-y-X, kap-Zm-bw, kmap-Zm-bn-I-t\-Xr-Xzw, \oXn, kaXzw Fo kp{]-[m\ hnj-b ]q-ambpw N-I-fn \nv Hgn-hm--s-Sp-I-bmWv sNbvXn-cp--Xv.
`c-W-IqSw Cm-ans t]cn hnZym-tI-{-fpw ]mT-im-e-Ifpw \S-n-bn-cpp
Av. kzw I-imkv{X-k-c-Wn, Jp-B hymJym\w, XXz-im-kv{Xw, ssZhimkv{Xw Fn-h-bmWv Ah-bn-eqsS t_m[\w \I-s-n-cp--Xv. `c-W-Iq-S-ns
hom-K-Xn-Ipw Xm]-cy-psamv hnj-b- hymJym-\np ka-YnvpI-bm-bn-cpp Ah-bpsS {][m-t\m-t-iyw.

29

CsXmwIqSn hnNm-c-a-WvU-e-n Hcp bpw A\n-hm-cy-am-n-on-cn-pp


Am-e-v. IqSm-sX- Hcp cmjv{Sob ka-c-n\v bmsXmcp-hn[ km[y-Xbpw Cm-Xm-bn-cpp Camw PAv^dp-mZnJn(A)s Npp-]m-Sv. Atlw ]d-bm-dp-m-bn-cpp:
hnizm-kn-I-fmb Ggp `Sam Ftm-sSm--ap-s-n Rm hnhw \S-p-am-bncpp.
Camw lpssks\(A) kw_-n-n-S-tmfw kml-Ncyw hyXy-kvX-am-Wv. Ccw
A]-I-S--sfmpw Av \ne-hn-en-. lnPvdx Adp-]Xm-amt Bbn-pq. ]mmXy XXz-im-kv{X-sampw A-hnsS Nnm-hn-j-b-a. ]uc-kvXy kq^nkw Ahv ]cn-N-b-ta-bn. Ckvemans bmYmw amn-a-dn-p XXzimkv{Xtam
AXns ASn-m\ `mKs hnIr-X-am-p hN\imkv{Xtam AXn-tev IS-pIq-Sn-bn-cp-n. Ckveman-s\-p-dnp bYmY-m\w a\-p-I-fnepw akvXn-jvI-fnepw Iep-Iq-SmsX Fm-I-t--pw AXo-X-ambn \ne-\npp-m-bncpp. Bh-iy-mv AXv At\z-jnv ]nSn-pI ti-I-c-am-bn-cp-n.
apB-hn--bpsS {]m\ C{X-am-{X-am-bn-cpp: Camw lpssk h-p-sIm-s:
Ua-kvI-nse ]n-bn-en-cpv ssZh-imkv{Xw ]Tn-n-s; Jp-B, lZo-kv, \_nN-cn-{Xw, Ckvemw Ncn-{Xw Fp-th-W-sa-nepw ]Sn-n-p-sIm-s. AXn-\p-th-nF-{X- `o-a-am-b- kw-Kybpw _P-n \on-sh-m km k-amWv. Atlw
cmjv{So-b-Im-cy--fn CS-s]-S-cp-sXp am{Xw. AsXmcp Cam-ans ]Z-hnv tNXp-a-. ]s Camw-lp-ssk\v(A) \m-b-dn-bmw, kaq-l-n Xs Hmtcm Ne-\n-\p-ap hne AXp i{Xp-hn-t\n-p A]-I-S-tm-f-am-sW-v. FmWv
Xs Ihyw? hn-hw. kmbp[ hnhw Xs. kmbp[ hn-h-n\p in-thWw. lpssks(A) In in-sb-hnsS?
CubnsS Hcp ]pkvXIw {]kn-o-Ir-X-am-bn-p-v. hym]-I-amb tXmXn {]N-cn-p-Ign B ]pkvXIw hne-a-Xn-p--Xm-sWp AXns D-Sw A\m-bmkw
t_my-am-n-X-cpw. \psS ]e Fgp-p-Im-cn\npw hyXy-kvX-ambn {]kvXpX
]pkvX-I-n-\p khntijX ]mcm-b-W-n-\nSbn Rm {]Xy-Iw-{i-n-p.
]pkvXIw Xm-dm-m {K-Im-c \S-nb ]T\ ]cn-{i-a--fm-W-Xv. {]am-Wfpw B[m-c-fpw kzcq-]nv A\p-Iq-ehpw {]Xn-Iq-e-hp-amb hmZ-K-Xn-I \ncn-sm-p-- A-]-{K-Y-\--\n-cq-]W hn-i-I-e\ kz`m-h-n-ep-Xpw XnIpw
imkv{Xo-b-sap hnti-jn-n-m-hp--Xp-amb Hcp D-a- Ir-Xn-bm-WXv. hmZ-K-XnI AwKo-I-cn-p--Xnepw Xnc-kvI-cn-p--Xnepw {K-Imhv {]Zin-n-ss[cyw ivfmL-\o-b-am-sWp ]d-bmsX h. ap hmp-I-fn ]d-m Hcp
]pXnb imkv{Xknmw cwK--h-X-cn-n-m th{X Kth-j-W--\n-co--W \n-lnp sImp hnkvXr-X-am-sbmcp ]T-\-n-\mWv {K-Im-c {iann-p--Xv. CsXm-s-bmWv ]pkvX-I-n\v aqey-ap-m-n-sm-Sp LS-I-50.
hyn-]-c-ambn ]cn-N-b-an-s-nepw {]kvXpX {K-Im-cs\ Rm AXy-[nIw BZcn-p-p. AXn-K-l-\-amb Kth-j-Whni-I-e-\m-]-{K-Y-\- \S-nb Hcp
imkv{X--s\-tmse _lp-am-\n-p-Ibpw sNp-p. hnti-jnpw Hcp kzX{
Nn-I-s\ \ne-bn. tahn-ti-jn-n ]pkvX-I--fn {K-Imhv Hcp
]pXnb ImgvN-mSv Ah-X-cn-n-p-p-v: Camw lpssk(A) aZo\ hnp-t]m-bXv
cmjv{So-bhpw ssk\n-Ip-amb Hcp hn-h-n-eqsS \ne-hn-ep-m-bn-cp aI`cWs XIp-Ibpw AXp-hgn Xsbpw _lp-P-\--fp-sSbpw A]-l-cn--s
Ah-Im-i- hos-Sp-p-Ibpw sNm-\p Hcp {ia-am-bn-cpp. Rm\n-Xp-ambn
tbmPn-p-n. {K--Im-cs Cu A`n-{]m-b-{]-I-S\w shdp-samcp `mh-\-bmWv.
hkvXp-X-I AXns\ eh-teiw icn-sh-p-n-sv tJZ-]qhw ]d-tb-n-bn-cnp-p. {K-Im-cs ta sImSp A`n-{]m-bs Xnd-p-sImv Hcm

30

C{]-Imcw FgpXn: A[n-Imcinsb An-a-dnv `cWw ssI-em--m {ian-pam Hcp cmjv{So-b-m-c-s\m-p-am-bn-cp-n Camw lpssk(A)
A`pXw! ]ns Fn\v thn-bm-bn-cpp {]hm-N-I\pw(k) Aen(-A)bpw
bpw sNbvXXv? Fp eyam-bn-cpp Camw lk(-A) s\ hnp sImXns ]nn? ASn-m-\-]-c-ambn eyw cmjv{So-b-a-m-bn-cp-n-cn-mw. Fm
P\--fpsS ISn-m sIme-bm-fn-I-fpsS ssIbn-em-bn-cppshXv Hcp hkvXpX-bt? ssIsb-p-n-S-smw a-\-n\pw ]nSn-p-]-dnpw Adp-Xn-h-cp-tXpw, `c-Wm-[n-Imcw ]nSn--Sn P\-v kzmX-{yhpw Ah-Im-ihpw hosSpv sImSp-t-Xpw, P\--fpsS `mK-tZ-b-tmSv _m[y-X-bp GsXm-cmfpw
sNt--Xm-Wv. Hcp Camw F-\n-ev AXv lpssks(-A) hyn-]-c-amb
I-hy-hp-am-Wv.
CXn-\mbn Atlw ssk\n-Ihpw cmjv{So-bh
- p-amb bp-n-s\m-ccp-Ww. hgn-]ng Khsans\ ]nSn-n-d-Ww. i-amb Pmln-en--ns\ \in-n--Ww.
aI`c-W-ns \nb-a-km-[pX hn-h-n-eqsS Cm-Xm-Ww. kaq-l-n
kXyw ]p\-xm-]n-Ww. kap-Zmb t\XrXzw kzw Ic-h-e-b-n sImp-hcWw. _lp-P-\--fpsS {]iv\- ssIbn-se-Spv ssIImcyw sNWw. Cu
cmjv{Sob ssk\nI hnhw Xs-bm-bn-cpp Camw lpssks(-A) {][m-\ZuXyw. ]t Cu ZuXyw {]tbm-K-X-e-n \n-ln-m-\p {]m]vXn At-ln-\p-m-bn-cp-n- Fp-am-{X-amWv Rm ]d-bp--Xv. ta {]kvXm-hn ]pkvXI-n CXn\v hn]-co-X-ambn h ]cm-aj-tm-SmWv F\nv hntbm-Pnv.
ssk\n-Ihpw cmjv{So-b-hp-amb An-a-dn-mWv Camw lpssk(-A) {ian--sX
hmZ-mcpsS sXfn-hn-XmWv; Camw lpssks\(-A) ]np-W-bvp--h-cpsS tI{am-bn-cpp Iq^. At-l-ns IpSpw-_hpw {]hm-N-I-s(-k)bpw Aen(A)
bpsSbpw kz-mcpw Ahn-sS-bm-bn-cp-p. icn-bmWv. Cdm Iq^-bpsS sXm-SpmWv nXn-sN-p--Xv. Fm-Xcw ]nn-cn-amp-an-S-bn \np-sImv
Aen(-A)sbbpw At-l-ns IpSpw-_-tbpw ]np-W--h-cmWv CdmIm.
Fm-h-cmepw AwKo-I-cn--s hkvXp-X-bm-WnXv. ]s Rm ]d-bp--Xn-XmWv.
Iq^ apgp-h-\mbpw Camw lpkms(-A) ]nSn-bn-em-bn-cpp Fp Xs-bn-cn-s,
Cam-ans {][n-\n[n apnap_v\pAJo51 Iq^-m-c-m hn--s-nn- F-p-ancn-s, lpssks(-A) BK-a-\-tmsS Iq^ almb Hcn-kvem-anI in-tI{-am-bn-o-cp-am-bn-cp-p-shpw At-l-ns t\Xr-Xz-n Hcp -kz-X{
CkvemanI `c-W-IqSw \ne-hn hcpam-bn-cppshpw knmw. UamkvIv \new s]mp-am-bn-cp-p-shpw thW-sa-n k-Xnmw. CsXm-sbm-sW-nepw lpssk(-A) \bn-n-cp {]m\w Hcp ssk\nI cmjv{Sob hnh-n\v thn-bp--Xm-bn-cp-n. Nne hmZnpw {]Imcw cmjv{So-bhpw
cmjv{Sob kachpw Cam-an\p tNcm Hcp tami-s kwK-Xn-bm-sW An-e Rm\nXv ]d-bp--Xv. Hcn--ep-a. At-l-ns I-hy-am-bn-cpp
AsXp Xs-bmWv Rm hniz-kn-p-Xv. ]s At-l-ns apn
km[y-X-I-fp-m-bn-cp-n Ft Rm ]d-bp--Xn-\-ap-q.
tNmZn-tmw: Fp sImv km[y-Xbp-m-bn-cp-n? Iq^-bn-se-nbm AhnS-p-Im-cpsS klm-b-tmsS Uam-kvI-kns\ adn-n-Sp-Ibpw XpSv Hcn-kvem-anI
Khsav cq]o-I-cn-p-Ibpw sNm-\p km[yX Cam-ans apn-ep-m-bn-cpnt? Iq^ i-am-bn-cp-p-shv AwKo-I-cnp Ign--Xm-W-tm. B \n-ev
Aa-hn-Is-Xntc Hcp -ssk-\nIcmjv{Sob kacn\v Xs-bm-bn-cpp Camans ]pd-m-sSv k-Xn-p-IqsS? Cu tNmZy-n-\p adp-]Sn aZo-\-bn \nv
Camw ]pd-s cwKw hnh-cn-s-nte kv]jvSam-hp-I-bpq.

31

Fv
Camwlpssk(A) aZo-\-hn-v a--bn-tev ]pd-s-Sp-p. Atm-gmWv Iq^-mcpsS Wv e`n-p-Xv. A-bn hnizm-k-anhcpw A-bpsS t\XrXz-n-\p-th-n Imp-I-gn-bp--h-cpamWp R. A-bpsS t\XrXzw Ghpw
Bh-iy-amb ka-b-am-Wn-Xv. R-fpsS ISn-mWpI A-bpsS ssII-fn
kanmw. A{I-a-n\pw _emm-c-n-\p-sa-Xnsc A-bpsS ]nn AWn\n-c-mw. A-bpsS kwc--W-n-\p Fm {]Xn-tcm-[-fpw Gs-Spmw.
Cu NqjI `c-W-ns Nhn--Sn-bn \np Rsf tamNnnm hcnI Zbhp
sNbvXv.
Rm Fs ]nXm-hn-sbpw ]nXm-a-l-sbpw Imm-Sp-I ]np-Sp P\-sf
\-bn-tev hnfn-m\pw Xn-bn hne-m\pw thn aZo\ hnpt]mhp-I-bmWv,
Camw lpssk(A) aZo-\-bn hv ]c-ky-ambn hnfw-_cw sNbvXp. A\-cw abn-tev bm{X Xncnp. apgp-h IpSpw-_mw-K--sfbpw Iqn Adp-\qdv In.-ao. kcnv ]c-ky-ambn a-bn-se-n-tp. lv Im-e-am-bn-cpp AXv. hnhn[ \mSp-Ifn \nph apnw Xom-S-I-cpsS apn shv Atlw {]Jym-]\w sNbvXp.
Rm ac-W-n-tev k-cn-p-I-bm-Wv. Hcp cmjv{Sob hn-h-n\p Bkq{XWw sNp hyn-bn \np Ccw hmp-I Hcn-epw {]Xo-n-m-h-X-.
Abm-fn-{]-Im-c-amWv ]d-bpI. \mw s]mcpXpw, sImpw, Iog-Spw, i{Xp-hns IY
Ign-pw...... lpssks(A) \mn \np-Xnp hcp--Xm-Is CXp-am-{X-amWv
acWw a\pjy]p{X\p Ae-m-c-amWv Hcp bph kp-cnp IWvTm-`-cWw t]mse.
lpssk(A) a-hn-Sp-p, ac-W-ns hmbn-te-v.
Aaho B[n-]-Xy-n Iogn Ah-cpsS `cWkoa-p-nse Hcp Pnm Bm\p Pohn-p {]ap-J-\m-sbmcp hyn. tI{ `c-W-n-s\-Xn-tc- C-f-In-bn-cnp {]tm-]-Im-cn-I-fn \npw Abmv Ww e`n-n-cn--bmWv; {]tm]-n\p t\XrXzw \Im hc-W-sa--`yYnp sImv. AXpw hfsc AI-sebp Xe-m-\-p-\n-v. bmsXmcp Hfnbpw ad-bp-an-msX adp-]Sn ]d-bpp: icn
Rm\nXm hcp-p. XpSv `mcy, km-\-, acp-a-, ap IpSpw_mwK-
XpSn Xm\p-ambn _-ap Fm-kv{Xo-]p-cp-jam-scbpw Abm kwL-Sn-np-p. Hcp bm{Xm-kwLw tN Xpd hgnv hfsc km[m-c-W-amb an
{Kma-fpw \K-c-fpw ISp t]mIpp. ]pd-s-n-Spw hgn-\n-dpw `cW
IqSs ]q-ambn ]np-W-bvp FXn-cm-fn-I-fmWv ]mp-Xv. AsXmpw
{]iv\-am-msX Adp-\qdv In.-ao. XcWw sNbvXv a-bn-se-n-bn-cn--bmWv.
a-bnse Ah CXnt\m Xptemw Kpcp-X-c-am-Wv. Ua-kvI-kns\ ktmv
sNp hnhn[ apkvenw {]tZ-i--fn\n-p {]Xn-\n-[n-Ifpw ssk\y-fpw
cmjv{S-X-e-hamcpw AhnsS Hp-Iq-Sn-bn-cn-p-p. AhnsS shv Hn-e[nIw
XhW Fm-hcpw tIp-am-dp--n Atlw hnfnp ]d-bpp. Rm Iq^bn-tev ]pd-s-ncn--bmWv. XpSp ]n-am-Xnn-bn-eqsS Atd-_y D]-Zzo]n-eqsS Ingpw ]Sn-m-dp-ap {]tZ-i- ]nnv t\sc Cdm-n {]th-inp-p. A\-cw hn-h-ns Bm-\-amb Iq^-tbm-S-Sp-p-p. AhnsS shv
At-l-ns {]bmWw XS-b-s-Sp-sa-- Imcyw kwi-bm-Xo-X-am-W-tm.

32

\ne-hn-ep `c-W-Iq-S-ns ISp- -{]-Xn-tbm-Kn-I-fmbn ]cs Adnbs-Sp


hyn-Xz- t]mIs, Hcp km[m-c-W- {]-Xn-] cmjv{Sob-m-c t]mepw ]pdp hn-h-k-an-Xn-tbmSv tNv `c-W-Iq-S-n-s\-Xnsc hn-h-{]-h-\--fntes-Sm t]mIp-tm B t]m-ns cq]w F-c-n-epXmbn-cn-p-sav
]d-tb--Xn-tm. hn-h-ns kz`mhw F-s\-bp--Xm-Is B clkyw
Abm ]pd-p-hn-Sp-I-bn-. X\nv e`n W-v Abm Hfn-np shp-Itb-bp-q. Xs eyhpw, bm{X-t]mepw ]c-a-c-l-ky-am-bn-cn-pI, ]c-am-h[n ]cn{i-an-p-Ibpw Am-X-amK-n-eqsS ]pd-s-Sp-I-bp-am-bn-cnpw Abm sNpI. A-c-samcp bm{X-bpsS kzm`m-hn-I-X-bm-Wo--dXv. t\sc-a-dnv Abm
\ne-hn-ew-Ko-I-cn--s-n-p \nb-am-\p-krX km-dn-t\mSv C{]-Imcw Xpdp ]dm-es nXn Fm-bn-cnpw?
Rm `cW-Iq-S-n-s\-Xnsc cwK-n-d-nb hn-h-Im-cn-bmWv. Khsan-t\mSv
F\n-sm-cp-hn[ hnt[-b-Xzhpw Iqdp-an-. am{X-a ]pdw-cm-Py-p Fs hnh
kplr-p--tfmSv tNv \ne-hn-ep `c-W-Iq-Ss An-a-dn-m \mSp-hn-Sp-IbmWv Rm. hn-h-{i-a-v t\XrXzw sImSp-p-hm-\mbn Ah-scs Wnn-cpp. AXn\p thn F\n-p-cmPyw hnSWw Zb-hmbn ]mkvt]mv Xcn-I.
Abmv ]mkvt]mv e`n-p-I-bn-s-v am-{X-a _-\--\m--s-Sp-I-bmWpm-hp-I. an-hmdpw Poh \jvS-s-Sp-Ibpw sNpw. CXv hfsc efn-Xhpw
km[m-c-W-hp-amb Hcp kwK-Xn-bm-Wv. Fm Camw lpssk(A) A-s\bmWp sNbvX-Xv. bmsXmcp hn[ Ahy--Xbvpw ]gp-Xn-m--hn[w ZrV-kz-cn Atlw Xpdp ]d-bp-p--km-dn-t\mSv, `c-W-km-c-Yn-tbm-Sv, ssk\ytm-Sv, ssk\n-I-ta-[m-hn-tbmSv, ktm-]cn P\--tfmSv ; F\nv `c-W-tmSv
Iqdn-. Rm ss_Av sNp-I-bn-. Rm a-hn-Sp-I-bm-Wv. Iq^-bn-tev
]mem-b\w sNp-I-bm-Wv. Fs ]mem-b\w ac-W-n-\p-t\-sc-bm-Wv. CXm Rm
]pd-s-Sp-I-bmbn.
Camw lpssk(A) \mSp-hn hnhcw s]s-smcp kp{]-`m-X-n P-\-n-Sbn hm-]-c-p-I-bmWv sNbvXn-cp--sX-n, Atlw Bcp-a-dn-bmsX A{]Xy--am-hp-I-bm-Wp-m-b-sX-n, {]hm-N-I(k) a-bn\nv aZo-\-bn-tev
]mem-b\w sNbvX-t]mse BtcmSpw anmsX A-cm-{Xn-bn aZo-\-bn \nv
]pd-sv IpSpw-_-ns klm-b-tmsS Iq^-bn-se-p-I-bpw hn-h-Im-cn-I-fpsS
a[y-n {]Xy--sv hnh kwc-`-v t\XrXzw sImSp-p--Xn-\n-Sv ]nSnIq-S-s-Sp-I-bp-amWv sNbvXn-cp--sX-n `c-W-Iq-S-n-\-Xnsc An-a-dn-\-S-m-\mWv
lpssk(A) t]mb-sX hmZw a\-n-em-m-am-bn-cp-p.
kwLw tNp ]pd-mSv, bm{X ]pd-s coXn-bp-samw Ipdnp-Xv Camw
lpssks(A) eyw asm-m-bn-cp-p-sh-m-Wv. AXv GIm--hm-ktam Hfntm-tam A. Iog-S-p-Itbm cmjv{Sobw XyPnv _pn-]-chpw sshm-\n-I-hpamb aWvU-e--fn HXp-p-Itbm? AXp-a-. ssk\nI cmjv{Sob hn-h-sapw
AXn-\p-t]cp sImSp-p-Iq-S. ]ns Fmbn-cpp?

HXv
Nn \njv{In-b-am--s--ncnpXmWv Ime-L-w. I\-s ]e hyn-Xz-fpw
hn]-\--c-p-I-fmbn amdn. hnizm-kn-I Hd-d-s-p. `am Bcm-[-\m-e-bfpsS aqe-tX-Sn-tmbn. bphP-\- ss\cm-iy-n-\-Sn-s-SpItbm km

33

]mf-b-n-tev \opItbm sNbvXp. alZvhyn-Xz- c-km-n-I-fm-bn.- Ah-tijn--h aqI-cm-Wv. Nne-scms hynXzw hnhcpw. kaq-l-n\v i_vZ-an-.
t]\-Ip ap\bn-. \mp-I Acn-p-ho-gv-s-p. Npp-I ap{Z shbvs-p. kXy-ns kvXw`- AXns A\p-bm-bn-Ip aosX s]mfnp
hoWp.
Ctm I-hy-a-dn-bp Hscm t\Xmhv lpssk(A) am{Xw. Xm au\w
]men-m Ckvemw Hcp km aX-ambn cq]m--c-s-Spw. Hcp cmjv{Sob apamb ]m-f-`-c-W-sa \ne-hm-c-n-te-Xp Xcw XmWp t]mIpw. Ncn{Xw At\Iw
kw`-h-]-c--c-I-fpsS Iq-n AXn-s\mcp CSw sImSp-pw, A{X Xs. apK
`cWw, kPqn `cWw, Ae-Ivkm--dp-sSbpw sNokvJms-bp-sams `c-Ww,
Iq-n CkvemanI `c-Whpw F Hc-h--h-cpw. `c-W-Iq-Shpw ]m-fhpw \in-ti-jhpw \ne-\n-X Hc-h--h-cpw. `c-W-Iq-Shpw ]m-fhpw \in--tijhpw \ne-\n-X Hcp hyh-n-Xntbm asm Ah-smpapm-bn-cp-n-.
AXp-t]mse `cWw \in---tXmsS Ckveman\pw ac-W-i hncn--s-Spw. Hcp
`qX-Ime Ncn-{X-kw-`-h-sa \ne-bn Ihnv Ckvemw asm-p-a-m-Xm-Ipw.
lpssk(-A) C{]-Imcw ZoL-ho-Ww sNp-p.
cp \n-lm-b-XIp \Sp-hn-emWv Atlw \np--Xv. Fs\ bpw
sNpw? Fs\ au\wZon-pw? k`w ]mgm-bn-sm-n-cn-p-I-bm-Wv.
Ctm anm-Xn-cp-m ]noSv Ah-kcw F-t-p-ambn \jvS-s-Sp-I-bmWv
sNp-I. Fmw ASn-tbmsS ]ngp-sX-dn-b-s-Sp-I-bm-Wv. P\--fpsS a\-p-I-fn,
t_m[--fn, hnIm-c--fn, NnIfn, Nnm-kcWnI-fn, ey--fn, D-fn, Bi-b--fn, BZi--fn, ]n-I-fn, ]mT-im-e-I-fn As\
Fm-bn-S--fnepw iyq\y-X-bm-bn-cnpw ]ns. {]hm-N-I sImp-h-Xpw
Ckvemw \S-n hcp-n-b-Xp-amb
ktiw, XymK-]-cn-{i-a--fn-eq-sSbpw
Bm-W--fn-eq-sSbpw t\Sn-b-t\-- Fmw amn-a-dn--s-Spw. ap--hscmw hn--spw, hgn-sX-n--spw \{a-in-c-kv-cmbn \np-I-bm-Wv. Ahscmw Iog-S-n-bn-cn-p-I-bm-Wv. \n-_vZ-cm-Wv. lpssk-\v(-A) \n-_v[-\mbn ASn-bn-cn-m h. A{I-a-n-s\-Xn-cn AS-cm-tS _myX lpssk-\v(-A) Dv. Atlw Adn-bp-Ibpw sNp-p.
ssk\yhpw kma-{Kn-I-fp-an-msX Fs\ bpw sNpw? AsXms H-Sw
aI `cWn-s-Xm-bn--gn-n-cn-p-p. \ne-hn-fn-m\pw \n-_vZ-\m-Im\pw
km[y-a-m nXn! Iog-S-m\pw B{I-an-m\pw hm ]cphw! GI-\m-Wv,
Ccp-ssI-Ifpw iq\y-am-Wv, Npa-ense D-c-hm-Zn-Xz--fpsS Xmm-\m-hm
`mchpw t]dn ]cp-n--gn-bp-I-bm-W-t-lw. `c-W-Iq-Sns ]\n-smpw
At-l-n\p Inn-bn-. ]nXm-hv, ]nXm-a-l, ktlm-Z-c Fn-h-cp-bsS ITn-\mzm-\-ns ^e--sfmpw Atlw A\p-`h
- n-p-n-. BsI Inn-bXv A`n-am\n-m-hp A\p-kva-c-W-I.............. I\ I-hy--fpsS Npa-Sv................
H-s a\p-jy... \ncm-bp-[...... apn \np-Xv temI-t-hpw henb
AXn Incm-X-amb Hcp cmjv{Sw. AXm-Is AXym-Ijhpw h\ \nd-n-p--Xpamb `n-bpsS Ih-dn-\p-nepw Xulo-Zns ]cn-ip--amb hkv{X-a-Wnpw!.
lpssk(-A) GIm-In-bm-Wv. Xulo-Zns Nnm-{]-m-\-tmSv IS-s-n-cn-p
GI-\mb a\p-jy. Cu Nnm-{]-m-\-n H-s-p-I-gn-bp--h\pw IS-a-bp-h-\m-Wv. GI-\mb hmm-hp-t]mepw ISn-m In-te-p {]m-\-am-Wn-Xv.
ImcWw, hnizm-k-n \npw m\-t_m-[-n \np-amWv IS-a-I- Bhn`hn-p--Xv. in-bn\npw km[y-X-bn\n-p-a-. Ghpw IqSp-X D_p-
Ghpw IqSp-X IS-mSph-\m-bn-o-cp-p. Camw lpssk-s\(-A)m DXv_p-

34

-\mbn Xs Imev am-cp-v?


At-l-n\p I-hy-\nh-l-W-n-\n-d-t Npp-]mSv C-s\-bp--Xmbncpp. kXyw \inp Ign, bmYmYyw AkvX-an-, aqey- ipjvIn-, hn-hssN-X\yw sI-S-nb, hn-h-ns ktiw ad-p-t]mb, P\-p {]nb--camb hnizm-khpw kwkvIm-chpw a\p-jy-Xzhpw i{Xp-hns ssIbnse Ifn-m-h-bmbn-o kml-N-cy-n, ]n-Wn, ASn-a--Wn, a-\w, N-n-{]-lcw, Iqsme, \mSp-I-S-, _-\w, hnj-b-e-S- w, hnth-N-\w, a\p-jyXz hmWn-`w,
hnizm-k-hn-{Ibw, aX-ns t]cn P\-sf hnVvVo-I-cn-p--Xns ]pXnb
coXn-I, s]m-w, {]`p-Xzw, ]pXnb inv, ]p Pmln-en-v, CsXmw
cm-aXpw Xncn-p-h kaq-l-n-emWv At-l-n\p {]hn-t--Xv.
Fn-s\-sbmw t\cn-SWw? GsXmw Xc-n ka-c-ap-d-I Bkq-{XWw
sNWw?
hnNm-c-cw-K-v, h-\-s-Xn-sc,- a-\p-jy-tcmSv ImWn-p NXn-hp-I-fnpw {Iucyp-sa-Xn-sc P\ N-n-{]-l-c-tap ]pfbpI-bmWv, AXn-s\-Xnsc ]pXpXmbn cwK-{]-thiw sNbvXn-cn-p ]nn-cn--Xz-n-s\-Xnsc al-mb ssZhnI
hn-h-n kwc--W-n-\p-thn A-s\ ]-e-Xcw ka-c-. Fmw
Htcsbmcp hyn-bpsS Npa-en Htc-sbmcp a\p-jys inc-n.
Xs tI{-n kXy-an: t_m[-an: _lp-P-\--fn: Iqp-Im-scmw sIms-p. AX-s-n cwKw hnp. Xm am{Xw _mn-bm-bn,- H-gn ssItbmsS
am[y-a-fpw amK-fpw AS-p-t]m-bn. AX-s-n i{Xp-hns ssI-nbn Aap-I-gnp. XnI aqI-X-bpsSbpw A\n-n-X-Xz-n-sbpw GIm-X-S-hp-Im-c-\mbn Htc Hcp hyn. anm i_vZapb-cp-n-. anm-Xncn-m
I-hy-t_m[w A\p-h-Zn-p-p-an-. Fs\ au\w Zonpw? D-c-hm-Zn-Xz \m\m `mKpw \n{Z-lo-\ambn Imn-cn-p-I-bm-Wv, Cu Hs a\p-jy
Fp-sN-m t]mIp-p-shv t\mn-smv. Fs\ i_vZap-bpw?
i_vZw _e-lo-\-am-bn--gn-n-cn-p-p. Adp sIme sN- a\p-jy-cpsS `oIcX apn \np aq-I-Xsb `RvPn-m B Zp_-e-cmb kzc-n\p
Icppm? cm Gm-Sp-I-fpsS `ojWn XcWw sNbvXv, In-Iq-Snb Am\m-Im-c-ns Ah-K-W-\sb t`Zn-v, km aX--mcpsS hnVvUo-I-c-Ws
AXn-P-bnv B i_vZw ey kvYm\-s-ptam? ]pWy ka-c-sa hymtP-\,
hnP-b-n-sbpw em`-n-sbpw hmKvZm-\-fn ab-n -\-S---Sp
\njvTqcamb Iq-sm-e-I, ap{Zm-hm-Iy-,- k-t-f-\-, Xnm-N-ab-,Jp-B, Ckvemw. C-h-sbmw IqSn krjvSnp _l-fs Ihv ISv
eyw {]m]n-m B Zp_-e-kz-c-n-s\mpw {]m]vXn-bn--X-s. IqSmsX \r\-y- kwKoX{ipXn-I, Ie, {]I-S-\-,- B-\-m`m-S- elcn]ZmY, A[man-I-X-bpsS sskzc-hn-lm-c- Fn-h-bpw.!
bpw A\n-hm-cy-am-Wv. ]s,- I-gn-bn-...... hnNn{Xw! A\n-hm-cy-amWv ]s
Ignbnsv. Ign-hnmbva Ihy\nh-l-W-n\n-sm-gnp \nm
Imc-W-am-I-p-n-. m\hpw t_m[-hp-amWv Cu Ihyw Xssmv
hlnn--Xv. Xm lpssk Bb-Xns t]cn-emWv Cu _myX Xn-en-X-ambn-cn-p-Xv. henb Ignhpw tijn-bp-ap--h-\m-bXv sIm-. GI-\mWv; Ai-\mWv; \ncm-bp-[-\mWv; \n-lm-b-\mWv; CsXm-s-bmbn-cp-mepw Xm lpssk\m-Wv. lpssk-\m-b-Xn-\m bko-Zn-t\mSv bpw sNm-\p Blzm\w AS-nbnpv. Bb-p[-an. Bbp-[-an-s-n-epw, _m[y-X-bp-v.
Bbp-[-k-o-I-c-W--fn-m-- km-l-Ncyw \ne-\np-tm-gpw-bpw sNt--

35

_m-[y-X-bptm?
aX-Im-cy--fn AKm-[-]m-WvUn-Xy-ap--h, hnth-I-im-en-I, \nb-a-, \nbtam-]-tZ-jvSm-, kaq-l-X]-c, KpW-Imw-n-I, _pn-amam, {]mtbm-Kn-I]-cn-m-\-ap--h Fm-hcpw nXn-K-Xn-I- hne-bn-cpn GI kzc-n ]dbpp:
C, bpw \n_--an-.
lpssk(-A) am{Xw ZrV-kz-c-n adp-]Sn ]d-bpp:
AsX, bpw \n_--apv.
Xs H-s A`n-{]mbw apkvenw temI-s-bm-I-am\w Adn-bn-m ]nb
k`w sXc--Sp-vsIm-m-W-tlw lpthf-bn a-bn h-Xv.
icn, bpw \n_--ap-m-bn-cn-mw, ]s, Fs\?
Xs \ne-]m-Sp-bnb Cu tNmZy-n-\p adp-]-Sn-sb-tmWw Atlw a
hnSp-p.
lpssk(-A) \bn khn-tij hn-h-ns Zmi-\n-I-hiw apgp-h\pw
AsX F At-l-n-s adp-]-Sn-bn Is-mw. Ncn-{X-n P\--fpsSbpw Ckveman-sbpw hn[n-\nm-b-Ihpw AXn-{]-[m-\-hp-am-sbmcp L-nemWo tNmZyw Fnbn-cn-p--Xv. Fmw A[-]-X-\s A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-p
\np \nm-bI Lw. hnh-c-amcpw _pn-Po-hn-Ifpw kXy-nepw
kzmX-{-nepw kmaqly \oXn-bnepw hniz-kn-p Fm-hcpw CkvemanI hnh-X-c hnti-jnpw tNmZn-pp: Fp-thWw? \n-lm-b-X-bpsS
temIv Fmw Ipw Adnpw A\p-`-hnpw Ihy t_m[-ns {]Xntj-[-- klnpw {]iv\-]-cn-lm-c-n\p am-a-t\z-jn-p--h tNmZnpp:Fm-sWmcp hgn?
P_vcnbm- adp-]Sn ]d-bpp: Hp-an-. \S-Xpw \S-m-\n-cn-p--Xp-samw
ssZh-n- C--\p-k-cnp am{Xw. \apv Zp{K-l-sa-nepw AXn-sems A]mc-amb bpn Hfnp InS-p-m-bn-cn-pw. kwXr-]vXn-tbm-sS-bn-cn-p-I. Akz-X-b-I-p-I. \psS ssII-fn AS-p--Xtm Imcy--sfm-pw.
icn-bm-Wv. ]d-bp--X-Sn icn Xs. A{Iaw tXhmgvN \S-p-p-v. Ah-Imi- A]-l-cn--s-Sp-p-v. PnlmZpw kImpw {]hm-NI Ncybpw Ckvemw
t\Snb hnP-b--fp-sams Ckveman-t-X-mXmbn Xon-cn-p-p. A-e-fpw
Ant{X-fpw ]n-I-fmbn amdn-bn-p-v. Jp-Bs tImn-I [mcm-f-ambn
Fgp-X-s-n-p-v. AsXmw tIhew h-\-bm-Wv, GI-ssZ-hXz hmZw shdp-samcp
ad-bm-Wv. Fmw icn Xs. BmWv adn--`n-{]m-b-ap--Xv. .... ]s FmWv
{]Xn-hn[n? Hcp Ce-t]mepw ssZhns thp-I-{]-Im-c-a-msX hogp-n
FmWv \psS hnizm-kw,52 C-s\-sbms \S--W-saXv Ahs Xocp-am-\amWv. \ncq-]Ww sNm apXn-cp-Xv A\m-h-iyhpw A-iq-\y-hp-am-Wv.
Hmtcmtcm a\p-jy\pw Ah-\-hs hn[n-bpsS ssIbnse Ifn-mw am{Xw. temIsp \S-mepw \tXm Notbm BIs, Bscp sNbvXmepw AXv Aew-

36

Ly-amb aps-gpp {]Im-csa BIq. D-np app-Xs Dt-J\w sNs aphn[n {]Im-cw. Aen ]cm-P-b-s--Xv, H-s--Xv, apB-hn hnPbw hcn-Xv, A[n-Im-cm-[n-]-Xy- Atlw A[o-\-am-n-bXv Fmw icn. AXpw B atliz-cs ap Xocp-am-\-{]-Imcw Xs. hnip Jp-Bs Acp-f-mSv Int? `cWm-[n-Imcns DS-a--\m-bp--h-t\, \o Cn-p--hv B[n-]Xyw \In-bcp-fp-p. Cn-p--h-cn \nv B[n-]Xyw ]nSn-s-Sp-p-p. \o Dt-in-p--hsc
tbmKyamcpw Am--hamsc \oNam-cp-amn Xop-p. \o k i
Xs53 ]ns FmWo ]d-bp-Xv? Fp sNm-\mWv `mhw? kl-\-a-h-ew_np anmsX Ignp IqSp-I-b-msX. kk-tmjw hn[nv Iog-S-p-I-bmsX. \oXn-bpsS _en-jvSTamb N-e-I-fn IpSp-n-gn-bp--h _m[y-X-sbp-dnv Fp Nnn-p-hm? bmsXm-p-an-.
Cv \psS kmwkvIm-cn-I-a-WvU-e-n-tev DaJmw54 hopw Dbs-gptn--s-Sp-Xv Hcp bmYr-nI kw`-h-a-. cmw temI-bp--n\p tijw
temI-s-m-bn-Spw Jmw P\-v {]nb-s--h-\m-hp-I-bp-m-bn. imk-{X-\mb Jm-a CsXv {]tXyIw {in--Ww. Ihn-bmb Jmw! hnkva-b-ap-fhm-p KWn-X-imkv{X Nn-I-fp Po\n-b-mb Jm-a-, Bhn-p-cp-hn-Sm\p GXm-\pw tmI- cNn kq{X-im-en-bmb Jmw! an Hmdn-b-enpIfpw Ckvemtam-f-Pn-p-Ifpw Cdm-t\m-f-Pn-p-Ifpw kwkvIm-c--fp-sSbpw \mKcn-X-I-fp-sSbpw hnhn[ hi--sf-p-dnv Cu _rlXv {K- cNn-p-Xpw
kq^n-ks ]p\o-hn-n-m C{X-tmfw Xm]-cyw Imp-Xpw ey-anm-sX-b-. \psS imkv{X, kmln-Xy, aX, Ncn-{X, Zmi-\n-I, Iem-{K---fn
Fgp-]Xp iX-am-\hpw Hp-In kzImcy sse{_-dn-I-fpsS A-n s]mXp
sse{_-dn-I-fpsS kw`-c-Wn-I-fn A-Sn-msX ssIs-gpp {]Xn-I-fmbn InS-ptm, kq^n-ks Ipdn-p {K- sshhn-[y--tfmSp IqSnbpw ]e-]-Xnp-I-fmbpw {]kn-o-I-cn--s-p-sIm-n-cn-p-p. \ap--dn-bm ey--tfmSp
IqSn-bmWv Hmtcm-pw kw`-hn-p-sIm-n-cn-p--sXv Hcp kXy-am-Wv. ssZhn-I-bpn-b, hn[n-bmWv Fm-n-s\bpw \nb-{n-p--Xv. D-X-\mb ssZha, `qanbnse ssZh--fmWv Cu hn[np ]nn.
hn[n-hm-Zn-I-fpsS XXz-im-kv{X-{]-Imcw Pnlm-Zn\v Ignhpw Ign-hp-tI-Sp-sampw
{]iv\-a-. ImcWw Ahv Nnm-hn-j-bta Bhp-n-. {]]--n a\p-jy\p Nnm-kzm-X-{ytam {]h\ kzmX-{ytam Ah AwKo-I-cn-p-n-.
Xnanw _m[yX F Hns\ ASn-m\ ]c-am-bn-s Ah \ntj-[n-pI-bm-Wv. CXn-t\-m Xptemw hnNn-{Xamb apPnB In-m-cpsS adp-]Sn
Cs\ t]mIp-p.
B, Bs-Xnsc, Fp-sN-m-\mWo ]d-bp-Xv? GXp hn`m-K-n-s\-Xn-cn?
BcpsS kpc-mw? \tmSv Bcm-Wn-Xm-h-iy-s-Xv? ssZhw Fm-hpw
tamhpw kzhpw hmKvZm\w sNp-p. Fm-hpw Bi Xcp-p. B nXnv Hcmsf \c-Im-h-Im-in-sbv hn[n-sb-gpXn Abm-tfmSv \msa-s\ bpw
sNpw? ssZhw sNt Hcp Imcyw Ah\p apv \mw sNm sa\-sS-cpXv.
AXv kzbw ZnhyXzw Na-bpXn\p Xpey-am-bn-cn-pw. Ay hn-h-n\p apv
hn--htam? Ay-hn-Nm-c-W-bvp-apv hnNm-c-Wtbm? ]m]nbpw {Iqc\pw Ip-hm-fnbp-sav \n hn[n-sb-gpXnb Cu apB-hn-bv ssZhw s]mdpp sImSp-p-Ibn-s-m-cp-I-p? ssZhw At-ls A\p-{K-lnp am-cp-fn-bm \n-sfp
sNpw? \n tNmZy-ap--bn-pp: FpthWsav. Bcv? Bs-Xncmbn?
Fn\v? th. Bcpw Hpw sNt--Xn-.- ssZhw Bsc, Fn-s-sbms
t]cn Fp sNpsav ImWm Imncn-p-I-.

