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kv{Xobpw

{]hm-N-I\pw
Aen ico-An
hnh\w

F. sI A_vZp aPoZv

Ckv emanIv ^ut-j {]kv


Aco-tmSv 673 639
malayalam title
streeyum pravachakanum
original title (persian)
zan dar cheshm va dil e muhammed (SA)
(women in the eyes and heart of muhammed)
auther
dr. ali shariati
translator
a.k. abdul majeed
publisher
islamic foundation press
p.b.n.o508
p.o. areekode 673639
malappuram, kerala, india
type setting
data printing mavoor road, calicut
edition
november 1994
price rs. 16.00
all rights reseverd
28 (1) m-2000/1415/1994

Df-f-Sw

{]km-[-I-p-dnv

kv{Xnbpw {]hm-N-I\pw

11

Plvins aI ssk\_v

20

_lp-`m-cyXzw

37

{]hm-NI]Xv\n-am

42

apl--Zns Ax-]pcw

53

{]km-[-\-p-dnv
Cdm-\n hn-h-Kp-cp-hm-b-dn-b-s-Sp tUm.-Aen ico-An B[p-\n-I-tem-Iv
Ckveman-I- Nn-bvp _rl-mb kw`m-h-\-I-fn-n-p {]Xn-`m-imen-bm-Wv.
cmPm-[n-]-Xy-n\pw km{am-PyXztatm-bvapw Ayw Ipdn-p-sImv Cdm-\n
Ckveman\v cmjv{So-bm-[n-Im-chpwkaq-l-ns Npm\pw t\Sn-sm-Sp Camw
Jpssa-\n-bpsS hn-h-nico-A-n-bpsS Nn-Ipw cN-\-Ip-ap ]v
al--c-am-Wv. ico-A-n-bpsS t{imm-fpw A\p-hm-N-Icpw Jpssa-\n-bpsS
t\Xr-Xz-n hn-h-k-m-cmbn AWn-\n-c-p. . ]s, 1979 hnhw hnP-b-{]m]vXn-bn-se-n-b-tm Jpssa\n Pohn-n-cn-p-m-bn-cp-n-. AXn\p cv hjw
apv Atlw Cdm-\nse As tkzOm-[n-]Xn jm ]-hn-bpsS cl-ky-t]m-eokmb khmv {_n-\nshv {_nojv C-en-Pkv kho-kns klm-btmsS At-ls h[n-p.
kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-Im-c\pw kmaq-ly-]-WvUn-X-\p-amb ico-Anv aX-]-c-amb hnjb--fnepw hy-amb Adn-hp-m-bn-cp-p. At-l-ns \ncm-W]mS-hhpw
Ah-X-cW kmay-hpw Ap-X-I-c-am-Wv. GXv Imcyhpw ico-A-n-bpsS
\mnt\m t]\bvtm hnj-bo-`-hn-m AZzn-Xo-b-am-sbmcp ssien-bn ]p^-phcpw. AXv t{imXm-hns, As-n A\p-hm-N-Is a\-ns ASn-bn-te-n-dpw. AhnsS m\w ]nSn-p-Ibpw sNpw.
ico-A-n-bpsS Bdv ]pkvX-I- CkvemanIv ^ut-j {]kv CXn-\Iw aebm-f-n {]kn--s-Sp-n-bn-p-v. CtX-gm-a-t-Xm-Wv. CXns Cwojv ]Xnv
sF. F^v. ]n. t\ct ]pd-n-d-n-b-Xm-Wv. hna C Z sFkv Bv lmv
Hm^v apl-Zv F-t]-cn. Fw. t\kvq-ZvXXpw F. ]n. \k-sd\p t\q-kZpw tNv Xm-dm-nb {]kvXpX Cwojv ]Xn-mWv ae-bmf hnh-\-n\m-[m-cw.
Ckvemans hnai-Icpw i{Xp-X-tbmsS AXns\ kao]n-p--hcpw ,F-m-epw
Fgp--n-m-dp hnj-b--fmWv _lp-`m-cyXzn\vv AXn-ep A\p-hm-Zhpw
{]hm-N-Is Zm-Xy.-Po-hn-Xhpw. kv{Xo hntam-N-\hpw kv{Xov IpSpw-_-nepw
kaq-l-n-ep-ap Ah-Im-i-fpw hf-sc-tbsd N-sN--s-Sp \psS Npp-]mSnepw ta]-d hnj-b- Db-s-Sm-dp--Xm-Wv. ico-Av kw_--amb
hnhm-Z- \Sp-tm hnti-jnpw. Cu hnj-b--fn-tep ico-An hkvXp
\njvThpw kzX-{-hp-amb ImgvN-mSv Cu IrXn-bn-eqsS \Ip-p. Bh-iy-ap-t-S-fn hni-Zo-I-c-W-p-dn-p-I \In-bn-p-Xv kmam-\y-hm-b-\-mv Ahy-X-I Zqco-I-cn-m klm-b-I-am-bn-cn-pw.
{]hm-N-Is t]cns IqsS sNmt kzem-ns Npcp--cq-]-ambn {_mn sImSp-m-dp kbpw kzlm-_n-I-fpsS t]cns IqsS sNmt Xfnbns Npcp--amb dmbpw CXn sImSp-n-n-. Cwojv ]Xn-nepw
sImSpImWp-n-. apkvenw hmb-\-m AXmXv e--fn AXv sNm-W-sa-`yn-p-p.
Cu IrXn-bpsS hnh\w at\m-l-c-ambn \n-ln-p-X P: F. sI. A_vZpaPo-Zn(-sIm-Sp-h-n)\p \n!

CkvemanIv ^ut-j {]kv


Aco-tmSv 673 639
1994 \hw-_ 25

******

kv{Xobpw {]hm-N-I\pw
kv{Xotbm-Sp {]hm-N-Is kao-]-\-sa-m-bn-cp-p? CtX-]n ]ecpw N-sNbvXnpv. C\n-bp-tasd N-I \S-t-pw. ]dp Ign ]eXpw Hp-In
FXn-cm-fn-I-fpsS i{Xp-X-bn\n-p-S-se-Sp ]cn-lmk \n-I-fmWv. As-n
an{X--fpsS Aan-X-amb ]mSn-p-I-gv-ep-I-fm-Wv. BZyw ]d-Xv tIhew AXn-itbm-n-I-fpw \pW-Ifpw Zpcm-tcm-]-W--fpw Ncn{X kXy--fpsS hf-sm-Sn--ep-amWv. cm-a-t-Xm-I-s, A[n-Ihpw Nne {]tXyI Ime-L--pw Xm]-cypw AXmXp Ime--fnse P\--fpsS A`n-cp-Nnpw CWpw hn[w hnj-b hymJym-\n-m\pw \oXo-a-cn-m-\p-ap-, ]e-tmgpw Gsd-sbmpw hnPb{]-Z-a-m, {ia--fpsS `mK-hp-amWv. cp kao-]-\-fpw bmYmyw tXSp
Kth-j-Is\ Xr]vXn-s-Sp-p-I-bn-.
sshIm-cn-Ihpw kmaq-ln-I-hp-amb Xe--fn kv{Xo{]iv\w Cpw N-bln-pp. Cu {]iv\-n\v {]Xn-hn[n Ip-]n-Sn-p--Xn imkv{X-n-t\ ]cm-Pbw
{]iv\s, a\-an-m-a-\-tm-sS-sb-n-epw, {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-n-s ]cnk-c-p-Xs
\npp. imkv{X-n\p JWvUn-X-amb Xop-In-m km[n-n-n-m ap
]e-hn-j-b--sfbpw kv{Xo {]iv\-hpw hymJym\n-t-Xv XXz-Nn-, aXw, ]mccyw, ham\Ime {]h-W-X-I AYhm kmaq-ln-Ihpw sshb-n-I-hp-amb
Bh-iy-- F-nh ASn-m-\-am-n-bm-Wv. hyXykvX Nnm-]--Xn-Ipw ImeL--pw kaq-l-pw Cu {]iv\s hne-bn-cp-m khn-ti-j-co-Xn-I-fpv. kv{Xo {]hm-N-I-Po-hn-X-n F hnjbw NnI Fgp-p-Imv ta]d Ap LS-I--fp-SsS aphn-[n-bn\np c-s-Sm Ign-bmsX t]mbXv
XnIpw kzm`m-hn-I-am-Wv.
kv{Xotbm-Sp ]pcp-js kmaq-ln-Ihpw sshIm-cn-I-hp-amb kao-]-\-s-bpw,
Pohn-X-n Ah-fpsS ]n-s\-p-dn Ahs hyJym-\-sbpw Imehpw NpdvJp]mSpw htXm-Xn kzm[o-\n-p-p. t\cs ]d Ap-Im-c-W- XsbmWv CXn\p Imc-W-w.`n Ime--fnepw kaq-l--fnepw hyXykvX cq]w
ssIsm-p Ccw {]iv\--sf-p-dnp imkv{Xo-b-co-Xn-bn Kth-jWw \SpI {ia-I-c-am-Wv. Xm Pohn-p Ime-n-sbpw kaq-l-n-sbpw aqeyfpw k{-Zm-b-fpw amn-sh-bvp-Ibpw aphn-[n-I-fn\npw c-s-Sp-Ibpw
sNm Kth-j-I ChnsS ]cm-Pb-s-Spw. Fs alm-\mb Kpcp-\m-Y
PmIznkv s_sIz ]d-Xv t]mse, asmcp bpK-n-sebpw ]cn-Xx-n-Xn-bnsebpw s]c-iv\-sf kzw Ime-L--Xn-sebpw ]cn-Xx-n-Xn-bp-sSbpw {]iv\sf ImgvN-m-Sn-eq-sS hne-bn-cp-X-Xp-Ibpw t\mn-m-Wp-Ibpw sNph\p
bmYmy-sf Ah-bpsS X\n-a-bnt\m-n-m-Wm ]p-I-bn-. Ah ]dbpX-{Xbpw Akw-_--am-bn-cn-pw.
kv{Xo{]-iv\w, Nml-amb hnhn-[-tIm-Wn-eqsS t\mp-tm, Imew, ]cn-XxnXn Fo An-cL-SI-sf B{i-bnp \npXmbnmWmw. F{X-tmf-sa-m Hcp L-nepw Npp-]m-Snepw al-\o-b-ambn IW-m--s--Imcyw
asmcp Imepw ]cn-X-n-Xn-bnepw a\p-jy-hn-cp--amb Ip-Ir-Xy-X-Xns \ndw
hsc ssIsmpp. _lp-`m-cyXzw CXn-\p-Zm-l-c-W-am-Wv. kv{Xotbm-Sp \nyamb Cu Ah-tl-f\w ]cn-jvIr-X- a-\-km-sb thZ-\n-n-p-p. Fm
]nmev, hninjym ]ncm-\m kaq-l--fn, hn[-h-Ipw Ah-cpsS
km-\-pw
ap-hn-[-nX\y-am-bn-cp
IpSpw-_-Po-hn-X-ns
kvt\tlm-jva-f-Xbpw kpc-n-X-Xzhpw Bkz-Zn-m _lp-`m-cy-Xz-k-w Ah-

k-c-ap-m-n. Zcn-{Zhpw Zpcn-Xhpw Cm-bvabpw `oj-Wn-bpsS \ng hogvnb Ahc-IpsS `mhn-Po-hn-Xs cn-m ]pcn-js XW A\n-hm-cy-am-Ip-p. Ah-\mbn-cpp Am-ev Ahpw Ah-fpsS Ipn-Ip-ap Gim-h-ew-_w. IpSpw_-\m-Y bp-nepw apw ]s-Spv sIm-s-Sp-Xv ImcWw XI-cp-am-bn-cp
IpSpw-_-v _lp-`m-cyXzw ]pXnb ]cn-c-bpw klm-bhpw Acp-fn.
asm-cp-Zm-l-c-W-amWv ]. kv{XobpsS ]ptcm-K-Xnv XSw krjvSn-p N-ebmWv Cs ZrjvSn-bn. B[p-\n-IXv hrn-lo-\hpw PpKp-]vkp-f-hm-p-Xp-am-Wv. Fm ]qn-Xv Iqeo-\-X-bpsS sImSn-b-S-bm-f-am-bn-cpp ]. Ans Af-hp-tIm; am\y-X-bpsS {]XoIw; B`n-Pm-Xy-ns am\-ZWvUw. ]g-b{]-Xm]w \ne-\np Npcpw \mK-cnI- IpSpw-_--fnepw X\na \jvS-s-Sm
{KmaoW kaq-l--fnepw ]bvv Cv ]hn-{X-ab m\-ap-v. 1
kv{Xov Ckvemw \Ip hne-sb-p-dnv kao-]-Im-ev Kth-j-I ]T\w \Sp-I-bp-mbn. Ah ]d Imcy- Bhn-p-n- (l-k \mZdns
hna C Ckvemw BUv bqtdmv F ]pkvXIw t\mp-I)2 Ncn-{X-n
Ign-p-t]mb alm-m-cmb ]cn-jvIm--fp-sS-bpw Nn-I-cp-sSbpw Iq-n
apl-Zv am{X-amWv kv{XoI-fpsS Ah Kuc-h-]qw ]cn-tim-[n-p-Ibpw
Ahv am\p-jn-I-amb BZ-chpw kmaq-ln-I-amb Ah-Im-i--fpw A\p-h-Zn-pIbpw sNbvXXv Fv Xo. ap-h Ahsc Ah-K-Wn-p-Itbm As-n
shdp-tmsS hon-p-Itbm Bbn-cp-p.3 Ckvemw kv{Xov hyn-bp-S-am-h-Imihpw km-n-I- kzm-X-{y-hpw \In-bn-p-v. AtXm-sSmw Ah-fpsS `uXn-Imh-iy- \nd-th-m ]pcp-js\ Npa-X-e-s-Sp-p-Ibpw sNpp. kv{Xov aldv
(hn-hm-l-aq-eyw) \im ]pcp-j _m[y--\m-Wv. Kzw Ipn-Isf t]mp--X\v
Ahv `m-hn-t\mSv {]Xn-^ew Bh-iy-s-Smw. Ckv emw kv{Xov \ip
hyn-Xz-n-sbpw Ah-Im-i-n-sbpw kqN-\-I-fm-Ws{X Ch. Aip-`-I-c-amb
`mhn km[y-X-IsXnsc Ah-fpsS km-n-I-\ne `{Z-am-m-\ptinp \S-]Sn-I-fpw.
Ckvemw kv{Xov ]pcp-j-t\m-sSmw A\p-h-Zn-p \nb-a-]-chpw aX-]-c-hp-amb
Xpey-X-hgn Ahv kmaq-ln-Im-[m-Im-chpw ssIh-cp-p-p. Xsf ASn `cnm {ian-p ]pcp-j-ta-[m-hn-I-fp-sS-ap-n kv{XoIv CXp-aqew, bYmamb kzmX{yw knn-p-I-bpw sNp-p.
enwKns
ASn-m\-ep
hnth-N-\s
Ckvemw
\J-in-Jmw
FXnpp. AtX kabw kqW enwK-k-aXzw F Bi-bs AXw-Ko-I-cnp-p-an-. Ckvemw kv{Xop -\Ip kmaq-ln-Im-h-Im-i
- fpw [mn-Ihpw
am\p-jn-I-hp-amb Apw kqva-ambn hnj-I-e\w sNbvXp-In-nb hoW
tImWn \np-sImv F\np ]d-bm km[n-p--Xn-Xm-Wv. ap-hm-p-I-fn
]d-m, Ckvemw hnth-N\w {]N-cn-n-p-n; kv{Xo ]pcpj ka-Xz-n hnizkn-p-p-an-. kv{Xosbbpw ]pcp-j-s\bpw {]IrXn kaq-l-n Ah-\p-h-Zn
m\--fn Xs \nppsh-XmWv Ckvemans t\w. AXns ZrjvSnbn hnth-N\w Ip-am-Wv. XpeyX hgn sXn-p-Xpw, BZy-tXv \mK-cnI hncphpw cm-a-tXv {]Ir-Xn-hn-cp--hp-am-Wv.
{]IrXn kv{Xosb ImWp-Xv ]pcp-j-t\-m XmW-Xm-bntm ]pcp-j-\p-k-a-ambntm A. {]XypX, Pohn-X-n-epwkaq-l-L-S-\-bnepw Hcp \mW-b-ns cp
]pd--fmWv {]IrXn Ahsf ]cn-K-Wn-p-Xv. ]mm-Xy \mK-cn-I-X-bn\npw
`n-ambn Ckvemw kv{Xopw ]pcp-j\pw {]Ir-Xn-]-c-ambXpeytam kam-\tam

Am---A-h-Im-i- \n-bn--Xns Imc-W-an-Xm-Wv. Cn-j-b-I-ambn ]d-bm\m-hp Ghpw \oXn-bp--amb A`n-{]mbw CXm-bn-cnpw. bqtdm-]y kao-]-\-amXr-I-I Dt]-np kzX-{-ambn Nnn-p-Ibpw Imcy- kzbw hne-bn-cp-pIbpw sNp {]_p--cmb hmb-\-mv hmb-\-mv CXns Bghpw
hnebpw a\-n-em-hpw.
kv{XoIv Ckvemw \Inb Apw A`n-am-\hpw Ahv e`y-am-m
sskm-n-I-X-e-n am{X-ap {ia-am-bn-cp-n {]hm-N-I-t-Xv. {]mtbm-Kn-I-Xen Ah kmm-XvI-cn-m\pw Atlw {]b-Xv\n-p. ]pcp-j-m-cn\n-s-t]mse kv{XoI-fn\npw Atlw (k--Zn-Xm-\w) tXSn. kv{XoIp-a-tlw
kzlm_n ({]-hm-N-I-k-Jm-) ]Zhn \In.4
{]hm-N-I Xs aI ^mXzn-asb ]c-ky-ambn aSn-bnshp Hma-\n-n-cpp. Bfp-I-fp-ambn kwhm-Z-n-tes-n-cn-p-tmgpw At-l-an-XpsNbvXp.
As \nebvv Akm-[m-c-W-amb Cu kvt\l-{]-I-S\w hgn s]Ipv Hc]-am-\-a Fpw B-Ip-n-sb-tmse s]Ip-nbpw kvt\lw Aln-p-p
Fpw Ad-_n-Ip Dtiy]qw Im-Wnp sImSp-p-I-bm-bn-cpp Atlw.
Xp s]a- ]ndp F-hm tIm apJw Idp-p-Ibpw Ien-Xpp-Ibpw sNp-sap Jp-B ]cn-N-b-s-Sp-nb5 Hcp P\-X-bpsS CS-bn-emWv
{]hm-N-Is Cu s]cp-am-w. s]Ip-p-sf Poh-t\msS Ipgn-p-aq-Sn-b-h-cm-bncpp Ad-_n-I.
Aen ^mXzn-asb hnhm-l-t\z-jWw \S-n-b-tm {]hm-N-I BZyw ^mXzn-abpsS Bcm-p. at\m-l-chpw BIj-Ihpw kvt\l-kvar-W-hp-am-bn-cpp
{]kvXpX k`w. Kuc-hhpw hn\-bhpw tafn-p Xpd a\x-n-Xn-tbmsS
Atlw ^mXzn-a-bpsS hmXn-en\p kao]w \np. Fnp ]dp: ^mXznam,
A_q-Xzm-en-_ns ]p{X Aen \ns t] kqNn-n-p-p. (hn-hm-l-`y\ \Spp Fp hywKyw). a-tbmsS {]hm-N-I aI-fpsS adp-]-Sn-mbn Imncpp. thFmWv adp-]-Sn-sb-n ^mXzna hmXn-e-S-bvpw. k-X-am-sW-n
Ah hn\-b-]qw au\w `RvPn-pw. 6
^mXzn-a- hn-hm-ln-X-bm-b-tm {]hm-N-I Ahsf Znh-khpw kin-m-dp-m-bncp-p. D-d--Sn-bn Atlw Imp\npw. A\p-hmZw tNmZnpw. At-l-ambn-cnpw Ftmgpw BZyw A`nhmZyw sNp-I.
Xs Ime-L--nse {Iqc-amb \mp-\-S-p-Isf hnkva-b-I-c-ambn ewLn-p
coXn-bn kvt\lhpw BZ-chpw ss\a-eyhpw Iqn-bn-W-n-bmWv {]hm-N-I
]Xv\n-am-tcmSv s]cp-am-dn-b-Xv. A[n-Im-c-n-sbpw in-bp-sSbpw tI{-am-bn-cpp
hon\p shfn-bn- At-lw. hon Fsmcp Ffna! emfnXyw! DZm-cX! F{X-tmf-sa-m `mcy-am At-l-tmSv Ibp-Ibpw At-l-ns apn ss[cyw
ImWn-p-Ibpw hsc sNbvXp. Ah-c-t-l-tmSv Xpd--a-n Xn-p-am-bn-cp-p.
Icp-X-en-msX h-am\w ]d-bp-am-bn-cp-p. At-l-ns hnIm-c- apdn-sSpn-Sv Ah kwkmcw \np-am-bn-cpn. Hcp \m p`n-X-\mb {]hm-N-I
hoSp-hn-n-dn hnf-I kqn-p Hcp apdn-bnt]mbn GI-bmbn Xma-kn-p.7
km[m-cW ]pcp-jam kv{XoIsf hon\np ASn-n-d-p-I-bmWv sNp-I.
Cm-e-p-t]mepw! {]hm-N-Is sNbvXn Cu s]mXp-co-Xnv t\hn-]-co-X-am-Wv.
Xd-\n-c-n \np-b Hcp apdn-bn-em-bn-cpp At-l-ns {]hm-kw. Hco--\--Sn-bp-]-tbm-Knp Atlw apI-fn Ibdpw. Ib-dnb tijw tImWn AI8