37

A_q-_-, Da, Dkvam, Aen, Xl, kpss_, apB-hn-, bko-Zv Chscmw {]hm-N-Is A\p-N-cam-cm-Wv. hnh-c-amcpw Kth-j-W]-Sp--fp-amWv. Ah-c-h-cpsS Kth-j-W^e-ns shfn--n-emWv Hmtcm-cp-cpw {]hn-Xv. AXp-sImv aX-]-W-Un-Xamcpw Kth-j-Iamcpw Ckvemans AI-p\np \S-nb Kth-j-W-n kw`-hn hyXy \nK-a-\--fm-bnt app \SXpw Ctm \S-p--Xp-amb kw`-h-hn-Im-k-sf ImWm-hq. Ckveman\pw
Ip^-v-dn\panStm a-I\pw an-X\pw Xntem i{Xp-hn\pw i{Xp-hn-\p-an-S-bntem
D {]iv\-ambn CXns\ KWn-m-hp--X-.
]WvUn-X ]mac P\--fpsS A`n-{]m-b- Ku\n-t--Xn-. hnZ-Kv[-cmb
]WvUn-Xam ssIImcyw sNt Ccw {]iv\--fn km[m-c-W-msp-Imcyw? ssZh-im-kv{Xw, Iimkv{Xw XpS-nb AXn-k-oW--fmb hni-b-fn _lp-P-\sf CS-s]-Sm-\-\p-h-Zn-p-Iq-Sm. ssZh-amWv Ana hn[nImhv; ]c-a-Z-bm-ep. Fn\v Fs\ Fn-XymZn {]iv\--fn IpSpn
hnj-an-t--Xn \. \ap-Xn-s\--[n-Imcw?
aX-`-cpw kmXzn-Iacpw Dcw ]d-bpp: ssZh kmm-XvIm-c-n\p
hgnI ]e-Xpv. krjvSn-I-fpsS A{X-Xs Fw AXp-ap-v. Fm Pnlm-ZneqsS am{Xta ssZh-n--se-m Ign-bp-Itm? \n Pnlm-Zn-s\-pdnp
]hn Xs Bhnp sImn-cn-pp kZm-k-a-bpw? ap-_m-[y-X-Isfms \n-lnp Igntm? k--fpsS ]n-I-sbms sNbvXp
Xotm? \a-kvImcw aX-ns Hcp {][m-\-s kvXw`-amWv. Pn-lmZpw \
In-epw Xn XS-b-ep-sams AXns imJ-I am{Xw. \a-kvIm-c-ns
BNmcacym-Z-I, \nba\n_--\-I, A`n-hm-Py-L-S-I- CsXms ]qambpw \n-dn-bmtam? AsXmw kqnpw {in-p-amtWm \n \a-kvcn-mdv? \a-kvIm-cs kw_-n-p ko-amb akv-A-e-IfpsS Hcp
]nI Xs-bp-v. AsXms \n-b-aptm \nv? \a-kvIm-c-n\p aptmSn-bmbn A\p-jvSn-n-cn-t AwK-ip-n, aen-\-h-kvXp--fn \np shSnpw
hrnbpwC-s\-bp-apv ]ePmXn akv-A-eI. AX-dn-bmtam? ]d--sXsp hm \n A\ysc \m-m\pw P\-tk-h-\-n\pw Cd-p--Xn\p
apv Ah-\-hs Imcy-samv t\sc-bmv. kap-Zmtbmmc-W-s-n Nnnm
hc-s, kzbw ]cn-jvI-c-W-nepw kwkvIm-c-nepw {in-v.
AX-, \ns-m-Wp-d-p--Xv, `mhn-bn \n ]ng-p-t]m-hp-I-bn-s-Xn\v? kzmYw-`-cn-Ifpw Xm]-cy-]q-P-I-cp-am-bn-o-cp-I-bn-s--Xn\v? tZtl--I-fpsSbpw sshIm-cnI k--fpsSbpw ]nSp--n \nv \n ]q-ambpw
hntam-Nn-X-cm-sWv Ah-Im-i-s-Smtam? ]m]--fn\np ]q-ambpw kpc-nX-cmbnotm? \n-fpsS Nn-Ifpw {]h-\-fpw \nmc Ne-\t]mepw Am-lp-hns {]oXn-am{Xw emm-n-sm-p--XmtWm? If--a
ssZh-{]o-Xn-p-th-n-bmtWm? AXp-t]m-Is-, hnizm-k-Im-cy--fpsS ASn-m-\fpw imJ-I-fp-sams Ddp Igntm? XnI `-m-cp-sSbpw k-\-fp-sSbpw AWn-bn {]th-inp Igntm? kmaqly ]cn-jvI-c-W-n\v Acbpw
Xebpw apdpn Cd-n-bn-cn-pp!
kzK-n\v Fv Ih-mS--fp-v.55 Pnlm-Zns Ihm-S-n IqSn Xs IS--Wsav Fm-Wn-{X- hmin? kzK-ns At\Iw Xmtm-ep-I-fn Hp am{XamWv Pnlm-Zv. {]mY-\-I, \nXyP]-, a{ CsXms kzK-ns
Xmtm-ep-I Xs. tZlm-[zm-\w IqSm-sX, thZ-\-tbm-sX, B]-p-I hcn-

38

msX kzKw ssI-em-n--qsS?


]pWy Imcy- thsd Fsm-s-bpv! km[p-v A-Zm\w sNp-I,IpSpw__w NmpI, Xom-S\tI{-fpw ih-Ip-So-c-fpw kinpI, Bcm-[-\-I-f-\p-jvTn-p-I, [ym\\ncX\mbncn-p-I, kzp- hJv^v
sNp-I, hgn-]m-Sp-I \S-p-I, Abmsc klm-bn-p-I, ssZh-kva-c-W-bn
apgp-In-bn-cn-p-I, {]mY\m kZ-p-I-fn ]p-sIm-p-I, hnem-]w, ip]mi
As\ ]e-Xpw...................................-Pn-lmZp aptJ\ Inmhp--sXms Ccw
]pWyI- hgn-bmbn e`npw, Nne ZnIvdp-Ifpw ZpB-I-fp-ap-v,
AhsNmpI am{Xta thq, _Zbp--n ]s-Spv ac-W-s Fgp-]Xv
c-km-n-Ip {]Xn-^-e-ap-v. Ctm Xncn-nt, FmWp sNt-sXv?
thsdmcp {]iv\w, AXm-bXv ssZh-`-cpw ]Wy-hm-famcpw km Imcy-fnsem cmjv{So-b-nsem `mK-`m-m-hpXv \. kXy-npw Aym-n-I-Xbn \npw hyXn-N-en-m-\m-W-Xn-S-h-cp-p-I. `uXn-I-X--pthn aXs
hnp-I-bm-bn-cnpaXv. Aym-n-I-XbpsSbpw [man-I-X-bp-tSbpw Dn-bn-te-pb-cp--Xn\p ]I-cw, B`m-Sfp-sSbpw m\-am-\--fp-sSbpw ]pdsI ]mb-ep-ambncnp-aXv. ImcWw AXv cpw cm-Wv. Hcp hnip bpw Ignp aS--sh
{]hm-N-I-]pw-K-h Acp- -sN-bvX-tXmp-nt? \mw sNdnb bp-n\n-pa-Sn henb bps A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-m t]m-hp-I-bm-Wv. Bfp-I Xncn:
AXv GXv bp-amWv? {]mh-N-I {]Xn-h-Nnp: tZtl--tbm-Sp bpw.
AXn-\m \psS I-hy-an-XmWv: BsN-dnb bpw ths-p-sh-p-I. henb
bp-n GsSpI. kwKXn hyamb-tm, Fp-sN-W-sav. i{Xp-hn-t\m-S, Ah-\-h-t\mSv Xs kacw {]Jym-]n-mw.

]v
{]hm-N-Is A\p-bm-bn-I, Nn-Iam, XXz-m-\n-I, aX-]-WvUn-Xam
Fm-hcpw Hp tNp apd-hn-fn-Iq-pp: Aen-tam-U Pohn-X-ho-Ww {]mtbmKn-I-a-. AXp-h-fsc ISp-Xpw Xosc hnp-ho-gvN-bn-m--Xp-am-Wv. bmYmy Xncn--dn-bm\pw AwKo-I-cn-m-\p-ap Ign-hmWv a\p-jy\v th-Xv. BZihm-Zn-bmbn Imew Ign-p--Xn\nv {]tbm-K-hm-Zn-bmbn Pohn-Xs kao-]np \ne-]m-Sn-tev hf-cp-I-bmWv _pn-]q---I-am-bn-p--Xv. temI-ns hensbmcp `mKw `cn-p Ac-N-\m-bnpw kzw ssIsImv sNcpv Xpn tISpt]m-pI! Cm-ev P\--fpsS _pn Ah-cpsS Ip-I-fn-em-Wv. tdmapw
t]jybpw A[o\-s-Sp-nb Ime-am-Wn-Xv. t]jy N{I-hn-bp-sSbpw
tdmam-km-{am-Py-nse kokam-cp-sSbpw Ac-a-\-I-fpsS Kmw`ocyhpw BUw-_-chpsams C-se-hsc tIp-tIhn am{X-am-bn-cp-p. Cm-Is P\-
AsXms t\cn ImWp-I-bm-Wv. Fnpw ]gb Pohn-X-coXn XpS-cp-Itbm?
AXn\v Bsf Inp-I-bn-. CkvemanI `c-W-Iq-S-ns A-n\pw Ionpw
AsXm-pw -\n-c-p--Xp-a-.
C{X-\m BUw-_-c-nepw B`mS-nepw Pohn-p-t]m t]jy-mcpw tdmamcpw Aen-bpsS `c-W-k-{-Zmbw Fs\ shp-s]m-dp-npw? {]`p-amcpw
cmP-Ip-Spw-_mw-K--fp-as Ah? Aen `c-W-n Ib-dnb DS-\-s Fm
\ne-hm-c-n-ep DtZym-K-ampw Xpey-th-X-\-am-n-sImv i-f-\n-cv
\n-bn-p-I-bp-m-bn. Fm-hpw Xpey ifw! Dkvam-\p_v\p lpss\^v 56
Ckvemanse Hcp alm hynXzw; D-X-\mb cmPy-X-{-; Aen-bpsS

39

Ghpw ASp Iqp-Im-cn Hcm; Khsans Hcp Db DtZym-K-.


i-ftam? amk-n aqp Znlw! XnIpw A{]m-tbm-Kn-I-amWo km-nI
hyh-.
t]jy Aen-bpsS `c-W-n Iogn-ep- Hcp kwm-\-ambn Xo-tm ap
`c-W-ns BUw-_c PohnXw t\cn I-hcpw AhnsS Dm-bn-cp-p. Ahcn Nne C{]-Imcw A\p-kva-cn-p-I-bp-m-bn: R-fnpw Hmp-p,
Ctm Ad-_n-I-fpsS A[o-\-nepw Aen-bpsS `c-W-n-ep-ap Cdms ]gb
N{I-hn Inkvdm apkvenwI-tfmSv bp-n-\p-h B cwKw. bp-n\p ]pds--Xm-b-Xp-sImv Bhp-{X B`mS hn`q-j-I Hgn-hm-n-bn-cp-p. Fnpw
Ggm-bncw kp-cn-am, ASn-a-I, `rXyam, Kmb-I-kw-Lw, kwKo-tXm-]-I-c-W Fn-h-bpsS AI-Sn tkhn-p-sIm-m-W-tlw hXv. AsXms
thXpXs Fp \ymbo-I-cn-p-I-b-. ]s Hcp Imcyw icn-bm-Wv. Aen
]cm-P-b-s-p-sh-n AXn\p {][m\ ImcWw At-l-ns A{]m-tbm-KnI
ImgvN-mSpw Nnm-K-Xnbpw Xs-bm-bn-cp-p. kml-N-cy-n\pw kw`-h-bm-Ymyp-samv A\p-cRvP\m-I-ambn Xs CW-n-sb-Sp-m At-l-n\p
Ign-bm--Xmbn-cp-p. Aenv cmjv{Sobw Xncn-n-cp-n-. a\-m-kv{Xhpw
kmaqly imkv{Xhpw ]cn-N-b-ap-m-bn-cp-n-. Fm-h-scbpw [n-cn-p-sIm-p
\bw. ISpw-]n-Sp--m-c. inbpw kzm[o-\-hp-ap hyn-Xz-sftbm Hpw
hI-sh-m-sX-bmWv Atlw kwkm-cn-n-cp-Xpw {]hn-n-cp--Xpw.
Cam-a-n-t\mSpw \p_p-nt\mSpw Jnem-^-ns\ Xpe\w sNm-Xn-cn-p-I.
{]hm-N-I-s\-tm-setbm Aen-sb-tm-setbm A apB-hn-bbpw bko-Zpw. InkvdmtbmSpw ssJk-dn-t\m-Sp-amWv Chv IqSp-X kmZr-iyw. lcnXsImm-cw..........
s]mXp-`-WvUm-cw......., XIp Xcn--W-am--Ww.....-P-\--fpsS Ah-Im-i-
.............. Fn-s\ \n _lfw Iqm-dp Uam-kvI-knse cmP-[m-\n-bn-t.
AhnsS \nmWv tdmapw t]jybpw DsIm-p- CkvemanI km{am-Py-ns
`c-W-N{Iw Xncn-p--Xv. Fnpw tdma U_m-dn-s\bpw kndn-b Kh-dpsS
cmPv`-h-s\bpw At]-np F{X efn-X-am-WXv!
A_q-Zdv apB-hn--s-Xnsc B{I-aWw Agn-p-hn-Xv CXpw ]dmWv: sdmnbp-m-p-hm tKmX-p-s]mSn Xc-s-Sp-p--sX-n-\mWv? AXnse XhnSp If-bp-sX-n\v? cm{Xnbpw ]Iepw Hcp hkv{Xw t]msc? \nim-h-kv{X-samp thsd-sbn\m? Fn-s\. CXp aZo-\-bm-W-mWnq-cpsS hnNm-cw. Ctmgpw {]hm-NIs Ime-L-nemWv Pohn-p--sXm [mcW! Ckvem-an ]pXp-Xmbn h
]cn-jvIm-cn-I-fmb tdma-m-scbpw t]jy-m-scbpw aplm-Pn-dp-Ifpw Akm-dp-Ifp-sav Ch sXn--cn-n-cn-p-I-bmWv!
Imcy- Bt]-n-I-ambn ImWm XpS--Ww. kXy-ns bYm apJw
Xncv k-tem-Iv Ae-p-\-S-m-Xn-cn-p-I. Iap-n ImWp-sXtm AXp-X-s-bmWv kXyw Fp-d-n-p-I. Ingpw ]Sn-m-dp-a-Sw Hcp
henb hn`mKw temI-ns Xs B[n-]Xyw ssIn-te-n-cn-p Cu ]mhw
apkvenwIsf \n F{X {ian-mepw t_my-s-Sp-m-\m-hn-. {]hm-N-Is
Ime-t-Xp-t]mse PohnXw \bn--W-sav; Aen-bpsS I amXrI A\p-[mh\w sN-W-sa-v. Cu ]mgvthep apXn-cmsX! Pnhn-X-tmXv Hcp ]mSv aptmv
IpXn-s-n-bn-cn-p-p.

]Xn-s\mv

40

BNm-c-, \nb-a-, s]cp-am----, km-n-I-hy-h, Nn, Bi-b, A`-ncp-Nn, kmln-Xyw, Ie, Ihn-X, kwKo-Xw, \r-\-\w, hnt\m-Zw,
kmaq-ly-_--, kZm-Nmcw, \mK-cn-IX Fn-h-bpsS taJ-e-I-fn-semw
t]jybpw tdmapw CkvemanI-k-aq-l-n AKm-[-amb kzm[o-\-ap-d-np Ignp. {]`p-Xz-hm-gvN-bpsS kmaqly hn`m-Ko-bX InkvdmssJ-k-dn cmPm-[n-]Xy
P\m-[n-]-Xy-hy-h, ]utcm-ln-Xy-ns BNmcacymZk{-Zm-b-, DtZymK ta[m-hnXzw, Npcp-n--d-m t]jymtdmam kwkvIm-c--fpsS Iq-cmbn amdn CkvemanI cmjv{Shpw `c-W-hpw.
]Ww, ]Z-hn, A[n-Im-cw, sImbvsX-Sp hnP-b--fn-eqsS Hgp-In-h K\o-av
apX-ep-I Fnh aptJ\ P\--fn-semcp hn`mKw XSnp sImgp-p. AtXmsS
ey-t_m[w, XymK-_pn Fo KpW- A{]-Xy--ambn. Aen(A)bpsS
Btcm[-\hpw XXz-Nn-bpw Ah-cpsS ImXp-Iv Atcm-N-I-am-bn. `qcn-`mKw
P\-fpw ]q kwXr-]vX-cmWv \ne-hn-ep kml-N-cy-n. hbdp \nd-tXmsS kmaq-ly-{]-iv\--fn-sempw ]ns Xmcyw tXmn-bn. kXyw
BcpsS ]-mWv. Da-dn-ttbm Aen-bp-sStbm? Dkvam-stbm A_q-Zdnstbm? A_q-_--dn-stbm ^mXzn-a-bp-sStbm? Alvepss_ns IqsStbm
A_q-kp-^yms IpSpw-_-ns ]tm? CXymXn {]-iv\--sfmpw Ctm-ghv Nm hnj-b-a. Bcpw I-hy--sf-n At\z-jn-p-pan-. k-nsbpw A[n-Im-c-n-sbpw ASn-a-I-fmbn kI-ecpw. hXpw tNmZn-mt\m ]dbmt\m ss[cy-s-Sp--hs\ hm AS-n-bn-cp-p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
Aen(A)bpw ^mXzna(A)bpw Ah-cpsS Pohn-X-Im-ep Xs Fsmw Xc-nep thZ-\-Ipw hn]-p-Ip-amWv Cc-bm--s--Xv. kzw ]-W-amb aZo\-bn shv; aplm-Pn-dp-I-fp-sSbpw Akm-dp-I-fp-sSbpw Iap-nshv; bp-f-n Hcp-anp s]mcp-Xnb kzw Nm-Xn-am-cpsS ssIv. Av aZo-\-bntem
kJo-^-bntem Aa-hn-I-fp-m-bn-cp-n-. sXc-s-Spp I-n-bn Ah-cmcpw
]s-Sp-ncpXp-an-. A\-cw Aen(A)sbpw lk(A)sbpw ]cn-Nb
k-cpw [oc-cp-amb DtZym-K--m Ccp-htcmSpw F-s\-bmWv s]cp-am-dn-bsXv ]nm-ev \mw Ip Ign-p. bpw sImSp-n-cn- \nm-bI
L-n ssk\nI t\Xm- Xsf apB-hn--bpsS sXmgp-n-tev amn-sp-I-bm-Wv. X-fpsS alXzw, aXw, A{Xbpw \mfs A`n-am-\-I-c-amb tkh\w,
Iogp-tm-K--mCsXmw IqSn Hcp-anv apB-hn-v Gnp sImSp-p-I-bmW-h sNpXv.
Jhm-cn-Pp-I57 Aa-hn-I-fns--h-cm-bn-cp-n. Aa-hn-I-fp-ambn GsX-nepw Xcn-ep _hpw Ahn-b-m-bn-cp-p. {]XypX apB-hnbpsS BP i{Xpfpw Aaho `c-W-ns c-Zm-ln-I-fp-am-bn-cpp Ah. _lpP\--fp-am-bn-mbn-cpp Ahv sIp-]mSv. km[m-c-W-mcpw \mn ]pd--fnse sNdp-InS Ih-S-m-cp-w tN-Xm-bn-cpp B In. `n-bnepw ]cn-ip-n-bn-epw Ah {]kn-cm-bn-cp-p. Bcm-[-\-bn-epw [ym\-nepw Ejn-Xp-ey-cm-bn-cp-p. Xo{h-amb Hcp
Xcw aX ]-]m-Xn-Xz-am-bn-cpp Ah-cpsS {]tXy-IX. C-s\-sb-m-am-bn-cp-npw
kw`-hnsXmsWt? Xma-kn-bmsX Ah-scmw kzbw adv apB-hnm`c-Wns ]Wn-bm-bp[fmbn amdp--XmWv Ncn{Xw I-Xv. Aen(A)bpsS Poh
A]-I-S-s-Sp-p--Xn\p thn hf--h-gnpw hfsc h-\m-]-c-amb coXn-bn-epam-W-h {]hn--Xv. kn^v^obpw \S-p-sIm-n-cnp--Xn-\n-S-bn
Aen(A)bpambn kwhmZ-n-tes-Sp-Ibpw At-l-n\p t\sc hmfqcnspIbpw sNpp Ah. As\ ]S--f-n At-ls H-s-Sp-pp. {]Xn^-e-sampwhmmsX kzw i{Xp-hns ssIbn-en-cpp ]Wn-sb-Spp B
ip-K-Xn-m. Aen(A)sb tXtPm-h[w sNm thn At-l-n-s\-Xnsc
Bt-]-fpw Btcm-]-W-fpw Inw-h-Z-n-I-fp-ambn s\Sp-\osf Ah k-cn-

41

p. Aen(A)sb ZpjvS, sXmSn Fsms A[n-t-]n-p. Ah-km\w aXn\p ]pd-sv ^Xvhm ]pd-s-Sp-hn-m\pw aSn-Im-Wn-n-. Ah-cpsS ^Xvhm
IW-n\p ^en-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Awdp_v\p Bkn-s\-tmse Npcpw Nnedn-bm-am-bn-cp-p, Bo-bhpw aX-]-c-hp-amb aWvU-e-n Aen(A)bpsS
konv AKm-[-tan-pI km[y-a-sv. Jhm-cn-Pp-I Ah-cpsS
A-Xbpw Ahn-th-Ihpw tlXp-hmbn sshcmKyw aqv Aen(A)sb h[n-p-]w AX-h-cpsS-IqSn
i{Xp--fmbn Aa-hn-Ip hgn XpdpsImSp-p-Ibm-bn-cn-p-sapw A-c-m a\-n-em-n-bn-cp-p.
Ccw A\p-`-h--fpsS shfn--n Fp-thWw F tNmZy-n\v Hpw
th F D-c-nXs-bmWv N]-e-m- F-n-t-cpI. A-c-msc
apB-hn--m-h-iy-hpamWv. Aen(-A)bvh tNcpIbn-. apB-hn Xs Fm
Zu_-ey-fpw
Zqjy--fp-ap--tXm-sSmw
henb
X{-\pw
Aen(A)sbm {]tbm-KnI hnZy-I-f-dn-bp Bfp-am-Wv. nXnKXn-I X\n-\p-Iq-e-ambn hcp-Xp IrXy-am-bn-m-Wm\pw AXn-\p-th ]pXn-b-amK--fmhnjvI-cn-m\pw At-l-n\p A]m-c-amb hncp-Xpv. P\-sf `n-bp-sSbpw
efnX Pohn-X-n-sbw ]mX-bn-eqsS \bn-m-\mWv Aen(A)bpsS {ia--f{Xbpw. AXm-Is A{]m-tbm-Kn-Ihpw. Fm apB-hn `cWw Agn-a-Xnbpw
A{I-ahpw Ipg-hpw \nd--Xm-sW-nepw AXv kaq-ls AXn-thKw ]ptcm-KXn-bn-tepw A`n-hr-n-bn-tepw B\-bn-p-I-bm-Wv. A`n-hr-yn-te-p Cu
{]bmWw Xzcn-X-s-Sp-p--Xn\v t]jy-bp-sSbpw tdman-sbpw amXrI AtX-]Sn
]Im\pw Ahv \njv{]-bmkw km[n-p-p. AXn-s\mw h Bob
in-bp-sSbpw \nb-{Ww Ahsc Atem-k-c-s-Sp-n-bn-cp-pan. A[n-Imcw
Hu]-Nm-cn-I-ambn ssItbp-Ibpw A_q-Zdv, Aen, lk, lpPvdv apX-em-b-hcpsS CS-s]-Sepw ap A`y-cXS--fpw cmjv{Sob kwLj-fpw Ah-km-\np-Ibpw sNbvXv Ccp-]Xp hj-n-\Iw B[p-\nI ]cn-jvIrX ]mm-Xy \K-c-sf-tmse Bbn-op CkvemanI cmjv{S-ns Xe-m\w. tdma DS-en kmbp-[-cmb \mhn-I-S m]n-X-am-bn. ssk{]kv Iog-Sn. tImm-nt\m-nfns\-Xnsc \nc--c-am-b- B-{I-a-W- XpSp sImp-an-cp-p.
tdma BnsSIv amXr-I-bn \nn-Xpw kmkm-\n-b ssen
Ae--cn--Xp-am-bn-cpp apBhn-bpsS Bm-\-amb {Ko ]mekv. Zmkn-Ifpw
_Zm-hn-I-fp-a-S-p {KmaoW KmbI kwL-n-\pw ]mp-Impw ]Icw Cdm-\nb kwKo-XmNmcy-mcpw tdma \-In-amcpapsm Hscm-m-cw
Hmkv{Sm sImm-c-n kwhn-[m-\n-n-p-m-bn-cp-p. Inkvdm ssJkamsc
bYmhn[w A\p-I-cn-p sImm-bn-cpp sImm-c-nse BNm-tcm-]-Nm-c-fpw
k{Zm-b--fpw. Ah-cpsS hkv{X-[m-c-Ww, `W coXn, hnt\m-Z-, Ae-m-c-Wn-I, kwKo-Xw, Imhy-w, kmln-Xyw, Pohn-X-co-Xn, \K-c-\nm-Ww, cmjv{Sob
kwhn-[m-\-ns ASn-m\w Fn-h-sbmw kzmb--amngn-ncpp. Ad_n-am-Xr-I-bn-ep efn-Xhpw km[m-c-W-hp-amb k{-Zm-b- ]nSn-msX hp.
k-cw-Kpw tdma tamU kwkvIm-cnI hnhw Ac-t-dn. \oXn, A\o-Xn,
icn, sXv- C-XymZn N-I-sfms hen-s-dnbq. icn Aen-bp-sStbm apB-hn--bpsStbm BcpsS ]-m-bm-sem, {]Xy--n ]ptcm-KXn Is-m Ignbp-s-sX-hn-sSbmWv. Fsmw ]-Xn-I-fmWv Aa-hn-m- \S-m-n-bn-p--Xv!
C\n-bp-aXp XpS-cp-I-bm-Wv. Xe-m-\-\-Kcn ]pXp-n--Wn-sX-n, IqSp-X AtmSpw Kw`o-c-ambpw Jeo-^-bpsS Bm\w at\m-l-c-ambn Ae--cn-n-p-sn AXp aqew Ckvemans Apw Kmw`o-cy-hp-as hn-pI?
Ckvemans al-Xzhpw {]uVnbpw Iv A\y-tZ-i-mcpw {InkvXym-\n-Ifpw
An-bm-cm-[-Icpw sR-s.