tp henpw. Bp-a-t-ls kin-m ]p-am-bn-cp-n-. Hcp amkw


Atlw As\ Ign-p. ZpxJn-X-\mb Atlw ]nbv t]mepw t]mbn-.8
At-ls ImWmsX P\- hnj-an-p. HSp-hn-e-h Da-dns\ {]hm-N-I-s-b-Spt--b-p. Da {]th-i\m-\p-aXn tXSn-b-tm Atlw kXw sImSp-n.
Atm Atlw {]hm-N-I-s\mcp ktiw \In:9 Fs aI-fpsS Imcyw
kwkm-cn-m-\mWv Rm hsXv Av- hnNmcn-p-p-sh-n Ah-fpsS
{]hn-I-fn At-bw shdp-p--h-\mWp Rm. A-\p-h-Zn-p-I-bm-sWn Ah-fpsS Igp-p-Rm shpw. {]hm-N-I Da-dn\p {]th-i-\m-\p-aXn
\In.11
Da-dns hnh-cWw C-s\-bmWv: km[-\- kqn-p Hcp apdn-bn IS-tm {]hm-N-I-Hcp aqe-bn sshtmm-b-bn Inp--XmWv Rm IXv. Atlw Fgp-t--tm sshtm-ens ]mSv At-l-ns At-l-ns
ico-c-n ImWm-am-bn-cp-p. B ImgvN Fs Ip-Isf Cude-Wn-bn-p. Da
ZpxJnX\m-sWv a\-n-em-nb {]hm-N-I hnc--Po-hn-X-ns Bm-Z-s-pdnpw sshIm-cy-s-p-dnpw kwkm-cn-p-Ibpw Da-dns\ kam-[m-\n-n-p-Ibw
sNbvXp.
{]hm-N-I Pohn-X-n-en-ap-Jo-I-cn {]bm-k--fn-sem-m-bn-cpp kz]Xv\n-am-cpsS
s]cp-am-w. Ahpw {]hm-N-I-\p-an-S-bn Bo-b-ambpw {]Xy-b-im-kv]-c-ambpw
D hnShv hep-Xm-b-Xn-\m CXv kzm`m-hn-I-hpam-Wv. Am-es kmaqly ]-e-n-\p-apv AXn ]v. \n-lm-bcpw A[-a-I-fp-amb ASn-a-I-fm-bn-mWv
kv{XoIsf Am-ev IW-m-n-bn-cp--Xv. {]hm-N-Is `h-\-n e`n BZ-chpw kzmX-{yhpw aspw A-hp e`n-p-am-bn-cp-n-. ImcWw AXn-\p
AlX Ahp I]n--s-n-cp-n-. apn-m {]Xm]w s]sp ssIh-cptm Bfp-I kzt_m-[-an-m--h-sc-tmse th{]m-f-tmsSbpw Nne-tm
A]-I-S-I-c-ambpw {]Xn-I-cn-p-Xp Cm-ep \app kp]-cn-Nn-X-amWv.
Da \nth-Z\w sNbvX Hcp kw`-hw, kv{XoI-fpsS kmaq-ln-Im-h-Im-i--fn
hninjym ]pcp-j-m-cp-am-bn-p Ah-cpsS _-n {]hm-N-Is Imev kw`hn am-ns Bgw hy-am-p-p. Da ]d-bpp: ssZhw kXyw Am-\Im-ev R kv{XoI-fp-ambn Hcn-t]mepw Imcy- Btem-Nn-n-cp-n-.
kv{XoI-fpsS Ah-Im-i- \n-bn-p Jp-B hmIy- Ah-X-cn-p--Xphsc AXm-bn-cpp nXn. Rms\m-cn- Nne-bm-fp-I-fp-ambn hym]mc Imcy-
N sNp-I-bm-bn-cp-p. Atm Fs `mcy AXp-sN--Ww, CXp sNWw
Fsms ]d-p. Fs I-h-Sn \n\--p-Imcyw? Rm\-h-tfmSp tNmZnp. Ah ]dp: \nfpsS Imcy-n Bcpw CS-s]-Sp-Xv \nn-jvS-a.
AtX kabw \n-fp-sS aI ({]-hm-N-I-]Xv\n l^vk) ssZh-Zq-X-\p-ambn ZoLt\cw Xnpp. Xnv Xnv Znhkw apgp-h At-ls tZjyw
]nSnn-pp. Rm hkv{Xw amdn hoSp hnn-dn. l^vksb kao-]np Fn-h-tfmSp tNmZn-p. aIsf, \o {]hm-N-Is\ Znhkw apgp-h tZjvbvX-Xn-em-p-amdv
At-l-hp-ambn Xnm-dptm? {]hm-N-I-\p-ambn Xn-m-dp-sv l^vk
k-Xn-p. Atm Rm\-h-tfmSv ]dp: aI-sf, ssZh-in--sbbpw {]hm-N-ItIm-]-sbpw t]Sn-p-I. ku-Xy-n anIp \np Chsf (B-bn-i)bpw
{]hm-N-I\v Ah-tfm-Sp hm-ey-sbpw \o t\m-.....

Hcn- {]hm-N-I Xs `mcy-amn-S-bn Ccnp-Xv Dadpw A_q-_-dpw


Ip. `mcy-am Ic-bp-Ibpw {]hm-N-I-t\mSv Xn-p-I-bp-am-bn-cp-p. honse
tamiw nXn-sb-n ]cp- `mj-bn ]cmXn ]d-bp-Ibmbncpp Ah. ncambn ]Ww e`n-p-I-bm-bn-cpp Ah-cpsS Bh-iyw. {]hm-N-I hyk-\-]qw
NppIfn thZ-\-bq-dp a-lm-kvtmsS im-ambn Fmw tIp-I-bm-bncpp. A_q-_--dn-s\bpw Da-dn-s\bpw Zrjv-Sn-bns]--tm Ah-tcm-S-tlw
]dp: F\nv \Im Ign-bm--Xm-h-iy-s-Sp-I-bmWo s]p-. cpt]cpw Fgptp Xsf asf {]l-cnp. Ccp-h(-B-bn-ibpw l^vkbpw)pw
B `mj(-A-SnbpsS) hi-am-bn-cp-p. Ah im-cmbn Cmbva ]dp C\n {]hmN-Is\ {]bm-k-s-Sp-p-I-bn-sp Ah hmp sImSp-p.
kzw ]nXm-p-t]mepw kln-m ]m coXn-bn-emWv B kv{Xo-I {]hmN-I-t\mSp s]cp-am-dn-bXv. {]hm-N-Is hnj-an ZpxJn-p apkvenwIXp
Ahn-iz-k-\obw IqSn-bm-bn-cp-p. {]hm-N-I ]s, Xs kaq-l-nse]cp--mcmb ]pcp-j-msc Hcp ]pXnb ]mTw A`ykn-n-p-Ibpw ]cm-Pn-X-cpw Ah-Im-i l\n--s--h-cp-amb Xs Ime-L--nse kv{XoIp Hcp ]pXn-b-hynXzw t\Sn-sm-Sp-p--Xn\pw Fmw s]mdp-p.
{]hm-N-I-]-Xv\n-am-cpsS \oc-k-n\p asmcp ImcWw IqSn-bp-m-bn-cp-p. tdmansebpw t]jy-bn-sebpw ]aln-jn-am-cpsS B`m-S--sf-p-dn--h tIn-p-v.
ba, Km, lod, CuPn]vXv Fn-hn-S--fnse dmWn-am t]mepw A-s\bmWp Pohn-n-cp--Xv. BUw-_cw \nd-- sIm-m-cw, NXp-cw-Kw, aZyw, \rw
As\ Fsmw lj--fp-am-bm-W-h Ign-bp--Xv! Fm Cu Atd_y
N{I-hn-bpsS `mcy-amtcm? Danbpw Xhnbpw If-bm tKmX-mWv Ahv
NqSp `-Ww. ASp-n Xo ]pIbmsX Nne-tm amk- Ah-Ip Xn
\ot-n-hcpw. Imc-bpw shhpw am{Xta Ah-cpsS Xfn-I-bn Im-Wq. asmp-ap-m-hp-I-bn-.
{]hm-N-I\pw ]Xv\n-amcpw Xn-ep kwLjw {]kvXp-X-hn-j-b-n ssZhn-Ikq-- Ah-X-cn-pn-S-tm-f-sa-n. sFln-I-kpJw B{K-ln-p--hp
Poh-\mwiw hmn CjvSm-\p-kmcw ]ncnbmw; ssZh-sbpw ]c-tem-I-sbpw
th-h apl--Zns Zcn-{Z-amb {Kl-nse IjvS-m-Sp-I kln--Ww. CXm-bncpp ssZhn-I-kq--ns kmcw. 12 Ah apl--Zn-s\bpw Zmcn-{Z-sbpw sXcs-Spp. 13 euIn-I-kp-J-n\v apXqw sImSp--hv AXv {Iqchpw Zpcn-X]qW-hp-am-sWv sXfn-p.
{]hm-N-I ]d-bm-dp-m-bn-cp-p: Rm\n-jvS-s-Sp aqp Imcy--fpo temIv. kpK-w, kv{Xo, {]m-\m-th-f-I-fn Fs angn-I-fn hncn-bp {]Imiw
Fn-h.14 `mcy-am-tcmSv \-co-Xn-bn Atlw s]cp-am-dn. Xs kabw Ahn-Sbn ka-ambn ]p-sh-p. ]s Bbn-i-tbm-Sp kvt\lw At-l-ns
lrZbw Ihn-sm-gp-Ip-I-bm-bn-cp-p. Ah-cm-bn-cpp {]hm-N-I hnhmlw sNbvX
GI-I-\y-I. cmjv{So-bhpw [mn-I-hp-amb A\n-hm-cy-X-bm hnhmlw sNbvX
hn[-h-I-fm-bn-cpp _mn-bp--h-sc-mw. kpcn F-Xn-\p-]p-dsa _pn-a-Xnbpw
imeo-\bpw hmNm-ebpw ]WvUn-X-bp-amb sNdp--m-cn-bm-bn-cpp Bbn-i. {]hm-NIs\ Ah At-bw kvt\ln-p. ap-`m-cy-am-tcmSpw {]hm-N-I\p {]nb-s--]p{Xn
^mXzn-a-tbmSpw Ah-fpsS `m-hmb Aen-tbm-Sp-t]mepw hm Akq-bbpw
Am-c-W-m Bbn-ibvp tXmn. apl-Zv Xs cmjv{So-b-ns ImTn-\yfpw oWhpw Ipd-bvp--Xn\p Bbn-isb kjn-p-Ibpw Ah-tfmSp k-

10

]n-p-Ibpw ]Xn-hm-bn-cp-p. [ym\-ns kaw aqew Xf _m[np-tmgpw


AKm-[-amb Btem-N-\-Ifpw ko-amb Bo-b-kw-Lj-fpw Zph-l-am-hptmgpw Atlw Bbn-isb hnfn-pw. Fn-p-]-d-bpw, Fs lrZ-b-`m-P-\ta
FtmSp kwkm-cn-p-I.
B[p-\nI bqtdm-n\v _lp-`m-cyXzw hrn-sI-Xpw PpKp-]vkbp-f-hm-p--Xp-am-Wv.
kv{XoI-fpsS ku-cys ]nim-Nn-s NXnbmbpw AXns Bkzm-Z\w [-NypXn-bm-bp-amWv ss{IkvX-h-k-Zm-Nm-c-Zi\w hon-p--Xv. {_-Ncy ssZh-{]oXnbpw aX-hn-ip-nbpw t\Sm-\p amK-ambn ]cn-K-Wn--s-Sp-p. apl--Zns
DZm--amb Pohn-X-n Nne Zpe-_n-p- Ip-]n-Sn-m Inm-hp IpI-sfmw FSp-s-dn-n-p-v, cmjv{So-bhpw aX-]-c-hp-amb {]Nm-c-th-e-I-fm
kzm[o-\n--s-, ss{IkvX-h-{]-t_m-[-Icpw Acpw Zpcp-]-Zn-jvSc
- p-am-b- F-gp-pIm-cpw. ap-In-g- `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-sf-tmse A-x]p-c- kqnkv{Xo e\vS\mbn Nn{Xo-I-cnp apl--Zns\ Hcp ]uc-kvXy Uu Pphm15 Bm ]cam-h[n ]cn-{i-an-n-p--h. cp hpj-b--sf-smn Hcp]mSmpw hnfnbpw Ahcp-m-p-I-bp-m-bn. {]hm-N-Is l_p-`m-cyXz Pohn-Xhpw Plvins aI
ssk\-_ns\ Atlw hnhmlw sNbvX kw`-h-h-ap-am-W-h. \psS \mn(-C-dm\n) hsc Ae-I-sf-p-amdv `b--c-am-bn-cpp kwLw tNp Cu Bchw.
\psS ]e _pn-Po-hn-I-fnepw AXv tami-amb kzm[o-\-hp-ap-m-n-bn-p-v.
Rm F\np a\-n-em-b-co-Xn-bn Cu {]iv\--fpsS bmYmyw hy-amm {ian-mw.
kv{Xo {]hm-N-I-lr-Z-b-nepw Pohn-X-nepw Hcp Zu_-eym-am-bn-cp-n, adnv
At-l-ns alm-a-\-kvI-X-bn-sSbpw DZm-c-X-bp-sSbpw Dz-e-`m-h--fn-sem-m-bncp-p-shv Rm B-ambpw hniz-kn-p-p. CuPn-]vjy Fgp-p-Im-c\mb Amkv alvaqZv AJm-ZmZv ]d-p: {]hm-N-I-Po-hn-X-nse Cu
km]nI Zpe_nphn kv]in-p-sImv Ckveman\pamc-I-amb {]l-ctan-m-sav ss{IkvXh anj-\-dn-amcpw km{am-PyXz Fgp-p-Imcpw hnNm-cn-p.
]s Ah-sS-bmWh-_w ]nW-Xv. X-fpsS aXs-p-dn--dn-hp--hcpw
{]hm-N-Is kz`m-h-sbpw coXn-I-sfbpw ]cn-N-bn--hcp-am-b- apkvenwIp
kXyw hyhpw efn-X-hp-amWv. i{Xp- Dbn-mp Cu km]nI
\yq\yX Xs apkv enwIv X-fpsS aXs Zpcm-tcm-]-W--fn\nv apam-m\pw ]cym-]vX-amb Dd sXfn-hm-Ip-p. apl--Zns {]hm-N-I-Xz-ns
kXyX nco-I-cn-p--Xn\p ]pdsa Atlw Xs `mcy-am-tcmSp A\p-hn
coXnbpw `mcy-amsc sXsc-s-Sp--Xns ]nnse bpnbpw Xs aXn Hcp
apkvenan\p Ghp hen-b- \ym-b-ambn.16
\ap-mZyw ssk\-_ns IY ]cn-tim-[nmw . XpSp {]hm-NI ]Xv\n-am-cpsS
Poh-N-cn-{X-fpw As\ At-l-ns Btcm-]n--s-Sp Ax-]-c-n-sbpw
hnIm-c--fp-sSbpw t{]a--fp-sSbpw hmkvXhw Fsv \apv Ip-]n-Sp-mw.

******

11

Plvins aI ssk\_v
Plvin ]p{Xnbpw A_vZp--bpsS ktlm-Z-cn-bp-amWv ssk\-_v. ]pI s] aplmPn-dmb A_vZp c-km-n-Xz-n-emWv PohnXw Ah-km-\n-n--Xv. Jpssdin
tKm{X-n Ipeo-\-Xbvv tIfn tI-Xm-bn-cpp Plvins IpSpw-_w. Plvinsbpw {]hm-NI]nXr-hy-\mb A_vZp ap-en-_ns ]p{Xn-bp-sS-bpw -kp--cnbmb aI ssk\_v. cv Ipeo\ IpSpw-_--fp-sSbpw tN-bn ]nd Cfw
apd.
iman(-kn-dn-b) \np bp--S-hp-Im-c-\m-bn-cpp sskZv C_v\p lmcn-kv.
hn[n At-ls JZo-P-bpsS hon-se-n-p. JZoP sskZns\ Xs `m-hmb
apl--ln\p km-\n-p. kndn-b-bnse Ipeo-\-cns] lmcn-kv, sskZns ]nXmhv, aI-s\-tSn a-bn-se-n. aIs\ bP-am-\-\n\p tamNnn-m lmcnkv
B{K-lnp. apl--Zn\p k-X-am-bn-cpp. ]s sskZv hnk--Xn-p. kzmX-{s-m ASn-a--amWv Ah-\n-jvS-s--Xv. kzw \mn amXm-]n-Xm--tfm-sSmw
Ign-bp--Xn-t\-m A\y-\m-n apl--Zn-sbpw JZo-P-bp-sSbpw hon Ign-bm\m-bn-cpp Ahp Xm]-cyw. hf-sc-b-[nIw tinp Xs At\z-jnp Isp-Ibpw hon-tep Iqn-sm-p-t]m-hm XnSp--s-Sp-Ibpw sNp ]nXm-hnt\mSv sskZns AN--e-amb adp]Sn: apl--Zns apJv tXPpw ]cn-ipnbpw Rm Zin-p-p. Fs lrZbw AXn\np ths]-Sp-m F\n-mhp-n.
sskZns Bm-Xbpw ap KpW-fpw Adn-bp aplZv Ahs IIfn ]nXmhv lmcn-kn-t\m-Sp--Xn-t\-m-tfsd kvt\lw Xtm-SpXmbn-
- p.
Hpw kwi-bn-msX Atlw Ahs\ kzX-{-\m-p-Ibpw Zp-]p-{X-\mbn kzoIcn-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Ahs\ sskZv C_v\p apl-Zv C_v\p A_nvZp Fp hnfnm Atlw Fm-h-tcmSpw Bh-iy-s-p.17 sskZv As\ Xm Dt]n
Xs Dbvpw \mSn\pw ]Icw ]pXn-b- D--sbbpw \mSn-s\bpw t\SpI am{Xambncp-n-, Jmknw, A_vZp (Xz-n-_v, Xzmln)Fo a-fpsS acWw aqew
ZpxJ ]q-amb apl--Zns `h-\-se iq\yX \nI-pI IqSn-bm-bn-cp-p.
sskZp-am-bp kpZr-Vhpw AXn-i-b-I-c-hp-amb kulrZw {]hm-NI Pohn-Xns G-hpw Ghpw Bm-Z-I-c-amb hi-n-sem-m-Wv.18 {]hm-N-I ]nXmhpw
JZoP amXmhpw ^mXzna ktlm-Z-cnbpw Aen ktlm-Z-c-\p-ambn sskZv apl--Zns
hon hfp. kndn-b-bnse \mK-cnI kaq-l-nse Hcp {][m-\-IpSpw_n
]ndp sshm-\n-I-ss]-XrIw A\cw e`n--_p-n-am-\mb Hcp _me {]hm-NI-Ip-Spw-_-nse Am-as AwK-am-bn-op; ssZh-amWv AXnse Bdmas AwKw. Xs-t-Snb A\p-{K-lvX-Xns IhmSw Ah _pn-]qw Xncn-dn-bp-Ibpw Xpd-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. F{X _pn-]q-amWv Ah Xs Ap-XI-c-amb hn[nsb sXc-s-Sp-Xv!
Ipn-Isf Zs-Spp hfpI Ad-_n-I-fpsS k{Zm-b-am-bn-cpp. {]tXyI
hmeyw tXSp ASn-a-Isf tamNn-np Ahp Zp-]p-{X-m-cpsS ]Zhn
\Im-dp-m-bn-cpp bP-am-\-m. ]s Hcn- ASn-a-bm-bn-cp--h-s\p-dnp
kaq-l-n B kvacW \o-Imew \ne-\npw. ]pXp-Xmbn e`n-p ]Zhn
Zp-]p-{X\p kmaqly Ah-Im-i- \Ip-sa-nepw hntam-NnX ASn-a-bpsS {]ikvXn-bn sNdn-sbmcp Ifw _mn-\npw. bYm kzX-{-\mbn Ah
F-s-Sp-I-bn-. hnap ASna am\-kn-Ihpw kmaq-ln-I-hp-ambn Ah-tl-fn--sSp-Ibpw Bo-bhpw am\-kn-I-hp-ambn A\yXzw A\p-`-hn-p-Ibpw am{X-a ]e