42

adp-hiv Inkvdm--ssJ-kam-cpsS `cW Ime-L--tmSv Xmc-X-ay-s-Spn ]cntim-[n-p-tm P\-p hn[n In-m Ign-bWw Ctm-gs `cWw
Xs-bmWv IqSp-X Pt\m-]-Im-c-{]-Zhpw km[m-c-W-mv KpW-I-c-hp-sa-v.
{]P-I-tfmSv hfsc kzmX-{y-tmSpw kuay`mh-tmSpw IqSn-bm-W-h s]cp-am-dp-sXv P\-v t_m[y-am-IWw. cmPy-\n-hm-kn-Iv BZ-chpw inbpw
t\Sn-sm-Sp-m\pw hn--tXm-Xn hnP-b-fpw bpapX-ep-Ifpw km-Zn-psIm-Sp-m\pw cmjv{Sob hnkvXmcw Iqn-sm-Sp-m\pw ]pXnb `cWIqS-n-\mWv
Gsd kmay-ap-s-sXv P\- I-dn-b-Ww. bYm-n CXp
sIms-m-ap-m-Ip t\w Ckveman\p XsbmWv. Ckvemans {]m[m\yw
t_m[y-s-Sp-m\pw AXn-s\-p-dnv aXnp krjvSn-p-hm\pw CXp klm-b-I-amhp--Xm-Wv. IqSmsX ]e-t-{X-fpw Np-Ifpw Cp ]nIfm-bn-am-dn-bn-cn-p. Ahn-izm-kn-IfpsS an XIv_o \mZhpw IenabpsS [z\n-Ifpw
Dbp-tIp-- F{X \K-c--fmWp s]mn-h-n-cn-p--Xv! F{X JP-\m-hp-IfmWv ss_pamembn ]cn-hn-X-am-bn-cn-p-Xv! AsXms km-Zn-p-mn-b-Xns \ymbm\ymb-X-I NnIpt\mn-bm ]e kwi-b-fpw ImWpw.
AsX-p-am-I-s, CkemanI cmjv{Sns \nt-i-{]-Im-c-amWv C-sXms
hybw sN--psImn-cn-p--Xv. ]e apkvenwIfpw AXn \np {]tbm-P\- A\p`hnp Ign-bppapv. AXn-s\mw D]-cn-bmb Cu hnP-b-
]pXnb sXmgn-e-h-k-c- krjvSnp Xp. sNdp--mp tPmenbpw apXnhp hcp-am-\hpw DtZym-K-]-Z-hn-bp-sam-s -X-Zzmcm ssIh-cn-m Ign-n-p-v.
Fp-thWw? F tNmZy-n\p adp-]-Sn-bm-Wn-{Xbpw ]d-p-h--Xv. .{]hm-N-IIm-e-L--nse B Xo{h- Ckveman-I-Nn--sbms Hp Ipd-bvWw. Imew amdnbn-cn-p-p. Ckvemw a-bp-sSbpw aZo-\-bp-sS-bpw AXncp ISv _lpZqcw kcn-n-cn-p-p. ss_km-y- ap-X- C-dmhsc AXp hnI-kn-n-cn-p-p. AenbpsS k-tem-Is {]Xy-b-im-kv{Xhpw ipjvIn--Nn-m-K-Xnbpw \oXn-sbam{Xw Bkv]-Z-am-n-bp \nb-a-fpw Bscbpw kzm[o-\n-m- t]m-X-sp
Ip Ign-nt? kzw ktlm-Z-c- t]mepw At-ls ssIsh-Snv
apB-hn-sb At\zjnv ]mp-t]mbn. ]ns-bptm Inkvdm-bp-sSbpw ssJkdn-sbpw `c-W-am-kz-Zn t]jy-m-scbpw tdma-m-scbpw At-l-n\v hg-nn-p-p? AsXms shdpw ]qXn-bm-Wv.
bmYm-ns Im-Sn-bn-eqsS ]pXnb temI-sbpw AXns \mUo-an-Sn-p-Isfbpw t\mn-m-Wp-I.- A-tm AwKo-I-cn-t-n-hcpw, A-a-hn-I-fpsS `c-Ww,
cmjv{Sobw, Nn, k-v, ssk\nI in CsXmw tkhn-p-Xv Ckvemans\
Xs-bmWv; temIv Ckvemans {]Nm-c-n\pw ]ptcm-K-Xnpw hnIm-k-n\pw
thn-bm-W-h {]hn-p--sXv; Ckvemans Ionpw Jp-B-\nsbpw {]hm-N-Im-N-cy-bpsSbpw Dbpw thn-bm-W-h Ckvemta-Xc aX-mtcmSv bpw sNp--Xv. CkvemanI \mK-cn-I-X-bpsS ]ptcm-bm\w, apkvenwI-fpsS
PohnX \ne-hm-c-ap-b, kaq-l-n\p kpnXn ssIh-cp-, k-p-mn-sm-Sp-, temIp hf-{]-m]n \mK-cn-I-X-tbm-sSmw apkvenw \mK-cn-IXsb Fn- CuZri {]hn-I-fn hym]r-X-cmWv Aa-hn-I.
F-pth-W-sa-t
Nnn-p-Xv?
]dbmw:
A`y--c-bpw,
cmjv{Sob
kwLjhpw kwhm-Zhpw sXpw icnbpw \ymbhpw A\ym-bhpw kw_-n
N-I, Cam-a-v, sXc-s-Sppw \ma-\nt-ihpw apX-em-bh kw_-n
]mgvNn--I CsXms ]mtS \nm\w sNpI. ]pWyw, `n, Nmcn-{Xw,
BNm-cw, A\m-Nm-cw Cu hI _pn-sb-Ip-g-p Btem-N-\bpw N-bp-sams
shdp-sX-bm-Wv. Hcp {]tbm-P-\hpw AXpsImsm-p-an. `c-W-Iq-S-hp-ambn A\p-c-

43

-\-n-em-hp-I-bmWv \apv th-Xv. ^ew Fm-bm-sem? tXmhnbpw ]ehw Ip Xgw knn--h-cm-Wtm \. asmcp kwK-XnbpwIqSn \mw
IWn-se-Sp-t--Xm-Wv. Aaho-J-eo^ Hcp hnip--bp--n-tes-n-cn-p-I-bmWn-tm. tdman {InkvXym-\n-Is-Xnsc Cdm-\n An]qP-I-cmb aPq-knIs-Xnsc. AIv GsX-nepw Xcw A`y--c-Ip-g-- krjvSn-p-Xv
CkvemanI insb _e-lo-\-am-m\pw XZzmcm i{Xp-v klm-b-I-am-Iphm\pw am{Xta CS-h-cpq. Cu Hscm ImcWwsImp Xs A`y--c-h-gv
\njn--am-sW-p-h-cp-p.
hcq.........-cm-jv{Sobka-c-tfm GIm--hm-ktam \app th. bmYmy-t_m-[ns ssNX-\y-apsmv, \ne-\np ]c-am-sf AwKo-I-cnv, P\tk-h-\-n\pw s]mXp \pw IqSp-X-embn {]hnmw. Ckvemans Xm]cy-n-\mbn {]b-Xv\n-p Aa-hn-Iv IqSp-X Icpp \Imw. `c-W-Iq-Sns sXp-I Xncp-m Bhpwhn[w {ianmw. `c-WIq-S-n-\Ip IS-pIq-Sm kuIcywt]mse ]-Xn-I Bkq-{X-Whpw sNmw.
]mh-sf tkhn-m, an-X-cpsS Ah-Im-iw t\Sn-sm-Sp-m, kmaq-ly-Im-cy-fn h-Xp-sams sNm, Bh-iy-m-cs\ klm-bn-m-, aX-]-c-amb
{]h-\hpw {]t_m-[-\hpw \n-ln-m, kaq-ls kap-cnm, IqSpX Zqjy- Dm-bn-o-cp--Xn-s\-Xnsc {]Xn-tcm[w krjvSn-mCXns\ms thWw `c-W-Iq-S-tmSv Hn-tp \np-I. `c-W-X-e-n D-Xm-\hpw DtZym-Khpw Ae--cn-p--ht Ccw kwK-Xn-I ^e-{]-Z-ambn
sNm-s\m-q.
]WvUn-X-m-cp-sSbpw kmln-Xy-Im-c-m-cp-sSbpw Adn-b-s-Sp--h-cp-sSbpw hmZ-anXmWv: Aen-bpsS hnhw ]cm-P-b-n Iem-in-p-shv \mw Ip Ignp.
P\-hn-cp-hpw ssZh-hn-cp--hp-amb bYm-n-XnI ]nn-cn- i-nIs-Xnsc
]ns hmsf-Sp-Xv lk-\m-Wv. At-l-am-Is apBhn-bp-ambn kn-bntes-Sm \n_n-X-\mbn. Ah-km\w Abm-fpsS KqVm-tem-N-\-bvn-c-bmbn
acWw hcn-p. C\n-bn-tm Bcpv? AXn-\m Hpw sNm \nhr-n-bn-.
Fmw shdp-sX-bm-Wv. C\n Hp am{Xta sNm-\pq! aX-Im-cy--fn {i-sNep-p-I. ssZhoIhnm-\o-b-fpw \oXn-hy-h--Ifpw \nco--W--Kt-hj-W-hn-Nn--\-v hnt[-b-am-p-I. Ah-bpsS hym]-I-amb {]Nm-c--eqsS P\sf D_p--cm-pI. JpB-Iv GsXmw Xc-n-ep imkv{X-k-Xyfpw \nKq-Vm-fpw Hfn-n-cn-pv! AsXms At\z-jnv Is-tXv \psS _m[y-X-bm-Wv.
ssZhnI hnm-\o-b--fpsS Bg--fn-tev Kth-j-W-_p-n-tbmsS Cd-nspI. {]Ir-Xy-XoX XXz-imkv{Xw, Jp-B-\nse B-cn-I-k-Xy-, XXz-,
A, kmln-Xyw, {]Xn-]m-Z-\-co-Xn, Ae-m-cw, cq]w, t{ImVo-I-c-Ww,
Aym-]-\w, lZo-kp-\n-th-Z-\w, Ncn-{Xw, aX-]-cn-h-\w, aX-]-cn-Xym-Kw, ]T-\w,
]cn-io-e-\w, bp-, Ckvem-an-I-\n-b-a-kw-ln-X, hN-\-im-kv{Xw As\
Fsms Imcy--fm-Wv \-apv {in-m\pw Nnn-m-\p-ap-Xv !
aX-hn-m\fpsS Kth-j-W--\n-co--W-tI-{-fpw ]cn-io-e-\ -- {]-N-cW
m\-fpw DSs\ XpS-p-I. AXp-hgn Ckvem-an-s\bpw apkvenw-I-sfbpw tkhnp-I--Nn-m-]-c-ambpw sshm-\n-I-ambpw am{Xw. cm-a-sXmcp hnj-b-nepw
CS-s]-tS-.
alm`pXw Xs Aen(-A)-bpsS ]-p-m-bn-cp _pn-Po-hn-Ipw Atl-ns IpSpw-_-ns]--hpw \_n-Ip-Spw-_-tm-Sv _--aphpw

44

kwK-Xn-I ]I shfn-w-t]mse ]-bm-b-dnbmw. Fn--hcpw linw


IpSpw_hpw Fp thWw F tNmZy-tmSv Hpw-th FmWp {]Xn-I-cnp--Xv. aptm-p GsXmcp Imshbvpw ]cm-P-b-n Iem-in-p-I-tb-bpp-shv Fm-hcpw IW-vIq-p--XmWv Imc-Ww. ssIap-jvSnbpw Ip-ap-\bpw
Xnse abp-ns IY-bm-Wn-Xv. JUvK-]m-Wn-bpsS
ap\zn shdpw
ssItbm-sS-\np-Xv A\p-h-Z-\n-b-a-s-mWv {]am-Ww. A-cp-W-n
GtXmcp a\p-jy-sbpw D-c-hm-ZnXzw Dbv t]mIpw. kzw ssIsImv
X-m ac-W-n-tev FSp-s-dn-b-cp-Xv.58 JpB\ns imk-\-bm-WnXv.
\nw-ibw Ahn-izm-k-n\pw A{I-a-n-\p-amWv AXptImv t\-ap-m-hp-I.
AXv B-l-Xym-]-c-amWv. adnv sskzc-ambn Hcn-S-n-cpv aXm-ym-]-\-nepw
JpB mkp-I-fnepw lZo-kp-\n-th-Z-\-nepw aX-hn-[n-I hymJym-\nv sImSpp--Xnepw ap {]t_m-[-\--kw-kv-cW {]h-\--fnepw {i sNep-p-Ibm-W-n AXt kaq-l-n\p {]tbm-P\w sNpI.
cmP-`-, ip-K-Xn-m, ]WvUn-Xam, _pn-Po-hn-I, kXyw {Kln-p-Ibpw
kmaq-ly--cm-jv{Sob {]iv\--fn kzX-{hpw hy-hp-amb \b- kzoI-cn-pIbpw sNbvXn-cp inbm- t]mepw Hsm-gn-bmsX lnPvd Adp-]-Xm-am-ns
tNmZy-n\v Hcp t]mse-bmWv adp-]Sn ]d-bp-Xv:
Hpw th
Hcm am{Xw, H-s--a-\p-jy am{Xw Fgp-t-p-\np ]d-bpp:
thWw
FmWo thW-sa hmn-\w? B {]-Xn-I-c-W-n\p ]nn kYm
\n-lm-b-X-bm-Wp-Xv. A-Im-c-n\pw aq-I-Xbvpw \Sp-hn Hn-\pw IgnbmsX \np Hcp hrYn-X-am-\-ns ]q Zu_eyw. \njvTq-c-amb GIm[n-]-Xy-n-sbpw a-\-n-sbpw {Iqcap-J-amWp apn. hnizm-k-nsbpw
hnm-\-n-sbpw shfn--n Hcp a\p-jyam{Xw Cu Ccp-n-s\-Xnsc
PnlmZv sNt- Ihyw I-dn-bp-p. B a\p-jy Camw lpssk(-A)BWv. At-l-n-t-XmWv {]kvXp-X-hm-v.
lpssks(A) hmZ-an-Xm-Wv : AsX, \n-lm-b-X-bp-sSbpw I-hy-n-sbpw
temIpw I-hy-ap-v.
At-l-ns ho-W-n PohnXw BZihpw ka-c-hp-amWv.
AXn-\m Poh-\pIme-tmfw BZi-n\pthn bpw-sN--Ww.
Pohn-n-cn-ppshXp sImmWv a\p-jysta _m[yX hp-ho-gp--Xv.
Ignhpw tijn-bp-ap--h-\m-b-Xp-sIm--.
lpssk(-A)sbm henb Pohn-n-cn-p a\p-jy am-cp-v? Pohn-n-cnm Al-Xbpw tbmKy-X-bp-ap--Xmbn lpssk-s\-tmse am-sc-bmWv Ncn-{Xn\v ]cn-N-b-ap-Xv?

45

a\p-jy-\m-hpI, Adnhpw t_m[-hm-\p-am-hpI, kXy-hn-izm-kn-bm-hp-I, Pohn-n-cnp Cu D]m-Zn-I-f-{Xbpw XnI Hcp hynsb Pnlm-Zns _m[yX Hcp
kml-N-cy-nepw hnsm-gn-bp--X-.
lpssk(A)s
kXy-hn-izm-k-m
{]Zo]vXhpw
Znhym-\p-cm-Khpw
Znhy-t{]-ahpw
Bt-jn--e-X-p--Xpw
mt\m_p--X-bm {]Im-inX-hp-amb Hcp hyn-Xz-ns Db amXr-Ibm-Wv. Ignhpw Ihgn-hp-tISpw inbpw Zu_-eyhpw GIm--Xbpw _mlpeyhpw Ihy\n-l-W-ns cq]-nepw am-nepw hyXymkw hcp-psa-t-bp-q. _m[y-X-\n-bnp Xcp ASn-m\LS-I-a AsXm-pw.
bpw sNm D-S-amb Dkp-I-X-bp-v. ]s Bbp-[-sa-hnsS?..........-B-bp[n-an-s-nepw bpw sNt _m[y-X-bp-v. lpssk(A) Xs \nmbIhn[n hopw Bhn-p-p: AsX bpw sNWw. Cu A`n-{]mbw
cm-a-sXm-cmn-.
C-c-samcp kml-N-cy-n {]kvXpX tNmZy-n\v AsX Fp-cw ]dbp GI a\p-jy.
AsX Atlw hopw Bhnp ]d-bp-p. H-s B a-\p-jy!
aZo-\-hnv, kzw hoSv hnv ]pd-p-h-cp-p. a-bn-se-pp. lp-th-f-bn,
P\-fpsS Bm\ `h-\-amb IA-_-bpsS aSn-bn\npsImv adp-]Sn ]d-bpp:
AsX
a-bn \nv lv I- apgp-h-\m-msX AXn thKw ]pd-s-Sp-p. ImeL--n\p t_m[y-s-Sp-n-sm-Sp-m F-s\ F-v.

]{v
{]hm-N-Is hntbm-Km-\-cw AXv hjw ]nn-p. CXv lnPvdm_vZw Adp-]-XmWv. Fmw \jvS-s-n-cn-p-p. Aen, lk, A_q-Zdv, Am Fmw t]mbn-gn-p. cmw Xe-ap-d-bn-em-Is lpPvdpw Iqp-Imcpw Iq-tmsS sIme-sN-sp.
AXp-I-gnp Igp-acw s]mfn-p-\o-n, cw Igp-In--fp.
_pnbpw BZi-hp-sams ss\cm-iy-n-em-Wv. A-Imcw, A[x-]-X\w, hn\miw, `bw, aqIX Fn-h- A-hsb s]mXn-n-cn--bm-Wv. k{X Ccpv!
A_q lpssd-d, A_q aqk, ipssd-lv,59 A_pZm Fn-h-sc-tmse Ckveman-Ihn--h-ns \-Im-ev Dz-e-ambn tim`n-n-cp alXv hyn-Xz- ]ecpw
A{I-a-nsbpw {Iqc-X-bp-sSbpw aen\ lkv-X- ]nSnv {]Xn sNb-Xn-cnp-I-bm-Wv. hb-dp-I XSnp hop. ]pWy-bp--mbn D]-tbm-Kn-n-cp
_en-jvT-l-kvX--fnv Bcm-m-c-m-cpsS ssIIsf lkvX-Zm\w sNp-Ibpw
sIme-bm-fn-Isf sIn-n-Sn-p-Ibpw sNp-p. A]-am-\n-Xcpw \oN-cp-amb bkoZn\p Nppw IqSn-bn-cn-p-I-bmWv ]e- {]-ap-J-cpw. Jpdm-km apX Uam-kvIv
hsc NpI JUvK- kpc-n-Xz-ns XW ]mIn-bn-cn-p-p. hn-h-Im-cnI NmWnepw apg-new ]cm-Pn-X-cmbn hoWpIn-S-p- -Im-gvN-bmWp Nppw.

46

h\ AwKo-Imcw t\Sn. c-th-W-sa-n cwKw- hn-SWw. cmPy-sam-ppw


ss\cm-iy-ns `oI-c-hm-gv-N-.................acWw tImcnsmcnbpIbm-Wv. ]ip-Im-n]-RvPc-p-n hop-I InSp appIbmWv.
ih--d-nse aqIX.
aqI-fpsS aqf- t]mepw tISm-\n-.
thZ\ kln-p--h hnem-]-tcm-[\
sXmbn AS-n-sh-n-cn-p-I-bmWv
sshcm-Kyhpw hntZz-j-hpw Xnf-p-a-dn-bp--hcpw
XWp-p-d-p-t]m-bn.anmw apn-tm-bn.
Hcn- BImiw CSn-p-X-Im
Icp-tmsS Npcp-n-n-Sn apjvSn-I
CnXm Xpdp InS-pp!
A]-am-\hpw \ny-X-bp-amWv
ChnjvSw!
\mcn-am-cpsS Dw-ssI-I-Ws
Ipg-vInS-pp Ah!
]n-m-cs Xfn-I-t]mse
aes Xpdv InS-pp!
P\-hmkapv, ]s,
ih--d-\zp-t]mse \nivN-ehpw
`oI-c-hp-am-Wn-hnsS
Igp-a-c- FSpp amn
cw IgpIn hrn-bm-n-bn-cn-p-p.
^e-Zm-b-I--fmb Iq Xcp-\n-c-I thn-Sv
]ppw ]mgvs-Sn-Ifpw
hnf-bp-I-bm-Wv.
Fn\o Zp_eam _mn-bmbn
F-Xn-emWajw!60
Imew Imn-cn-p-p: Hscm hyn-sb. GXpw Ghcpw Hcm-sf-bmWv Imp-I-gnbp--Xv. AkvX-{]m-b-amb PohnX aqey--fpsS \nZi-\-amb hyn-Xzs. Bcmcp-an-m-sX, Fm-hcpw ssIsbm-gn XXz--fpsS kmm-XvIm-chpw Ah-bpsS
Pohn-p aqo-a`m-h-hp-amb Hcp hyn-Xzs. Imhmcpw kwc-Icpw Cs-dnp i{Xp-tk-h-n-d-n-tmb-Xn\m A\m-Y-am-bn-o hnizm-kkw-ln-X-bpsS Xnf-p {]Xn-`m-k-ambn {]Xy--s-Sp Hcp hyn-Xzs.
B A]q hyXvInXzw Fm-Wp-sN-m t]mIp--sXv Dp-t\m-p-I-bm-Wv--Imew.
Nne-tm C-s\bpw kw`-hn- Ncn-{X-ns kz`m-h-ns]-Xm-bn-cnmw.
lnPvdm_vZw Adp-]-XmWv. kzmX-{y-n-sbpw \oXn-bp-sSbpw m]-I-\mb P\-fpsS {]hm-N-I Znhnw-K-X-\m-bnp sImmw AXp XnI-p. B hn--h-ns
^e- Hsm-mbn hgp-Xn-tm-bn. lXm-i-cmWv P-\-. Ah-cpsS hnizm-k-hpw.
Ckvem-ans DZ-b-tmsS AkvX-an-p-t]mb Zpjv{]-`pXzw hopw Dbs-gp-tp
Ign Cu Ccp bpK-nepw A[n-Imcin-bpsS thjw `n-bptSbpw ]cn-ipn-bp-tS-Xp-am-Wv. [\-{]-a--Xbp-sSbpw `c-Wm-[n-Im-c-nsbpw lpv Ah-km-\nnv Xm-\v ka-Xz-t_m-[hpw kzmX-{y-Nn-bp-amWv Ckvemw a\p-jy-a-\-pI-fn \p-]n-Sn-n-Xv. AsXmw DW-n-tmbn. Ckvem-ans k-eu-InIam-\p-

47

jnIhn-hs tZi-`n hngp-n-bn-cn-p-p. kXy-k-XbpsS thZ ]pkvXIw


h-\-bpsS IpnemWv Xpf-p-I-b-dn-bn-cn-p-Xv. ]n-an-\m-c--fnse
IWvT--fn \nv ImXnh--e-bvp-Xv inns _msm-en-I-fmWv.
kmancn61bpsS kzW-v Xulo-Zns ap{I-bn-Sp-p. \wdqZv 62 C{_m-lo-ans
Ipm-b-a-Wn-p. ssZh-Zq-Xs Xe-mhv kok-dpsS Xe-bn-emWv. ]pWy-bp---fnep-]-tbm-Kn hmfp-I Bcm-m-cp-am-cpsS ssII-fn-emWv Xnf-p-Xv. Cuam
Ip^vdns acp-p-]o-Sn-Ibnse ab-p-a-cp-mWv. apkvenw tbmm--fpsS {]b-Xv\ aSn-p. I]-Sam-cpsS apn JP-\m-hp-I aes Xpd--s-p.
PnlmZv Fm Iq-sm-e, kmv sIm-b-Sn, \a-kvImcw h\, Xulo-ZmIs inns apJw-aq-Sn, Ckvem-sa-m P\-sf ]nSn-p-sI-m-\p N-e,
{]hm-N-I-Ncy `c-WIqS-n\p \ne-\nm-\p GWn, Jp-B Pmln-en--ns
{]I-S-\w, \_nh-N-\- h-\p thn am{Xw. JUv-K- Igp-n\pt\sc
Hmn-\np-p. ]gb ASn-a--ns Xncn-p-h-chv! kzmX-{yw-F-s-t-pambn N-e-bvn-S-s-p. Nn-I Pbn-e-d-I-Iv \n_vZw Ign-bp-I-bmWv.
P\--sfmw Iog-S-n--gn-p. ]ucp-j-ap--h-scms _\--cmbn. Ipdp-m cwKp kPo-h-ambn. sNm-bv Iqn-\-Ip Xo-sIm-Spp hfsSpp. \mhp-I kzw sImSp-p-hm-p-p. AX-s-n _emmcw
Xpn-qpp. AXp-a-s-n Acnp hogv-s-Sp-p.
hnizm-khpw BZi-k-a-chpw aptJ\ alm-m-cm-bn-o-cp-Ibpw CkvemanI hn-hns D-X-m\w Ic--am-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp ]ecpw hfsc Xp-amb hnebvmWv Ah-\-hs Apw A`n-am-\-hp-sam-s-hnp-Xv; \nm-c-amb
KhW]-Z-hnpw apw ]I-c-am-bn. AX-s-n D-c-hm-Zn--n\nv Igpqcn cwKwhntm-Sp-Ibpw hn-h-km-l-k-n- \nsm-gn-p-amdn Bcm-[-\m-e-b-fpsS sskzcyhpw kpc-n-Xhpw ]cn-ip--hp-amb aqe-I-fn-tev c-s-Sp-I-bm-Wh. Ip^vdn\v Iog-S-p-Ibpw B{I-a-n-s\-Xnsc \n-_vZX ]men-p-I-bp-amWv;
Btcm-Ky-n\pw am\y-Xpw tISp-]-m-Xn-cn-m thn. [ocam-cmb BZi-imen-I-fm-I-s, d_vZm-a-Wm-Sp-I-fntem AZvdm ]pta-Sp-I-fntem shv Ime-b-h-\n-Ibvp-n-tev X-s-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
Ctm Zo\pw Zp\n-bmhpw A{I-a-n-sbpw Ahn-izm-k-n-sbpw Xmf-n-s\mmWv Xpp--Xv. hmfp-I s]mn-tm-bn. ]nc-Sn-I tOZn--s-p. Igp-acw FSpp-amn; cw Igp-In-p-Sp. hn-h-ns Xcw-K-, {]Xn-tj-[-ns
Bt{Im-i-, [nm-c-ns XoPzm-e-I- Fmw sI-Sn. Ae-X-n-bn-cp- -Bth-i-fpw AS-n-bn-cn-m Dkm-l--fp-samw Ben--gw-t]m-se-bm-bn. ckm-n-I-fpsS ih-Ip-So-c-fpw Pohn-n-cn-p--h-cpsS ivaim-\-aq-I-amb {]tZ-i-fnepw Hcp-t]se `oI-chpw Icm-f-hp-am-b-Im-f-cm-{Xn- IpSnmp-I-bm-Wv. apdn-phoW hnizm-k-n-sbpw CSnps]m-fn-- {]-Xym-i-bp-sSbpw ac-hn-- ta-J-e-Ifn Hcp aqbpsS i_vZw t]mepw tIm-Xmbn.
]pXnb Pmln-en-Xv ]g-b-Xn-t\-m Ccp-Xpw \njvTq-chpw {Iqc-hp-am-Wv. apt-m ]Xn--Sv DWpw Dincpap-Xm-Wv ]pXnb i{Xp. tPXmhpw X{-imenbpw A\p-`h]cn-m-\hpw _pn-am-m-cpsS FkwJybpw CkvemanIhn-hns BZy-Im-es At]-nv hfsc Cc-n-I-fp---Xpam-Wv. AXn-\m GXp
hn-h-n-sbpw Ayw ]cm-Pbw; acWw. adnp {]Xo-n-p-Itb th.

48

]Xn-aqv
..........-s]-s-v, `b--c-amb Iqcn-cp-n-\n-S-bn {]Xo--bpsS Hcp {]`m-In-cWw...........-`oI-c-amb \n-_v[-X-bvn-S-bn Hcp `RvP\w.....................-Hcp c-kmn `qap-J-pIqSn \S-p-t]m-Ip-p. A-Im-c-ns AKm-[-X-bn \nv, hn\m-i-ns aWnap-g--n-S-bn, ss\cm-iy-ns Ib--fn\nv {]Xo-bpsS DPzehpw
i-hp-amb Hcp apJw {]Xy--s-Sp-p.
^mXzna(A)bpsS hnjm-Z-aq-I-amb `h-\-n \nv ap-gp-h Ncn-{X-t-mfpw
al-Xz-ta-dnb B sImp IpSn-en \nv H-cm shfn-s-Spp hnj--\mbn; ZrV\n--b-tmsS; {Iqc-X-bp-sSbpw A{I-a-n-sbpw apgp-h tIm-Ip-sa-Xnsc
H-p-s]m-cp-Xm am{Xw a\:in-tbmsS; ctWmkp-I-\mbn; Xnf-p-a-dn-bp
An-]w Dn-sem-Xpn shn-p ae-bpsS sImSp-ap-Sn-t]m-se..........BZv P-\-Xs-Xnsc ssZh-a-b Ae-dn-h-cp sImSp-mp t]mse...............
C-c-samcp a\p-jy ^mXznam(A)bpsS Krl-n\nv ]pd-p-h-cpp.
Atlw Npp-]mSpw I-b-bvpp; aZo-\sb hon-p-p; {]hm-N-Is(k)
]n-bpsS t\sc ZrjvSn- ]m-bn-pp; ssZh-Zq-X-\mb C{_m-ln-an(-A)s am-]Ww {in-pp; \nwdq-Zns ssIbn-e-I-s C{_-ln-an(-A) s IA_, Cmw,
apl--Zob kt-iw, Uam-kv-knse lcn-X-sIm-mcw, hni-p-s]m-cn-bp hb-dpI, ASn-a---e-I-fn sIp-]n-W a\p-jy CsXmw B a\p-jys
Ins-Sp-p
.
^mXzn-a(-A)-bpsS Krl-n\nv Hcp a\p-jy ]pd-p-h-cp-p. apgp-h D-c-hmZn-Xz--fp-sSbpw `mcw At-l-ns kvI--fn-em-Wv. am\-h-cm-in-bpsS Fm-bmX-\-I-fp-sSbpw A\-cm-h-Im-in-bm-W-t-lw. BZ-an(-A)s, C{_m-lo-an(-A)s,
apl-Zv \_n(-k)-bpsSPo-hn-n-cn-p GI A\--cm-h-Imin. H-s B a\pjy! A, Hcp h\n-Xm-cXv\hpw IqSn ^mXzn-a(-A)-bpsS Krl-n \nv Fgptp hcp-p. B a\p-jys\ ImeSn tXmdpw A\p-K-an-p-p. ktlm-Z-cs Xmm\m-hm NpaSv ]IpXn hmn Xs Npa-en hln-pp.
Hcp a\p-jy ^mXzn-a(-A)bpsS Krl-n\p ]pd-p-h-cpp. GI, iq\y-l-kvX,
H-s XSn...........-C-cp-ns\, `oI-c-Xsb, JUvIs t\cn-Sm hcpp. Chsb
apgph\pw t\cn-Sm At-l-ns ssIbn BsI-qSn Htc-sbmcp Bbp-[-am-WpXv: ac-Ww.............-]s Atlw Pohn-X-ns ]mT-im-e-bn shv acWsa
at\m-lc Ie Ghpw \mbn A`y-kn IpSpw-_-n ]nd k-Xn-bm-Wv.
F-s\-bmWp acn-t--sXp At-l-s-tmse De-I-n ampw Adn-bn. temIw `cn-p At-l-ns FXn-cm-fnp ]s CX-dn-bn-. i{Xp-hns
ssk\n-I-_-ehpw Bbp-[-_-ehpw Adn-bm-am-bn-cp-npw ]q-amb B-hn-izm-ktmSpw at\m-ZmVy-tmSpw aptm-m-bm Cu GI-\mb lotdmhn\p km[nXpw AXp sImpXs-bm-Wv. bmsXmcp ibpw IqSmsX Atlw ]mZ-
aptmp Nen-n-p-p.
ilm-Z-ns alm-\mb BNm-cy-\nXm Fgp-t-n-cn-p-p. inbpw km[y-X-bp-apfftmtg PnlmZv _m[y-X-bp-q-shv [cn-p-sh-n-p--h-scbpw Iog-S-epw
PbnSepw am{X-amWv i{Xp-hn-s\-Xnsc hnP-b-sap a\-n-em-n-bnp-ffh-scbpw
Atlw ]Tn-n-m t]mhp-I-bm-Wv ilm-Zv Hcp \jvS---h-S-a, AsXmcp
kzbw hc-amWv Fv. kzmX-{y-am-Ip t{X-ns In-e--Sn-bn kzbw
kan-p-I-bm-Wv Hcp tbmmhv AXp hgn sNp--Xv. Aeu-In-I-amb A\p-cm-K-

49

n-sbpw XpSp hnP-b--fp-sSbpw Am-c-bn kzbw _en-bn-p-Ibm-W-bm.


lpssk(-A) a\pjyav Pw \Inb BZ-an(A)s A\--cm-h-Imin,
am\-h-cm-inv PohnXw ]Tn-n {]hm-N-Iam-cpsS ]n\vKm-anCtm cwKp hncn-p-I-bm-Wv; a\p-jy-hK-n\v Fs\ acn--W-sav ]Tn-npsImSp-m
thn.
Dq-n-IX-nep-ckn acn-p-Xv XmW-Xcw a\p-jy-cpsS `mKy-tZm-j-ns AS-bmf-amWv. Pohn-m thn Fm am\-t-Sp-Ifpw A-c-m kln-p-p.
ckmyw sXc-s-Sp-m ss[cy-s-Smhs\ acWw sXc-s-Sp-pp.

]Xn-\mev
c-km-n-sbp ]cn-`m-j-s-Sp-m-dp iloZv F ]Zw hfsc A-apXpw Rm\p-t-in-p Bi-b--f-{Xbpw Dsm-m ]cym-]vX-hp-am-Wv. knln-X, kmyw hln-p--h, sXfnhv Fsm-s-bmWv AXns `mjmw.
hniz-kvX, kXy-k--ambn hnhcw \Ip--h, m\n, C{nb tKmN-c-am-b-Xv,
A\p-`-hn--dn-bm-hp-Xv Fo A-fpw B hmn-\p-v. IqSmsX {itb-amb
hyn-Xzw, amXr-I, DZm-l-c-Ww, ZrjvSmw Fn--s\bpw {]kvXpX Ad_n ]Zn\v Aw In-m-dp-v.
ilm-Z-v--D-bns-gp-tv kmyw hln-p-I--A-ln-X-sa-nepw ASn-tn-s-Sp-Xpw c-a-bhpw bmZr-n-I-hp-amb Hcp AXym-ln-X-am-b \psS aXhpw
kwkvIm-chpw AXns\ ImWp--Xv. henb henb cW-iq-c-mcpw ss[cy-im-en-Ifpw
bmZr-bm i{X-p-hns ssIbm sIm-s-SpI FmWv CXcaX-m-cp-sSbpw P\hn-`m-K--fp-sSbpw CS-bn c-km-n-Xz-s-p-dn-p kw. ZpxJ-I-c-amb
Hcp AXym-ln-X-ambpw I\ \jvS-ambpw Ah-c-Xns\ ImW-m-p-p.
\psS kwkvIm-c-ns `mj-bn i{Xp Gn-p Poh-lm\nb ilm-Zv;
XnI t_m[-tmSpw Dn Xnb A`n-em-j-tmSpw XXz-im-kv{X-]-c-amb
Dm-gvN-tbmSpw IqSnb Hcp tbmmhv sXc-s-Sp-p-Xpw kzbw hcn-p--Xpamb ac-W-am-W-Xv. c-km-n-Xz-ns DPze {]Xo-I-amb Biq-dm-{]-m\w shdpsamcp Ic-n {]km-Ym-\-ambn hgn sXn--s-n-cn-p--Xv Fsmcp Zu`mKyw!
bmsXmpw Nnn-pItbm {Kln-p-Itbm a\-n-em-p-Itbm sNmsX \matXmv Ic-bp-I-bm-Wn-v.
Biq-dm-bpsS Ghpw DPz-e-amb hiw CkvemanI Ncn-{X-n- AXv sNe-pnb
cmjv{So-bhpw kmaq-ln-Ihpw _pn-]-c-hp-amb kao-]-\-am-W-v. Fm tJZ-I-c-sav
]d-bs, C-Xns G-hp-tasd Xa-kvI-cn--s-n-p hihpw AXp-X-s. B
kzm[o-\spdnv Ipdtm IqSp-Xtem ]cn-tim-[n-n-p ]WvUn-X-m-cm-Is,
AXns\ inbm Ncn-{X-ns `mK-am-n- Np-cp-p-Ibpw inbm- t\Snb kmaqly
hnh]cn-h\fpsS DZm-l-c-W-am-sb-p-I-bm-Wv sNbvXXv. hmkvX-h-n
Ckvemans Ign ]Xn\mev \qm-v Imes kmaqly cmjv{Sob Ncn-{X-ntev ]Xn in-tb-dnb Hcp {]l-c-am-bn-cpp Biq-d. `c-W-h-ns
ZpapJw AXns BZihpw ap{Zm-hm-Iyhpw thj-`q-j-Ifpw {]iv\-am-msX
Ckvem-anI kaq-l-ns apmsI AXv Xpd-p-Im-n. hnizm-khpw kZm-Nm-c-t_m-[hp-ap CkvemanIhyn-Xz-fpw ]WvUn-X-mcpw `c-W-Iq-S--tfmSv X-Sp-ap-m-bn-tm-Ip--Xn-s\-Xn-cn Pm{K-X-]m-en-p Hc-h--kw-Pm-X-amn AXv. B
`c-W-Iq-S- Ckvemans te_-en Adn-b-s--Xp-sImtm `c-Wm-[n-Imcn {]hmN-I-s(k)
D-cm-[n-Imcn(J-eo-^-pdkq)-bmbn
]cn-N-s-Sp-p-Ibpw

50

ln\pw Pnlm-Zn\pw t]mhp-Ibpw sNbvXXp sImtm Hpw Ah Ah-bp-am-bSp-m Iqm-n-bn. ]WvUn-X-mcpw ^Jo-lp-I-fp-a-S-p Acw hyn-Xz Jeo^sb \nb-am-\p-krX `c-Wm-[n-Imcn-bmbn AwLo-I-cn-p kpo
hn`m-K-ns-h-cm-bn-pw CXp kw`-hn-p. Jnem-^-sv kzbw hnfn-p-Xps-sS-bp kIe Khsap-I-fpsSbpw s\n--S-n lpssk(A) ]Xnn Atbm-KyXm ]{Xw a\-qtam Am-sXtbm hmbn-m am{Xw apkvenw kaql--fpsS lnX-sbpw a\-m-n-sbbpw kZm-Nmct_m[sbpw Ncn{X-n
AKm-[-ambn kzm[o\n Hcp in-tb-dnb {]l-c-am-bn-cpp Biqdm F-Xn-\m-embn-cpp CXv. Cu Atbm-KyXm ap{Z Khsasn\pw P\-X-bvp-an-S-bn {[pho-I-cW-ap-m-nb `c-W-hK--fpsS h-\m-]-c-amb cmjv{Sob ASn--dsb A]-I-Ss-Sp-p-I-am-{X-a sNbvX-Xv. AsXmcp sNdpp\nns A\u-tZym-InI ]mc-cy-n\v XpSw Ipdn-pI IqSn-sN-bvXp. P\--fpsS kmaqly ]mc--cyambnop ]no-SXv.
inbm-, Ah-cpsS Cam-ap-I, t\Xm- Fn-h-cp-sSbpw hnp-\nv {]kn-amWv. Fm CkvemanI Ncn-{X-n-\p-ta c-km-y-n\v F{X-tmfw
kzm[o\w sNep-m-\mbn Fv ImWnp Xcp--XmWv Aa-hn, Amkn hwi-hmgvN-I-fpsS t\sc kpn Cam-ap-I ssIsIm hnp-ho-gvN-bn-m FXn \ne-]m-Sv.
Jnem-^v `c-W-ns ]np-Wbpw BZ-chpw al-Xz-h--c-Whpw Ah A\p-`hn-n-cp-p. Fn-p-IqSn AXn-t\m-Sp Ah-cpsS \ne-]mSv hncp--am-bn-cp-p. inbm
Cam-apIm-I-s,- kzm-X-{yhpw kzm[o-\hpw Ah-k-c-fpw \ntj-[n--s-Sp-IbmWv sNbvXn-cp--Xv.64
Aahn Ime-L--ns HSp-hn CdmJv KhWm-bn-cp C_p\p lpss_d kpnI-fpsS Ghpw henb Cam-am-b(-C-p AAvfw) A_p-l-\o-^sb (ln.150 acWw) PUvPn-bpsS ]Zhn kzoI-cn-m Wn-p. At-l-aXv in-bmbn \nc-kn-pI-bmWv sNbvX-Xv. A_p-l-\o^ aX-]-c-ambpw sshm-\n-I-ambpw D-X-m-\n-b\m-bn-cp-npw: C_p\p lpss_d CXns t]cn At-ls ITn-\-ambn {]l-cnp-Ibpw ]oUn-n-Ip-Ibpw sNbvXp. ]noSv Am-kn-I A[n-Im-c-n-te-dnb
tijw akq A_p-l-\o-^sb CkvemanI km{am-Py-ns No^v P-nk-Im
Wn-p. ]s A_p-l-\o-^ k-Xn-n-. XpSv akq At-ls Imcm-Krl-n-e-S-p. AXn-\p-n InSv Atlw Ay-izmkw hen-p.
amenIv aZvl-_ns Cam-amb amen-In_v\p A\-kn\v Camw-P-A-^ kmZn-Jn-\n-m
m\w Jeo-^-bp-sS-b-Sp-p-m-bn-cpp. Fm `c-W-Iq-S-tmSv {]Xn-tj-[n-Xns t]cn Bpw P\-sf _emmcw `cn-p-IqSm Fv ]d--Xns
t]cn aZo\ KhW PA-^-dp_v\p apl-Zv At-ls N-n-sIm-Sn-p. I-imkv{X hnim-c-Z\pw Camw im^n-bpsS injy-\p-am-bn-cp Camw _psshn
_KvZm-Znse XS-h-d-bn InS-mWv acn--Xv. asmcp {]kn Ia-imkv{X ]WvVn-X\mb k-in Pbn-en shmWv Xs {]ikvX {K-amb Aa-_vkqv cNn-Xv. C_v\p- ssX-anbpw66 C_v\p-J-napw Uam-kv-knse ssk\nI _wm-hn
XS-hn-em--s-Sp-I-bp-m-bn. C_v\p ssXan AXn-\p-n InSv acn-p.
A_p-l-\o-^tbbpw
Jmfn
A_p-ap-o-C-t\bpw
thsdmcp
\nb-a-imkv{X
]WvUnXt\bpw IqSn Am-kn-b-J-eo-^-am-cn-sem-cm PUvPnam-cmbn \nb-an-m
thn sImm-c-n-tev hnfn-n-p. aqp-t]cpw B m\w kzoI-cn-m Iqm-nbn-. Jeo^ sImp-sav `oj-Wn-s-Sp-n-b-tm A_p-apo Xmew hmv
aqfn-sb-nepw Gsd Xma-kn-bmsX Atlw \mSphnvv Hfn-hn t]mhp-I-bmWvv
sNbvX-Xv.