12

kmaq-lnI Ah-Im-i-fpw Ah\p \ntj-[n--s-Sp-Ibpw sNpw. kthm-]cn


NneXcn-ep hnth-N-\- ap--h-cn \nv Ahs\ AI-n-\npp.
C-s\-bp aphn-[n-I hnap ASn-a-bpsS ap`m-cysb hnhmlw sNp-hs\ A[n-t]w sImv aqSm t{]cn-n-p-p. hne--s--Xm-bn-cp-p Acw
hnhm-l-.
hnap-\pw kzX-{-\p-an-S-bnse AIew A-chpw Cm-bv-a-sNbvXp kaq-l-n
Fm-hpw kaXzw t\Sn-sm-Sp-m-\p {ia-n apgp-Ish ASn-a--ns
ap{Z-I k-Np-sSbpw kvac-W-I-fn\np ambvp-I-f-bm\pw ap ASn-abvp
kaqlw I]n-n-cp A]-Ijw XpS-p-\o-m\pw {]hm-N-I B{K-ln-p. ap
ASn-abvv hyn-Xzhpw, Bo-bhpw ss[j-Wn-Ihpw kmaq-ln-I-hp-amb Ap ]Zhnbpw \Im\pw As\ Ah-cp-sSbpw kaq-ln-sbpw t_m[-n
Ahsc hnap ASn-a-I-f-mbmsX bYm-kz-X-{-cmbn {]Xn-jvTn-m\pw
Atlw Xocp-am-\np. Atlw sskZn\p {][m-\-s Npa-X-e-I \In.
am\y\pw Ipeo-\-\p-amb aplm-Pndpw kzlm-_n-bp-ambn B hnap ASn-asb Ah-Xcn-n-p-I-bm-bn-cpp Dtiyw. Hcp bp-th-f-bn At-lw-ssk-Zns\ aZo-\-bn
Xs {]Xn-\n-[n-bmbn \n-bn-p.18 QA-^ C_v\p A_o Xzmen_v, A_vZ-ml_v\p chm-l, JmenZv C_n\p heoZv XpS-nb t]sc-Sp ]S-bm-fn-I km[m-cW-m-cmbn ]s-Sp, tdmans\-Xnsc apkvenwI \-S-nb Ghpw henb ]S-\o-ns ssk\ym-[n-]-\mbn Atlw sskZp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn-p. {][m-\-s
ssk\n-I-\o-fpsS \mbIXzw Atlwn\p \In. A-]-hmZ kw`hw t]msebp20 Kpcp-X-c-amb IpSpw-_-{]-iv\--fn Aen-p_v\p A_o-Xzm-en_nt\m-sS-t]mse sskZns aI Dkm-a-tbmSpw A`n-{]mbw tXSn. Xs PohnX kmbm-n sskZns ]Xn-s\-p-Im-c-\mb ]p{X Dkm-asb tdmamkm-{am-Py-n-s\-Xn-scb bp-n apkvenw ssk\yns A[n-]-\mn. A_q-_-, Da apXemb {]K- AS-nb ssk\y-am-bn-cpp AXv.21 CkvemanI kaq-l-n am{Xa apkvenwlrZ-bnepw hnap--A-Sn-abvv kzX-{-cp-am-bp Xpey-m-]n-s-Spp-I-bm-bn-cpp B \-S-]-Sn-I-fp-sS-sbmw eyw.
Ipeo\ Ad_n IpSpw-_-n s] Hcp s]Ip-nsb sskZn\p hnhmlw sNbvXpsIm-Sp-m {]hm-N-I Xocp-am-\n-Xpw CtX Dt-iy-am-bn-cp-p. A\y-\m-p-Imv
hnivjy hnap ASn-a-Iv A\p-`-h-s-n-cp A[-a-t_m[w Zqco-I-cn-p-Ibpw
{]tXy-Inpw hnhm-l-Imcyw hcp-tm apn-tev Xe-Im-p Xd--hmp ahn-[nI XpSp\op-Ibpw sNm Cu \ow hgn {]hm-NI Dw shp. ]s
Ipeo\ IpSpw-_-nep hnap ASn-a-bp-am-bp hnhm-l-n\p k-Xn-p-I-bpsp
{]hm-N-I-\p
\hw
A-dn-bm-am-bn-cp-p.
AXn-\m
kzw
c_ns] Hcp Ipnsb X\nv Ah-fp-sSbpw Ah-fpsS IpSpw-_-nsbpw taep kzm[o\w D]-tbm-Knp sskZn\p IeymWw Ignp sImSp-m
Atlw Xocp-am-\np. A-s\-b-tlw Xs ]nXr-jz-tkbn ssk\-_ns\ Xncs-Spp. {]Xo-n--Xp-t]mse Ah-fpsS klu-Z-c A_vZp-, \nkzm-\mb
aX-`--\m-bn-cp-n-pw, Cu Btem-N\ Xnc-kv-cn-p. Xs IpSpw-_-n-\-]-am-b-ambmWv At-l-a-Xns\ I-Xv. {]hm-N-I \n_-n-p. XtambpK-ns Ah-injvS-amb Ii ]mc--cyns B[p-\nI \mK-cnI bqtdm-]y kaq-l--fn
Cpw \ne-\np k{-Zmbw Nc-Sp-s]m-n-p--Xn\v apl-Zv Hcp {iahpw
Hgnhm-n-bn-. HSp-hn ssZhn-I-sh-fn-]mSv AA_vZp--sbbpw At-l-ns
ktlm-Zcnsbbpw Cu ktiw t_m[y-s-Spn: Am-lphpw Ahs ZqX\pw
Hcp Imcyw Xocp-am-\n-p-I-gn-m Hcp kXy hnizm-knpw hnizm-kn-\npw XfpsS Imcy-n kzbw Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-m A[n-Im-c-an. Am-lp-shbpw
Ahs ZqX-s\bpw [n-cn-p-h
- hy-amb hgn-tI-Sn-em-Wv.22
13

ssk\-_ns hnhm-l-aq-eya apl-Zv Xs \In. \nhr-n-sI-smcp kmaq-lymNmcw IS-]p-g-n-sb-dn-bp-Ibpw Xm-\v ]pXn-sbmcp am\-hnI]mc-cyw
sImp-h-cn-I-bpw sNpXn\p thn Dt-in hnhmlw bmYmy-ambn.
Fm kp`-e--W-ap Hcp kmaqly \o-a-m-bn-cpp AsX-nepw sskZnsbpw ssk\-_n-sbpw hon hnhm-l-n\p Zphn[n t\cnp. Ipeo-\-bmb
ssk\-_n\p Xs BVyXzw ]msS hnkva-cn-mt\m hnap ASn-a- F- -\n-ebn sskZns A]-am-\-I-c-amb kmaq-ly-]-Z-hn-A-h-K-W-mt\m Ign-n-.
Cmcyw ]dv Ah hopw hopw sskZns\ t\mhn-p-Ibpw {]hm-N-It\mSv Xpcp-Xpcm sskZn-s\-p-dnv ]cmXn ]d-bp-Ibpw sNbvXp. sskZpw ssk\-_ns\-n sskZn-t\mSv ]cm-Xn-s-p. -A-h-fp-ambn CW-n--gn-bm {]hm-N-I kZm
sskZns\ D]-tZ-inp. Ccp-hp-an-S-bn cRvPn-p-m-m\pw Atlw {ian-p.
{]hm-NI Iev]\ incm-km-h-ln-pI F Dt-iy-tmSv ssk\_v sskZns\
hnhmlw sNm k-Xn-p. ]s ssk\_v Xs lrZbw sskZn\p \In-bncp-n-. kvt\lw-sImp am{Xw Iog-S-m Ign-bp `qanbmWv lrZ-bw. AXn\m FXnZni-bn \om ssk\_v Ai--bm-bn-cp-p.
hfsc ]Wn-s]v {]hm-N-I hnf-n-t _w \m sNmpw tXmdpw `wKp-cam-bn-op.-ssk-\-_ns kl-\-in tNmp t]mhp-I-bm-bn-cp-p. kmaq-ln-Iamb Hc-Xym-hiyw \nd-th-p--Xn-\p-th-n. `mc-amb Hcp ]md s\n-te-p-Ibpw
Nne XXz--fpsS kwc--Wmw Igp-n\p Nppw ]-sImp hcnp sIp-Ibpw sNbvX Ah--bm-bn-cpp sskZp-sam-p PohnXw Ahv.-X kabw
sskZv Xn\nv kZm AIew ]men-p Hcp s]p-am-bp sshhm-lnI
Pohn-n {]bmkw A\p-`-hn-p-Ibpw. At\y-\y-sm-cp--an-m B Z-Xn-IfpsS ZmXyw Zn\w{]Xn \ndw sISp-Ibpw Acp-Nn-I-c-am-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Ah-cpsS
Imc-bn Bpw Hpw sNm ]p-am-bn-cp-n-.
jmsU ]d--Xp-t]mse kvt\lw sImXn-p-Ibpw AXv e`n-m-Xn-cn-pIbpw sNp lrZbw Xo-bmbpw AXns DS-asb (A-m-X-\m-b) Imap-I-\ntep ]d--b-bpp. kvt\lw Is-p--Xp-hsc AXn\p imn e`n-p-Ibn-. ssZhw, kzmX-{yw, hvm\w, Ie, ku-cyw, t{]aw Fn-h-sbmw Hmtcm
\om-ep-It]mse At\z-j-W-ns acp-`q-an-bn lrZ-bs Imp-\np-Ibm-Wv. GX-cp-hn-bpsS sXfn-\o-cmWv Hcm-fpsS s]mSn]pc-Xpw iq\y-hp-amb lrZ-bIpw-`s \nd-bvp-I?23
ssk\-_ns \b-\-fpsS AKm-[-X-bn Kp]vX-amb an-emw {]hm-N-I-s\m-cn {in-p. Ah-fpsS hnIm-c- shfn-s-Sp--Xm-bn-cpp AXv. ssk\-_ns
lrZ-b-s Pzen-n-p \nKq-V-amb Cu Pzme Ah-fpsS Ihn-fp-Isf Acp-Wm-`am-n. Fm Ah-fpsS lrZ-bs aYn-p Ahn-t[-bXzw {]hm-NIkn-nbn au\w XpS-cpI Ahv ZpjvI-chpw thZ-\m-P-\-I-hp-am-n. ssk\-_ns
angn-I-fnse an BZyw In-ep-S-n-b-tm apl-Zv Nnm-a--\mbn [rXn-bn
hon-tep Xncn-p. ]s ssk\_v Fhn-sS-tmIpw? sskZns\ ImWp-Xv AhfpsS a sISp-p-am-bn-cp-p. BImiw izmkXS--ap-m-p hen-sbmcp `mcyambn s\n-e-ap. Bcp-sS-sb-nepw apJw amdp-Xpw hmp-I tIp-Xpw
Ah-k-ly-am-bn. X-fpsS GIm-hpw XWp-p-d--Xp-amb hon c-]-cnNn-X aqI-cmbn Pohn-p-I, iq\y-X-bvp-th-n-bn Imn-cn-v. kabw IS-pt]m-hp-Xv AhIm-Wp-p. kqtcym-Z-b-nsbpw AkvX-a-b-n-sbpw hnc-kamb Bh\w. s]mSp--\sh Hcn _m[-bp-m-bm AXm-ho-Sns\bmsI

14

hngp-n--fbpw. ssk\-_nt\m sskZnt\m XobpsS {h-n\nv c-s-Sm\p a\--cp-p-m-bn-cp-n-.