51

l-en-I-fsS t\Xmhv Camw Alva-Zp-_v\p-l--en-t\mSv Jeo^ hmknJv Jp-B


krjvSn-bmsW hmZs ]nXp-W-m-\m-h-iy--p.- ]s Al-aZv hnk--Xn-p.
X^-e-ambn ISp ]oU-\-n-\n-c-bm--sSp-Ibpw
Imcm-{K-l-n-e-S--s-SpIbpw sNbvXp Atlw.
kaq-l-ns Xmsg Xn t]mepw `c-W-Iq-S-n-s\-Xn-cn \ne-\n-n-cp
cmjv{Sob sshc-sbpw P\-Iob sNdpv \nn-t\bpw ImWn-p Hcp IY
Ggmw \qm-n ^fm-bnse _Jn \nv Rm\nhnsS D-cn-mw.
Al-aZv_v\p l-ens ]p{X kmenlv henb `-\m-bn-cp-p. cm{Xn apgp-h \akvIm-chpw ]I t\mp-am-bn-cn-pw At-l-n-s\pw. Hcp hjw Ckv^-lm\nse PUvPnbm-bn-cpp Atlw. cm-I t`Z-at\y Xs IrXy\n-l-W-n
apgp-In-bm-bn-cpp At-l-ns ]Xn-hv. A-cm-{Xnbnepw Bfp-Iv {]iv\-fp-ambn At-l-n-\-Sp-tv ISv sNm-am-bn-cp-p. hmXn-em-W-tlw InSp-d-n-bXv; Bh-iy-ap--tm P\-v Xs In-W-sa-- \n_-apXpsIm-v.
Hcp Znhkw Camw Alva-Zns hop-Im sdmn ]mIw sNbvXp. CXn-\p Inw
FhnsS \nv Inn? Camw tNmZn-p.
A-bpsS ]p{X kzmen-lns AhnsS \nv sImp-h--XmWv. hop-Im adp]Sn ]d-p. Ah Ckv^-lm-\n PUvPn-bm-bn-cp-n-nt Hcp sImmew!
CXpw ]dv Camw Xs apnsh sdmn-m{Xw \on-sh-p. Atlw
AXn\n-w t]mepw Xnm Iqm-n-bn. h-`n--mpw sImSp-t-pI. ]s, CXp-m-m-\p-]-tbm-Kn Inw Hcp sImw Ckv^-lm-\n PUvPn-bmbn-cp kmen-lns-hnsS \nv Inn-b-XmWv Fv ]d-p-sImp Xs sImSp-Ww, ad--cpXv. Camw hop-Im-tcmSv \nt-in-p. As\ B sdmn \mXp
Znhkw AhnsS InS-p-hs{X. Hcp `n-m-ct]mepw AXv kzoI-cn-p-I-bp-m-bn. HSp-hn hen-s-dn-tbn hp.
Xon. B sdmn Fp sNbvXp-shv Camw AlvaZv honse the-m-tcm-S-t\zjn-p. R-fXv ssS{Ko-kn-se-dn-p. Ah adp-]Sn ]d-p. AXn\p tijw acnp--Xp-hsc Camw AlvaZv ssS{Knkv \Zn-bn \np-]n-Sn akyw Xnn-n--s{X.69
Ckvem-ans, hninjym iobn-k-ns Ncn{Xn F{X AKm-[-amWv Imcy-sfms! Fm IjvSw, Biq-dm-tbm-Spw c-km-y-{]-m-\-tm-Sp-ap
\psS _m[yX Ic-bepw Ic-bn-n-epw, Npcp-n-bXv Ic-bp--Xmbn A`n\-bn-pI-sb-nepw sN-ep-am-sW-mWv \psS hnNmcw. Bg-n Nnn-t Hcp
{]iv\-an-Xm-Wv. Hcp hiv CkvemanIJnem-^-ns aX-`-c-W-IqSw. adp-h-iv
Jnem-^-ns\ \nb-am-\p-krX `c-W-Iq-S-ambn IW-m-p alm-m-cmb kpo
Cam-ap-Ifpw bYm-kpo Nnm-k-c-Wn-I-fpsS m]-I-mcpw BNm-cy-m-cp-amb
]WvUn-X-mcpw. Fn-pw sNdp-p-\nn\pw Khsav hncp {[pho-I-c-Wn\pw Imc-W-ap-m-hp-p. Zmcn-{Zhpw AXbpw \nanw GsXmcp kaq-lnepw am\-hn-I-Kp-W- \jvS-sv hnizm-k-n-sbpw aqey--fp-sS-bpw, {]Xn-IcWw, sNdp-p-\nv Fn-h-bp-sSbpw {]iv\-v Aw ImWm-Xm-bn-ocp kmaq-ly-hn-`m-K-tmepw ChnsS sNdp-p-\nn ]ptNcpp. hnip bmN-I B sdmn-sb-Sp-n FmWv \mw hmbn-p-Xv. AXn tN
Inw Camw AlvaZv_v\p l-ens ]p{X kmen-lns hon\np sImph-

52

-Xm-sW-XmWp- ImcWw. kmen-lm-Is


- , `-\m-Wp-Xm\pw. AsX, kzmenlv
`X-s. ]s, Khsav ifw ]n Hcp hj-mew PUvPn-bm-bn-pv
Atlw. As hyh-n-Xnbn PUvPn-m\w hlnp Innb i-f-n
\nsmcp Nnn-sb-nepw sdmn-bn tN-Inw hmm Nne-hm-nb kwJybn tNn-cn-m-sa--Xn-\m AXv hen-s-dn ssS{Kokv \Zn-bn \np ]nSn
akyw tijn Pohn-X-n-sem-cn-epw Xnp-n Bcv? kpo Cam-amb
AlvaZv_v\p-l-!
Xe-\m-cng Iodn Ah-cpsS imkv{Xob ]cn-tim-[-\-bpsS Bbp-[hpw ]nSnv tNmZntmw: Cu IY bYm-n kw`-hn--Xm-sW--Xn\v FmWv sXfnhv?
kw`hw bYm-amtWm At F-Xn-t\-msfmw D]-cn-bmb Hcp kw`hw CXnepv FmWv Rm\-h-tcmSv ]d-bp-Xv. Rm\n-tm Ncn-{X-im-kv{X-s-p-dn-
{]`-jWw \S-p--Xv. AXn-em-Wtm Ah ]d-bp Ncn{Xw hcp-Xv. Hcp Ncn{X-{]-iv\s cmjv{So-bhpw kmaqlyimkv{X-]-c-hp-ambn ]cn-tim-[n-p-I-bmWv
Rm sNp--Xv. hy-am-bn--d-m, BiqdmbpsS hn-h-kzm-[o-\-ns
^e-ambn c-kmy {]m\w Ckvem-anI Ncn-{X-n, hninjym kpo
apkvenw kaq-l-n P\-v Jnem-^v `c-W--tfm-Sp _s _pn-]c-ambpw cmjv{So-b-ambpw F{X-tmfw km[o-\n-p-sh-mWv \mw Nqn-m-p--Xv.
aX-t_m-[-ap _lp-P-\-fpw Adn-b-s-Sp aX-Iob hy-nXz-fpw B aX-`-c-WIq-S--fpsS ASn-m-\s Fs\ hne-bn-cp-n-sbv t\mp-Ibpw IqSn sNpp AtXm-sSmw. Cu ]m--e-n Cu IY hkvXp-Xm-]-c-ambn ic-nb-s-n
IqSn AsXmcp kXyw Dsm-p-pv. AXn-\m, IY bYmn kw`-hn-Xm-sW-n khn-ti-j-amb Hcm-Zit_m-[s ImWn-p Hc-]q kw`hw
XsbmWXv. kw`-hn--sX-s-n-ep-am-h-s, s]mXphmb Hcp kXys {]Xo-Ih-cn-p-p--Xv. P\--fpsS Iqmb hnImc ssNX-\y-fpw kaq-l-a-\-m-nbp-amWv Ccw IY-I-fn-eqsS {]Xn-^-enp ImWp--Xv.
inbpw kz[o-\-hp-ap-m-bn-cp Cu Jeo-^-amAXv X Jpssd-in-I-fm-b-Xn\m X-fmWv Ad-_n-I-fn AXyp--X hwi-P Fv Nnn-n-cp Aa-hn-I-fmhs, _\q-lm-in-an-I-fmb X {]hm-N-Is IpSpw-_-am-sWv Nnn-n-cp
Am-kn-I-fm-hsA-d-_n-Ipw apkvenwIpw al-mb hnP-b- t\Snsm-Sp-p-Ibpw Ah-cpsS cmPyw hnkvXr-X-am-n-sm-Sp-p-Ibpw sNbvX tPXmIq-Sn-bm-bn-cp-p. cmPy-n\v inbpw kpw {]Xm-]-hp-ap-m-n-sm-Sp-h-cp-am-W-h. CsX-m-am-bnpw aX-t_m-[-ap P\--fpsS In, hninjym ssZh`-nbpw Adnhpw hnizm-khpw al-Xz-ns am\-Z-WvU-ambn kzoI-cn apkvenw
hnZztI-{--fn Ah shdp---Sp-Ibpw Bt-]n--s-Sp-I-bp-am-Wv. FpsImv Ckvemans Jeo-^-am-cp-sSbpw Aao-dpapao-\o amcp-sSbpw sImm-ck-Z-ky, Bcmmam, hn-Zq-j-Iam, tPmyam,- kvXpXn]mT-I, A--]p-cnse \]pw-k-I, Xpn ASn-a-I, ASna a\:kvYnm-cmb t]jy Bcn-tm{Im-ddp-I, \m-Sy-m Fn-h-sc-tm-se-bp--h a{X-ambn? kpn-I-fmb ]WvUnX-m-scbpw \nb-a-imkv{X hnim-Z-cam-scbpw lZo-kv\n-th-Z-I-scbpw Jnem-^-v`-cW-Iq-S- HutZym-Kn-I-ambn ]np-W-n-cp-p. Ahsc A\uHu-tZym-KnI ]WvUnXamcpw _pn-Po-hn-Ifpw B[n-Im-cnI \nb-a-am-cp-sam-s-bm-m {ian-pIbpw sNbvXn-cp-p. `cW-Iq-S-tmSv ASn-m\ hntbm-Pnpw hn-pho-gvN-bn-m
AXr-]vXn-bp-ap-m-bn-cp Alv-ep-ss_-n-sbpw inbm hn-h-{]-m-\-nsbpw \ne-]m-Sns\ _e-lo-\-am-p-I-sb DtZy-iy-am-bn-cpp AXns ]nn
Ahp-m-bn-cp--Xv. Fm inbm-fpw Ah-cpsS t\Xm-fpw t]ms, Cu
kpn ]WvVn-XamXs Gdnbpw Ipd-p-ap P\-]n-p-W-tbmsS Khsavhncp \ne-]m-sS-Sp-p-IbpamWv sNbvXXv. Ckveman auen-I-X-Xz--tfmSpw ssNX\y-tmSpw s]mXp-hmb KXn-tbmSpw Iqdp-]p-enbpw ssZhoI {]oXn-tam-ln-p-

53

amWv Ah-co-\n-e-]mSv ssIsIm--Xv. P\-p-th-nbpw X-fpsS Ckveman-Iamb Apw [man-Ihpw sshm-\n-I-hp-amb \ne-hm-chpw Imp-c-n-phm\pw A{]c-Imcw sNbvX-hcpw Iq-n-epm-bn-cn-mw. Khsap-ambn kmaqly-cm-jv{Sob taJ-e-I-fn s]mcp-hpw s]mXp-Xm-cy-hp-ap-h-cm-bn-cpp
Ah. inbm--tfmSv Ahm aX, kmaqly cmjv{So-b-hn-j-b--fn X-fpw
A`n-{]m-b-hy-Xym-k-fpw \ne-\np-p-ap-m-bn-cp-p. FnIqSn inbm-{]-m\-tm-S-h kl-I-cn-p-Ibpw cRvPn-n hn-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-p-sh
kwKXn \mw IW-n-se-Spt Xncq. Jnem-^-p-`-c-W-ns NpI-fm-Ip--Xn\p
hncp--am-bp Ah-cpsS cmjv{Sob kz`m-h-n-sbpw kmaqly ssNX-\ynsbpw Imcy-n inbm-kzm-[o-\-n-em-bn-cpp Ah. AXn\m Ah
Khsav hn-cp-cm-bn-cp-p. Cu hn-cp-X \psS Nnm-hn-j-b-am-I-Ww.
kpn -k-aqlw Jnem-^v `cW-Iq-Ss \nb-am-\p-kr-Xambn Aw-Ko-I-c-n-cpp.
kpn aZv-l-_p-Isf Jeo-^-am h-en-b-tXm-Xn ]np-W-p-I-bp-apm-bn. Camw
amen-n-s\-tm-ep--h-tcmSv Ah-cpsS \nb-a-im-kv{X-hn-Zn-Ifpw Kthj-W-^-efpw
{K-am-bnt{ImUo-I-cn-p-sIm-Sp-m `c-W-IqSw Bh-iy-s-SpI t]mepw sNbvXp.
CkvemanI kaq-l-ns HutZym-KnI \nb-a-im-kv{X-ambn Ah-cpsS Ia-imkv{X
kwln-Xsb AwKo-I-cn-p-Ibpw, cmPyv apgp-h kzImcy {]iv\-pw s]mXp-{]-iv\p-ap ]cn-lm-c-t{km-X-kmbn Ahsb \n-bnv Ahbvv {]mNmcw
\Ip-Ibpw, cmPy-nse Fm \ymb-[n-]ampw Ahsb ]np-S-tc-Xv
_my-X-bm-pIbp-am-bn-cpp AXns Dtiyw kpn-k-n Bthiw sImncp ]ecpw kpn-I-fmb {]kw-K-I, Iim-kv{Xam Fn-hcpw Jeo-^sb
Ckvem-ans A`-b-tI{hpw Jp-Bsbpw kp-nscbpw kwc--I-\p-ambmWv In-cp--Xv. bYmY Ckveman-s\ dm^n-fnI72fpsS t{Zml-n\nv
Am-lp-hns JUvKap]-tbm-Knv cn-m Ah Jeo-^-tbm-S-`ynn-cpp.
Ah Jeo-^-tbmSv ]dp:
dm^n-fn-I-fpsS e-W-t-Sp-I F-a--Xm-Wv. Ah-cpsS cw Nnmw. ImcWw
Ah apivcn-p-I-fmWv: klm-_n-Isf sXdn-hn-fn-p--h-cmWv; Ipg--m-cmWv;
apkveowIn-S-bn ssiYn-ey-ap-m-p--h-cmW,v CkvemanI Khsan-t\mSv
ka-c-n Gs-n-cn-p--h-cm-Wv. ^Jo-lp-Ifpw apl-n-kp-Ifpw Jmfn-amcpw aXt\-Xm-fpw {]hm-N-I-s-kw-c-n-p Fm-hcpw Cu hn-`m-K-n\v aX-`rjvSv
In-t--Xm-Wv. Ah-cpsS _m[y-X-bm-bn-on-cn-p-I-bm-W-Xv. dm^nfn-I-fpsS
sXfn-hp-I kzoI-cnp-IqS. Ah-cpsS iey-s-p-dnpw Zqjy-s-p-dnpw
apkvenwIv ta-d Fm-hcpw XmoXv \IWw.
CsXmw IW-n-se-Sp-p-tm {]iv\w hf-sc-b-[nIw ]cn-Nn--\-aln-p-p.
Atm ]ns Fp-sIm-mWv Khsap-am-bp ASp-hpw \ymbm-[n-]stbm a{n-bp-sStbm Kh-dp-sStbm ]Zhn kzoI-cn-p-Xpw kpo-C-am-apIfpw ]WvUn-Xamcpw aXm-h-tl-f-\-ambpw `npw A-n\pw CkvemanI aqeypw tbmPn-m--Xmbpw KWn-Xv? kpo ho-W-n\p Xs hncp--at
Cu \ne-]mSv? kzX-{-Nn-bpw ASn-m\hnh-chpw _pn-]-c-amb tbmKy-X-bpap alm-]-WvUn-X-m-cp-sSbpw ^Jo-lp-I-fp-sSbpw inbm hncp--cm-b -]-WvUn-X-t{ijvT-cp-sSbpw \ne-]m-Sn\p s]mcp--s-Sm--Xt CXv?
c-km-y-ns A\-izc kzm[o-\-a-msX FmWv CkvemanI-K-han-t\mSv
C-c-samcp hnnjvSw P\n-n-Xv? {]tXy-In-v, Camw lpssk(A) Bkq-{XWw
sNbvXXpw {]tbm-K-h-XvI-cn--Xp-amb AXns Ghpw alXzhpw ]qhpw XovWhpw hnI-kn-Xhpw icnbpw Ah-k-tcm-Nn-X-hp-amb amXr-I-bpsS kzm[o\w.
Jnem^v `c-W-Iq-S-ns Dn \np Xs AXn-s\-Xn-cmb Bt-]-ap-

54

bn; cmjv{Sobw kXy-hn-cp--am-sW {]Jym-]-\-n-eqsS. Jnem-^v Cam-a-pambn s]mcp--s-Sm--Xm-sWpw Khsav euIn-I-X-bp-sSbpw Agn-a-Xn-bpsSbpw amen\yw ]pc-Xpw ssZhn-I-\n-b-as ewLn-p--Xp-am-sWpw D
{]Jym-]-\--fp-ap-mbn. cmjv{So-tbm-]-I-c-W--f-{Xbpw A\oXn-bp-sSbpw A[n-Im-cZpcbpsSbpw [\-]q-PbpsSbpw Im]-Sy-nbpw Agn-a-Xn-bp-sSbpw ]cym-bhpw aXns ssNX-\y-n\p Ckvemans kXy-n\pw ssZh-ns {]oXnpw [w,
am\y-X, ]mWvUn-Xyw, kZm-Nm-cw Fn-hbvp \nc-m--Xp-am-sWpw ckmy-ns A\-izc kzm[o-\-n-\-msX as-n-\mWv {]Jym-]n-m Ign-bp-ambn-cp-Xv?
lpssk(A) CXv sNbvX ImetaXm-bn-cpp? lnPvdm_vZw Adp-]-Xn\p tijw.
IrXy-am-bn--d-bm-atm, Ckvem-an-I-k-aq-l-ns cmjv{Sob A[n-Im-c-in sXcs-Sp--s Jnem-^-n \nv ]mc-cy hmgvN-bn-tev ]cn-h-nn-s-SpIbpw kap-Zm-b-t\-Xm-hn-t\-tbm- J-eo-^-tbtbm Xnc-s-Sp-p Imcy-n {]hmN-I-s(k) hkn-v \nt-i-stbm IqSn-bm-e-N\m coXn (iqd)sbtbm s]mXpP-\-ln-X-s(CPvam)tbm am\-Z-WvV-am-p k{-Zmbw \in-n--s-Sp-Ibpw
sNbvXp Ign-n-p k`-am-bn-cpp AXv. ]mc--cy-sa X\n A\m-Nm-c-amb
Hcp \ho\ CkvemanIcmjv{S-ns HutZym-Kn-Ihpw AwKo-Ir-X-hp-amb ASn--dbmboncnp-I-bmWv. apB-hn HutZym-Kn-I-ambn kz]p-{Xs\ `mhn Jeo-^bmbn Ah-tcm-[n-p-p. Camw lks(A) ta Hcp bp-h-n-cmaw ASn-tn-pIbpw AXn-\-Sn-m-\-amb kn-hy-h--b-\p-k-cnv C-c-samcp m\mhtcm-[ns apn XS--am-Ip-am-bn-cp Cam-an-s\(A) hnjw sImSpv sImp-Ibpw
sNbvXti-j-am-Wn-Xv. kmbp-[-k-a-c-n-eqsS Ua-kvIv `c-W-Iq-Ss hogvpI
km[y-a. Dd cmjv{Sob IW-p-Iq--en-eqsS ASp-smpw Hcp Iem-]-ttbm
hn-h-ttbm t\cn-tSn hcn-I-bn-s \nK-a-\-nse-m apB-hn-v Ignbpp. As\ s]mXp au\-n\pw Iog-S-e
- n\pw at[y ]mc-cy cmP-hm-gvNbpsS
cmjv{So-bm-Sn--d-I HutZym-InImwKo-Imcw. C-s\-bp klm-Nm-cy-n
PnlmZv Akm-[y-am-tb-Sv lpssk(A) AXn\p]cn-bmb c-km-ys Hcp
XXz-hpw _m[y-X-X-bp-a-tmWw hcn-p-I-bm-Wv. aB-hn _pn-am\pw {ImZinbpw Hs-bm-bnpw AbmnXp ImWm Ign-n. apPm-lnZn s\ ]cm-Pb-s-Sp-p-Ibpw PnlmZv hn^-e-am--s-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXm hnizm-kn-I-fpsS ]cmPn-Xhpw \ncm-bp-[o-Ir-X-hp-amb ap-Wnv in-tb-dnb a-I-cpsS apn au\w
]men-p-I-b-msX asmcp hgn-bp-m-hp-I-bn-spw B au\-w ]p-Wy-I-c-amb Hcp
Iosgm-Xp-epw k-Xhpw AwKo-Im-c-hp-am-bn-cn-p-sapw Abm kn-p.
Fm Camw lpssk(A) l{kv Aen(A)bn \nv c-kmyw AXns
khn-ti-jhpw IqSp-X D-X-hp-amb A-n Hcp tbmmhv i{Xp-hns
ssIbn sIm-s-Sp--k-`w am{X-a-spw Pnlm-Zn \nv hyXn-c-hpw kzX{-hp-amb Hcp \nb-a-am-W-sX-pw ]Tn-np-m-bn-cp-p. Pnlm-Zn\p tijhpw \ne\np Hcp ]I-c-amWv ckmyw .
ssiihw sXmv {]hm-N-Is(k) injyXzw knn-p-Ibpw shfn-]m-Sns shfn-n hf-cp-Ibpw sNbvX Ckvemans ip-am-\p-jnI cq]-amWv Aen(A).
Ckvemans XXz-im-kv{Xhpw \nb-ahpw hnh-cn-p-tm efn-Xhpw ka-{Khpw AKm[-amb hymJym-\-apsm-p cq]-n-emWv Htcm-nsbpw XmXznIhi-fpw
Dtiy ey-fpw hnh-cn-pI.
Aen(A) ]d-bpp: Amlp hizmkw In-p-Xv _lp-ssZ-h-Xz-n\np hnap-In-Xn-bm-Wv. \akvImcw ]m]w hPn-m\pw, kmv \ntXym-]-Po-h\
amK-ambpw, {hXw BmYXm ]cn-tim-[-bmbpw, lv aX-n-\v kw-c--W-tm-

55

--bmbpw, PnlmZv Ckveman-s- {]-Xm-]-ambpw, \a In- kmaq-tlym-m-c-Wambpw, Xna XS-b A-X-sb-Np-cp-m thnbpw, c-kmyw \ntj-[n-Xns shfn-s-Sp--embpw Ah \n-bn-n-cn-p-p.
Aen(-A) bpsS Bi-b-{]-Im-i\ kmayhpw Nnm-]-c-amb AKm-[-Xbpw hnkvabm-h-l-am-Wv. Pnlm-Zn\nv hyXy-kvX-amb Hcp kzX{ XXz-sa \ne-bvp
cIvkmyns Ahpw XXz-im-kv{X-hpw, A{]-Imcw Xs AXns kmaqly
[hpw ]pw khn-tij ZuXyhpw {]Im-in-n-m Rm F{X-bmWv ]mSv s]Sp-Xv, Fnpw hnP-bn-m Bhp-n-. Fm Aen(-A) IrXy-ambpw hyIv-Xambpw ]q-ambpw efn-X-ambpw AXv {]Im-in-n-n-cn-p-p.apkvenwIsf A{i--cm-n-smv _lp-P-\-v \ntj-[n--s-Xpw Ahcn\nv ad-bv-s-Xpw Fm-bn-cpp? P\-v kwi-bn-m-\-h-kcw sImSpmsX Bkq-{XWw sN- B am\-h-hn-cp KqVm-tem-N-\bpw alm-Zp-c--hp-sam-bn-cpp? NXn-bn- sa\-s-Spv m]n-Xpw {ItaW CkvemanI ]mc--cysa-tmWw P\- AwKo-I-cn--Xp-sa-m-bn-cpp? kzlm-_n-I-tfmSpw {]apJ
hyn-Xz--tfm-Sp-amWv Ah-bmw _-sp InS-p--Xv. Ah kl-I-cn-tm!
amdn-\n-tm! hmm ]np-Wvp-Itbm au\w ]qn-cn-p-Itbm sNbvXtm!
]nsbp _w ]W-tm-Sv, in-tbm-Sv, cmjv{So-b-tm-Sv, {]Nm-c-W--tfm-Sv,
lZokp \nm-W-tm-Sv, Jp-B hyJym-\-tm-Sv, XXz-im-kv{X-cq-]o-I-c-W-tm-Sv,
aX-Zphn\ntbmK-tm-Sv, hnizm-k-fpw \nb-a-fpw \ymbo-I-cn-p PmS-I-tfm-Sv,
henb henb hyn-Xz--fpsS _e-lo-\-X-I ]Whpw m\-am-\-fpw kpJ
t`mK-fpw Imn NqjWw sNp--Xn-t\m-Sv, kzmX-tbmSv, Im]-Sy-tm-Sv, Akqb-tbm-Sv, hyn-]-c-amb Zp{Km-ly-X-I-tfm-Sv, ZoL-Zr-jvSn-bn-m-bva-tbm-Sv, _lp-P-\-fpsS A-X-tbm-Sv, {]Xn-]-s aX-n \nv ]pd-m-m\pw \ne-hn-ep
Ah-sb Jp-Bs amtam-Zn-k-bn apm\pw thn _pn-]-chpw a\-m-kv{X]-c-hp-amb ASn-m-\- Hcp-p an-dp-I-tfm-Sv.
Ckvemw Ctmfw aXhpw ZuXy-hp-am-bn-cp-p. AZr-iy-nepw ]p\-cp-m-\-nepw
shfn-]m-Snepw {]hm-N-I-Xz-n-ep-ap hnizmkw; Bcm-[-\m-\p-jvTm-\-, \nb-a\n-lWw, kZm-Nm-c-]m-e-\w, B-kw-kvI-cWw apX-em-b-h-bpsS ASn-m-\-nep aXw. AtX kabw Xs Hcp kaqlw m]n-p-I-sb--Zu-Xy-hp-am-bn-cpp
AXv. Ipeo-\m-[n-]-Xy-tbpw h hntcm-[-sbpw ]Ww sImv sXmgn-em-fnsb
NqjWw sNp--Xn-s\bpw FXnp kaqlw; GIm-[n-]-Xytam tkzm[n]Xytam Ipeo-\m-[n-]-Xytam {]`p P\m-[n-]-Xytam IpSpw_hm-gvNtbm hK ta[m-hnXztam hwim-[o-i-Xztam A\p-h-Zn-m, Cam-a-ns D]cn LS-\-bp kaq-lw.
Ckvemw aX {]hm-N-I \p_p--n({]hm-N-IXzw)t\bpw Cam-a-n(kap-Zmb
t\XrXzw)s\bpw Hcpanpsmn-cn-p-p. P\-sf A`n-kw-t_m-[\ sNp-Xn\pw Cl-tem-Ihpw ]c-temIhpw Dsm---Xp-am-bn-cpp At-l-ns
{]t_m-[\w. Da- Po-hn-X-saXn\w ssZhhpw Ahp--ap-Xpw Bcm-[-\bpw
\oXnbpw IqSp--Xp-amb Pohn-X-sa-m-Wv.
Hcp aX sa \nebvv Ckvemw AXns kmaq-ly-mSndbn\nv ths]-XmWv
Hm-as hyXn-bm-\w. kmaq-ln-Ihpw cmjv{So-bhpw temtIm-]-Imc]chpamb
AXns am\--fn\nv ths]-Spn hyn-bpsS ]c-tem-I-tam--n-\m-bp
GXm\pw hnizm-km-Nm-c--fnepw kwkvI-c-W-{]-h-\--fnepsamXp-p-, atsXmcp aXhpw t]mep aX-amn A[--Xn-np AXn-s\. Atm ]ns
Ckveman\p aps hwim-[n-jvSnX Ipeo-\m-[n-]-Xytam hKm-]m-c--cytam cmjv{SoL-S-\tbm Xncnp hcp--Xnt\m tdman-stbm Cdm-stbm kmaqly-hy-h-n-Xnsb
A\p-I-cn-p--Xnt\m FXn-cp-m-hn--tm. Jpssd-in-I-fpsS Xm]cy kwc--Ww -

56

am-{X-a Acw Hcp `cWw Ddp \Ip-I. cmjv{Ss sIm-sN-m\pw P\sf ASn--am\pw Ghpw ]nb \ho\ cmjv{So-bm-[n-Imc in-bpsS ASnm-\-am-hp-I-IqSn sNpw AXv. A-s\-s kw`-hn-p.
Cu eyw t\cn-tS--Xn\v cmjv{So-bm-[n-Imcw ssIh-i-s-Sp-m-\m-h-iy-amb ]m-e-sam-cp-t--nbn-cp-p. Imc-Ww, CkvemanI kaq-l-ns cmjv{So-b -\n-b{Ww B hn-hhncp--cmb {]Xn-tem-a-Im-cn-I-fpsS ssII-fn sNp-s]-m
]ns Ckvemans D-S--ntem apkvenw kaq-l-n-\-Itm Hcp am-n\p hgn sXfn-bn-pI kpK-a-am-bn-cp-n-. apl--Zns Cam-a-n \nv
Jpssd-in-I-fpsS kpm `c-W-n(-kpm-\-v)-tev Hcp ]mS-I-e-ap-v.
AXv Hm-n-s\-p--X-. apkvenwIv, hnin-jym Hmw Xe-ap-dbvv AXv
kln-n-. amw km[y-am-Im Hcp ]cnh\ Imew Ign-bW
- w. {]hm-N-I-\ptijw Aensb amn\nm Ign-p-sh-nepw apB-hn-v s]sv hnP-bnm Ign-n-. {]hmN-Is Caman\ptijw \nb-a-hm-gvN-bm-bn-cp-p. {]hmN-I\v hnti-jm-[n-Im-c-ap--tXm-sSmw Xs Atlw P\--fp-ambn IqSn-bm-temN\ \S-m _m[y--\m-bn-cp-p. \nb-a-n\v At-lhpw hnt[-b-\m-bn-cp-p.Atlw `cn--s-Sp-I-bn-s-t-bp-q. As\ Jpssd-in-I-fpsS ]mc-cy
hmgvNbvv {]hm-N-Is sXmp-Ss\ hnP-bn-m Ign-n. {ItaWtb AXv Ignbp-I-bpq. BZyw {]hm-N-Is Ay \nt-is \ntj-[n--Ww. Fm
Fs\? s]mXp-lnXw F-XXzw ]Icw shp sImp Xs.
ss_Apw71iqdbpw As\ s]mXp A`n{]mbamcm-b hgn `c-Wm-[n-Im-cnIsf Xnc-s-Sp-p k{-Zm-bhpw AwKo-Ir-Xhpw \nbam-\p-kr-X-amb Hcp XXzamWvv. Ad_v kaq-l-n\v ]mc--cy-ambn ]cn-N-b-ap Hcp k{-Zm-b-hp-am-W-Xv.Jp-B\pw {]hm-NI hN-\--fp-ap--cnv AXn\v hymJym-\hpw \Imw.
Ckvemans s]mXp ssNX-\y-tmSv AXn\v s]mcp--hp-apv. kzmX-{-tbpw
s]mXp-P-\--fpsS Bh-iy-fpw A`n{]mbfpw am\n-pI F ASn-m-\-sbp-am-Wv AX-h-ew-_n-p-Xv. AXm-bXv iqd F XXzw. CXmWv kJo^m
kw`hw \S-p ]m-ew. Hcp s]mXp sXc-s-Sp-n-eqsS Jeo-^sb sXcs-Sp-msX Hcp XXzs \ntj-[n-m asmcp XXzw. As\ {]hm-N-Is
Ay\nt-is \ntj-[n-m thn-bp--Xm-bn-cpp. Aensb ]pdw XpI
F-Xm-bn-cpp aptJym-tiyw. AXv \S-p. Aensb sImp-m-tb-m-hp A]ISw Zp-e-am--s--tXmsS kzX-{-sX-c-s-Spv F Bi-bhpw Zp-e-am-s-p. Hmw Jeo^ \ap-smw Adn-bm-hp--Xp-t]mse sXc-s-Sp--s-Sp-I-bmWp-m-b-Xv. cmw Jeo-^tbm? Hcp \nb-a\w hgn A[n-Im-c-n-te-dn. aqmw Jeo^-bpsS Imcy-n-em-hs, cpw Hcp-an-p-mbn: \nb-a-\hpw Xnc-s-Sppw.
Aen(A) A[n-Im-c-n-se-p-Xv \memw Jeo-^-bm-bm-Wv. Hcp kmaqly cmjv{Sob
hn-h-ns XpS-bm-bn-cpp AXv. ]e- A-`y--c-i-{Xp--sfbpw Iogn \nn
thn-bm-bn-cpp At-l-n\v `cWw \S-phm. At-l-n\v kz-ambn
`cW\b- \S-n-em-m th ]m--e-sampapm-bn-cp-n-. Fmw amdn-gn-n-cp-p. Xm-\v Htc-Im-[n-]-Xy-n-sbpw, ]mc--cy-hm-gvN-bp-sS-bpw
Dbp-h-c-en-\p Fm LS-I-fpw Hcp-n--gn-bp-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-p.
Ctm lnPvd Adp-]Xmw hjw. {]hm-N-I(k) Ay\nt-i-ns m\v
Jnem-^-n\v ]Icw ]mc--cy-hmgvN HutZym-Kn-I-ambn {]Xn-jvSn--s-n-cn-p-p.
CkvemanI
kXn
Inn--gn-n-cn-p-p.
]np-Wbpw
Iosgm-Xp-epw.
Bm-amb AwKoIm-c-a-. AXvhj-m-es cmjv{So-b-amb sXm-sd-Sppw
KqVm-tem-N-\bpw h-\bpw thn-h-p. Cu Dtiw t\cn-Sm. Ctm ASnd \mbn Hcp-n--gnp. km[m-c-W-mam-{X-a. t\cs Aenp

57

kXnZm\w \Ip-Xv Ip-am-bn-tm-Iptam Fp Nnnv amdn-\nm `n


{]I-Sn-n-n-cp A_vZp-m-ln_v\p Da-dn-s\-tmse kzm[o-\-ap alm hyn-Xz hsc Cu `cWIqS-n\v \Ip-Ibpw X-fpsS Iognephsc k-Xn-Zm\w
\Im \n_-n-p-Ibpw sNp-p, Cs-n Ah X-\p-tbm-Py-ambn
tXmp--`mKw ]np-S-sntem Fp kw`-hnv `mhnsb Ipdnv ZoL-m-gvNbp apB-hn bkoZv `c-W-n-s\-Xn-cn Hcp Pnlm-Zn-\p km[y-X-bn-m--Xn\m AsXmcp CkvemanI`c-W-ambn \ne-\n-p-sIm-p-sav IrXy-ambn a\-n-emp-p. Abm bmko-Zn-t\mSv ]d-bp-p.
\n\p th Fm ASn--d-Ifpw Rm Hcp-n-bn-cn-p-p. A_vZp-m-ln_v\p
kss_ Ipdp-s Iui-e-tmSpw knwl-ns B{I-a-W-ti-jn-tbmSpw IqSn
\n\s-Xn-cn-ep-m-hpw. FXnm-\p Ah-kcw ]mp-sm-s-bn-cn-pw
Ah. FXnm hm \ob-hs\ Iog-S-p-Ibpw XS-hn-em-p-Ibpw Xpw
Xp-am-p-Ibpw sNWw.
A_vZp-m-ln_v\p Da `n-bpsS amK-amWv
]nXp-Sn-cn-p--Xv. Fm-hcpw ss_Av sNs Fv IcpXn Imn-cn-p-Itb-D-q. HSp-hn ss_Av sNp-Ibpw sNpw. lpssk Du-kz-e-\m-Wv.
Iq^-m At-ls \n\-s-Xn-cn cwK-n-d-m-\pw hnhw \S-m\pw t{]cnn-pw. As\ Atlw hn-h-{i-a-ntes-Sp-Ibpw \o AXn-s\-Xn-cn hnP-bnp-Ibpw sNp-t\zm At-l-n\v amv \I-Ww. Atlw \psS _p-hm-Wv.
At-l-n\v henb Ah-Im-i-ap-v. AXn\pw ]pdsa Atlw {]hm-N-I ]u{X-\pam-Wv.
c-km-y-ns A{]-Xn-tcm-[y-amb ]n-s\bpw
A]-I-S-tbpw apB-hn
Ah-K-Wn-p-n-s-mWv ]p{X bko-Zn-\v \Inb apI-fn sImSp D]-tZ-ins [z\n. Ctm Hcp tbmm-hm-hpI F-Xns Aw Fm-sWv
hy-am-b-tm.
Pnlm-Zn\v Ctm kmy-X-bn-v hyw. apB-hn--n-Xp-d-m-Wv. lpssk\pw(A)
AXv k-Xn-p-p. apB-hn ZoL-Zi\w sNpw t]mse kXy-kvt\-ln-I-fpsS
Pnlm-Zn-\p Ign-hn-mbva Ahsc anm-Xn-cppw. ]pXnb ]mc-\z-cy-hm-gvNsb Ddnp \nm\pw AXns ap\znse XS-- \ow sNm\pw th ASn--dbpw-km-l-N-cyhpw GPp-am Hcp-p-p-ap-v. A-Xtbm `btam \nw-K-Xtbm
aqew _lp-P-\- Ah-cpsS k-Xn-Zm\w {]Jym-]n-p-p. A-s\-bm-Wv {]-hmNI \ntZiw(hknbv) Jeo-^m-`-c-W(-Jn-em-^v)ambpw AXv ]ns ]mc-\z-cyhmgvNbmbpw ]cn-hn-X-am-Ip ]cn-]m-Sn- \-S-n-em-Ip--Xv. As\ AXv Hcp aX
]mc-\z-cy-am-bpw- Hcnm-anI
k{-Zm-b-ambpw
\nb-am-\p-kr-Xhpw P\-v
kzoIm-cy-hp-am-b- hnizmkambpw amdp-p.
A`n-PmX`c-W-n\pw, hw, hwiw, tKm{Xw Fn-h-bpsS B[n-]-Xy-n\pw GImXn-]-Xy-n\pw Nqj-W-n-\p-samw FXn-cmbn \ne-sIm-p-Ibpw, P\-sf kzmX{y-n-tepw ka-Xz-n-tepw \oXn-bn-tepw al-Xz-n-tepw Wn-p-Ibpw, Ncn-{X-n apgp-h [mn-I-\o-Xn-p-th-n-bp P\--fpsS ka-c-ntev {]hm-N-Iamcpw ssZhnI {KYfpw \Inb kw`m-h-\-Isf ]cn-N-b-s-Spp-Ibpw, Am-\-sbpw a-\-tbpw hni-n-t\bpw _lp-ssZ-h-Xz-ns
AS-bm-f-fpw Ahn-izm-k-ns Imc-W-fpw amsb-p-I-bpw, Bcm-[-\-bpsS
]v Ihm-S--fn Fpw A\p-h-Z-\o-b-am-n-eqsS D]-Po-h\w tXS-em-sWpw
sFln-Im-`n-hr-n-p-thn ]cn-{i-anm--hv ]mc-{XnI tam-an-spw ]Tn-np-Ibpw, an-X `q-an-bpsS A\--cm-h-Im-in-I-fm-bn-ocp-sav ip`-hm
\Ip-Ibpw sNbvX Cmw Hcp hnh {]m-\-sa AXns \ne-hm-c-n
\nv Cu AXv hi-n-\p-n ]Sn-]-Sn-bmbn amdn. Hcp Iqw BNm-cfpw
hyn]c-amb A\p`qXn-Ifpw B-\n-jvS-amb hnizm-k-fpw s]m-bmb cq]-

58

fpw am{X-ambn AXv. aX-]-c-amb ey-sa-m hyn-I-fpsS ]c-temI tamw.


`uXnI eyw cmPy- ]nSn--S-p-I, P\-sf an-sm-Xp-p-I, A[n-Imcw
hmgp-I, K\o-apw \nIp-Xnbpw hkq-em-p-I.
CsXm-s-bmWv amn-a-dn--s-Xpw \ntj-[n--s-Xpw Xnc-kvI-cn--s-Xpw a\p-I-fn \nv ad-bv-s-Xpw JpB\n \npw \_n-N-cy-bn \npw Xulo-Zv,
PnlmZv, D-v, CA-am-v, CXvd-v,72 lv, km-v, D_m-Zv Fn-h-bn
\nv Ingn--s-Xpw. Ctm P\-sf ab-m-\p Idpv Xs-bmWv Cmw.
sFiz-cy-hmamp \ymbo-I-c-Whpw Khsans A-[n-Im-c-n\pw sImb-Sn-p-ap Hc-Sn-m-\-hp-amWv C-Xv.
adp-h-iv Cu A-Xv hi-n-\p-n hyn-I-fp-sS- kz-Imcy Pohn-X-n-ep
h\Ifpw
cmjv{So-b-amb
KqVm-tem-N-\-Ifpw B`yc kwLj-fpw
hnncnpIbmWv. Aen-sbbpw A_q-Zdn-s\bpw t]mse-bp--hsc kwkm-cnm-\-\p-h-Zn-nv Ac-\q-m-mbn. AXn-\m Cu cq]m--co-I-cWw Bfp-Iv
\niv{]-bmkw kln-m Ign-bp-p. kw`-h--fpsS t\sc bmsXmcp hnIm-chpw
{]I-Sn-n-msX ImWn-I-fmbn t\mn-\np-I-bm-W-h. sXpw icnbpw hnh-cn-p-h-cmcpw cv Imcy-s--n- an-p-n-. Hv Pam-Bv, AYhm Khsapambn _-s {]iv\-. cv, km-n-I-Im-cy- AXm-bXv h-\ne.
Ah Aen-tbmSv Fp-sN-bvXp-shv \ap--dnbmw. almam-cmb Jeo-^-am-cpsS
`c-W-ns `cW-n, AXm-bXv {]hm-NI ]mc-cyw _mly-X-e-n-se-nepw
]cn-c-n-s-n-cp Imev A_qZdv Ikns73 Bb-tm-Xn-bnv Fpmbn? apB-hn Dkvam\v Is-gpXn:kndnb \jvS-s-Sm-Xn-cn-tWm Fn
A_q-Zdns\ \no-cy-\m-p-I. Dkvam adp-]Sn FgpXn: B ap-dnhv DW-pI
Xs thWw. Nmc-q-\-bn \nv Xosn Db-p-h-cm A\p-h-Znp IqSm.
As\ A_qZdv \mSp IS--s-p hn-P\-amb acp`qan-bn-tev. AhnsS \nv
At-l-ns kzcw P\--fn-tes-p-I-bn-stm. A_q-Zdv AhnsS ]nWn
InSv acn-p.
cv Imcyw Ckveman \ns-Sp-p-am-Ww: Cam-apw ka-Xzhpw. P\--fpsS
t\Xr-Xztam hK ka-Xztam Cm Ckvemw. Jpssd-in-Iv Ah-cpsS k--XtbmSpw A[n-Im-c-tmSpw s]mcp--s-Sp Ckvemans Hcp `mjy-amWv _lp-ssZh-Xz-t-m KpW-I-cw. Cu AXv hj-n-\p-n Jpssd-in-I-fpsS ]Xn
AXns Dpw-Kp-X-bn-se-n. {]hm-NI \nt-inX `c-W-n\pw Jnem-^-n\pw
]Icw ]mc-cy `cWw HutZym-Kn-Iam-bn-s AwKo-Imcw t\Sn. P\--fpsS `mKtZbw AahocmP`cWn Xe-ap-d-I-fn-eqsS kpc-n-X-am-hp-I-bm-Wv. Aen-bn
\nv Xnc-s-Spv hgn FSp-p-am--s apl--Zns ss]XrIw Ctm \nb-a\w
hgn A_qkp^nbm k-Xn-Iv \In-bn-cn-p-I-bmWv. C\n ]pXnb `c-WIqSw Ddp \nWw. AXn\v ]mc-cy-hm-gvN-bn-te-p Jnem-^-ns cq]m-co-I-c-W-n\v {]hm-NI\nt-inX`cWw Jnem-^-n-tev amn-bXn\v Inn-b-Xp-t]mep \ybo-I-cWw aX-]-c-ambn InWw. Fs\? Fm {]hn-iy-Ifpw apgp-h
kzlm-_n-Ifpw aX-]-c-ambn D-X-\n-e-hm-c-n-ep hyn-Xz-fpw ss_Av
sNp--Xn-eq-sS.
Cu KqVm-tem-N\ XIWw. AXv km[y-a. Cu ]pXnb `c-W-Iq-S-ns
XIbvv Hcm Pnlm-Zn-tes-S-Ww. ]s Ign-bn. B Zpcw ]c-ky-s-SpWw. `c-W-Iq-S-ns cq]-am--n\v t\sc AXn\v \nba km[pXzw \Ip Xcn-ep au\w `RvPn-s-S-Ww. CXp hsc P\--fn \nv adp ]nS--s-Xpw
apl--Zob ZuXy-n \nv Ingn-p-am---Xpw P\-a-[y-n \-bmbn {]Xy--

59

s-n-cp Xnbpw Xn-bmbn {]Xy--s-n-cp \bpw shfn-s-p-sImp hcWw.


Fn-eqsS?
c-km-y-n-eqsS. \ntj-[n--s--sXtm AvXns\sbmsbpw shfn-v
sImph-cm-\p--XmWv c-km-yw. Cm-c-W-m-emWv apB-hn-bpsS ac-W-hnhcw lk(-A) apB-hn-mv `cWw ssIam-dn-b-tm, Ah Xn-ep-m-nb DS-Sn-bpsS Imem-h[n apB-hn-mbpsS ac-W-tmsS Xocp-am-bn-cp-p. lk(-A)
c-kmn-bm-bn--gn vXnv DS-Sn hyhkvX {]Imcw C\n lpssk(-A)
s `cWw ssIam-d-W-am-bn-cp-p--lp-ssk(-A)sb Adnbn-p-Ibpw DSs\ bko-Zn\v ss_-Av sN-W-sav At-l-tmSv Bh-iy-s-Sp-Ibpw sNbvX DS
lpssk Xs Xocp-am\w ktlm-Z-c apl-Zv_v\p l\-^n-sb Cs\ Adn-bnXv: Rm \a In-m\pw Xna XS-bm\pw Am-lp-hns Xncp-Zq-X-cmb
Fs- ]n-Xm-a-ls Ncysb ]p\Po-hn-n-m\pw Xocp-am-\n-p-I-gn-p. ]ns
cm{Xn ka-bv Atlw Xs apgp-h IpSpw-_mw--sfbpw Iqn aZo\ hnv abn-tev t]mIp-p. lv Imev apkvenw temI-ns hnhn[ `mK--fn
\ns-n-t-cp lmPn-am-tcmSv Xm `c-WIq-Ss AwKo-I-cn-p-n-sv Atl-n\v Xpdv {]Jym-]n-t--Xp-v. AXn\v thn-bm-W-tlw a-bn-tev
t]mIp--Xv. lv Iaw ]qn-bm--msX-bmWv Atlw c-km-y--f-ntev bm{X t]mIp--Xv. km[y-am-Ip--Xn sht-hpw al-zhpw ]qWhpw
ihpw hn-h-I-c-hp-amb coXn-bn-epw, Inm-hp Fm D]-I-c-W-sa-Sp-pw, X\np apgph inbpw km-Zy-hp-am-bpw, Ghpw hnImc km{-amb aplqnepw Fhpw IrXy-amb \nan-j-n-epw, Cu Kp-Vm-tem-N\ k^-e-am-Ip--Xns
XpS--nXs, Cu irw-J-e-bpsS Hmw In-s-Xn-cn74, Uam-k-vI-nse
lcnX sImm-c-n-s\-Xn-cn, Ckvemans {]hm-N-I-sbpw Cam-ap-I-fp-sSbpw {]Xn\n-[n-bmbn Nap cwK-s-n-bnp Cu N-Xn-b _mZnb75sXn-cn, Fmw
{]mXn-\n[yw hln-p-, i{Xp-hn\v G-hp-a-[nIw A]-Io-n-tbn-p c-kmy-ns iI-X-amb Zpcw {]Jym-]\w sNm thn. A[n-Im-c-n-eqsS
Fm A\nkvemanI kz`m-fpw a\p-jy-Xz-hn-cp \ne-]m-Sp-Ifpw Xpdv ImWn-Ww. `c-W-Iq-S-ns I]-S-amb aX {]am-W-pw cmjv{Sob Inwh-Z-n-Ipw
_en-bm-Sp-I-fmbngn--h
am\p-jnI-aq-ey-sfpdntm
{]hm-NIIpSpw-_ns Ckvem-an-I-amb al-Xz-s-p-dntm Hp-a-dn-bm--hn-[-n cq]-s-Sp-s--h-cm-bn-cp-p.- F-npw lpssk(A) aZo-\-bn\nv I_-e-bn-tepw
ssk\_v I_-e-bnv Uam-kvI-kntepw \S-nb lnPvd-I-fn, ^mXn-a-bpsS
iq\yhpw AS-n--Xp-amb `h-\-ns aqe-bn\np`hw {]m]n-Xpw IAv_bntev ]Is-n-bXpw acp-`q-an-bpsS Kmedn-I-fn temI-ns apm-sIbpw Ncn{X-ns a\-m-n-bnepw {]Xy-s-Sp-Xp-amb hnizm-k-nsbpw kvt\lnsbpw kl-\-n-sbpw Bm-bp-sSbpw hnip-n-bp-sSbpw al-Xz-nsbpw auen-I-X-bp-sS-bpw- A--c-p-f-hm-p _mln {]-I-S-\--fp-m-bn.
lpssks c-km-y-kw-`hw Acpw A{i--cp-am-bn--gn-bp Fm-XeapdIpw Xpdv ImWnv sImSp-p. FmWv B `h-\-n ASv Hfn-nncp-sX-v. A[n-Im-c-sm-Xn-bam-cp-sSbpw hnizm-k-]m-X-In-I-fp-sSbpw atZma Iel-pw {]NWvUamb {]Nm-c-W-hm-Z
- p-an-S-bn Fm-bn-cpp AhnsS
Hfn-p-In-S-n-cp--sXv Fm-hpw hyI-X-am-bn. B A-h-Imi \ntj-[n-X
Hmbn bq{^-okns Xocv P\--fpsS kmn-bm-bn. Ah-c-hsc kzbw {]Z--inn-p Hp-In c-km-y-ns sIme--f-n, As-n _-\--cpsS
bm-{Xm-kw-L-n.

60

Cu {]lc-w bmko-Zns `c-Ws inbm--fp-sSbpw lpssk IpSpw-_-ns


A\p-c-m--fp-sSbpw ZrjvSn-bn \nyhpw A]-e-]-\o-b-hp-ambn XpdpImp-Ibpw
lpssks amKs ]cn-N-b-s-Sp-n-m-p-Ibpw am{X-a-,- sN-bvXXv. Cam-a-n
hniz-kn-p--hp am{X-a Jnem-^-n hniz-kn-p--hpw CkvemanI Ncn{X-n Khsans\ Fpw Bt-]mlhpw A]-e-]-\o-b-hp-ambn ImWn-psIm-Sp-p-I-IqSn sNbvXp AXv. F{X-tm-f-sa-m Hcp apkvenw `n-m-c
Ckveman-I-J-eo-^-bpsS hcp-am\n Hcwiw Iev aen-\---Xm-hm-\n-S-bp-sv
Inw sImp-m-nb sdmn Xnp--Xn-t\-m Hgn--h-b-dp-ambn t]mbn InSp-d-m-\mWnjvSs-Sp-Xv. B sdmn-bpsS Hcp IjWw hoWn-p-sv tI-Xn\m kpo- Camw Pohn-X-Imew apgp-h ssS{Kokv \Zn-bn\nv ]nSn-p
akyw Xnm hnk--Xn-p-I-bmWv sNp--Xv.
Nne lpssks ckmyXz-ns ^e-Zm-b-IXzw kw_v[nv kwibw {]I-Snn-n-p-v. AsXmcp tXmn--s hn-h-amWv Ah-cpsS ZrjvSn-bn. CXw-Ko-I-cnm-\m-hn. kaq-l-ns a\-nepw hnIm-c--fnepw C{X-hym-]-I-ambn IS-p-sNv
hnPbw t\SpIbpw Ncn-{X-n apgs C{X AKm-[-ambn kzm[o-\w sNep-pIbpw sNbn-Xvp PnlmZv GXmWv? c-km-y-Xz-ns ^e-Zm-b-I-Xzhpw AXv
krjvSn- A\p-c-W-\hpw GsXmcp hnP-bn Pnlm-Zn-s\-mfpw hym]Iambn AKm[hpw A\p-kyq-X-hp-at FmWv Nnnt {]iv\w.
e--W-n\v kmbp[ `S-mcpw AkwJyw ssk\nIko-I-c-W-fpw klnXw
F-a bp- \S-p-Ibpw henb henb kzw Imo-gn sImp-hv
alm hnP-b- t\Sp-Ibpw sNbvX-h-cmWv ]e- J-eo-^-amcpw. Fm bpw
\nt Xmakw, bp-t`-cn-I sI-S-pp. ]ns bmsXmpw tijn-pnsI-Sp-Xn-Ifpw arX-tZ-l--fp-a-msX. ]ns Ncn{X ]pkvX-I-fn GXm\pw
hcn-I-fpw. AtX-k-abw I_-e-bp-sSbpw lpssk-s(A) c-km-n-Xz-nsbpw
^etam? Fgp-]-n-cv sXc-s-Sp c-km-n-I-fpsS c-km-n-Xz-am-Wv
bko-Zns knwlm-k-\-n-en-cp Abm-fpsS apgp-h A\--cm-h-Im-in-I-fp-sSbpw
s\n--S-n A{IanF ap{Z ]Xn-n--Xv. Pnlm-Znt\m, Im^n cmPyw Pbn--Sbv-ent\m, tkma-\mYv76 ssIh-i-s-Sp--ent\m, Ntm An-t-{Xtam ]n-bm-ent\m, kw`m-h\ \I-ent\m, {]kvo-I-c-W-nt\m JpBs alXzw
hmgv-nbXnt\m HpwXs Ah-cpsS s\n-bn \nv Bte-_ FSp-sm-gn-hmm Ign-n-. _lp P\-n-S-bn Ah- A]-am-\n-X-cm-Wv. Ncn-{X-n
Ah A`n-i-]vX-cmWv. kpo Camw {]hm-N-Is Jeo-^-bp-ambn kl-I-cn-p-Xp
t]mIs. CkvemanI Jeo-^ns `c-W-n Iogn PUvPn-bmbn \nb-an-p-Xn-ep A]-am-\-n\v hg-p--Xn-t\-m apXp-In Nm-hm-dSn Gp-hm-m
XmdmIp-p.
I_-e-bn lpssks i{Xp- c-km-n-I-fpsS ico-c--sf-bmWv Iog-S-nb-Xv-. Fm c-km-n-I-fpsS BZiw B i{Xp--sfbpw Ah-cpsS `c-W-Iq-Ssbpw A]-Ion-s-Spn. kzw cwsImv c-km-n-I B h KqVm-tem-N-\sb Fs-t-p-ambn XpdpImn.
i{Xp P\-Zr-jvSn-bn\nv ad-p-]n-Sn-m\pw Ncn-{X-ns Bg-n-tep Ipgn-p-aqSm\pw a\p-jy-Xz-n\nv {ian-n-cp Fm-n-s\bpw Ah-cpsS c-km-nXzw
shfn-s-Sp-n. KqVm-tem-N-\-Ifpw, Iq-sm-e-Ifpw, Ip{]-Nm-c-fpw, aptJ-\bpw
Jp-B\pw XXz-Nn-bpw imkv{X-km-ln-Xym-Zn-I-fp-ap-]-tbm-Knpw i{Xp AXns
AXn-{IatKm]p-c-v hnizm-k-ns aqSp-]Sw s\bvXp-m-p {ia-n-embn-cp-p. c-km-n-I-fpsS cw A-c-n-ep h-\-bp-tS-Xmb Fm-aq-Sp-]-Sfpw hen-p-Iodn GI-ssZ-h-Xz-k-aq-l-ns hnth-N\w Akm-[y-am-p-Ibpw

61

{]hm-N-IXz kaq-l-n ASn-tn--s-Sp Khsans\ Akzo-Im-cy-am-pIbpw lpssk-s\(-A) kvt\ln-p--h-cpsS ZrjvSn-bn ^n-Hus ambm-Pm-es
hne-tm-hm-Xm-p-Ibpw sNbvXp AXv. aqk(-A)-bpsS A`pX lkvXw sNbvXsXtm AXv Xs-bmWv c-kmyw sImv lpssk(A) sNbvX-Xv. Amsc Ip-Im-Wn-p-Ibpw acn--hv Poh\n-Sp-Ibpw [\-]q-P-m-cmb PqXmscbpw kok-tdmSv ssItImv ]nSnv {]hn-n-cp Ah-cpsS h-I-cmb dnI-sfbpw Atbm-Kycpw hne-sI--hcp-am-pIbpw sNbvX {InkvXp-sN-bvXXv XsbmWv c-km-n-I Ah-cpsS c-km-nXzw aptJ\ sNbvX-Xv. CsXmcp Imettm Hcp \mn-te-tm-am{Xw _m[-I-amb kwK-Xn-b-.
c-kmyw bp-a, AsXmcp ZuXy-am-Wv, Bbp-[-a-, kt-i-am-Wv, AXv tNmcsImv Ipdn-p hmm-Wv.
AXns\ Cm-Xm-m-\m-hn. ]s, km-{Xn-I-amb Iqcn-cp-n-\n-S-bn AXv
{]Imiw ]cn A{I-as Nqn-m-pp. Hcp sIme-bmfn A-cm-{Xn-bn
{]m\-bp-cp-hnv Hcp Cam-ans thj-n {]Xy--s-Sp-Ibpw P\-
Abmsf ]np-S-cp-Ibpw Abmp-]n-n AWn-\n-c-m\pw XpSp-Ibpw sNptm c-kmn P\-q--n\v a[y-n Hcp sagp-Ip-Xncn Inp Imp-p,
A{X-X-s.
{InkvXphns Ipcn-im-tcm-l-Whpw lm-Pns77 c-km-n-Xzhpw tlXp-hmbn
ss{IkvXh {]]ho--W-nepw kq^o-Nn--bnepw c-km-n-I sIm-sSm thn Dbp hcn-I-bm-Wv. Khsans\Xn-cn s]mcp-Xm thn
Dbp-h-cn-I-b- F Hcp [mcW ]c-n-pv. lpssk(-A) kaq-ln\p
thn kzbw _en-bn-p-hm\pw Alvep-ss_-n-t\mSv kvt\l-ap--hv
Ay\mfn hnNm-cW thf-bn Ah-cpsS Xn-I-f-{Xbpw \-I-fmn ]cn-hnn-m ay-hn-bm-Im\pw thn-bm-Ws{X Fgp-t--Xv. Cu hoW {]Imcw
lpssk(-A) krjvSn-p-apv Xs c-km-n-bm-Im-\p Hcp Icm-dp-m-n-bncn-Ww. {InkvXy hoWw t]mse-s {InkvXp am\-h-cm-n-p-thn
kzbw _en-bnpshm-Wtm ss{IkvX-h-aXw. AYhm BZ-ans BZy-]m]w
aqew kzK-n \np ]pd-m--s a\pjy]p{X-msmw ssZhw s]mdpp-sIm-Spv Ahsc kz-n {]th-in-n-m thn {InkvXp cw \In.
Cu hoWw lpssk (A) s al-Xzhpw t{ijvT-Xbpw Imp kqn-p-ps-nepw At-l-ns c-km-n-Xzs \nc-I-am-p--Xm-Wv. AX-Xns\
Hp-a-m-Xm-p-p. AtXm-sSmw lpssks sIme-bm-fn-Isf AXv Ip-hn-ap--amp-Ibpw sNp-p. ImcWw Ah apssI-s-Spv sNbvX-X AXv. ssZhns C-{]-Imcw {]hn-p-I-bm-W-h sNbvX-Xv. krjvSnp apt Xocp-am-\n-s hn[n \S-m-p-I am{Xw. ssZthO \S-n-em-m-\p amK-am-b-X-t-bpp
Ah. bko-Zn-s\-tm-ep A{IanIpw apB-hn-sb-t]m-ep ss_Av
]nSn-p-]-dn-mpw Biq-d-bpsS A]-I-S-n \np lpssk-s(-A) Hm-bpbp Aaj-n\npw c-s-Sm\p amK-ap-m-n-sm-Sp-pI IqSn
sNpp Cuho--Ww. A{I-a-n-s-bpbw A]-l-c-W-n-sbpw A[n-Imc tI{n-Xn-cn-ep t]mcm-amb ckm-yns eys Bpw Hn\pw
FXn-cnepXm Hcp t]mcm--amn A[-:-Xn-npw.
CXv IW-n-se-Spp-tm, Biqd bkoZv `c-Ws B{I-anv \in-n-m
thn-bp hnhhpw Pnlm-Zp-am-bn-cpp-shv ilo-sZ- Pm-hoZn {]I-Sn-n
A`n-{]m-b-amWv c-km-y-s-p-dn-pff k^-hn-I-fpsS kq^n--{In-kvXy
hymJym-\-t-m icnbpw ]ptcm-K-\-]-c-hpw. -lp-sskpw Bip-dm-p-sa-Xn-cn
kulm-`m-h-n-ep Hcp h KqUm-tem-N-\-bmWv k^-hn-I-fpsS ho-Ww.

62

ilosZPmhn-Zn lpssk(-A)s Fgp-tv {]hm-N-Is(k) t\X-rXz-n


]cm-P-b-s DlZv bpw t]msetbm lk(-A)s t\Xr-Xz-n ]cm-P-b-s
apB-hn--s-Xn-cmb hnhw t]msetbm tXmn--s-Xmbn hymJym\n--sSp Ht Bhp-p-p. Fs A`n-{]m-b-n
cI-X-kmyw Ckveman
AXns khn-ti-jm-n Pnlm-Zn\p tijw kzbw Xs-bp Hcp XXz-amWv. c-kmn bp--f-n-tev hcp-tm Xs ]cm-P-bsp Ign Hcp
tbmm-hp-am-Wv. lpssks ]cm-P-b-s-Sp--s hnhw F A`n-{]m-b-sm D-Xhpw ]ptcm-K-a-\-]-chpw hymJym-\n-m Ign-bp--Xp-amWo A`n-{]m-bw.
lpssk\v(-A) apv Cu A-n-ep ilm-Z-ns Xmc-X-tay\ sNdpXpw hepX-p-amb cp amXr-I-I-fp-v. Hv {]hm-N-Is(-k) Imev \S--Xm-Wv. asmv
l{kv Aen(-A) bpsS Ime-pw. cpw Htc IpSpw-_-n \n-p cv amXrI-Ifm-bn-cp-p-sh-Xv IuXp-I-ap-f-hm-p--XmWv.
Am-dns Ncn{Xw t\mq: Am-dns amXm-]n-Xm--fmb kpa-bpw bmkndpw
A_pPl-ens ]oU-\-ta--tm kXys \ntj-[n-p--Xn-t\-mfpw {]hm-NIs\ Xnd-bp--Xn-t\-mfpw apK-W\ \In-bXv c-km-yn-\mWv.
As\ Ah c-kmyw hcn-p. bphm-hmb Am ]oUn-n--s--tm
At-bw hsc AXv kln-p. amXm]n-Xm ]oUn-n-sSp-Xv Iv AkvXho-cy-\mb Atlw H-Sp-hn Xs i{Xp Xn\nv tIm B{K-ln-sXtm AXv i{Xp-hns apn shv ]d-p. {]hm-N(k) Am-dns\ Bizkn-n-p-Ibpw At-l-ns X{-n\v AwKo-Imcw \Ip-Ibpw sNbvXp.
Am ]d-Xv ]d-n-cp-s-n At-l-ns amXm-]n-Xm--mpw c-sSm-am-bn-cp-p. ]s, Ah AXn\p ]Icw c-km-y-amWv Xnc-s-Sp--Xv.
Ah sNbvXXv sXtm _pn iq\y-Xtbm Bbn-cp-n-. adnv AXv c-km-y-ambn-cp-p.
Am AXn\p tijw AXv hj-tmfw Hcp `S-s\ \ne-bn Ckvemans\
tkhn-p-sImv Pohnp t]mp. {]hm-N-I\v henb CjvS-am-bn-cpp Am-dn-t\m-Sv.
Hcn- Ahn-Sp-n-{]-Imcw ]d-bp-I-bp-mbn: Am, Hcp-\m Hc-{Ian kwLw
Xmsf h[n-pw.
lnPvd 40Xn kn^v^o bpw \S-p-tm Am hr-\m-bn--gn-n-cp-p.
At-l-n\v Pnlm-Zn-tes-Sm in-bn-m-bn-cp-p. kXy-ns ssk\y-n\v
bpw sNm Ignhp-m-bn-cppshnepw B ssk\y-nse Hcp `S-\mb Atl-w bp-n\v t]mImt\m i{Xp-hns\ sImmt\m Ignbp Ah--bn-e-mbncp-n. Fnepw Xs ]v kXy-ns hnP-b-n Hcp ]v hln-m Ign-sn Am ckmyw sXc-s-Sp-pp. kn^v^o-\n Aen-bp-sSbpw apBhn--bp-sSbpw ssk\y- apJm-apJw \np-I-bm-Wv. Bbn-c--W-n\v
apkvenwI apB-hn--bpsS ssk\y-n Aen-s-Xn-cn hmtfm-n-n-Snp
sImv X kXy-n\pw Ckveman\pw JpB\pw thn, kaq-l-n `nnn\v Imc-W-am-hp-Ibpw {]hm-N-Is \nc-]-cm-[n-bmb kzlm_n Dkvams\ h[n-pIbpw sNbvX A[n-Im-c-tam-ln-bmb kml-kn-I-s\-Xnsc s]mcp-Xp-I-bm-sW `mhn \np-I-bmWv.
Am-dns hnd-bm-p-- ssI-Iv hmfq-cm Ignbp-n-. apB-hn--bpsS in
\in-n-m At-l-n\v Hpw sNm\mhp-n-. Fnepw Am-dns\ Hc-{Ian
kwLw sImp-sa {]hm-NI hN\w Fm-bn-Spw {]N-cn-n-p-v. lcn-X-sIm-m-cns Ip{]-Nm-c-W- tIv hniz-kn-p-I-sb--Xn Ihn bmsXm-p-a-dnbm P\-pw Cu {]h-N\w tI-dn-hpv. Am Nnn-p-p: Xm apB-hn-

63

-bpsS ssk\y-ns ssIbm kn^v^o-\n sIm-s-Sp-I-bm-sW-n {]hm-NI ]d B A{Ian kwLw CXp Xs-bm-sWv sXfn-bnt? AXv Aen-bpsS
ssk\y-ns [mnI in-hn-n-p-Ibpw apB-hn--bpsS ssk\y-ns
a\-n-f-p-Ibpw sNp-I-bnt? \nw-i-bw.
Am c-kmyw sXc-s-Sp-p-p. \cv shfp Xebpw GXmv ImgvN
\jvS-s Ip-Ifpw hnd-p ssII-fp-am-bn, Atlw Hcp ckm-n-bmWv
ap--h-scms tbmm--fpw. Ah sImm {ian-p-p. Am sIm-s-Sm
{ian-p-p. Am -Dm-l-tmsS Xs hmfp-Iv kan-p-p. Am
Fm-bn-Spw Xs LmX-Is\ Xnc-bp-p. i{Xp ssk\yns ay-n
X\np \jvS-s Ftm hkvXphmWv ac-W-sa--t]mse! tbmm--tfm-sSm--sanb Cu hr-\mb cI-X-kmn AXv sXcv bp--f-n Atm-p-antmpw \S-p-I-bm-Wv.
bp-t`cn apgpp! Btcm hnfnp-]-d-bpp: Am bp-n\v hn-pv!
apBhn-bpsS ssk\y-n\v Bhocyw \jvS-s-Sp-p. cIv-X-km-y-ns Hmas kzm[o\w! c-km-y--ns amcp-X i{Xp ssk\y-ns s]mbvI-bn
Btm-f\ krjvSn-p-p. ]ns tNmZy-! {][n-tj-[-! hnhcw apB-hnbpsS ImXnse-p-p. Atlw sIm-s-n-n--tm, AXn-\m At-l-ns
ASp-p-\nv Hgn-p-am-dpI! apB-hn I\ sImSp-p-p, ]s Xs
acWw Xnc-bp B c--kmn B{I-an-m XpS-p-p. HSp-hn hnP-bn-p. cIX-km-n-bpsS al-Xz-n-sbpw kmmmc-n-sbpw sImSp-ap-Sn-bn-se-nb
alm-hn-Pbw! Am sIm-s-p.
X-fpsS am-amWv kXy-sapw X-fpsS t\Xm-hmWv bYm t\Xm-sh-p-ap-Xn\v ZrjvSmw I Aen(-A)-bpsS ssk\y-ns lrZ-b-`m-K-p-\nv Acow t`Zn-p Hcp i_vZ-ap-b-p. A{I-an-kwLw Am-dns\ h[np! Am-lphns ZqX-cpsS hmns ]pe! AtX-k-abw apB-hn--bpsS ssk\y-n-tem,
ssiYn-eyw, `bw, kwibw! kwibw Ie i_vZw: Am sIm-s-tm! \mw
Am-dns\ sImp! A{I-an-kwLw ............
Am AXv hj-mew Pnlm-Z-\p-jvTn-p. Ctm Hcp Znhkw c-km-y-a\p-jvTn-n-cn-p-p.
Am-dn-s-Xn-s\-m IuXp-I-Ic-amWv lpdn79 IY. Pohn-X-Imew apgps
Atlw t{Zmlw sNbvXp-I-gn-p. As\ Hcp Znhkw c-km-y-a-\p-jvTn-p.
lpssk-s\(-A) t\mq: Atlw Xs Pohn-X-n \nn-dn hcp-p. hoSvhnv
ac-W-n-\p-t\sc ASp-p-p. bpw sNm thn; acn-m thn; `c-W-Iq-Sns sNfn-]p-c apJ-n\p aosX AWn-n-p h-\-bpsS Bh-cWw
Non-sb-dn-bm thn. thsd In Bbp-[-sam-p-an-. i{Xp-hns\ tXmnm Ign-n-s-nepw Npcp-n-bXv A]-am-\n-p-I-sb-nepw sNmw. `c-Wm-[n-Imcnsb Xmg-n-d-p-I. Akm-[y-sa-nepw sIm-cp-Xm--sXp sXfn-bn-psIm-Spmw. AXp-hgn Cu Poh t]mb kaq-l-tKm-{X-n- {]hmNI hnhns
Cu cmw Xe-ap-d-bn hnizm-k-n-sbpw Pnlm-Zn-sbpw \h-ssN-X-\y-ap
Poh-cw Ipn-sh-m Ign-bpw.
\ncm-bp-[\pw \n-lm-b\pw Ai--\p-sa-nepw Pnlm-Zns _m[yX Xs Npa-enep-sv Atlw Adn-bp-p. acn-p-I-b-msX ]Wn-bn-. ....... Nph acWw sXc-Sp-pI Xs. Xm lpssk-\m-b-Xp-sImp Xs {Iqc-Xpw Xnsa-p-sa-

64

Xnsc PnlmZv sNm _m[y--\p-am-Wv. ]s Pnlm-Zn\v Xs icocw am{X-am-Wp-Xv. AXp-sa-Sp-mWv hon \np ]pd-s-n-p--Xv. AXp-am-bmWv Xs Imncn-p Iim-p-im-e-bn {]th-in-p--Xv.
F{X IrXy-amb Bkq-{X-W-tm-sS-bmWv Atlw ]Xn Xm-dm-p-Xv!
bpnZo-tbmsS, {Im-Zin-Xz-tmsS, XnI ZmVyXtbmsS, XnIpw
Bkq-{Xn-X-amb ]pd-mSv, {]bmWw ]mem-b-\w.........
bm{X-at[y Hmtcm L- ]nn-Sp-tmgpw kl-Nm-cn-I-fn Hmtcm-cp--scbpw
ey-s-p-dnv Atlw Hm-s-Sp-p-p. bmsXmcp Ahy--Xbpw Ah-ti-jn-cp-sX-p-sh-v. BcmWv kl-Nm-cn-Isftm? At-l-ns IqsS acn-m ]pds--h. IpSpw-_mw-K-sf Hsm-gn-bmsX Atlw IqsS sImp-h-n-pv. `qapJv BI-msS At-l-n\pXv Cu IpSpw-_mw-K- am{X-am-Wv. Ah-cn
Hcmsftmepw _mn-sh-msX Atlw \bn-p-p. c-km-n-Xz-ns
Am-c-bn _en-sIm-Sp-m.
\in-n--s-p-sIm-n-cn-p hnizm-k-ns \nm-bI hn[n. Pmln-en--ns
]nSn-bn ]q-ambn Aap-I-gn-n-cn-phcpw Ckvem-anI \oXn-bpsS kzmX{-n-sbpw Xncn-p-h-c-hns\ Imp-I-gn-bp--h-cp-amb P\--fpsS Zb-\ob
ZrjvSn-I B H-s [oc-\mb a\p-jy-s\-bmWv Dp- ]mp--Xv. Atlw
FmWv sNm t]mIp--Xv.
Bbp-[hpw B tijn-bp-an-m B a\p-jy-\nXm cwK-s-n-bn-cn-p-p.
kzw XSn-bp-ambn, apgph IpSpw-_mw-K--sf-bp-ambn, {]nb-s--Iq-p-Im-cp-ambn
Xsbpw IpSpw-_-m-cp-sSbpw Iqp-Im-cp-sSbpw c-km-y-n-eqsS Hcp ]cam-n\p kmyw hln-m t]mhp-IbmWtlw. AXm-b-Xv, kXyw Bcmcpw
kwc-n-m-\n-m \n-lm-bhpw \ncm-bp-[-hp-amb k`-n Rms\s Dc-hm-ZnXzw ]cn-]qhpw hnP-b-I-c-hp-ambn CXm \nd-th-p-p! CXn-e-pdw Hpw
Xs kmy-a!
\n tIn-cnpw: Biq-dm-\m-fn kzw Ipmb Aen AkvK-dns Kf-cw
ssIp--fn-se-Spv Camw lpssk(-A) hnXp-pp: Am-lpth ASn-bs Cu
_en kzoI-cn-mepw.........-Fs \mYm, \o kmn!!
Hcp a\p-jys acWw Hcp kaq-l-ns PohnXw Dd-p-h-cp-p-Ibpw Hcm-fpsS
c-km-nXzw Hcp hnizm-k-kw-ln-X-bpsS \ne-\nn\p aqe-[-\-am-hp-Ibpw sNp-XmWv k`w. A{I-ahpw h-\bpw a-\hpw \nd GIm-[n-]-Xy-ns ]cn]q-cq-]-amWv \mSv `cn-p--sX {]Xy kmo-I-c-W-am-bn-cn-p-a-Xv. aqey-fpsS An-Xzw hnkvar-Xn-bn-tepw hn\m-i-n-tepw X-s-p-sh--Xns
Dt`m-[-\-am-bn-cnpw. Ccp-ns ]c-am-[-nIm-c-n-s\-Xnsc Db-cp Hcp Nph
{][n-tj[w, \mp-I Acnp hognn \n-_vZ-am--s--Xn-s\-Xnsc Db-cp
Hcp D{K K-\w--A-Xs{X ilm-Z-v.
Ncn{X-n \nv ambvp-I-f-b-W-sav {]Xn-tbm-Kn-I B{K-ln-psXtm,
AXns ambm-- amXr-Ibpw \ne-\nln-p--Xns A\-iz-c-am-b- {]-Xo-I-hpamWv ilm-Z-v. \n-_vZ-X-bnepw ew ]nSn-t--sXtm AXns kmo-I-cW-amWv ilm-Zv. AkvXn-Xzn\v AlX \Ip GI ImcWw; \ne\nns sXfnhv; Xbm-sd-Sp-ns eWw; {]Xym-{I-a-W-n-sbpw {]Xn-tcm-[n-sbpw GI Bbp[w; Xnbpw a-\hpw `cWw \S-p-n-Sv kXy-n\pw
a\p-jym-h-Im-i-n\pw kmaqly \oXnpw ]nSnp\nm-\p GI Ahew_wA-XmWv ilm-Z-v.