ZpxJw ISn--am IgnbmsX sskZv hoSphnp al--ZnsbSp-v A-`bw tXSn.
kl-\-ns s\n--Snbpw IS nXnv Xsf ths]-Sp-n--c-W-sav
Xs Zs-Sp Zbm-ep-hmb ]nXm-hn-t\mSv Atlw XmWp-tI-W-t]-n-p. apl-Zp-amb lj-]p-f-In-X-amb kvt\l-n-em-bn-cpp sskZv. {]hm-N-I-t\m-Sp
kvt\l-hpw _lp-am-\hpw sskZns lrZ-b-n \ndp Xpfp-n. tbmm-hmbn-cpp At-lw. hnizm-khpw Iqdp-ap--h. lrZbw X\n-p-thn XpSp-m
Hcp kv{XobpsS PUw Npa-en-te-p-I- A-t-l-n\p km[y-am-bn-cp-n-. i-cmb
Jpssd-in-I-fp-ambn N e`n-pp F A`n-am-\tam \n-P-Po-hhpw XWp#v-X-X-Xpamb Hcp kucy_nw_s In Inpp F Bm-Ztam Xsbpw
ssk\-_n-s\bpw Hcp XS-h-d-bn _n-m sskZns\ A\p-h-Zn-n-. apdn-bpsS
taq-c-b-msX hnhm-l-Po-hn-X-n Ahsmpw hnhm-l-Po-hn-X-n
Dm-bn-cp-n-. {]]--n Ahsc Hcpann GI-L-SIw X Ccn-p
apdn am{X-am-Wv.
{]hm-N-Is Nn-Isf Ae-n-b hen-sbmcp Zpc--am-bn-cpp CXv. Hcp ]cn-lmcw
ImWm Atlw B{K-ln-p. ]s km[n-n-.-ssk-\-_ns \b-\--fn hmbnXv kzw lrZ-b-n Atlw Ipthm? Pohn-Xw ap-gp-h\pw, buh-\hpw apkhhpw, ssZh-amK-nepw P\-pw hnizm-k-n\pw ]cn-ip-n-pw-I-jvSm-Sn\pw ti-p-am-bn -hybw sNbvX At-l-ns alm-a-\-kvX Ctm
X\n-p-thn {Xkn-p lrZ-b-n\p-t\sc \n-lm-b-ap-hp-I-bm-tWm?
AtXm ssk\-_ns lrZ-b-n \np-b Pzme-bm X]vX-am-hp-I-bmtWm?
Cu tNmZy-v ]e D-c-fpw \I-s-n-pv. Nnm-_-p-c-amb IY-Ifpw
Abm-Ym-amb sFXn-ly-fpw Ahbn\np s\bvsX-Sp-n-p-v. ]s
Fs kw_-n-n-S-tmfw Cu tNmZy-sf hfpI FXp Xs Akw-_-am-Wv. Dcw Ip-]n-Sn-m-\p {iaw \ncm-kv]-Z-hpw. ImcWw kvt\l-ns
\nKq-WvU-amb hgn-I hkvXp \njvT-ambn sXfn-bn-m Ncn{Xnt\m Kth-j-Wnt\m km[y-a-. {]tXy-Inp {]hm-N-I-tXp t]mep ihpw AKm-[hpw
AXyp-Zm-c-hp-amb lrZ-b-nse kvt\l-ns. Hcp t\m-n-stbm a-kvan-nstbm arZp-hmb hnckv]i--tas Ic-bp kmKw-Kn-sb-tm-ep Ihn
lrZ-b-a {]hm-N-I-t-Xv. Akz--X-bn At-l-ns au\-n-sbpw a-bpsSbpw hkv{Xw ]nn-tm-hp-I-bp-an-. kmK-c-amWv lrZ-bw. ta-c-n sImtmf--fp-m-p- {]`m-X-nse CfwsX kap-{Z-lr-Z-bs Akz--am-mdptm? Bbn-c-n-\m-\qdv kwh--c--epsS hnZq-c-X-bvn-p-dw \np-t\m-p
Bs-nepw B kap-{Z-lr-Z-b-ns hnIm-c- ]nSn-In-ptam? am{X-a-, lrZ-b F{X-bptm A{X-Xs kvt\l-fpw \ne-\np-p. lrZ-b- F{X-hnNn-{X-amtWm A{X hnNn-{X-amWv kvt\l-fpw. Ingv a\p-sj-lvcn-bpsS24 lrZ-bnse Ccp K-fpw dqan-bp-sS25 lrZ-b-nse Znhy-a-WvU-evnepw Zriy-amhp kvt\l-ns hyXymkw ]Sn-mdv s_eo-n-kns lrZ-b-nse AgpIn
Zpjnp Zp-l-ZpKw han-p Nf-pp apX Zms-bpsS26 _nbm-{Sn-kns
ssZhn-Ihpw ]cn-ip--hp-amb lrZ-b-cmPyw hscbpw \app ]cn-N-b-ap-v.
taev]d kI-e-Xcw kvt\l--sfbpw Hscm An hm hmn sImnp--Xv -F{X A\p-Nn-X-amWv! kvt\lw F AXn-cp-I-fn-m hmmWv B

15

Av Fn Xsbpw. apl--Zn-t-Xp-t]m-ep DZm--amb lrZ-b-ns AKm-YXe hnIm-c-sf IY-sb-gp-p-Im-cp-sSbpw `mh-I-hn-I-fp-sSbpw hnIm-c-Po-hn-I-fmb


bphm--fp-sSbpw Xqen-I-bn \np hmp hogp Aip--amb `mj-sImv
hybhl-cn-p-Xv Hcp mkv \pc-bvp sh-n Kpfn-I-bn-Sp-tm-gp-m-hp Ipap-f-I-fpsS i_vZs lrZ-b-ns Bg--fn arZp-hmbn ]Ssm-gp-Ip
\nKq-V-amb Acp-hn-I-fpsS Znhy-lj-hp-ambn Xmc-Xayw sNp--Xn\p ka-am-Wv.
apl--Zns lrZ-bn kvt\lw F-s\-bm-bn-cp-p-shp \app a\-nempI km[y-a-. kzK-n thtcm-Snb kvt\l-hp-ambn ASpp ]cn-N-b-apm-bn-cpp At-l-n-s\p \ap--dn-bmw.-G-Xm-Zr-i -kvt\-l-m Pzen-p
Debm-bn-cpp At-l-ns lrZ-b-sa-pw. AtX kabw Hp asm-n-\p-thn
XpSn-p am\p-jn-I-amb kvt\lw AXn-\-]-cnNn-X-hp-a3-bn-cp-n-. B-m-\nI hWn-p ku-cyhpw Znhy-Nm-cp-Xbpw hgn-sm-gp-Ip At-l-ns
i-amb samgn CXp shfn-hm-p-p-v. {]W-b-n ]Xn-p-Ibpw AXp
Xv\\nXs HXp-n-shp (Xm-tem-enp hfn) acn-p-Ibpw sNp--h\v
kzK-]n-c-thiw Xo.
al--Zns lrZ-bn kvt\lw Kw`o-c-amb IY-bm-tI--Xm-bn-cp-p. ss{IkvXh- ]p-tcm-ln-Xr-mcpw Np-ambpw km{am-PyXzin-I-fp-ambpw _-ap
tUmkn(Dozy)-sb-tm-ep
Hmdn-b-en-p-Ifpw
tImsU(Conde)sbbpw
{_mkn(Bras)s\bpw t]mep- I-hS Fgp-p-Imcpw sIn--a--lo-\hpw ZpjnXpw i{Xp-Xm-]-chpw hnhcw sI-Xp-amb A`n-{]m-b--fpsS Gg-b-e-p-t]mepw
hcp--Xm-hn AXv. ssk\_v {]iv\s kw_-nv Ahn-cp-sem-cm-sf-gpXn: ......-apl--Zns kJmhmb sskZns `mcy kpcn ssk\-_ns InS-p-ap-dn-bpsS hpcp
s]sp hoinb HcpfwImn AI-p-am-dn. ]p-sIm-p BIj-I-amb \nimh-kv{X-a-Wp InS--bn InS-p-d-p-I-bm-bn-cp ssk\_v apl--Zns
apn Fgp-t-p-\np. Ah-fpsS A\-amb icocw apl--Zns
IIp apn A\m-hr-X-ambn. apl--Xns lrZbw s]sp XmWp
AXns ka-\ne sXn.27 (A-h-cpsS ho-W-n) ssk\-_n\p Xs {]Wbw
cl-ky-amn shm km[n-n-. sskZn-t\mSv Ah-cXp Xpdv ]d-bp-Ibpw
XpSp {]hm-N-\p hnhmlw sNp--Xn-\p-thn Ahsf hnhm-l-tam-N\w sNpIbpw sNbvXp.
aT--fpsS GIm--amb kzIm-cy-X-I-fnepw Nns kpJ-I-c-amb aqe-I-fnepw
I\ym-kv{Xo-Ifpw ]ptcm-ln-X-mcpw ]p-sh-b-p--Xcw kvt\lamWv hnIvS
lyqtKm28sbtm-ep Fgp-p-Im CXn-\p-J-WvUn-X-ambn FmSpw sXfn-hp-I
\In-bnpv29 apl--Zns kvt\l--sa-mWv Ccw Fgp-p-Im hnNm-cn-pXv
{]hm-N-I At-bw Akz--\pw- ZpxJn-X\pam-bn-cpp. c-s-Sm-\mhm-sXp tXmp Hcp hgn-n-cn-hm-W-t-lw. sskZn\pw ssk\_n\pw Hcp-anp
t]mhpI Akm[yw. hnhmlw ths-Sp-p--Xn-em-W-hp tamN-\w. kthm]cn ssk\-_ns D-cm-h-Zn--`mcw {]hm-N-Is Npa-ep-I-fn-em-Wv. At-l-amWv
kmaq-ln-I-amb Hc-Xym-h-iy-n\p thn Xs _p C-s\-sbmcp sIWn-h-cpn-sh--Xv. ssk\-_ns\ \nbw ImpXn-p thZ-\bn \nw-KX \Snm Ah-fpsS Zpcn-X-smw Imc-W-amb {]hm-N-I\p km[n-ptam? sskZp-