65

`c-W-IqSw At-ls \ncm-bp-[-\m-n. Fm ASn--d-Ifpw XIp-I-f-p.


Iqp-Im-scbpw Iqdp-Im-scbpw Iq-tmsS sIme-sN-bvXp. Hcp a\p-jy-\m-hpI
Fm acWnW-n NmSp-Itbm kml-N-cy--fpsS ]md-s-p-I-fn Xe-bn-Snp
s]mfn-p-Itbm sNpI Fm-Ww. CtX Ap-X--fmWv ilm-Z-n-eqsS
{]Zin-n--s-Sp--Xv.
Ccp apnb, aqI-X -hym-]n An-am-S-n Hcp c-Is\ Xpp-IbmWv lnPvd
Adp-]-Xm-am-v. Cu bpK-nsd cmXr-_m-[yX Xs Npa-en-em-Wn-X-am-bsXv kwibwhn\m a\-n-em-nb Camw lpssk(-A) Hpw Xma-kn-bmsX a
hnSp-p. Xs Imn-cn-p sIme--f-n-\p-t\sc AXn-thKw k-cn-pp.
At-l-n-\-dnbmw Ncn{Xw Xs {]Xo-n-n-cn-p-I-bm-sWv. Imew innbpw
]nn-cn--Xzn-sbpw ]pdw Xncnp \npI-bmWv. ZrjvSn-I-sfmw lpssks(-A) aptw {in-p-I-bmWv; AXyw BImwtbm-sS.
\nXm--hn-aq-I-X-bn ac-hn-p-\np P\-n\v At-l-ns apt-hpw hnem]hpw Bh-iy-apv. sNIp-mam-cpsS ssII-fn InSv N{I-izmkw henv ]nSbp ssZhnI ktiw At-l-tmSv Cs\ A`yn-pp: A-bpsS ckmyw hgn Cu AXym-ln-X-n\p kmn-bm-hpI. {]hm-N-I(-k) t\csIqn
{]h-Nn-Xv At-l-ns kvarXn-]-Z-n sXfnp hcp-p.
\o sIm--sp ImWm ssZhw B{K-ln-pp!

]Xn-\v
\psS \c-XXz imkv{X-a-\p-k-cnpw ilm-Z-n\v Hcp {]tXyI A-am-Wp-Xv.
ssZhn-Ihpw ss]im-Nn-I-hp-amb KpW-v BIjn-m-hp Xc-n-emWv
a\pjy{]Ir-Xn-bpsS krjvSn-v. sNfnbpw Bmhpw IqSn-bmWv a\p-jy.
AXn\oNhpw AXypX-hp-amb cv LS-I--fpsS kn-{iWw. aXw, aX-hn-[n-I,
Bcm-[-\-I, {]m-\-I, \nb-a-, k-, tkh-\-, hnm-\ob- XpS-n-b-h-sbmw Xn-e-S-n-bn-p ss]im-NnI ZpKp-W-sf _e-lo-\am-phm\pw ssZhn-I-amb his Dbp-hm\pwthn kwLj-fpw A`ymk--fp-amWv. Fm c-km-nXzw Hcp hyn Xnse lo\-am-b-h-is
hnizm-k-n-sbpw A\p-cm-K-n-sbpw An-bn-env DuXn--nv ssZhnI {]Imi-amn amn--sb-Sp-p hn-h-I-c-amb {]{In-b-bmWv.
c-km-nsb Ipfn-n-t--Xn. ih-pWn DSp-n-t--Xn. Ay\mfn
Abm IW-p-t_m-[n-n-t--Xn. ImcWw ckmn Xs Xn-bpsS Fm
hihpw ac-W-n-enp Zln-n-n-cn-p-p. AXn\v kmn-sb-tmWw Znhy-k-hn[w
]qIn-b-ncn--bm-W-bm.
CtX ImcWw sImm-bn-cnmw, Camw lpssk(-A) Biq-dm-bpsS Xtev hfsc
_-{i--\mbn Fm Hcp--fpw sNbvXp XoXv. Atlw \mbn Ipfnv
ipn-h-cp-pp: Iq-n apnb hkv{X--f-Wn-bp-p. \ kpK-Z hkvXp s]cp-am-dpp cpg Ae-b-Sn-p--Xn-\n-S-bn.........ac-W-ns NqSp ]nSn-am-n..-hn-e--Xpw {]nb-s--Xp-sams \jv-Ss--p-sIm-n-cn-p Ah-kcw.........LSn-Im-c-ns kqNn-I ]mbp--Xn-\-\p-k-cnv, c-km-n-I-fpsS s\nSn-p-I Bth-i-m hn-p-I-bmWv. apJw IqSp-X {]k--am-bn-o-cp-I-

66

bmWv. a\pw akvXn-jvIhpw lrZ-bhpw Znhym\p-cm-K-m X]np sImn-cn-pI-bm-Wv. {]Xm-]-hm-\mb ssZh-ns Z_m-dn-te-p AIew Ipdp hcn-I-bmsW--h-dn-bmw. ilm-Z-mWv B cmP-[m-\n-bn-te-p IhmSw.
c-km-n-Xzs Hmmp-dv ]nSn-s]-Sp Hcp hn]-mbpw BI-kvan-I-ambn
hs-p ac-W-ambpw AXym-ln-X-ambpw hnti-jn-n-p CX-c-m-cpsS
hoWKXnv hn]-co-X-ambn \psS aX-nepw kwkvIm-c-n\pw AsXmcp ]Z-hnbm-Wv.; ]ptcm-K-Xn-bmWv; D-Xn-bmWv; D-c-hm-Zn-Xz-amWv; ]q-X-bmWv; kwkvImc-amWv; am\-hn-I-X-bpsS sImSp-ap-Sn-bn-te-p-b-cm-\p Ib-p-]-Sn-bm-Wv.
Fm-epw GXp \qm-nepw BZi-im-en-Ifpw hnizm-k-kw-ln-X-bpsS A\p-bmbn-Ifpw X-p in ImWp-p-s-n Pnlm-Zn-eqsS Apw Pohn-Xhpw
Ddp hcp-p-p. s]mcp-Xm-\p Bfpw Bbp-[hpw _ehpw A]-l-cn--s--Xmbn
ImWp-tm c-km-n-Xz-n-eqsS Ah Ncn-{X-n Pohn-p-p. hnizmkw,
A-v, al-Xzw, `mhn Fnh c-km-nXzw aptJ-s\-bm-W-h `{Z-am-p--Xv.
GXp Imepw GXp Xe-ap-d-bnepw Pohn-p--h-tcmSv ilm-Z-n-\p kt-i-anXmWv:
Ign-hp-s-n sImpI.
Ign-hn-s-n Poh sImSp-p-I.

67

{]m\
{]kwKw {]m-\-bn-e-h-km-\n-n-p k{-Zmbw Rm ioen-n-n-. ImcWw
Ahn-sS-sb-p-tm Rm\-Xn\v Al-X-bn-m--hn[w \nm-c-\m-sWt F\np
tXmq. A-c-samcp am\-kn-Im-h kln-p-sIm-p-Xs, \n-fp-sS-sbmw
A\p-a-Xn-tbmsS, nXn-K-Xn-I Fn-s\-sbmw Bbn-o-c-Ww, GsXms hn[n Bbn-tm-I-cp-Xv Fv A`n-e-jn-p GXm\pw {]m-\m-i-I-e- Dcp-hnp-sIm--s.
\psS aX-{K---fn {]Xn-]m-Zn-n-p-Xpw Ae-Ivkn-kvIm-d FSp-p-]-d-n-p-Xp-amb Hcp kwKXn C-cp-W-n {]kvXm-h-tbm-Ky-ambn tXmp-p. AXm-bXv, Hcp Ipn Xs ]nXm-hn-t\mSv kwkm-cn-p-Xp t]mse-bm-bn-cn-Ww {]m-\.
Hcp Bh-iy-m-cs amXncn kzbw t{]cn-X-\mbn ]e-hw {]mn-p-I. Dcw
Inm A-s\-bmWp th-Xv.
kvt\ln-Xamsc!
Xna-bpsS A-co--n-emWv \mw izmkw Ign-p--Xv. hfsc hnjaw ]nSn-XmWv \mw Pohn-p Ime-Lw. Fs hnizm-khpw {]Xo-bpw Rm\n-n-cnp-Xv bphm-fmb \n-fn-em-Wv. Adnhpw AwKo-Im-chpw t\Sn-b-h-cpsSbpw kaql-n m\-ap--h-cp-sSbpw ]Whpw ]Z-hnbpw Bn-n-p--h-cp-sSbpw
_myX ssIh-i-ap-Xv ssItamiw hcmsX Imp-kq-n-p--Xn Ihn-smp-an-. Fm \n-fnv A]-l-cn--s A\p-{K-l--fpsS DS-a-am-cm-Wv.
\ntjw \jvS-s-Sp-Ibpw hnkvar-Xn-bn-tep X-s-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp-sIm-n-cnp B A\p-{K-l--fpsS tamN-\-n\pw \psS tam-n\pw thn h-Xpsams sNm \np km[n--Ww.
ssZhta!
a\p-jy-a-v \o alXzw {]Zm\w sNbvXp;
Ah-cpsS Npa-en \ns hnti-j-s Aam-\v hln-np;
thZ-{Kw ]Tn-n-m\pw \oXn \S-n hcp-m\pw {]hm-N-Iamsc Ab-p-X-p.
\obpw \ns ZqXamcpw \nn hnizm-k-an--h-cp-amWv A-kp--h-scp \nbn-p.
R a\p-jy,
\nnepw \ns {]hm-NIt{ijvT-cnepw hniz-kn-n-p--h.
Rv kzmX-{w, mt\m_p--X, \oXn, Av Fnh XcnI! R
At-b-s Bh-iy-m-cm-Wv. aps-s-t-mfpa[nIw thZ-\-b-\p`hn-p--hcmWnp R. ASn-a--n-sbpw A-X-bp-sSbpw \ny-X-bp-sSbpw _en-bmSp-I-b-fm-bn-on-cn-pp R ..................
an-X-cp-sSbpw Zp-e-cp-sSbpw ssZhta!

68

`qap-Js an-X-scbpw ASn--a-s--h-scbpw \o XpW-p-atm! Ncn-{X-ns


Ne-Ifn
hcn-p-ap-dp-Ip-Ibpw
A{I-a-n\pw
A\o-Xn-p-sa-Xn-cmbpw
sImbpw sImebpw klnpw `qan-bnse \c-I-hm-kn-I-fm-bn-on-cn--bmWv
R. PohnXw XS-b-s Cu Ah-i-P-\-v `qan-bpsS A\--cm-h-Im-ihpw
\mb-I-Xzhpw X-cp-fn-bmepw.
Ctm ka-b-am-bn-cn-p-p. `qan-bnse anX P\-tImSn \ns hmKvZm\w ]pe-cpXp {]Xo-n-n-cn-p-I-bm-Wv.
kvt\l-kz-cq-]t\! CXm Cu an-X \ns am{Xw hW-p-Ibpw \n\p am{Xw
hg-p-Ibpw sNp--h-cm-Wv.
atl-izcm!
BZ-an(-A)s apn \an-tXn\v \ns hnip--cmb apgp-h amem-J-am-scbpw
At-l-ns Im sImp-h--h \ob-tbm! Ctm- \o ImWp-n-t,
BZw k-Xn-I-fpsS inc-p-I `qan-bnse sNIp-mam ]nSnp Ipn-So-pXv? Cu \qm-nse kzbw krjvS _nw_fpsS XS-]m-f-b-n\nv BZw
k-Xn-Isf tamNn-nv \ns am{Xw ASn-a-I-fmbn Pohn-m\hkcw \In! AXphgn Ah ]cn-]q kzmX{yw A\p-`-hn--s.
temI-cm-Pmth!
\ns ZrjvSm--sf \ntj-[n-p-hcpw {]hm-N-I-msc A\ym-b-ambn sIme-sNbvX-hcpw \oXn-pw ka-Xz-n\pw kzc-ap-bn-b-hsc h[n--h-cp-amWv temIw `cnp--Xv!
Xp-cms\!
R-fpsS aX]WvUn-X-msc Ihyt_m[-ap--h-cm-n-bmepw! km[m-c-Wmv hnh-cw, hnizm-kn-Iv shfnw, _pn-Po-hn-Iv hnizm-kw, Xo{h-hm-ZnIv ka-Nn--X, ka-Nn--Xbpw Imcy-t_m-[-hp-ap--hv Xo{h-X, kv{XoIv
Xt-Sw, BWp-v am\y-X, hr-mv Zo-L-Zr-jvSn, bph-P-\-v a\-cppw XSnbpdpw, Kpcp-`q-X-mv BZiw, hnZymn-Ipw....-B-Zjw, Ddn-n-S-p--hv DWv, DWn-cn-p--hv Xocp-am\ in, {]t_m-[-Imv ]c-amw, aX-hn-izm-kn-Iv aX-\n-jvT-X, Fgp-p-Imv _m[y-X, IeIm-c-mv thZ-\, Ihn-Iv `mh-\bpw hI-Xn-cn-hpw, m\nIv eyw,
\ncm-i-_m-[n--hv {]Xym-i, Zp-e-mv in, -Im-hmv ss[cyw, hn{ian-p--hv hnhw, ac-hnp t]mb-hv Ne-\w, acn--hv Pohn-Xw, Amv ImgvN, Dua-Iv hne-]n-m\pw _l-f-ap-m-m-\p-ap Ign-hv,
apkvenwIv Jp-B, inbm-v Aen, In-In-S-bn sFIyw,
Akqbmep-v ia-\w, kzm-mv ]cm-X, Zpkz-`m-hn-Iv kkz-`mhw, sXdn-]-d-bp--hpw iIm-cn-p--hpw acym-Z, tbmm-v kl-\w,
kmam\y P\-v B-hn-izm-kw, kap-Zm-b-n\v \vb-ZmVy-X, [oc-X,
AW k--X, Bth-iw, Aln-p tamN-\w, Av Fnh \In-bmepw!
IA-_m-e-b-ns \mYm!

69

Bbp-jvIm-e-ns Hcp Znh-khpw ]mgm-bvtm-ImsX Fm cmhn-sebpw sshIpt-chpw \ns `h-\-n--`n-ap-J-ambn \np--h-cm-Wo-P-\X. ac-W-th-f-bnepw
\ns `h-\-n\pt\sc apJw Ncnp sImm-Wn-h InS-pI. \ns C{_mlow
\_n(-A) ]WnX an-c-n\p Nppw {]ZnWwshp Id-p--h-cm-Wn-h.
Fnpw Cu ASn-b-sf t\mv. _lp-ssZ-h-Xz-n-sbpw A-\m--Im-c-nsbpw _en-]o-T-n-em-Wn-h hp s]n-cn-p--Xv. \nwdq-Zns N-e-bn _s-n-cn-pIbm-Wn-h-cpsS Igp-p-I! CXn-\nbpw A\p-h-Zn-n!

70

B-`m-jWw
apl-Zv (k)!
in-bp-sSbpw kzmX-{y-nsbpw Pm{K-X-bp-sSbpw {]hm-NIm! Ahn-Sps
hoSn\p Xo]n-Sn-n-cn-p-p. AXv BfnSp ]c-p-I-bm-Wv. ]Sn-m-dp-\nv
sIm-bp-sSbpw Nqj-W-nsbpw `b--chpw B]-chpamb Hcp alm
Pe{]f-b-anXm Ahn-Sps hnip an-tev Cc-n- h-cp-p. Ahn-Sps kaq-lam-sW-n ZoL-Imeambn A]-am-\-I-c-amb \n{Z-bn-emp InS-m-Wv................ Hcp
[z\n-bn-SpI ...........-F-gp-tv Ahsc XmoXv sNp-I....... Ahsc DWpI!

Aen (A) !
Znhy tIkcn! ssZh-n-sbpw a\p-jy-cp-sSbpw {]Xn-]p-cpjm! JUvK-n-sbpw
A\p-cm-K-n-bpw `n-Kp-W--fpsS ]cn-]q kt-f-\ta! Asb Adn-bm\p tbmKyX R-fpsS ssII-fn \nv tNmv t]mbn-sm-n-cn-p-p.
Imew R-fpsS a\-p-Iv Asb ]cn-Nbanm-Xm-n-bn-cn-p-p.
Fnepw A-tbm-Sp A\p-cmKw R-fpsS lrZ-bm-`m-Kv AXy-Km-[ambn
]Xnp InS-pv. a\-ns\ aqSn-bn-cn-p Bh-c-W-n\p ]nn AXn-pw-Pzen-p-p. A-bpsS Cu A\p-c--msc \nycpw \oN-cp-ambn hnn-cn-p--sXv!
A-bpsS `c-W-n\p Iogn hkn-n-cp Hcp PqXh\n-X-bvs-Xnsc Dmb
\nm-c-amb Hcp Itw t]mepw Atv kln-m Ign-n-cp-n-. Ctm
PqX-m-cpsS B[n-]-Xy-n\p Nph-n Ign-tbn hn-cn-p apkvenwIsf
t\mq; Ah-cpsS nXnsbm-sWv? A-bpsS ssIsImp B
{]lcw!..................apgp temI-n-sbpw {]m-\-tb-m t{ijvT-X-c-am-WXv. Hp
{]l-cn.......-H-cn- IqSn.
ktlm-Z-cm, ktlm-Zco!
a\p-jy-cpsS An-Xz-n\v Aw \In-b-htc! \n-fn-cp-hcpw Bm-hn\v
kzmX{yhpw hnizm-k-n\pw {]Xo-pw hnizm-khpw {]Xo-bpw {]Zm\w
sNbvXp kzw acWw sImv Pohn-X-n\p Poh\In.
\nw-i-bw,
thZ-\-bn \ns-gp-t-n-n-m Biqdm Zn\sk-n-p-tm-tgv `mh\
hnd-sIm-p-Ibpw a\v inYn-e-am-hp-Ibpw sNp B `oI-c-Zn-\sHmnn-psIm-p Ip-\o Cu kap-Zm-b-ns \b-\--fn \nsm-cn-epw hn-bn-n-.
Cu P\X \n-fpsS ZpxJkva-c-W-I Ab-hn-d-nbpw \ntfm-Sp A\p-cm-K-hmbn-]p-I-f-\p-`-hnpw \qm-p-I-fmbn tIgp-I-bm-Wv. Cu\ne {]Wbw Io-cns
`mj-bn Ftm ]d-bp-nt?
Hcp P\-X-bpsS apgp-h Ncn-{Xhpw \n-f-\p-`-hn bmX-\-bn A\p-tim-Nn-p-sImn-cn-pp \nsf kvt\ln-p-sh Ip-n\v Nm-hm-d-Sn-I-tfp-Ibpw Iq
h[-n-c-bm-hp-Ibpw sNpp Ah ]e-PmXn a-\-p hnt[-b-cm-snpw Ah-cpsS A[-c--fn \np \n-fpsS \maw Hcp \nan-j-t-p-t]m-epw

71

A{]-Xy--a-mbn; a\-p-I-fn\nv Hm am-p-t]m-bn; Ah-cpsS A-cw-K-fn \n-tfm-Sp A\p-cm-Kmn AS-Xp-an.


Pbn-e-dpsS Hmtcm Nn {]l-chpw \n-tfm-Sp A\p-cm-K-ns ap{Z-I-fmbn
Ah-cpsS apXp-Inepw ]miz--fnepw ]Xn-p-sIm-n-cp-p.

ssk\-_v(-A)!
Aen(A)-bpsS \mv kzmb--am-n-b-htf! kzw kap-Zm-b-tmSv kwkm-cn-mepw.
A ]-[m-cnWo! alXo!
\ns Po\n-h-nn\nmWv [ocX ss[cy-sa-sv ]Tn--Xv.
\ns Xncp\maw AXn-e-S-n-bn-p Znhy-\p-cm-K-hpw th-Z-\bpw klnXw R-fpsS
h\n-XI Ah-cpsS Bm-hns Bg--fn-tev Bhm-ln-s-Sp-n-cn-p-I-bm-Wv.
Fs-t-m-fp-tasd Ctm-gmWv Ahv \ns thXv. Hcp hiv AX
Ahsc \nycpw \oNcpw ASn-a-I-fp-am-n-on-cn-p-p. adp-h-iv ]mm-Xy
\mK-cn-IX A\yhpw ASn-a--]q-hp-amb ]pXn-b-Xcw A]-am-\--fn-tev Ahsc
hen-n-g-p-sImp t]mhp-I-bp-am-Wv. X^ew \nsbpw \ns hyn-Xz-s-sbpw hn-I-ep-I-bm-W-h.
Ahsc hnUvVn-n hogvm ]pcm-X-\hpw ]pXn-b-Xp-amb I]-S-X-{-
ChnsS ]Wn-sb-Sp-p-p-v. Pon hyh-n-Xn-bpsS Ak-ly-amb {]t_m-[-\, ]gb bmYm-n-Xn-I-Xzw, ]pXn-b- a-t\m-c-ay-X-I CsXms Ahsf hgn-sX-nm ]mSp-s]-Sp-I-bm-Wv. CXn-s\-Xnsc Hcp K\w ]pd-s-Sp-hn-p-I. IuSn-eyhpw
Imm-f-hpw tXhmgvN \S-n-bn-cp \K-c-s- hn-d-sIm-n-p-Ibpw AhnsS
\ne-\n-n-cp hyh-n-Xnsb Ipgp-a-dn-p-Ibpw h-\-bp-sSbpw ASn--a-ensbpw A[n-Im-c-tI-{-amb sImm-c-ns ASn-bn-f-p-Ibpw sNbvX B Ae
AXyp--n Hp-IqSn apg-s. AXns amsm-en-I-fmbn R-fpsS kv{XoI
ChnsS _l-fhpw Akz--Xbpw Dm-s. h-\-bp-sSbpw I]-S-X-bp-sSbpw
Nne-n-he t]msem Cu Xnc-o-e-I Ah Non-sb-dn-b-s.
`bm-\-Ihpw hn\m-i-I-hp-amb Cu sImSp-m-n\p apn Ah-cpsS apt-ns
DLm-S-\am-bncn-s
B
Ae.
A{I-a-n--`n-ap-J-ambn
Fgp-tp
\nm\p Hcp Blzm-\-am-bn-cn-s AXv.
B `oIc b{w XIp-I-f-bp-I. kv{XoIsf am-p-I-fn {]Zin-n-m\pw
Bn-]q apX-em-fn-I-fpsS Bkn ian-n-m\pw Hgnhp ka-b--fnse t\ctm-s-tmWw D]-tbm-Kn--\p-ap D]-I-c-W--fmn amn--Wn-bp-I-bmWv B
b{-ns D]-tbm-Kw.
_qjzm-kn-I-fpsS Zptam-l-sf B\-n-n-p-I, XWpp \nn-Im-c-amb lmfpI-fn Dt-P\w ]I-cp-I, ]W-m-cpsS timI-amb hncppkm-c-sf
ltjm-jva-f-am-pI, iyq\yhpw Ae-y-hpw- hn-jm-Z-I-ep-j-hp-amb kmaq-ly-Po-hnXs Bizm-k-{]-Zhpw Bkzm-Zy-{]-I-hp-am-n-op-ICsXm-s-bmWv sam-\nk-n-e-S--bn-p hnZy-I.

72

]gb bYm-n-XnIXzns ASn-a-Xz-n \npw ]pXn-b-]-cn-jvIm-c-ns


am-p-I-fn\npw Ahp tamNn-X-cm-hm t\XrXzw \IpI!
Aen (A)-bpsS \mp--htf!
lpssk (A)s Npa-X-e-I Npa-en hln--htf!
I_-e-bpsS Xmh-f- XcWw sNbvXp h-htf!
sIme-bm-fn-I-fp-sSbpw Bcm-m-cp-am-cp-sSbpw Cc-p-b-cp _l-f-n-S-bn
c-km-n-I-fpsS ktiw Ncn-{X-ns ImXp-I-fn-se-np \o.

_o_o ssk\_v (A) !


AhnsS shv \ns Af-hn Fp-mbn Fpw Rp tIt-.
i{Xp- Fs\ s]cp-am-dn-sbtm an{X- Fp \ne-]mSv kzoI-cn-p-shtm
R-tfmSv hnkvX-cn-m-Xn-cn-p-I.
lpssk-\nm hn-h-ns kt-i-hm-lntI!
AsX-mw R-dnbmw.
R AsXms tIpIgn--XmWv.
I_-e-bpsSbpw c-km-n-I-fp-sSbpw ktiw hfsc kp-c-ambn \o kan-npv.
\o kzbw-Xs PohcwsImv hmp-Isf A\-iz-c-am-nb c-km-n-bm-Wtm.
Xs Hmtcm XpncwsImpw Hmtcm ]mT- cNn kzktlm-Z-c-s\-t]m-se-Xs.
Fm ]d-p-X-cnI:
ktlm-Zco!
R-sfp sN-Ww?
Hcp \nan-j-tv R-f-\p-`-hn-p IjvS-m-Sp-I-fpsS t\sc Hp I-b-bvpI.
CXm Hcp \nanjw; R-fpsS hnjak-n-I-sfmp ssIam-ds.
R-fpsS {]nb ktlm-Zco, tIm-epw.
C\n \o Rp-th-n-bmWv Ic-tb--Xv.
ktlm-Z-cs hniz-kvX-bmb ZuXy-hm-lntI!
c-km-n-Xz-ns Nphp cm-`-amb cp[n-tcm-[ym-\-n \nv h-htf,
AhnsS hncn ]pXp- ]q--fpsS \dp-aWw \ns hkv{Xm--e-n\n-Sn-p-]-cp-p.

73

Aen-bpsS ]p{Xo!
lpssks(A) ktlm-Zco !
XS-hp-Im-cpsS kzm-hm-l-I-kw-L-ns Npm ]nS-p--htf!
B _--\--cpsS bm{XmkwL-n R-sfbpw tNptam?

lpssk (A) !
Rms\p ]d-bs?
Ae-bm-gnp \Sp-hnse A-Imc\n_n-U-amb Cu cm{Xn-bn Rm Fp ]d-bm\m-Wv?
Ftm-gmWv Xnc-b-Sn-tbv XI-cpI Fmthm? Npgn-bn s]v appI Ftm-gmWmthm?
am-Zo-]ta!
cm-t]-S-Ita!
lm........... B cw acp-`q-an-bn InSp Xnf-p-sIm-n-cn-p-I-bm-Wv; Imem Ime-fmbn tcmjw sImp-I-bmWv; Ime-ns \nc-n-eq-sS ]c-sm-gp-Ip-I-bm-Wv; Xe-apd-Isf IS-sm-gp-Ip-I-bmWv. ^e-`p-bn-jvT-amb `qansb tNmc-sImv \\-bvp-IbmWv; Icp-m _oP-sf apf-n-p-Ibpw Imbvn-p-I-bp-am-Wv; DW-nb
sNSn-Isf ]-]n-Sn-n-p-Ibpw Cebpw ^ehpw {][m\w sNp-I-bp-am-Wv.
c-km-y-ns alm-\mb Kptcm!
R-fpsS ss\cm-iy-n-tepw Ccpap-nb Dd--d-bn-tepw B {]Im-i-n
\nsmcp IncWw Fdnp XcnI. hcp \no-h-amb R-fpsS \ne-tv
Hcnv cw hogvn--cn-I. B acp-`q-an-bnse An-bn\nsmcp Pzme Cp
XWpp tImp ioX--Im-e-n\p t\sc ]Sp-I.
c-km-y-n-eqsS Nph acWw sXc-s-Sp--ht\!
aXs BNm-tcm-]-Nm-c--fn ]cn-an-X-sap [cnv Pohn-X-Imew apgp-h\pw AX-\pjvTnv A]-am-\-I-c-amb Idpac-W-n-\S- n-s-Sm \ns A\p-c--mn-S-h-cmXn-cn-s. \ns Hmtcm tNmc-p-nbpw kaq-l-n\p Poh\pw Ncn-{X-n\p
NqSpw \no-hhpw \ni-tN-X-\-hp-amb Ime-n\p ssNX\yhpw \Ip-am-dm-Is !
t{]a-hpw {]Xym-ibpw Bth-ihpw Xcs !
R-fpsS hnizm-k-n-\v, P\-X-bvv, `mhn-N-cn-{X-n-\v, Ime-n\v \obpw \ns
chpw Bh-iy-am-Wv.

74

c-km-y-tijw
Ctm c-km-n-I Cu temIw hnp-t]m-bn--gnp. Poh-\n-m--\-
ChnsS Ah-ti-jn-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. ]d-bm-\p-Xv apgp-h ]dv Xon-m-Wv
c-km-n-I t]mb-Xv. \mam-Is Ah-cpsS A`n-kw-t_m-[n-Xcpw t{imXm--fp-ambn-cn-m \n_-n--s-n-cn-pI-bm-Wv. PohnXw Akm-[y-sap I-tm acW-ns ]mX sXcs-Spv ewhn [oc-m-cm-W-h. \mWw sI- \-
\ny-X-bp-sSbpw lo\-X-bp-sSbpw ]Ip-I-fmbn temIw \s A]-l-kn-p-Xn\pw Ah-tl-fn-p--Xn\pw \ymbo-I-cWw \In-smv ChnsSs Ccn-p-IbmWv; hj--fm-bn. AtX kabw A-n-sbpw al-Xz-n-sbpw Dze {]XoI--fmb lpssk\pw(-A), ssk\_n\pw(A)thn \mw hne-]n-p-Ibpw sNpp. Cu \nIr-jvS-m B DIr-jvS-mp thn A\p-tim-Nn--W-sav Ncn-{Xns Hcp t{Zml-am-bn-cn-mw.
c-km-n-I Ah-cpsS tNmc-bn Ipdn-n- kt-i-anXm ]n-e-ap-d-I-tfm-Sp
hn-hm-lzm\satmWw \psS In-\p-ap-msI InS-pp.
\psS aX-n-sbpw kwkvIm-c-n-sbpw Ncn-{X-n- a\p-jy Pw sImSp
AXnal-\o-bhpw AXnt{ijvT-hp-amb Hcp PohnX {]Zm-bI _oP-amWv iobn-kw.
AXv Ncn-{X-n\v NqSpw Ne-\hpw ssNX-\yhpw {]Zm\w sNp-p. ssZhw XtmSp kmao]yw knn-m Ghpw A\p-tbm-Py-am-b-Xmbn Adn-bn-p-X ]S-hpI ]Tn-n-p-X-cn-Ibpw sNpp AXv. ssZh-ns al-Xz-ta-dnb B Aaq-ey-\n-[nbpsS A\--cm-h-Imiw hp-s]-n-cn-p-Xv Agpv ]nSnv hrn-bn-m-Xmb \stm-ep--h-cpsS \njvTq-c-I-c--fn-em-Wv.
\mw A\--c-sa-Sp-n-p Cu A-am-\-n\v ZoL-\m-fs XymK ]cn-{i-a--fpsSbpw al-mb am\p-jnI aqey--fp-sSbpw Ncn-{X-ap-v. a\pjy--Ip-e-n\v amXr-Ibm-tI kap-Zm-b-sa \ne-mWv \mw Cu Aam-\-p-I-fpsS DS-a-cpw AhtbmSv _m[y--cp-am-n-bn-cn-p--Xv. \s A`n-kw-t_m-Z\w sNbvXp sImv JpB ]d-bp-p. As\ \nsf \mw HcnS-cw kap-Zmbamn; \n P\v kmn-I-fm-Im\pw ssZh-Zq-Z \nv kmn-bmIm\pw80
{]nb-s c-km-n-I-fpsS ]mc-cyw ssIbn-se-Sp-p-sImv tbmm--,
t\Xm-, am-Zin-I, hnizm-kw, thZ-{Kw Fo Fm LS-I-fpw
klnXw Hcp amXrIm kaq-l-am-bn-o-cp-I-bmWv \psS _my-X. temI-nse
apgp-h Bfp-Ipw \mw kmn-I-fm-h-Ww. {]hm-N-I \apv {]h-\-am-XrI-bpw.
a\p-jy-cm-inv Ne\w {]Zm\wsNp-hm\pw \hPo-hnXw XpSp-nv ]cn-hn-n-phm\pw Icp-p Cu al-mb kt-is Pohn-X-n IqSp-X ]cm-Pn-Xcpw
Ign-hp-sI--h-cp-sav A\p-Zn\w sXfn-bn-p-sIm-n-cn-p \s-tm-ep--hcpsS
Npa-ep-I-fn Xs ssZhw hln-n--Xns ]nnse s]mcp- Fm-Wmthm?
A[-a-Po-hn-n AXr]vXn tXmm Ip-Im-en-Isftmse Ign-p-Iq-Sp
\s-tm-ep- tIh-eam I_-e-bn c-km-n-I-fm-hp-I-hgn ssZh-ns
khn-[-nepw apn-bpsS cmPm--W-nepw {]am-W-am-bp--cn--s-Sm Al-Xt\-Snb AkvXn-Xz--fpsS DS-a-I-fmb BWp-pw s]p-pw Ipn-Ipw
thn ZpxJw BN-cn-Ww t]m!

75

ssZh-ta, CXv hm-smcp KXn-tI-Sp-Xs. lpssk(-A) IpSpw_w hopw an-s-Sp-I-bmtWm?


c-km-n-I- kzI-hy- ]q-ambpw \nd-thn. \tfm? Cc-hp-]-I
Ahp-thn ZpxJm-N-c-W- A\p-jvSn-p-Ibpw AtXm-S-w-Xs Ah XpSn-sh Npa-Xe Ah-cpsS hntbm-K-tmsS Xo-Xmbn hnfw-_-c-s-Sp-p-I-bpwsN-p-p. lpsskt\m(A)-Sp A\p-cm-K-hm-bvn-\m {]tNm-Zn-X-cmbn Ae-ap-d-bnSp \mw I_-e-bnse cmnX kw`-hs Ncn-{X-ns Xnc-o-e-p-n HXpm\pw kw`-h-tem-Iv AXns\ A{]-k
- -am-m\pw ]cn-{i-an-p bko-Zn-t\mSp
Iqp-Iq-Sp ImgvN hntcm-[m-`mkw Xs!
]d-bm-\p-Xv ASn ]d-p-Xopw sNt--sXms sNbvXp-Xop-amWv
c-km-n-I ]nhm-n-bn-p-f-f-Xv. {]mb-n-sbpw ]Z-hn-bp-sSbpw hyXymkw
IqSmsX, kv{Xo]p-cpj t`Z-sat\y B Ime-L--ns kIe {]Xn-\n-[n-Ifpw
tN Hcp sNdp-kw-L-am-W-hnsS I_-e-bn A\-izc acWw hcn-m Fntn-cp--Xv. Dzeamb B ssNX-\y-tmSpw XnI a\x-km-n-[y-tmSpw
IqSn Aa-cXzw ]ptI--Xn-\mbn {]mWs\ XyPn-m Hcpn-h--h-cm-W-h.
lpssk(-A), At-l-ns Ipcp-p-Ipv, ktlm-Z-c, the-m-c, Jp-B
hyIv-Xm-- Fn-t\-sd ]n-bnse _mnbpw ]n-qSw Aym-]-I\pw hsc,
kaq-l-nse D-X-m-\o-b sXmv Xmtg-n-S-bn Ign-bp--h hsc kI-ecpw
Htc hnImcw DsImv c-kmyw hcn-m thn Imp-\np-I-bm-Wv.
Pohn-X-ns ]e-]-Sn-bn-ep B Iq-nse B_m-e-hrw Bfp-Ifpw Ah-c-h
{]Xn-\n-[m\w sNp {]mb-mpw ]Z-hn-mpw \Ip A\-iz-c-amb ]mTw
CXm-Wv. PohnXw kpkm-y-am-sW-n Fs\ Pohn--Ww, PohnXw Akm-y-amIp kml-N-cy-n Fs\ acn--Ww.
I_-e, c-km-n-I X-fpsS c-kmyw hgn asmcp alIrXyw IqSn
\nh-ln-p-I-bp-m-bn. \mp-sImpw hmp-sIm-p-a, Poh-cw sIms-gpXnb tcJ-bp-ambn Ncn-{X-ns \ymbm-k-\s kao-]nv Av \ne-hn-ep-m-bncp `c-W-hy-h-n-Xnsb {]Xn-q-n Ib-nsmv C{]-Imcw kmyw hlnp
Ah: cmjv{Sobw, km-nIw, aXw, Ie, XXz-im-kv{Xw, Nn, `mh-\, A\p-`q-Xn,
hnIm-cw, [mn-I-X, a\p-jyXzw XpSn apgp-a--e--sfbpw `c-Wm-[n-Imcn Xs
Ic-h-e-b-nepw \nb-{-W-nepw HXp-n-bn-cn-p-I-bm-Wv. Xs Zptam-l--fpsS
bmK-]o-T-n a\p-jym---sf-sImv bw \S-p-I-bm-W-bm. A{I-a-nsbpw A\o-Xn-bp-sSbpw lnwkm--I-X-bpsSbpw An-hm-c-nta-emWv B `cW-hy-h-nXn \ne-\np-Xv Xs. a\p-jycpw am\p-jn-I-aq-ey-fpw AhnsS
hnn-sm-n-cn-p-p. Ncn-{Xs `cn-p-Ibpw Ncn-{X-n-\p-ta B[n-]Xyw
t\Sp-Ibpw sNp-I-bmWv A{I-an-bmb `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn. Abm-fpsS sIme--bdv Fa a\p-jy-a--fpsS Poh Dw shv \op-I-bm-Wv. IW-n-m kv{XoI- B
sImem-fn-bpsS Nn--Iv ic-hy-am-bn-sm-n-cn-p-p. ]n-Wn-m-h-, ASn-aI, kv{XoI, Ipn-I, ]pcp-jam, [ocam, Kpcp-am Fn-s\
{]mbtam ]Z-hntbm ]cn-K-Wn-msX Fm-hcpw Iq-tmsS th-bm-S-s-Sp-I-bm-Wnhn-sS. kw`-h-hn-Im-k--sf cwK--h-Xc
- n-n-pI Akm-y-am-Ip-amdv Ncn-{Xnta `c-Wm-[n-Imcn A[o-iXzw m]n-n-cn-p-I-bm-Wv. Ah-\-hs tNmcbpsS hne-a-\-n-emn au\w ]qn-cn-p--hsc am{Xta Fhn-sSbpw ImWp-p-q.
Cu ]cn-tXm-h-kv-Y-bn-emWv lpssk(-A) Xn \nn-]-X-am-bn-cn-p D-c-hmZn-Xz-ns Kuchw a\-n-emn cwKv hn-cn-p--Xv. Xsbpw X\n-p--h-cpambn an--s-Sp Fm-hpw thn bq{^-o-kns Xocv Ncn-{X-ns
tImS-Xn-bn kmyw hlnm Fn-bn-cn-p-I-bmWv At-lw.

76

Ncn-{Xs AS-n-hm-gp sIme-bm-fn-`-c-W-n\p Iogn \c-Inp Ign-bp kaql-n-\p-thn Atlw kmyw hln-p-I-bm-Wv.
bph-P-\--fpsS {]-tbbpw akvXn-jv-tbpw Zb-\o-b-ambn hop-ap-np
sIm {Iqc-\mb flvlmv 81 tamU Bcm-ms-Xnsc ]p{X Aen-A-Iv_dns\ 82 kmn-\nn kmyw hln-p-I-bm-Wv.
{Iqc-Xbpw ZpjvS-Xbpw tXhmgvN \S-p Hcp kmaqlyhyh-kvYnXnbn [oc\pw
DX am\-knI\ne-hm-c-tm-Sp-Iq-Snbh\p-amb Hcp t]mcmfn acWwhcn-t--sXs\ FXv kzw hoc-ar-Xyp-hn-eqsS kmyw hln-p-I-bm-Wv.
kv{XoI- A-n-sbpw ASn-a--n-sbpw PohnXw sXc-s-Spv A\-]p-c-nse Ifn-m-h-I-fm-b-Xn\pw kzmX{yw Cnhv Ah-S-h-- hcn-p-sI-sv XS-hp-Im-cpsS ap\n-c-bn Npm ]nSnv tLmj-bm{X \S-t-n-h-n-cnp-Xn\pw ktlm-Zcn ssk\-_ns amXr-I-bn-eqsS kmyw hln-p-I-bm-Wv.
{Iqc-X-bpsS ]cym-b-amb sIme-bm-fn-`-cW-n ITn-\-lr-Z-b-\mb `c-W-Imhn\nv ape-p-p-p t]mepw IcpW e`n-p-n F-Xn\v Xs An-ss-X-emb Aen AkvK-dn-eqsS kmyw hln-p-I-bm-Wv.
\n-lm-bcpw \ni-_vZ-cp-am--sv Poh XyPn-t-n-h cIm-X-km-nIsmw thn Ncn-{X-ns {Inan-\ tImS-Xn-bn ktm-]cn Xs cw
sImv kmyw hln-p-I-bmWv lpssk(-A) sNbvX-Xv.
ssIh-i-ap Fm hkvXp-h-l-Ifpw DS-a-bn-ep apgp-h km[y-X-Ifpw klnXw
Xs ssZhn-I-_m-[y-X-bpsS ]qo-I-c-W-sa-tmWw lpssk(-A) c-kmyzw hcn--tXmsS B tImSXn ]ncn-p.
kvt\ln-Xam-sc,
Cp ImWp cq]-n-ep iobo-k-n ]pd-p-\nv ]eXpw IS-p-Iq-Sn-bn-pv. ip-amb iobo-ks Iep-I-fn\nv thXn-cnp ImWn-p-I-sb kZpt-i-tm-Sp-IqSn cwK-p-h-cp GsXm-cmpw ISp FXnp-Isf i{Xp-fn\n- an{X--fn \nv t\cn-tS-n-h-cpw. bYm iobokw Ah-X-cn-n-p
Aym-]-\-fpw kt-i-fpw al-mb aqey-fpw kwkvmc ]cn-jvmc ]mc-cy-fpw kaq-l-n\pw Ncn-{X-n\pw Pohn-Xhpw kv]-\hpw \Ip Pzme-Ifm-Wv.
iobn-k-ns Ncn-{X-nse Poh-m[m-c-sap ]d-bm-hp ]c-a-{]-[m\ hi--fn-semmWv c-kmy t_m[hpw AXn-\p hmRvO-bpw. Pem Al-Zv 83 ]d-t]mse \mw c-km-nXzns ]mc-cyw ad-n-cn-p-p. c-km-n-I-fpsS
ih-Ip-So-c-v Imh-en-cn-mt\ Cp \ap--dn-bp-Ibp-q. AXn-\m arXyphns lo\-amb Imo-gn Xe-Ip-\nv acn-p-t]m-tI-n-h-cpp \ap-v.
Aen(-A)bpsSbpw lpssk(-A)bpw ssk\-_n(-A) sbpw In-bn AwK-M-Mfm-hp--Xn\p ]Icw \psS BWp-fpw s]p-fpw Ah-cpsS c-km-ytamv kS-s-Sp-Ibpw hnIm-c-\n`-c-amb hnem]w apg-p-I-bp-am-Wv. Cu \ne
XpS-cp ]w \apv Fpw Cs\ hne-]n-psImpXs Ccn-t-n-h-cpw.

77

apgp-h a\p-jyp-ambn lpssk-\pw(-A) Iqp-Imcpw \Inb \nXy kt-is


F{X t_m[-]q-amWv \mw amn-p-dn-n-cn-p--Xv. {]nb-s Iqp-Im-cpsS arX-tZl- Iqmcw IqSn tNmc-bn apn-In-S-p cwKw! kwlm-c-Xr-jvWbpw
sshcm-Kyhpw sImv cu{Z-`mhw ]qp-\np i{Xp-hn-s\-b-msX Is-p-nS-smpw ImWp-n-. AXn-\n-S-p-\nv lpssk-s(-A) hnem-]-tcm-Z-\-ap-b-cp-p.
Fs klm-bn-m\pw F\n-p-thn {]Xn-Imcw sNm\pw Bcm-Wp-Xv?
XtmSv A\p-`m-h-ap Hcmfpw Ahn-sS-sb-p-an-m F ]q-t_m-y-ap-m-bn-cpnpw Fn-\m-W-tlw As\ tNmZn--Xv.? Hpw kwibw th, B tNmZyw
`mhn Ncn-{X-tm-Sm-bn-cpp. Xs A\p-c-m--fn \nv lpssk(-A) FmWv
A`n-e-jn-p--sXv hnfn-p-]-d-bp--XmWv {]kvXpX tNmZyw. c-kmyw B{Kln-p-Ibpw c-km-n-Isf BZ-cn-p-Ibpw sNp kI-e-scbpw B klm-b`y-\-bn-eqsS Atlw Wn-p-Ibm-Wv.
Fm ]noSp h Fm Ime-L---fnepw Xe-ap-d-I-fnepw Bhn--s-pt]m lpssk-s(-A) {]kvXpX W-n-sbpw klm-b-`y-\-bp-sSbpw
t\sc \mw aqI-ambpw \nw-K-Xm-`m-h-tm-sS-bpamWv {]Xn-I-cn---Xv. AXn\pw
]pdsa Bfp-I-tfmSv \mw C{]-Imcw ]d-bp-hm\pw XpS-n. lpssk(-A) acn-p-t]mbn. At-l-n-s-Xmbn hnti-jn-smcp kt-i-hp-an-. Aw Iocpw hnjmZw
Ienb hnem-]-hpta C\n At-l-n\p thq. C. Hcn--ep-an-. lpssk(A) acn-n-n-. Atlw kmn-bm-Wv. kn-ln-X-\m-Wv. Fm-bn-Spw Fmbvtmgpw Atlw lmP-dp-v. AXn-\m At-l-n\v thXv A\p-bm-bn-I-sf-bmWv.
c-n-sbpw kt-i-n-s-Xp-amb Ccp-ap-J-ap--Xm-bn-cnpw GsXmcp hn-hhpw.
kXy-tm-Sp A\p-cm-K-m t{]cn-X-\mbn {]mW XyPn-m Xm-dm-hp-Ibpw
Nph acWw kzbw sXc-s-Sp-p-Ibpw sNbvX-h-\mWv c-km-n. aqey-
\in-n--s-Sp-Xv ImWp-tm GI-\m-sW-ntmepw Abm Bbp-[-sa-Sp-pw.
A-c-n-ep--h Fpw Fhn-sSbpw Pohn-n-cn-p-I-bmWv sNp--Xv. Ah
kmyw hln-p-Ibpw kn-ln-X-cm-hp-Ibpw sNp-p. ssZh-ns U_m-dn
am{X-a, P\-Iob kZ-p-I-fnepw Fm-epw, Fm-bn-S-pw.
IjvSnp Pohn-m thn Fm-hn[ A[-a-Xzhpw kzmKXw sNp Nne-cp-v.
Ncn-{Xs kw_-n-n-S-tmfw Ah A]-cn-Nn-Xtcm Ad-tmsS A\p-kva-cn--sSp--htcm Bbn-cn-pw.
A]-samp Nnn-p-t\mp: {]mWs Imcy-n At-b-s kuP-\y-`m-ht-sS-bt lpssk(A) IqsS B sNdp kwLw sIme--bn-tev Cd-nn-cn-Xv? PohnXw XpS-cm A\p-hmZw \Ip \nc-h[n aX-]-c-amb Hgnhp Ihnhp-Ifpw km[y-X-Ifpw Ah-cpsS apn-ep-m-bn-cp-p. Fnpw hymJym-\-n\pw
\ymbn-I-c-W-n\pw \nmsX Ah PohnXw _en sImSp-p. Pohn-m
tamlnv lpssk-s\(-A) ssIhn-Sp-Ibpw k-hn[ lo\-Xbpw At-l-n-\p-ta
sIn-tbn-m {ian-p-Ibpw At-l-n-\p-]-cn-bmb m\v bko-Zns\
Ib-n-bn-cp--Ibpw sNbvX-h-cmWv adp-]-w. Ccp-I-n-I-fn BcmWv Ncn-{Xn Pohn-p-Xv?
icocw Cf-Ip-p-sh--XmWv Pohn-n-cn-p--Xns GI-sX-fn-shv [cn-n-n-m-h lpssk(-A) Pohn-p-Xmbn Zin-p-Ibpw A\p-`-hn-p-Ibpw sNpp.
Poh sImXnv \ny-Xbpw \oN-Xbpw klnp Ign-h Ftm-a-cnp Ign-Xm-bpw.

78

c-km-nI t]pw A\p-kva-cn-n-p ktiw {in-pI: A{I-a-n\pw


a-\-n-\psa-Xn-cn t]mcm-tS _m[y-X-bn\n-nfhp e`n-m Ign-hp-tISv Hcp
ImcWw A Xs. FXn-cm-fnsb tXmn-p--Xnt\ hnP-b-sap ]d-bp-I-bp-qsh-- hmZw icn-b-. Ign-hp-Ip-d kml-N-cy-n i{Xp-hn-s\-Xnsc s]mcpXn
acWw hcn-p--Xnepw hnPbw AS-n-bn-p-v. i{Xp-hns\ ]cm-P-b-s-Sp-m Ignn-s-nepw \nn-m Ign-p-sh--XmWm hnP-bw.
c-kmn Ncn-{X-ns lrZ-b-am-Ipp. ico-c-nse ipjvIn Rc-p-I-fn-tev
lrZbw Poh-cw ]I-cp-p. A{]-Imcw hnizmkw \jvS-s-Sp-Ibpw Bhnizmkw
Ipdp-h-cn-Ibpw D-c-hm-ZnXzw Ah-K-Wn--s-Sp-Ibpw am\p-jnI hnNmcw ad-psIm-n-cn-p-Ibpw sNpIaqew kaqlw hf-ap-c-Snv, ]ptcm-KXn \nev \mitm-S-Sp-p-tm, c-kmn izmkw \ne-p-sIm-n-cn-p kaq-l-ns DWnb tZl-n-tev Xs lrZbw Ipn--b-p-I-bm--Wv. As\ kaq-l-n\v
]pXp-hn-izmkw ]pXn-b-Po-hn-Xhpw \Ip c-kmn \nXy\pw ac-W-cln-X-\p-ambn-o-cp-p. CXp Xs-bmWv c-kmn krjvSn-p Ghpw henb A`p-Xw.
lpssk(A) Xs c-km-y-n-eq-sS asmcp ]mThpw IqSn ]Tn-n-p-X-n-pv. lns Aym-b-hp-am-bmWv AXn-\p-_-w. lpI-nse NS-p-I
A\p-jvSnp Xocpw apt Atlw c-kmyw hcn-m ]pds-p. Xs apKman-Ifpw ]qh]n-Xm-fpw ]nXm-a-l\pw ]nXmhpw GsXmcp lns m]-\n\p thn ]S-sh-ntbm B l-ns I- apgpan-msX c-km-yn\v apK-W\ \Ipp At-lw. ]nm-ev hcp apgp-h lmPn-amscbpw \a-kvm-c-m-scbpw C_vdm-lo-an-s(-A) amK-n hniz-kn-p Fmh-scbpw hfsc kp{]-[m-\-amb Hcp hkvXpX At-l-n\p t_m[y-s-Sp-n-smSp-t--Xp-v. AXn-XmWv: kap-Zm-b-n\v t\Xr-Xzhpw amK-Zin-bp-an-m-Xn-cn-pIbpw eyw \n-bn--s-Sm-Xn-cn-p-Ibpw lpssk-s(-A) m\w bkoZv
ssItb-p-Ibpw sNp--Im-e-tmfw ssZhan-cs {]Z-nWw shp-Xpw
hn{K-lm-e-bs Npn\S-p-Xpw Xn hyXym-k-an-. lvIw ]Ip-Xn-bn-
\nn lpssk(A) I_e-bn-tev ]pd-s--Xn\v tijw At-l-ns A`m-hn IA-_m-{]-Zn-n-W-n apgp-In-bn-cp--hcpw lcn-X-sIm-m-c-n\p Nppw han-f-n-cn-p-I-bm-bn-cp--hcpw Xpey-cm-Wv. Fp-sIm-s-m? kXy-mk-Xy-fpsS ka-c-ssa-Xm-\n-I-fn-semw lmP-dm-th--h-\mWv ilo-Zv. A{I-a-n\pw A\o-Xnp-sa-Xn-cmb cWm--W-n kn-ln-X-\m-hp-Ibpw kmn-bm-hp-Ibpw sN-W-abm. B kmnyw apgp-h P\-X-tbmSpw C{]-Imcw hnfn-p-]-d-bp--XmWv: Xm
Pohn-p Ime-L--nse kXym-k-Xy-kw-L--\--fpsS cW-`q-an-bn lmP-dn-m-h Fhn-sS-sb-nepw Bbn-sm-s, Xs Ime-L-hpw Xm Pohn-p
kaq-lhpw kmyw-h-ln-p kXym-k-Xy-kw-L--\--fpsS ]S--f-n Hcp
c-km-n-bpsS ]vhlnp sImv \ns-m-Wp-n-s-n \o Fhn-sS-sb-nepw
Bbn-sm-p-I. Bcm-[\man-c-ntem aZy-im-e-bntem Fhn-sS-bm-sW-Xp
{]iv\ta A ]ns.
kXy-n\pw Ak-Xy-n-\p-an-S-bvp Ah-km-\n-m kwL--\-ns tKmZbn Ncn-{X-ap--Im-e-tmfw c-kmyw {]Xy--s-p-sIm-t-bn-cn-pw.
lpssks\(A) ssIsh-Snv H-s-Sp-n-b-h, cwK-p-h-cmsX amdn-\n--h, cwKp-m-bnpw At-ls A\p-K-an-msX c-km-y-ns ]mX-bn ]v
sImm--h--Cu-aq-p-X-c-mcpw \psS ZrjvSnbn ka-m-cmWv
lpssks\(A) \n-lm-b-X-bn-tev Xnh-nv bko-Zns cmP-tk-h-Icpw {]Nm-cIcpw Pnlz-I-fp-am-bn-tm-b-h, kzKw sImXnv At-b-s A-S--a-cym-Z-ItfmSpw cmt_m-[-tmSpw a\x-kam-[m-tmSpw Bcm-[-\m-a-n-c-ns aqe-bn

79

]Xp-n-b-h kXym-k-Xy-k-a-c--fpsS asmcp thZn-bmb A[ymnIa-WvU-e-nse-- anYym`nam-\-n kmbq-Py-a-Sv Bcm-[-t\m-`m-k-\-I-fn AI-sv Ignn-cp--h `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bpsS in-Iv ]cn-{`m--cmbpw A]m-b-X-Isf `bpw
au\w sXc-s-Sp--h Cu hn`m-K-m-scmw auen-I-amb ho-W-n Xpey\n-e-hm-c-n-em-Wp-Xv. lpssk(A) Xm \ne-sIm taJ-e-bn Fm-mepw Fm-\q-m-p-I-fnepw {]Xy--s-Sp-p.-A-t-l-ns ]S--f-n hcm-h Fhn-sS-bm-bm-sem? Ah Bcp-X-s-bm-hs, hnizm-kntbm Ahn-izmkntbm Bbn-sm-s AsXmpw Xs {]m[m\yw Aln-p kwK-Xn-b-.
ioC-k-ns XXz-imkv{X{]Imcw GsXmcp {]h-\-n-sbpw AwKo-Im-c-tbmKy-Xbpw aqey-I-\bpw Cam-a-n-t\mSpw hnem-b-n-t\m-Sp-ap _s
Bkv]-Znncnpp. Cam-a-n-sbpw hnem-b-n-sbpw A`m-h-n Fmw
\nchpw \njv^-e-hp-amWv.84
Fm bpK--fnepw hniz-hym-]-I-ambn \S-p kXym-k-Xy-kw-L--\-th-f-bnse
Xs kmnyw {]Jym-]\w sNbvXn-cn-p-I-bmWv lpssk(-A). Fs-tpw
P\n-m thn-bmWv Atlw I_-e-bn acWw hcn--Xv.
Rm, \n, \-A-\-iz-c-amb AkvXnXzw ssIh-cn-m km[n-m--Xn
k-S-sp Ic-tb--h-cm-Wv.
GsXmcp hn-h-n-\pw cv apJ-ap-v. c-n-tXpw kt-i-n-t-Xp-am-W-h.
lpssk-\pw(-A) Iqp-Imcpw Ah-cpsS ZznapJhn-h-ns Hm-as hiw cw
\In-smp {]tbm-K-h-cn-p. Ah-ti-jn-p cm-as hiw c-kmn-Xz-ns ktiw a\p-jy-h-n\v Fn-p-sIm-Sp-p-I-bm-Wv. \n-e-am-s ih-i-co-c--fn \nv Dm-l-p-Sn-tmsS {]hln tNmc-p-nI-fpsS
aqI`mjWn-\n-S-bn, CXp-t]m-ep-smcp kmbm--n-emWv Bk-t-i-ns
DLm-S\w Ipdn--s--Xv. _pnaXnbpw B{Z-Nn--bpamb Hcp h\nXm cXv\ns Npa-en-emWv {]kvXpX kt-i-ns `mcw. anI [oc-X-bpsS ]cymb-amb
B tLmjm-kv{Xn-bpsS Nc-W-N-e-\-tfm-tcm-pw temI-n\v Zoc-X-bpsS Hmtcm]mTw ]Tn-n-p. ktlm-Z-c-s-Xn-t\-m Zp-lhpw hnj-a-I-c-hp-amWv ssk\-_n(A)s Npa-enen-cn-p kt-iw. kzbw hoc-a-cWw {]m]n-m ss[cyw ImWn-h Hcp al-mb Imcyw Xs-bmWv sNbvX-Xv. Fm Ahp tijw Pohnn-cn-p--h-cpsS D-c-hm-Zn-Xz-amWv Gsd {]bm-k-I-chpw koWhpw. ssk\-_v(A) Ah-ti-jn--h-cpsS Iq-n-em-Wv. ]nn _-\kvY, apn Kr{[Zr-jvSn-ItfmsS i{Xp--fpsS ]m-f-\n-c, Npa-en ktlm-Z-cs kt-i-`m-cw. ssk\-_v(-A)
]S-fw hnv ]-Wn {]th-in-p-p. c-km-y-ns sNa ]qtmw
]nn Dt]-n-n-mWv t]mn-cn-p--Xv. hkv{Xn \nv c ]pjv]-
Znhy-ku-c`yw ASn-p-]-c-p-p-v. ssk\-_v(-A) a-\-n-sbpw {Iqc-X-bpsSbpw Xe-m\ \K-cn-bn {]th-in-p-p. a-\-v amK-Zi\w \Ip
`c-Wm-[n-Imcn knwlm-k-\s kao-]n-n-p-p. Al--bp-sSbpw Incm-X-Xznsbpw tatm-bva-I-fmb `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-fp-sSbpw Ah-cpsS D]-I-c-W--fpsSbpw t\sc Xncn-p-sImv Hcp tPXm-hn-s\-tmse im-Kw-`o-c-ambn Ah C{]Imcw {]Jym-]np: {]hm-N-I-Xz-n-sbpw cI-X-km-n-Xz-n-sbpw Fm
_lpaXn-Ifpw R-fpsS IpSpw-_-n hnX-cWw sNbvX ssZhta \ns al-Xzn\v \n!
temI-n\p apgp-h c-km-n-I-fpsS kt-i-sa-n-p-I-bmWv ssk\-_n(A)s Pohn-X-Zu-Xyw. Bcm-m-c-m-cpsS hm-e-I Acn-p-hogvn \n-_vZ-

80

am-nb c-km-n-I-fpsS apgp-h \mhp-I-sfbpw {]Xn-\n-[m\w sNbvXp-thWw


C\n ssk\-_n(-A)\p kwkm-cn-m.
c-n\p ]nn Hcp kt-i-an-m ]w Ncn{Xw AXn\v Hcp hnebpw Inp-I-bn-. AXv shdpsX HgpIntmsb--msX. ]nX-e-ap-d-Ip-IqSn ^e-{]-Zamb kt-i-a c-{]-hmlw hnp t]mhp-s-n Hcp sIme-bm-fn-bpsS A]mbptmfw am{Xta c-km-nbpw Pohn-n-cn-p-Ibp-q. Ncn-{X-ns ImXp-I-fntev c-km-n-bpsS ktiw ]I-cpI F IrXyw ssk\_v \n-ln-n-cpns-n I_e tIh-e-samcp kw`-h-ambn Ncn-{X-ns aS-p-I-fn adp
InSpw. B ktiw Bh-iy-mv e`n-p-am-bn-cp-Xp-an-. c-km-n-I-fpsS
c-h-N-p-I Bcpw tImsX ]mgm-bn-tm-hp-Ibpw sNp-am-bn-cp-p.
ssk\-_n(-A)s ktiw lpssk(-A)-s\-p-dnv Io hmpIc-bp apgph a\pjypw thn-bp-ff-Xm-Wv. lpssk (A)s ivaim-\-n BZ-cmRvP-en-I-tfmsS khn-\bw incp Ip\n-p Fm Bfp-Ipw thn-bp--XmWv.
BZi-n-ep hnizm-khpw AXn-\m-bp \nc--c-k-a-c-hp-amWv Pohn-X-sa
hoWw lpssks\(A)-tmse Bm-X-bpsm--hvthn-bp--XmWv
B ktiw.
ssk\_n(A)s kt-i-anXm:
Cu IpSpw-_-tmSv D-_--s-n-p--hcpw IS-m-Sp--hcpw apl-Zv \_n(k)bpsS ZuXy-n hniz-kn-n-p--hcpw kzbw Nnnp Xocp-am-\-n-se-p-I.
GXp Ime-v, GXp Xe-ap-d-bn, `qtem-I-ns GXp`mK-v Pohn-p--h-cmbmepw I_em c-km-n-Iv ]d-bm-\p kt-i-samv {in-p-I. Ah
]d-bpp: vv\mbn acn-m-\-dn-bm-hp-ht \mbn Pohn-m Ignbq;
Aen(A)bpw IpSpw-_hpw AwKo-I-cn Pohn-X-]--Xn-bmb hnip--JpBsbpw
Xulo-Zn-sbpw kt-i-n hniz-kn-p--hcpw Rv ]nt hcp--h-cpamb Bmsc A\p-kva-cn-n-pI: a\p-jy-hK-n\v PohnXw ]Tn-n-Xv t]mses ac-W-sa kp-c-amb Iebpw A`y-kn-n-n-p IpS-pw_-am-WnXv.
apgp-h a\pjy hK-tm-Sp-ambn I_em c-km-n-I ]d-bpp: \n aXhn-izm-kn-bm-sW-n aX-]-c-amb _m[y-b-X-sb \ne-bvpw \naX-\m-sW-n
am\-h-cm-in-bpsS tamN-\-tm-Sp ISa F \nebvpw \n Pohn-p ImeL--n kXyhpw Ak-Xyhpw Xn \S-p ka-c-n \nv kn-lnX-\m-tIn-hcpw. \nfpsS c-km-nsb PmK-cq-I-\mbpw kw`-h-K-Xn-Isf honp-h-\mbpw ac-W-ln-X-\mbpw amXr-I-bmbpw amK-tc-J-bmbpw kmn-bmbpw
hn[n \nm-b-I-\mbpw AhnsS Is-m Ign-bpw.
ta-d Fm Ahpw Dsm-pp iloZv F-]-Zw.
GsXmcp hn-h-Im-cn-p-apv c-n-tXpw kt-i-n-t-Xp-amb cp apJw.
a\p-jy-hK-ns hntam-N-\-tmSv {]Xn-m-_--X-bpw kXy-kzo-I-c-W-n\p
k--X-bp-ap GsXm-cmfpw BZy-ambn Adn-n-cn--s.
Ncn-{X-ns kam-[m-\-an-m ka-c-`q-an-bn Fm-bnSpw I_e-bmWv. Fm
amkhpw apl-dhpw Fm Zn\hpw Biq-dm-bp-w BWv.

81

Hcp hyn iobm BIp--Xns Ahpw AXp \nanw IS-p-h-cp IS-a-IfpsS ssh]-peyhpw C-d--Xn\np a\-n-em-m-hp--Xm-Wv.
Nnnp Xo-s-Sp-pI: tNmc-sIm-Sp-m k--\m-hptm? AtXm kt-ins hmm-hm-Iptm? lp-ssk(-A) BIpWtam? AtXm ssk\_v(A)
BI-Wtam? lpssk-s\-tmse acn-m-\mtWm CjSw? AtXm ssk\-_n-s\tmse Pohn-mt\m? CXv cp-a-s-n cwK-p-\nv amdn-tm-Ip--XmWv \-Xv.
an-Ww, kabw \n-_vZ-ambn hfsc Zqcw k-cn-p. ]d-bm-\p--Xns Hcwiw
t]mepw]dp Ign--Xmbn Rm Ah-Im-i-s-Sp-n-. am\h Ncn-{X-n\p
lpssk(-A) ImgvN-sh-Xpw ssk\_v(A) ]qo-I-cn--Xp-amb B alm`pXw
Hcp {]kwKn Fs\ HXp-m Ignbpw?
ssk\-_v(-A) kan cXv\-p-cpw Hp-IqSn Ddp {Kln-pI:
hoc-arXyp hcn--h lpssk(A)s `mKw \nd-th-n.
Ag-ti-jn--hv ssk\-_n(A)s `mK-amWv \n-ln-m-\p--Xv.
aqm-a-sXmcp amKw sXc-s-Sp-m-\p--h bko-Zns ]-m-cm-Wv.