16

am-bp hnhm-l-_w ths-Sp-nb tijw \ncm-{i-bhpw thZ\m\n`-c-hp-amb


Ah-fpsS Pohn-Xs {in-m-Xn-cn-m At-l-n-\m-hptam?
a\p-jy-cm-in-bpsS Ghpw bmYmy t_m[-ap kmaqlyBob t\Xm-hmb
apl--Zn
apn
]ncn-bp-S-p-\n
am\p-jnI
bmYmy--fm-Wn-h.
bmYmys Ah-K-Wn-p-I-b {]hm-N-I. kmaq-lnI bmYmy-sf
AwKo-I-cn-pp F-XmWv Ckveman-sbpw {]hm-N-I-sbpw Ghpw Xnf-am khn-ti-j-X-X-s. bpw, t{Im[w, {]Xn-Im-cw, Pohn-X-ns ck-,
ku-cyw, hnImcw, [\w, hnhm-l-tam-N\w, ]p\hn-hmlw, GI-`m-cy-Xz-n\np hyXn-N-e\w Ch-sbmw hyn-Ifpw a\p-jy-k-aq-l-fpw \nc-cw t\cnSp bmYmy--fm-Wv. ]e-X-Xz-Nn--Ifpw BobNnm-k-c-Wn-Ifpw At\Iw
aX-fpw Ccw bmYmy-sf Ah-K-Wn-mt\m ASn--amt\m {ian-n-pv. Ah Hcn-epw hnP-bnn-n. ImcWw Hcp bmYmys ASn--a#v-X-Xptm AXv IqSp-X A]-I-S-Im-cn-bm-bn-o-cpw. \mw bmYmys t\#v-I-Ipt\cw In t\mp-n-s-n AXv \s ]nd-In-eqsS Ippw. Ncn-{Xm-cw`w
apX Bhn-p hkvXp-X-bm-WnXv.
Ckvemw Ftmgpw bmYmy--sf apJm-apJw AwKo-I-cn-p-Ibpw Ahsb \nb{Whnt[-b-am-p-Ibpw sNp-p. Fn--hsb Ah-bp-tS-Xmb hgnp Xncn-p-hnSp-p. Iem]w, \miw, XI Fn-h-bn\np cn-p-p. Ckv eman-\-dnbmw
a\-n-em--s-Sm-Xbpw Xncn--dn-bs-Sm-Xbpw tijvp bmYmy--fmWv kaql-ns Gw A]m-c-nbmb B-cnI i{Xp Fp. hnip--bpw, hnhm-ltam-N\w, _lp-`m-cy-Xzw, ]p\ hnhm-lw, {]Xn-{In-b, DS-akvYX Fn-h-bp-sSsbmw \nb-a- Cknemw Bhn-jv-cn-n-p-v. {]IrXn hn`-h-fpw `uXn-I-Pohn-Xm-m-Zfpw D]-tb-K-s-Sp-m Ckvemw A\p-h-Zn-p-p. Hgn-hm-m ]mXpw Imem-Im-e-ambn XpSv hcp-Xpw ]Sv ]nSn-p--Xp-amb B]-camb bmYmXvYysf ISn-m-Wn-Sp-I-bmWv CXns Dt-iyw. A-s\-bpfvf Hcpbm-YmXvYyamW vkvt\lw. shdp-v, {]Xn-Imcw, bpw Fn-hsbtmse hmXn-epI-fpsS ]pd-p-I-S-m A\p-h-Zn-n-s-nNp-acp XIp bmYmyw.
Ccw bmYmy-sf aXn-ep-s]m-fn-m hnSp-I-bm-Wv ss{I-kvX-hX sNbvX-Xv.
CW--ap-ff cm-m-hp-Isf ]c-kv]cw BIin-p \nKq-Vhpw Ap-X-I-c-hpamb in hntijw Fs--dn-bm--hpw kvt\ls {]Ir-Xn-bpsS hnfn
t]mse-bp-ff Hcp-ap- am{X-ambn ImWp--hpw ]Ww, {]Xm-]w, `uXn-I-t\- Fn-h--Xo-X-amb a\pjy _s Dsm-f-fm Ign-bm--hpw
Rm ]d-bp-Xv a\-n-em-hp-I-bn-. Xobp-Xnp ZWvUp-I-sfbpw \cI k-sfbpw Ipdn `b-n\pw kzK-nse Idp \b-\-fpw Dd amdn-S--fp-apff amZ-I-n-S-p-I-tfmSpw B, s] ]cn-Nm-c-I-tcm-Sp-ap-ff Ima-n-\p-a-pdw
a\p-jy--ssZ-h-_w \nc-Ihpw Akm-[y-hp-am-sWp Icp-Xp--hs--s\bmWv Fs kqN\ a\-n-em-hpI?
Atm-gXv apl--Zns hnj-a-kvXn-Yn-bm-bn-cp-pthm?Xm kmyw hln-p-I-bmbn-cp A]-I-S-I-chpw i-h-amb bmYmyw kw`-hn-p-sIm-f-fs Fp
shp--Xn Atlw Akz-kvX-\m-b-sX-vsImv? ssk\-_n-s\bpw sskZns\bpw hcnp sInb NcSv Adp-m Atlw Fv sImv aSnp? sskZpw
AXn\p hfsc Xm]-cy-s-npw? apdn-th-dd ]n (hn-hml ap-bmb ssk\_v
)tzn kzw (lr-Z-b-n-s) IqSv Xpdv shm Atlw kt-ln--sXn\v? `b-hn-lz-e-bmb Ah A`-b-am-{l-lnp Xncp lrZ-b-hm-Xn-en Xpcp-Xp-cm-apn-sm-n-cp-npw?
17

`b-sa-s--dn-n-n-m {]hm-NI lrZbw Ctm `b-N-In-X-am-bn. cp-Im-cy-fm-bn-cpp At-l-ns t]Snp \nan-w. H, sXn-m-c-W-bn \npSseSp-p P\--fpsS {]Xn-I-cWw At-l-aXpshdpp. P\--fpsS Aiphpw A[-a-hp-amb a\-nXn Xs DXm--hnIm-c-sf If--s-Sp-p-sa-tlw `b-p. Znhy ssNX-\y-hp-ambn _w kvYm]n ]cn-ip-hpw DZm--hpamb Bm-hns\ kw_-n-n-S-tmfw Agp-tN-dn-en-g-bp kp-NnX a\-kvI-amb
a\pjy pgp--sf-m hrn-sI i{Xp shsd-bn-.
]Sn-m-d kmln-Xy-nepw kn\n-a-bnepw \ndv \np-Xvt]mse-bp-ff NeNn{X t{]a-amWv apl--ZnssXv hnNm-cn-p Cm-es ]cn-jvIrX bqtdm]y Fgp-p-Imp-t]mepw a\-n-em-m-\m-hm--Imcyw kvt\l-s-p-dnv HI-ns [mc-W-I am{X-ap-ff lnPm-kn-sebpw \PvZn-sebpw Xnlm-a-bn-sebpw
\mtSmSn Ad-_n-Is-s\ Dsm-f-fm-\mhpw? AtKm-N-c--fmb At\Iw
ApX Acp-hn-Iv Dd-hn-S-ambn _hn A`u-anIhpw \na-e-hp-amb lrZb
hnIm-c--fpsS ta Fsmw Agp-p-I-fmWv P\--fpsS A[-a-[m-c-W-I
Ipp IqpI?
CXn\p ]pdsa apl--Zns hgn-bn AXn hc-p-I \p-bn-m GXp kaql-nepw Dm-hp-Xp t]mse-bp-ff Hcp Iep-Nn--ZWvU Db-s-n-cp-p.
cmPn-bm-hm ap[m-c-W-I-fm ]cn-c-n--s-Sp, P\-lr-Z-b-n Ag-n-en-dnb ]pcm-X-\hpw ]cp--\p-amb Hcp k{-Zm-bw.
ASn-a--n\pw kzmX-{y-n-\p-an-S-bn-ep-ff Hcp L-am-bn-cpp Ckvemans
Bhn`m-h-Imvv Zs-Sp-. A[ kzX-{-\m-bn-cp#p Zp ]p{X. Ahs\
ad-A-dp-f-f-h-cn \np thXn-cn-p \nb-a-]-c-amb khn-tj-iX Ctm ]nXmsh--dn-b-s-Sp--A-h-s ap bP-am-\\v Ah samgn sNmnb s]ns\
hnhmlw sNbvXv IqSm F-XmWv . ImcWw Ad-_n-I AsXmcp henb A]-am-\am-bmWp I-Xv.
]s, Fp-sIm-m-WXv A]-am-\-am-Ip-Xv? Hcp hntam-NnX ASn-asb Hcn-
hnhmlw sNbvX#p F Ip-n\v Fm kv{XnIpapff Ah-Imiw
Ahp-am-{X-ambn \ntj-[n-p--sX-n\v? kzX-{-\m--s hyn kzX{\p Xpey-\-s-ptm?
A hnizm-k-n A[n-jvTn-Xhpw a\p-jyXzcln-X-hp-amb Hcm-Nm-chpw ASn-a-ns Ah-in-jvS-hp-am-bn-cpp Cu k{-Zmbw.kv{Xn-sbbpw Ah-fpsS `m-hns\bpw Ah-cp-ambn _-s--h-scbpw kw_-n-n-S-tmfw {]kvXpX k{Zmbw ]pcp-j\p Xsc ZpIp\w \nd ASn-a Ime-ns Hm-s-Spepw kv{Xnp Abm-fpsS `mcy-bm-bn-cp--Xn-ep-ff A]-am-\hpw am{X-amWv \IpXv. kzX-{-\mb hyn-sbbpw Abm-fpsS `mcy-sbbpw ASn-a--hp-ambn IntSp-Xpw kzX{ a\p-jy-cn \n-I---Xp-amb _-\n \np tamNn-np--Xn\v Cu kv{]Zmbw \ntjw s]mfn-s-gp-XpIXs thWw.
A-s\-bn-cns, s]mSp-s\ Hcp ssZhnI shfn-]mS, kmaq-ln-I-amb A\n-hmcyX Bh-iy-s-Sp ap k`--fn kw`-hn-m-dp-f-fXp s]mse, Cu A\`nejWob k{-Zm-b-n\p hncm-a-anp: Amlp Hcp a\p-jy\pw Ahs ico-c-n
cv lrZ-b- Dm-n-bn-n-. \n fnlmsNp `mcy-amsc \n-fpsS
18

amXm--fm-n-bn-n30v \n Zs-Sp--hsc \n-fpsS a-fp-am-n-bn-n-.