82

Ipdn-p-I
1. ZpxJ-n-sbpw B]-n-sbpw e-sa-mWv I_e bpsS hmw. Camw
lpssk-\pw(-d) IqsS-bp-m-bn-cp 72 t]cpw c-km-nXzw hcn-Xv Cu ev
shm-Wv. Cdm-Jn Jq^n-b-bn\nv 25 ssa hS-mbn bq{]-okv \Zn-bpsS
Xocv I_e nXn sNp-p.
2. Camw lpssks c-kmyw Hmp-sIm-p ZpxJ{]-I-S-\hpw hnem-]hpw
inbm-n-S-bn t{]mkm-ln--s-Sp-p. Hcm- Xm Bp-thn Ic-bppthm Abm-tfmSv lrZ-b-]-c-ambn At-bw ASp-n-cn-pw. ilo-Zo-t\mSv lrZ-b]-c-ambn ASp-m hnem]w klm-bn-p Hcp ^ntem-k^n CXns ]nn-ep-v.
3. kmam-\y-ambn C-s\-bv Ah-Im-i-s-Smtam Fp kwi-bn-mw. C{_m-loao
]c--c-bns {]hm-N-I-\mWv _n.-kn. ]mw \qm-n C{km-bo-ey-cpsS {]hmN-I\pw cmPm-hp-am-bn-cp l{kv kpsse-am(A). At-l-ns ]nXmhv {]hmN-I\pw cmPm-hp-am-bn-cp l{kv Zmhq-Zm(-A)-Wv. Cu hkvXpX ico-A-n-bpsS
ta]-d Ah-Im-i-ns\Xn-ct F kwi-b-ap--bn-p-Ibpw sNmw.
Fm C{_m-loao {]hm-NI t{iWn-bpsS s]mXp-hmb [mc-bmWv ico-An
B[m-c-am-p sXpw Ncn-{X-n an-X-cmbn KWn--s-ncp C{kmtbeycn Hcw-K-amb kpsse-am {]hm-N-Is\(A) Cu s]mXp[mc-bn Ds-Spntb kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-Im-c-\mb ico-A
- n-p- Im-Wm ]q Fpw a\-n-emt--Xpv. Ccw A]-hm-Z- C{_m-lo-an-tb-Xc {]hm-NI ]c--c-bmbn icoAn Fnb Iq-nepw ImWmw. DZm-l-cWw tkm{I-okv. Hcp IWnmc\v
Hcp ]Xn-n-bn-emWv tkm{I-okv P\n--Xv. hfsc \n\\mbmWv Atlw PohnXpw. c-_-hpw Ipe-_--hp-saXnt\--fp-]cn h-]-c-amb B`n-apJyw
ASn-m-\-am-sb-Spnmhpw ico-An C-s\-sbmcp hn`-P\w \S-n-bn-cn-p-I.
4. hn.Jp 62: 2.
5. hn.Jp-B 14:4 Hcp {]hm-N-I-t\bpw At-l-ns P\-X-bpsS `mjbnemsX
\mw Ab-n-n Fp ]d-bp-p.
6. Jp-B Xs inbpw kpw hnm-\hpw sImv aqkm \_n(-A)-tbbpw
lmdq \_n(-A)-sbbpw shp-hn-fn-p. HSp-hn `qan Abmsf hngp-n-b-Xmbn JpB 28:76-82 ]d-bp-p. ss__nfpw Jmdqs IY tcJ-s-Sp-n-bn-p-v.
ss__n \maw tImc-lv.
7. hnip Jp-B 42.13 \qlv, C{_m-low, aqk, Cukm(-A) Fo {]hm-N-Iamscmw Htc aX-ns {]t_m-[-Icpw {]hm-N-I-cp-am-bn-cp-p-sh-p-v. 16.36
Am-lp-hns\ Bcm-[n-p-hm\pw XmKq-ns\ hPn-p-hm\pw Blzm\w sNp
kt-i-hp-am-bn-mWv Fm kaq-l--fnepw \mw ZqXamsc \ntbm-Kn--Xv Fp
hy-am-p-p. 33.40 apl-Zv \_n(-k)sb Ay {]hm-N-I-\mbn hnti-jn-n-pIbpw sNbvXn-cn-p-p.
8. hn.Jp 3.21.
9. hn.-Jp. 26.111 \qlv \_n(-A)-bpsS FXn-cm-fn-I At-l-tmSv Cu hmNIw ]dXv D-cn-p-p-v. 18. 28 s Ah-X-cW ]mm-ew Jpssd-in-I apl-Zv
\_n(-k)-tbmSv At-l-n\p Nppw kwL-Sn-n-cp ]mh-s--hsc Hgn-hm-m-\m-hiy-s Hcp kw`-h-am-sWp Jp-B hymJym\ Kr--fn ImWmw.
10. aZo\ apv bkvcn_v Fm-W-dn-b-s-n-cp--Xv. {]hm-N-I(-k) AhnsS Fnb
tijw AXv aZo-\-p-_n ({]-hm-N-Is \K-cw) Fp hnfn--s-p. ico-An
Cm-anI kaq-l-ns amXr-Im-\-K-c-ambn (D-tm-n-b-bm-bn) {]hm-N-I-s Imense aZo-\sb Ah-X-cn-n-p-p-v.
11. FtXym-]n-b-m-c _nem-ep_v\pdlv_m-ln(-d) Idp Hc-Sn-a-bm-bn-cp-p. Ckvemw
kzoI-cn tijw {]hm-N-Is(k) Ghpw ASp Hc-\p-bm-bn-bm-bn. Ckvemw aXw
kzoI-cn--Xns t]cn _nem-en\p Xs bP-am-\-\m-bn-cp Da--ns ITn-\-amb

83

]oT\w Gtn hp. HSp-hn l{kv A_q-_-(d) At-ls hne-sImSpp hmn kzX-{-\m-p-I-bm-Wp-m-b-Xv. {]hm-N-Is(k) IqsS Fm bp-fnepw ]s-Sp hyn-bmWv _nem. ln. 20 Uam-kv-kn shv A-cn-p.
12. a-bnse Hcp {]apJ tKm{X-am-bn-cpp Jpssd-iv. apl-Zv \_n(-k)bpw \mev Jeo^-amcpw (d) Cu tKm{X-ns--h-cm-bn-cp-p.
13. aZo\bpsS Hcp {]m{]tZiamWv Jp_m. aZo\bntev]emb\w sNptm
\_n(-k) ChnsS \mepZnhkw hn{ianncpp.
14. aplZv \_n(k) bpsS sXmp aps ImeLs Pmlnenm Imesap
hnfnpp. AXbpsSbpw A]-cnjvrXXznsdbpw Imesaw.
\nN\a\pkcnv CkvemtaXcamb Fnt\bpw 'Pmlnenv Fp]dbmw.
15. {]hmNIs(k) Imev Ckvemw kzoIcnXns t]cn abn\np
GtXym]ybntetm aZo\bntetm ]emb\w sNbvX klm_nIfmWv
aplmPndpI'
16. ahnv aZo\bnsenb aplZv\_n(k)tbbpw aplmPndpItfbpw klmbn
aZo\mcmWv AkmdpI.
17. Dkvams(-d) `cWImespdnpw Atlw ssIsImncp \ne]mSpIsf
pdnpw knZv JpXv_ns AAZmep CPvXnamC ^n Ckvemw'
F IrXnbpsS aebmf ]cn`mjbmb Ckvemanse kmanly \oXnbn
hmbnmw. AXnse Ncn{X kXyfneqsS F Aymbn CXv ]camh[n
\ymboIcnpsmv hnhcnncnpp. {]hmNI(k) AhnSps aZo\m
`cWn BZyambn \mSpISnb hynbmbncpp ahm. l{kv
A_q_dpw(d)
l{kvDadpw(d)
Abmsf
Xncnphnfnm
ss[cysSmXncpXmWv. Fm Dkvam(d) ahms\ XncnpsImvhcnIbpw
henb m\am\ \In _lpam\npIbpw sNbvXp. ssJ_ sImmcw
Atlw ahm\v sImSpp. B{^nbn\np hcpam\n\nv 5 ew
Zo\mdmWv Dkvam ahm\p \InbXv (CXv C_v\p Akodnsd
AImanepv. Dkvamsbpw Aa-hn-IfpsSbpw hmgvNbn CkvemanI
kaqlntev Xncnph Zpjv{]`pXzns bYm Nn{Xw C_v\p
Akodns AIm-an- C_v\pJpssX_bpsS AaBcn^v, akqZnbpsS
apdqPpl_v
C_v\pkAZns X_emv XpSnb Ncn{X{Kfn
\np hyammw
18. Jpssdiot\Xmhpw Aahn hwimc\pw aplZv\_n (k)bpsS ISp
FXncmfnbpambncpp A_qkp^vbm. am hnPbn\ptijw Ctlw
apkvenambn.
19. apBhn A_pkp^mbms ]p{X\mWv. lnPvd 41 apX 60 hsc CmanI
cmjv{Sns `cWm[nImcnbmbncp CtlamWv Aahn hwim[n]Xyns
m]I. l{kv Aen(d)bpsSbpw Alepss_nsbpw ISp
FXncmfnbmbncp apBhn H\h[n klm_nIsf sImnpv.
20. lnPvd 37 apBhnpw l{kv Aen(d)panSbn \S bpamWv
kn^v^o bpw. bpn ]cmPbsSpIbmsWp I apBhn Xs
ssk\ynep NnetcmSv JpB Ipn IpnnSnp ImWnm
Inp. CXvItm Aen(d)bpsS ssk\yn bpw sNbvXncp ]ecpw

84

knv Xmdmhm Aen(d)sb \nnp. As\bmWv kn^v^o bpw


Ahkm\nXv. CXntemWv {KImhns kqN\.
21. lnPvd
40-mw
hjw
dafm\nemWv
Camw
Aen(d)
sImsXv.
A_vZpdlvam\n_v\p apPnw apdmZn F JhmcnPv Inmc Camw kp_lv
\akvcnp sImncnptm hnjw ]pcnb hmfpsImv Atls
shpIbmWpmbXv.
22. inbmfpsS cmas Camw lk(d)2. lnPvd 3 apX 50hsc bmWv
Ctlns PohnXmew.
23. apBhn JpB\pw \_nNcybpw Jpe^mDdminZpIfpsS amXrIbpa\pkcnv
apnwIsf `cnWw, Xs tijw `cWw XpSp \Sm\mbn Btcbpw
NpaXesSpm apBhnv A[nImcan. lktm Atln\p hXpw
kw`hnm ktlmZc lpssktm Bbncnpw apBhnv tijw
`cWm[nImcw. aZo\mtcmtSm lnPmkpImtcmtSm CdmJpImtcmtSm Aen(d)sb
A\pIqenhcmWv AhscXns t]cn bmsXmcp {]XnImchpw ]mSn;
apBhnbpsS Kham andpIfn shv Aensb iImcnpXpw
Atlns\Xncn
\akvmcn
Jp\qtmXpXpw
\ndpWw,
cmPyshnsSbpw Fma\pjypw kpcnXXzw DdmWw'. Iq^bnse
ss_pamens ssIImcym[nImcw apBhn lk\mWv; lkt\m
ktlmZc
lpsskt\m
AhcpsS
A\pbmbnIfpw
Ahsc
]npWphcpamb GsX-nepw kv{Xotbm ]pcpjt\m Ipntbm Hcphn[
Itn\pw hnt[bcmbnqSm. C{]Imcambncpp apBhopw Camw
lk\p(d) anSbnepmb knbpsShyhI. C_v\p aplmbpsS
DwZpmen.
24. Camw lk-s(-d) ac-W-km-l-Ncyw ssiJv ap^o-Zns InXm-_pCim-Zn hnh-cnn-p-v. apB-hn Camw lks(d)`mcy PqZmv Ah hnjw sImSpv sImp-Ibm-sW-n Xs ]p{X bko-Zn-s\-smv Ahsf hnhmlw Ign-n-m-sap
hmp-sIm-Sp-n-cp-p-h-s{X. Atlw Ahv Hcp ew Znlw sImSp-p.
]s bko-Zn-s\-smv hnhmlw Ign-n-m-sa hmv ]men-n-.
25. aZo-\-bnse s]mXp-iva-im-\-n-emWv P-p_Jo. _Jo-DKJZ Fpw
]d-bp-p. klm-_n-I-fn ]e-scbpw Chn-sS-bmWv adhv sNbvXn-cn-p--Xv.
26. A_q-Zdp Kn^m-cn(-d). ]gb t] Ppp-_p_v\p Pp\m-Z. Camw Aen(d)tbmSv
Atbw Iqdv ]pen-bn-cp {]hm-N-I-s(-k) Hcp {]apJ kzlm_n.
CkvemanI kaq-l-n Zcn-{Z-P-\- Ijv-S-s-Sp-tm Nne -hy-n-I kv
Ipp-Iq-n- sh-p--Xns\ ITn-\-ambn hnain--Xns t]cn `c-W-hK-ns
FXnp km-Zn-tn hp A_q-Zdn-\v.- H-Sp-hn Jeo^ Dkvam At-ls
d_vZ-bn-tev \mSpISn. lnPvd 32 AhnsS shv Atlw acn-p.
27. Aen(-d)sb ]np-Wncp asmcp {]apJ klm-_n-bmWv Amdv_v\pbmkn(-d).
Ctlw BZyw Ckvemw kzoI-cn--h-cn Ds-Sp-p. kn^v^o bp-n 94mw
hb-n apB-hn--bpsS ssk\yw Ct-ls sImp. A{I-an-bmb Hcp In
Am-dns\ h[n-p-sav \_n(-k) t\cs {]h-Nn--Xmbn lZo-kv- {Kfn
ImWmw.

85

28. JpB tcJ-s-Sp-m {]hm-N-I(-k) \ntbm-Kn-ncp--h-cn s] Hcp {]kn-kz-lm-_n-bmWv A_vZp-m-ln_v\p akv-Du-Zv(-d). DJv_-p_v\p A_o sFIns
Bn-Sb-\m-bn-cp A_vZp- ]noSv Jp-B ]mcm-bW Ie-bpsS BNm-cy-\mbn.
FtXym-]y-bn-tepw aZo-\-bn-tepw ]mem-b\w -sN-bvXXp ImcWw U_n aplmPn-dm-bn-mWv Ctlw Adn-bs-Sp-Xv. Ckveman-sbpw {]hm-N-I-sbpw {][m\
i{Xp-hm-bn-cp A_q-P-l-ens\ _Z-dn shv Ct-l-am-bn-cpp h[n--Xv. {]hm-NIs Pohn-X-Imew apgp-h Ahn-Sps tkhn C_v\p akv-DuZv l{kv Dadns Imev Iq^-bpsS Kh-dm-bn-. lnPvd 30 60mwhb-n-emWv C_v\p akvDuZv ilo-Zm-b-Xv. Jeo^ Dkvam\p-am-bp-m-bn-cn ISp--hm-t--s-p-Sv
At-l-n\p a-\-ta-pshpw hmscyv XI-s-p-shpw ]d-b-s-Sp-p.
kn^v^o\v bp-n-emWv C_v\pakv-Du-Zv(-d) sIm-s--sX-smcp ]-ap-v.
29. t]jy-m-c-\mb aoYw(d) _\q Akv-AZv tKm{X-m-cn-bmb Hcp kv{XobpsS ASn-abm-bn-cp-p. l{kv Aen(d)bmWv Ct-ls hmn tamNn-n--Xv. I_-e-bpsS
Ipdv apv Iq^-bn Aa-hn-I-fpsS Kh-dm-bn-cp Dss_-Zp-m-ln-_m\p knbmZv
Ct-ls h[n-p.
30. lpPv(d) Aen(d)bpsS i\mb A\p-Iq-en-bm-bn-cpp. Iq^-bn apB-hn--sXn-cn hnhw \bn--Xn-s\-p-Sv h[-in--n-c-bm--s-pln 50mw hjn. kn^v^o-\nepw Pa-enepw \l-d-hm-\nepw lpPvdv Aen(d)-tbm-sSmw
t]mcm-Sn-bn-pv. lpPvdv apB-hn-sb FXn-tm F\nv \nt-m IqSpX Ign-bp-sa-tmtm apB-hn lpPvdns\ `oj-Wn-s-Sp-n-bn-cp-p.
31. cmw Jeo^ Da-dp-_v\pJ-m-_n(d)s ]p{X-\mb A_vZp--bmWv A_vZp-mln_v\p Da(d) F-dn-b-s-Sp--Xv. ]c-a-`--\m-bn-cpp Ct-lw. \_n(k)-bn
\np Iptd lZokpI \nth-Z\w sNbvXn-p-v. lnPvd 73 a-b acn-p.
32. apB-hn--bpsS Uam-kvI-nse sImm-c-am-Wv lcn-X-sIm-m-cw. ]-am_n sImmWnXv ]Wn--Xncp--Xv. CkvemanI Ncn-{X-nse BZys cmPsImmcw.
33. Dsshdp_v\p amen-mWv A_pZm(d) F-dn-b-s-Spp-Xv. JkvdPv tKm{X-m-c\mb Cu kzlm_n JpB ]WvUn-X-\pw lZokv\nZ-I\pw Ua-kvI-nse Cam-apam-bn-cp-p. lnPvd 32 A-cn-p.
34. A_q lpssd-d-bpsS t] A_vZp-d-lvam. {]kn--kzlm-_n. _lvssd-\n-bp-sSbpw
Kh ]Z-hnbpw a-bn PUvPn ]Zhpw Ae--cn-n-p-v. lnPvd 59 A-cn-p.
35. {]kn kzlm-_nbpw kn^v^obp-n Aen(d)bpw apB-hn-bpw HpXonse-m thn-bp-mb knkw`m-j-W-n Aen(d)sb {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cn
hyn-bp-am-W-v A_q apkv-A Aiv-A-cn(d). lnPvd 44 Iq^-bn A-cn-p.
36. kpsse-am\p_v\p kpdZv Iq^-bnse Hcp {]ap-J- inbm t\Xm-hm-bn-cp-p.
lpssks(d) ac-W-n\p ]Icw tNmZn-m ka-tcmkp-I-cmbn cwK-ndnb
kpsse-am h[n--s-Sp-IbmWpm-b-Xv--lnPvd65.
37. Xmlm lpssk At-l-ns Aenp h_\q-lp(A-enpw a-fpw)F
{]kn--Ir-Xn-bn-emWv ta-d hnhcWw \In-bn-cn-p--Xv.
38. Pmln-en--nepw ]ns Ckvemanepw XvtKm{X-ns Xe-h-\m-bn-cpp AZn-p_v\plm-ap-mbn(d), Aen(d)bpsSbpw lksbpw i-\mb A\p-Iq-en-bm-bn-

86

cp Hcp {]apJ kz-lm_n-bmWv. Pa-enepw kn^v^o-\nepw \lvdhm-\nepw


Aen(d) -bpsS IqsS \np bpw sNbvXn-p-v. Dkvams(d) hZn-se-nb Iem]-nse Hcp t\Xmhv Ct-l-am-bn-cp-p. lnPvd68 Iq^-bn A-cn-p.
39. lpPvdn(d)s IqsS sIm-s--h-cn icoIv_v\p inZm-Zp lfn-d-an, skbv^n_v\p
inZm-Zp-s-bv_m\n, A_vZp-d-m\p_v\p lm-\p A_kn, Jpss_-k-p_v\p
d_o-A-p A\-kn, InZm-ap_v\p lm-\p A\-kn, anlvdkv_v\p inlm-_p-aoan Fn-hcpw s]Sp-p.
40. amenIp_v\p lmcnkv A-A-ivX A-J-Cu(-d). ]WvUn-X\pw ssk\n-I-I-e-bn
hnZ-KvZ\pw Ihn-bp-am-bn-cp Ctlw Camw Aen(-d)bpsS ssk\ym-[n-]-\m-bn-cpp.
l{kv A_q-_--dns Imev aX-]-cn-Xym-Kn-Is-Xn-cn \S-- bp--nepw
]noSv Pa, kn^v^o\v bp-nepw ]s-Spnpv. Aen(-d) Ct-ls CuPn]vXnse Kh-dmbn Xnc-s-Sp-n-cp-p-sh-nepw AhnsS Fp--Xn\p apv
Aa-hn-bpsS GPp-am Ct-ls hnjw sImSpv sIme-s-Sp-n lnPvd 37-.
41. {]kn--\mb Ad_n ]S--e-h-\mWv Awdp-_v\p Bkv. Ctlw apB-hn--bpsS
kq{X-im-en-bmb klmbn Bbn-cp-p. kn^v^o DS-Snbn Ct-l-am-Wv.
CuPn]vXv PbnSnbXpw ^pkvXmv ]Ww \nnXpw Awdp_v\p
BkmWv. CuPn]vXns Khcmbncpnpapv. lnPvd 43 CuPn]vXn
shmbncpp Awdns Ayw.
42. apBhnbpbS Hcp sssk\nIta[mhnbmbncpp _pkvdp_v\pA.
CbmfpsS A{Iafpw AXymNmcfpw Fm Ncn{X {Kfnepw
tcJsSpnbnpv. \mn \Sv Aen(d)tbmSv Iqdp kIetcbpw
sImsmSpm apBhn Cbmsf NpaXesSpn. XpSv CbmfpsS
ssIbm sIms apkvenwIfpsS kwJy FaXmWv. HSphn _pkvdn\v
{`mv ]nSnp. lnPvd 86 emWv CbmfpsS Ayw kw`hnXv.
43. bkoZp_v\p apl_v Jpdmkm\n KhWdmbncpp. Dadp_n\p A_vZp
Akokv(d) Ctls Xm\p\nv \on XShn ]mnpIbpmbn.
Dadns acWtijw Cbm Pbn NmSn ]pdphcnIbpw A[nImcw
ssIhisSpm {iaw \SpIbpw sNbvXp. As\ akveap_v\p
A_vZp aenns Im h[nsp. 102
44. Aahn
Jeo^
A_vZpaenIp_v\p
ahms
ssk\ym[n]\mbncpp
lPvPmPp_v\p bqkp^v AJm^n. C_v\p kpss_dn(d) t\bpw C_v\p
AivAkn(d)t\bpw h[nXv CbmfmWv. As\ abpw aZo\bpw Xmbn^pw
CdmJpw Xs A[o\nemn lmPv. CdmJnse hmknXv ]Ww Cbm
m]nXmWv. atyjy hsc Ad_n km{amPyw lPvPmPv hnIknnp.
JhmcnPpIsf Daqe\miw hcpnbXv lmPmWs{X. ]e ]cnjvImcfpw
CbmfpsS hIbmbn CkvemanI cmjv{Sn \Snpv. \ hmNmeXbpff
Hcp {]kwKI IqSnbmbncpp lPvPmPv. lnPvd 95 embncpp acWw.
45. ss__nfnse Hcp IYm]m{XamWv _Bw(_nsebmw). Xs Adnhpw
]utcmlnXy ]Zhnbpw hyn]camb Xm]cyp]tbmKn ]WvUnX.
icoAn _Bans\ Zpjn ]WvUnXs {]XoIambn ]teSpw
AhXcnnppv.
46. hn.-Jp. 9.106

87

47. ln. 83 apX 148 hscbmWv Camw PA^ kmZnJn(d)s Imew. ]nXmhv Camw
aplZn _mJn. amXmhv aplZp_v\p A_o_dn(d)sd aI Jmknans
]p{Xn Dp^h. IqSpX Adnbm CkvemanIv ^utj {]kv
{]knoIcn Camw Jpssa\nbpsS CkvemanI Khsadns 38mw hymJym\
pdnv ImWpI.
48. Amko Jeo^ akqdns Imev Xs Acntmnensdbpw
tSmfanbpsSbpsSbpw bqoUnsbpw Htms IrXnI Ad_nbntev
`mjmcw XpSnbncpp. amaqs ImemWv {Kov imkv{X
hyhm]nXamb tXmXn Ad_nbntev amnsmncpXv.
49. A\pcmKns
k]vX\Kcw'
kp^nIfpsS
Ggv
LsfbmWv
kqNnnpXv. ssZhhpambn tNcm Hcm XcWw sNt ]pXbpsS
LfmWnh.
50. kmenlo \Pv^m_mZn cNnXpw 1968 Jpn {]knsSpnbXpamb
ilosZPmhnZv(A\izc
ckmn) F ]pkvXIamWv icoAn
kpNnnpXv. Bbpm lpssk Aen apXkndnbpsS BapJtmSp
IpSnbmWnXv {]knsSpnbnpXv. bkoZns\ tXmnv Hcp bYm
CkvemanI Khsav kvYm]nm\mbncpp lpssks {iasapw AXv
hnPbnnspamWv
Cu
]pkvXIn
]dbpXv.
lpssks\(d)
ckmyns {]XoIamm\pff ssZh\nbambncpp Atlns
ckmyns
]nn
{]hnsXpw
AXmsX
Hcp
knwlmk\m`nemjn F \nep Hcp\oambncpn I_ebntepff
Atlns {]bmWhpw A\c kw`hhnImkfpsapap ]mccy
]WvUnXamcpsS hovWhpambn s]mcpsSpn CXv. tad
]pkvXIw Cdm\n hnhmZ hnjbamhpIbpmbn.
51. A_qXmen_nsd ]p{X AJoens aI\mbncpp apkvenw (d). CdmJntev
bm{X XncnpXn\p apv AhnSs nXnKXnI Adnp hcm Camw
lpssk(d) CtlsbmWv hnXv. AhnsSsbnb tijw A\pIqeamb
AhbmWv apkvenan\p ImWm IgnXv. XZSnm\n Atlw Camw
lpsskp hnhcwsImSppIbpw sNbvXp. Fm ]ns AhbmsI amdn.
apkvenap_v\p
AJoens\
C_v\pknbmZns
ssk\yw
]nSnIqSpIbpw
C_v\pknbmZns apn lmPcmnb tijw h[npIbpw sNbvXp lnPvd 60
Zplvd 9 \v.
52. hnip-- Jp-B 6:59 CXv ImWmw.
53. hnip Jp-B 3:26. bkoZv Xs sImm-c-n lmP-cm--s lpssks
ktlm-Zcn ssk\_v(-d)t\mSv kwkm-cn-p--Xn-\n-S-bn Cu Jp-B hmIyw Dcn-p-hs{X. ssk\_v(-d) CXns bYm -s]m-cp bko-Zn\p Xncn-n-n-sp
sXfn-bnp sImSpp.
54. DaJmw {]kn--\mb Hcp t]jy Ihnbpw KWnXimkv{X--\p-am-Wv. dp_mC-mv
F
at\m-l-c-amb
Imhy-ns
Imhpw
Ct-l-am-Wv.
^nvkvsPdmUv Cu Imhyw Cwojntev ]cn-`m-j-s-Sp-n-bn-p-v. ae-bm-fn N-pg IrjvW ]n-bp-tS-X-Sw Ac Uk-\n-e-[nIw t] dp_m-C--

88

n\p Xa Fgp-Xn-bn-p-v. Fm Ihn-bmb DaJ-m-an-s\- Xstb Chn-sSbp--hpw ImWm Ignbpp-q.


55. ]mc--cy-a-\pk-cnv kz-n Fv Ihm-S- \a-kvIm-cw, t\mv, lv, kImv, Jpap-kv, Pnlm-Zv, \-In-epw Xn- X-S-bpIbpw sN, \-h-tcmSv Ip-IqSp-Ibpw Zpjn--h-tcmSv Iqp-Iq-SmXncn-p-Ibpw sN- F-n-h-bmWv.
56. Dkvam-\p_v\p lpss\^v Aen(-d) _k-d-bn-tev \ntbm-Kn Kh-dm-bn-cp-p.
57. Aen(-d) \n_-n-X-\m-sW-nepw apB-hn--bp-ambn kn-bn-tesv kn^v^o
bpw \nn-bXv icn-bm-bn Fp ]dpsImp cq]wsIm Hcp In-bmWv
Jhm-cn-Pv. Iq^-bv-Sp-p ldq-dm-bn Hcp-anpIqSnb Ch apgp-h apkvenwIsfbpw Im^n-dp-I-fmbn {]Jym-]n-p-Ibpw Ah-cpsS cw Nnn-p-Xv A\p-h-Z-\ob-ambn KWn-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Aen(-d)v _mKvZm-Zn-\-Sp-p \lvdp-hm-\n
shv Ch-cp-ambn Gp-ap-tn hcn-I-bp-m-bn. flmIv_v\p ssJkv, JX-cn, Ihn-bmbn-cp Cwdm-\p_v\p lm, Xam-lp_v\p low Fn-h Cu In-bpsS
Adn-b-s-n-cp t\Xm-fm-bn-cp-p. ]no-Sn-h ]e-kw-L--fmbn `nn-p-I-bpm-bn. Iq-n C_m-fn-I Fsmcp kwLw en_nb, APo-cn-b, Xp\ojy
Fo B{^n- cmPy-fn Cp-ap-v.
58. hnip Jp-B 2:195s XmXv]-cy-am-Wn-Xv. ]ecpw Cu hmIyw kuI-cyw-t]mse
sXmbn hymJym-\n-m-dp-v. [oc-Ir-Xy-sfbpw ZrV-\n--b--sfbpw kml-k-sfp ]dp AXn\p apXn-cp--hsc AXn \np Cu hmIys Bbp-[-am-mdp-ap-v. CXns bYm-s]m-cp-sf-sp {Kln-m klm-bn-p Hcp kw`hw
apl--Z-en-km_q-\n-bpsS kz^z-p--^m-ko-dn (X-_-cn, Im-^v, Jpp-_n,
Beq-kn, C_v\pIko, _lvdp aplov apX-emb ]qn-Ihpw {]kn--hp-amb
Jp-B hmIy-shv Xbm-dm-n-b-XmWv apl--Zen km_q-\n-bpsS aqp `mK-fn-em-bp Cu JpB hymJym-\-{K-w) \nn-hnsS D-cn-p-p.
Hcp apkvenw `S tdmam-ssk-\y-ns Dn-tev B{I-anp IS-p. AXpI
P\-qw apd-hnfIqn: kp_vlm-\-m, Abm kzw ssIsImv Xm acW-ntev FSp-s-dnp! Atcw A_q Aq-_p Akmcn {]kvXp-X-hmIy-ns s]mcp C{]-Imcw hnh-cn-p: Cu Jp-B hmp-I Akm-dp-I-fmb
R-sf-p-dn--h-X-cn--Xm-Wv. Ckvemw {]_-e-am-hp-Ibpw AXn\p A\p-bm-bn-I
h[n-p-Ibpw sNbvX-tm C\n kzv t\mn C{X Imew \jvS-s-Sp-n-b-sXms- Hp hos-Sp-m-sap R Xn ]d-p- sIm-n-cp-p. AXmWv Cu
hmIyw Ah-X-cn ]m--ew. AXn-\m Pnlm-Zp-t]-nv kzns Imcyw {inp-Ibpw AXv sa-s-Sp-p--Xn {i tI{o-I-cn-epw sN-emWv kzw
ssIsImv X-m ac-W-n-tev FSp-s-dn-b FmWo hmIy-ns
kmcw. A_q Aq-_p Akmcn XpSp bp-ap--Wn-bn-tev t]mhp-Ibpw
bpw sNbvXv c-km-n-bm-hp-Ibpw sNbvXXv. At-ls adhv sNbvXXv tdmanem-Wv. C{Xbpw ]d--Xn Cu hmIy-n\p ]qn-I a\-n-em-nb s]mcp
{Kln-m Ign-bpw.
59. ipssd-ln_v\p lmcnkv AInn Fv apgp-t.- l-{kv Da Ct-ls Iq^bn \ymbm-[n-]-\mbn \n-bn-p. Dkvam-sbpw(-d) Camw Aen(-d)bpsSbpw `c-WIm-e--fnepw ]ns Aaho `c-W-nepw ipssdlv Bm-\v XpS-p. lnPvd
87emWv ipssdlv ac-W-s--Xv. `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-s-Xn-cn Iem-]-n-s\m-cp-p-hs cw Nnm-hp--Xm-sW lZokv Ct-l-n \nmWp D-cn--s-p-ImWp-Xv.

89

60. salvZn BJm-hms BJnsd im\ma F kam-lm-c-nse \mZn bm Ckv F Ihn-X-bpsS `mKw.
61. aqkm\_n(-A)-bpsS ka-Im-en-I-\m-bn-cp Hcp am{n-I. aqkm\_n(-A) ko\m
ae-bn-tev t]mb-tijw C{km-bo-eyv Bcm-[n-m kz-m-fsb cq]-sSpnsmSp hyn.
62. C{_mlow \_n(-A)bpsS i{Xp-hm-bn-cp \nwdqZv cmPm-hv.
63. l{kv Aen(-d)v ^mXzna(-d-)a-bn P\n ssk\_v(-d), kndn-b-bn-emWv Ch-cpsS
aJv_d nXn sNp--Xv.
64. Camw Aen(-d) apX Camw alvZn(-d) hsc-bp ]{v inbm Cam-ap-I-fn, A{]Xy--\mb alvZn Hgn-sI-bp- ]Xn-s\mp t]cpw c-km-n-I-fm-hp-I-bm-Wp-mb-sX Imcyw ChnsS Hmt-XmWv.
65. {I. hjw 483 Dkv_-nse s^Km-\-bn A-cn A_q-_- apl-Zv
k-in-bpsS A a_vkqv apXv hmfy-ap-v.
66. ln. hjw 728 A-cn XJn-p-o C_v\p ssXan leo aZvl-_p-Im-c-\mb
Hcp ]WvUn-X\pw \smcp Xmn-I-\p-am-bn-cp-p. Pohn-X-ns \smcp `mKw
Pbn-en-emWv Ctlw Ign--Xv. kq^n-k-sbpw iobn-k-sbpw kpo ]WvUnX-m-cpsS Xs ]e A`n-{]m-b-sfbpw C_v\pssXan \nin-X-ambn hnain-n-pv.
67. {In. hjw 1350 Ua-kvI-n A-cn C_v\pJnw APu-kn C_v\p
ssXan--bpsS injy\pw At-lstmse leo aZvl_pImc-\p-am-bn-cpp.
68. apkvenw ssZh-imkv{X ]WvUn-X-mn-Sb
- n BZy-ambn X-ap`-hn {][m\
{]iv\--fn-sem-m-Wv Jp-B krjvSn-bmtWm At FXv. Aiv-A-cn-I JpBs A\m-Zy--X-bn hniz-kn-p-tm apA--kn-en-I AXv krjvSn-bmsWv hmZn-p-p. Amko Jeo^ amaq Aiv-A-cn-I-fpsS hmZs i-am-sbXnp-Ibpw AXn-s\-Xn-cn ASn--a \S-]Sn ssIh-cn-p-Ibpw sNbvXp.HXmw Amko Jeo-^(-ln.232 ac-Ww)-bm-bn-cp Ahm-knJv _nmbpw amaps\-tm-se-s s]cp-am-dn. Ckveman ssZh-imkv{Xw hN-\-imkv{Xw (CapIemw) Adn-b-s-Sp--Xn\p ImcWw apkvenw ssZh-imkv{X ]WvUn-Xamn-S-bnep`-hn BZys A`n-{]m-bm-\-cw ssZh-ns Jp-B-s\-p-dn-p--Xm-b-Xn\m-em-sWv Amam X_m--_mbn ]d-bpp.
69. kpo I-imkv{X kc-Wn-I-fpsS \mev BNm-cy-m-cn A_q l\o-^, amen-Iv,
AlvaZp_v\p l Fo aqp-t] `c-W-Iq-S--tfmSv kzoI-cn kao-]-\ta icoAo ]cm-ain-n-p-q. Chcn-sem-cm-pw Hpw ISpw Ipd--Xm-bn-cp-n-.
im^o aZvl-_ns Camw A-Zv_v\p C{Zokv im^n(ln.204 acWw)bpsS \ne-]mSv.
ba\n Khsav vhncp clky ]XnIfn DsXns\XpSv Hcp
kwLw Aeo]mcpsS IqsS Ctlw ]nSnsv Jeo^m lmdq dioZns
apmsI lmPcmsSpIbpmbn. Jeo^ Atln\p amp \In. Camw
im^n Hcp inbm hn`mKamb sskZnIfqsS Camw blvb_v\p A_vZpbpsS
clky A\pbmbnbmbncpphs{X. (shorter encyclopedia of Islam Ithaca:

90

Cornell,1965)
70. inbmfpsS hnaiI Ahsc hnfn \maamWv 'dm^nfn'. AwKoIcnm
Iqmmh FmWnXns hmw. inbm BZys aqv
Jeo^amsc AwKIcnmhcmsWpw AXns t]cnemWv Ahsc Ctcn
hnfnpt]msXpw ]dbmdpv.
71. {]hmNIstbm
Camanstbm
Jeo^bpsStbm
kq^ossiJnstbm
t\XpXzawKoIcnpsmp A\pkcW {]XnbvmWvv ss_Av Gp
]dbpXv.
72. CXvdv Fm {]hmNI IpSpw_w. 'Kuchtadnb cp Imcyw Rm
\nnSbn hnpt]mIpp. Hv Amlphns {Kw, cv Fs
IpSpw_w Fnep Hcp \_nhmIyn IpSpw_w FXn\p CXvdv
FmWp]tbmKnncnpXv.
73. Ikv Gm \nt]w, \n[n FsmamWw. hn. JpB 9.34
kzhpw shnbpw Amlphns amn sNehgnmsX \nt]np
shphsXncn Ghpw ISp `mjbn XmoXv \Ippv. Cu
hmIysbmWv Ikns Bbv Fv]dbpXv.
74. Cu irJebpsS Hmw In FXpsImptinpXv bkoZp_v\p
apBhnsbbmWv. ]nXmhn \nv knwlmk\hpw IncoShpw ]mccyambn
e`np BZys apnw `cWm[nImcnbmWv bkoZv. CkvemanI `cWw
]mccy hmgvNbmb[x]XnpXv AbmfneqsSbmWv.
75. t]jy N{Ihn sskdkns cp ]p{Xamcmbncpp Imw_okkpw
_mZnbbpw.
76. KpPdmnse {]kn tkma\mY t{Xw. 1026 aplZvKkv\n Cysb
B{Iantm Cu t{Xhpw B{IaW hnt[bambn. PnlmZnsbpw Ckvemw
hym]\nsbpsams t]cn Xsbmbncpp aplZvKkv\n bpw
sNbvXncpXv. AXmWnhnsS kqNnnpXv.
77. lmPv F t]cn {]kn\mb lpssk\n_v\p akq t]jy
K^n\Spp Ass_fmbn P\np. kq^n hcy\mb Ctls
Amko `cWmWm[nImcnI h[npIbmWpmbXv. ln.309 _KvZmZn
shv {]Xyn icoAv hncpambn tXmnp Nne hmNI
Atlw ]dp shXmWv ImcWambn ]dncpXv. ]s AmknIv
Atls
h[nm
thsd
cmjv{Sob
ImcWIfpmbncpXmbn
KWnsSpp. 'lmPns\ sImptm Rm Pohnncnpmbncpsn
sImebmfnIfpsS ssI ]nSnpambncpp shv ssiJv aplvbnos(d)
{]mh\ lmPns \nc]cm[nzamWv hnfntmXpXv.
78. {In.hjw 1502 apX 1736 hsc Jkvho Xem\amn t]jy `cn
hwiamWv k^hohwiw.
79. lpdp_v\p bkoZv Aaoan Camw lpssks\Xncn Iq^bnse bkoZns
Kh C_v\pknbmZv Ab Aizssk\yns Xeh\mbncpp. Fm
Atlw lpsssks ]tv amdpIbpw Atlns Hw\nv s]mcpXn
ckmnbmhpIbmWpmbXv.

91

80. hnip
JpB
2:143s
]cn`mjbmWnXv.
CXn
kmn
Fnep]tbmKnncnpXv 'iloZv ' G ]ZamWv. ckmnpw
CtX ]ZamWv D]tbmKnpXv.
81. CXnlmknse Hcd_n N{IhnbmWv flvlmv. PwinZv cmPmhns
Imev flvlmv t]jysb B{Ianp IngSn. PwioZns\ Abm \mn
\nv Bn]pdmn. ^nZuknbpsS jm\ma bn a\pjy Ipp--fpsS
Xe-tmdv Xnm AS-m Bn-tbmSp IqSnb cv k- Npa-en-ep
Hcp `oIc cq]n-bmWv flvlm-v. Ggv Ipp--fp-m-bn-cp Imsh F s]cpsm- Xs Bdp Ipp-sf flvlm-n\v sImSp-p. Ggm-as Ipns\bpw tNmZn--tm Bbm flvlm-ns\ FXnp bpw sNbvXp. P\-
s]cp-sm-\v ]np-Wbpw klm-bhpw \In. s]cp-sm- flvlm-ns\
tXmnp _-h--\mn Zam-hv ]-X-n XS-p-sh-p. ^co-Zqs\
A[n-Im-c-n hmgn-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Npa-en k--fp flvlm-ns
cq]w t]i-jy Iem-Im-cam-cpsS Nn{X--fn ImWmw.
82. Camw lpssks (d) cm-as ]p{X-\mWv Aen AIv_. I_-e-bn ckm-n-bm-bn.
83. Pem Aen AZv 1969 A-cn Cdm-\nse {]kn--\mb Hcp _pn Pohn-bmWv. Ct-l-ns HmIvkn-U-tm-Un-knkv (K_v kZ-Kn) F {Kw hniz
{]kn--am-Wv.
84. Cam-apw hnem-bpw kw_-n hnh-c-n\v CkvemanIv ^ut-j {]kv
ae-bm-f-n {]kn-o-I-cn Camw Jpssa-\n-bpsS Ckveman-I-K-hsav F
]pkvXIw AXn\v hnh-I \Inb hni-Z-amb Ipdn-p-Ifpw ImWp-I.

92