AsXms \n-fpsS hmb-sIm-p-ff ]d-n am{X-am-Wv. ]s Amlp kXyw
]d-bp-p. Ah-\m-Ipp t\amK-n-te-p-ff hgn ImWn-p-Xpw
Cu shfn-]m-Sn-\p-tijw ssk\_v kmaq-ln-Im-h-iymw Xs sskZp-ambn Iqns-nb hnhm-l-_--\-n \np tamNn-X-\mbn . Hd-d-s-S-ens ARvPm-X-amb
ad Xn-S-bn hen-n-, ssk\-_p-am-bp-ff hnhmlw aqew kwPm-X-amb IjvSm-Sn \nv sskZpw apn t\Sn. ]s hnhm-l-tam-N-\m-\-cw Xs Zpcn-Xsf pdn-p-I-bvp Hma-I-f-msX ssk\-_n\v atmpw XpW-bp-m-bn-cpn. am{X-a ]pXp-Xmbv e`n kzm{w Ahsf X\n-p-{]n-b-s--h\pw hnim-e-a-\kv-\p-amb ]nXrhy ]p{X-\n ({]-hm-N-I) A`bw t\Sm Xzcn-n-p-Ibpw
sNbvXp ]s apl-Zv kn-Kvm-h--bn-em-bn-cp-p. P\-sap ]dbpw? Ah-sc-s\-bm-Wn-sX-Sp-pI? kp{]-`mXw s]mse hnip--amb Xs hnIm-c- P\-fpsS ]I-hym-[n-s]mse ]S-cp A`n-{]mb{]I-S-\--fn\nv kpc-n-X-am-bn-cpptam?
`b-hpw ktlhpw {]hm-N-Is\ `cn-p. At-l-s-bXv thZ-\-bp-sS-bps# ]oV-\n-sbpw
An-Ip--n-em-gvn.
Ccp
]I-epIfpwthZ-\m-P-\-Ihpw
Akz`cn-X-hp-amb cmhp-Ifpw ISv t]mbn. P\--fpsS h{In-Xpw kwibw
\nd--Xp-amb Ip-I-fn \nv adp \np--k-Po-h-amb Pzme-p-Xp-y-amb
Hcp clkyw Atlw Xmtem-en-p-sIm-n-cp-p. Cu hnI-en#--nsp
Atlw au\n-bm-bn. A-s\-bn-cns s]v \_nsb Ip-s-Sp-p ]cp-
`mj-bn Hcp shfn-]mSv kz-I-hmSw Xpd-sn:Amlp shfn-s-Sp-m-\n-cp-sXtm AXp \o a\-n ad-p. \o P\-sf `b-s-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp.31
apl-Zv Dnsh Imcyw ssZhw-sh-fn-s-Sp-n. As\ _lp-P-\-{]-Xn-I-cWspdn `bw Am-\-m-bn. ASn-t]n--s hnhm-l-p-cp-n
AIsv ]c-kv]cw CW-msX Ign-bp cm-m--fpsS kzmX-{-hp-ambn
_-s C-c-samcp {]iv\nam-\-kn-I-ambn {]mIr-X-aq-ey--fmepw bpnlo-\-amb k{-Zm-b--fmepw Dcphw {]m]n P\-fpsS A`n-{]m-b-n\v Fp
{]kn hrn-sI Cu k-{-Zm-b-ns \namP\w Hn-p-I-gn-bpI F-Zp-c-n\np B Z-Xn-Isf cn-pw. ]c-kv]-c-a-I-ep--Xns ktmiw
Ahm-kz-Z-m-\mhpw. Xs Pohn-X-km-mXmIm-c-n\v Hgn-p-Iq-Sm- ]m
Hcp ]pcp-j-t\m-sSm--am-hpI Fp-am-{X-am-{K-ln-p Hcp kzX{ kv{XobpsS
kvt\l-ns hnP-b-am-bn-cn-p-a-Xv. AtX-k-a-bw, ]pcp-js ASn-a--n-sbpw
A]-am-\-n-s-bpw kv{XobpsS Xcw-Xm-gv-en-sbpw \ny-X-bp-sSbpw kvac-W-Ifp-bp Abp-n-Ihpw A\-`n-em-j-Wo-b-hp-amb k{-Zm-b-ns ]cm-P-bw.
C-s\-sbm-s-bm-sW-nepw Xs Zp-]p-{Xs ap `mcysb hnhmlw sNpI
FXv Gsd {]bm-k-I-c-am-bn-s \np {]hm-N-I\v, \nbaw AXn-\-\p-Iq-e-ambnpw. A-c-samcp kaq-l-n Bm-W-Xn\p ss[cyw hcnI? Bcm-WmZys Nph-Sp-sh-bvp-IAs\ a\p-jy-hn-cp--amb Cu {]Ir-X-kw-hn-[m-b-n\n-smcp Nh-p- sImSp-pI? \nm-b-I-amb B D-c-hm-Znw \nh-ln-m
ssZhw Xs ZqXs\ Xs Xnc-s-Sp-p: t\mpI! Amlp A\p-{K-ln,
\obpw A\p-{K-ln Hcp-h-t\mSp \o ]-d-p: \ns `mcy-sb- \o -\n-e-\npIbpw
Am-lp-hns\ \ne-\np-Ibpw sNp-I. \o \ns a\-n Hcp Imcyw ad-php. Amlp AXv shfn-s-Sp-m-\p-t-in-p. \o P\-sf `b-s-Sp-Ibpw
sNbvXp. \o Ghpw `b-s-tS-Xv Am-lp-hn-s\-bm-Wv. As\ sskZv Ah-sf
19

(\n-n-X-cq-t]-W) Imcyw Xo-tm, Ahsf \n\-p \mw hnhmlw sNbvXpXpX-fpw Zp-]p-{Xam-cpsS samgn-sNm-n-b-`m-cy-am-cpsS Imcy-n kXy-hnizm-kn-Iv hnjaw t\cn-Sm-Xn-cn-m Am-lp-hns I]\ \Sm-hp-Xs{X.32
{]hm-N-Is Poh-N-cn-{X-hn-h-c-W--fp-sSbpw, apl--Zv--ssk-\_v IY ]cm-ain
Jp-B hmIy- hymJym-\n-s-gp-X-s {K--fp-sSbpw ]mc--cy--fp-sSbpw
kam-lm-c- aphn[n IqSmsX Hcp kzX-{-a-\-n\v Fm Ign hkvXp-Xbm-Wn-Xv. Cu L-nepw Hdp Pnm-kp-hn\v Cs\ tNmZmw: bYm-n
apl--Zv ssk\-_n-t\mSv {]W-b-n-em-bn-cp-pthm? apl--Zns ZrjvSn-I
ssk\-_p-am-bn-S Znhkw Atlw Ah-fpsS II-fn {]W-b-ns \nKqV-amb sXfnw Zin-p-Ibpw AX-t-l-ns lrZ-bs aYn-p-Ibpw Fn-tlw Hm, ]cn-ip--\pw lrZ-b-sf Nen-n-p--h-\p-amb ssZ-hta Fv ]d-bpIbpw sNbvXn-cn-pI kw`-hy-amtWm? {]hm-N-I sskZns hon sN-tm
ssk\_v bmZr-n-I-ab ]pdvhcn-Ibpw As\ At-l-ns ZrjvSn-I
Ah-fpsS tZl-nepw DS-enepw ]Xn-bp-Ibpw AXp-ap-X At-l-ns a\-n
Ah-fpsS kucyw IpSn-tb-dp-Ibpw sNbvXp-shv ]d-bp-Xv hmkvX-h-amtWm?
Cu {]Wbw \nanw apl-Zv Xs lrZbw ssk\-_n\v sImSpp Fv a\-nem-nb sskZv Xs `mcy-bpsS \ncp-t-js Hcp \nan-am-n apl--Zn-\pthn hnhm-l-tam-N\w sNbvX-XmtWm?
apl-Zv, sskZv, ssk\-_v Fn-cpsS lrZ-b-n AKm-[-amb apdn-I-fn ]Xp-\n kwLj- Fm-bn-cppshv BvXo-cp-am-\nm-\mhpw?
\msams Ah-cp-sS ka-Im-en-Icpw aZo-\-bn AhcpsS sXm-Sp Abhm-knIfpw Bbn-cp-p-sh-nIqSn \p-tS-Xp-am-{X-amb kml-c-N-cym-h-tem-I-\w, hnIm-c, ioew, {]hm-N-I-\n-ep \psS hnizm-kns kz`mhw Fn-hsb ASnm-\-am-ntb Cm-cyn \msapw ]d-bp-am-bp-p-q.al--Zns lrZ-bn IpSn-sIm kvt\lw Fspw F-s\-bp--sXpw hmbn--dn-bm\pw
IrXy-ambn ImWm\pw km[n-p--Xmv.?
]s Hcm-fpsS Nnsb ITn-\-amb {]l-cn-p-Xpw, Cu kw`-hs Ccp
GSp-I-fn Hfnnp shXpw Ncn-{Xns Zptb ZpKvX-Xn-tep {]Imiw
hogv-p-Xpw {]hm-N-I-Po-hn-Xs kw_-n Cu IY-bp-ambn _-s-,
GXm\pw Xpwhnh-c- am{X-am-Wv. AhpsS ]gp-Xp-I-fn-eqsS \app \S-h-gn-I
ImWm-dmIpw. Ah \s ZpK-ns AI-tp \bnpw. As\ \ap-p- \psS _pn-bp-sSbpw \nco-W ]mS-h-tm-sSbpw kw`-h-n-s bmYmyw
Ip-]n-Sn-mw.
Cu kw`-h-n\ptij-amWv (J-Iv bpw33 Ignv ARzp-hj-n\v tijw)
]-bpsS I]-\-h--Xv. AXn-\n-Sbvv Hmtcm {]tZ-i-sbpw kv{XoI-fp-sSbpw
DS, apJw, incv Fn-h-sb-p-dn-smcp [mcW ]pc-j-m-cpsS a\-n ]Xnn-cn-pw.
{]hm-N-Is Am-hn-bpsS ]p{Xn-bmWv ssk\-_v. AXn-\m Nwdp--Imew
apXte {]hm-N-I-\-hsf Adn-bmw.
sskZn\p `mcy-bmbn ssk\-_ns\ sXc-s-Sp-Xv {]hm-N-I Xs-bm-Wv.
{]hm-N-Is \n_--n\p hg-n-bmWv Ahfm hnhm-l-n\p kvaa-Xn--Xv.
apl--Zs lrZ-bs ssk\_ns kucyw Ftm-sg-nepw BIjn-n-cp-s20

n Ah- I\y-Ibpw IqSp-X Ag-Im-h-fp-am-bn-cns At-ln-\hsf


\niv{]-bmkw hnhmlw sNm-am-bn-cp-p. Cu X-fpw A]-hm-Zhpw
kwLjhpw hnI]hpsamw As\ Hgn-hm-p-Ibpw Bhm-am-bn-cp-p.
Xs ]Xv\n-bpsS kvt\l-an-m-bva-sb-p-dn ssk\-_ns ]cmXn Akm-[m-c-Wambn ]c-nK-W--s-tS ]pXnb hnj-b-a-. Btem-N-\-bpsS thf-bnXs
ssk\_pw IpSpw-_hpw {]kvXp-X-hn-hm-l-n-s\-Xn-cm-bn-cp-p-shv \ap--dn-bmw.
{]hm-N-Is t{]c-W-It]mepw ssk\-_ns\ t_m[y-sSpm\p-X-In-bn-. kmaqln-I-amb Hcm-hiy ]qo-I-c-W-n-\p-thn _m[y-X-bm-bn-o hnhm-ln\p k-Xn-m ssZhn-I-sh-fn-]m-Sp-aqew \n_-n-X-bm-hp-I-bm-bn-cpp
Ah.
hn-hm-l-tijw ssk\_v {]hm-N-I-\p-ambn \nc-cw _-sp-sIm-n-cpp.
ImcWw Ah At-l-ns _p-hm-Wv. am{X-hp-a-, Ctm-g-h Xs
hfp-]p-{Xs `mcy-bp-am-bn-cn-p-p. sskZm-Is {]hm-N-I-Ip-Spw-_-nse Hcp
{][m\ AwK-hp-am-Wv. AXn-\m sskZns `mcyv \_n-bpsS acp-a-I-fpsS m\am-Wp--Xv.
(-ssk-\-_ns\ hnhmlw sNm-\p-) {]hm-N-Is Xocp-am\w At-ls ssZhZq-X-\mbpw ssk\-_p-am-bp Xs hnhm-l-n\p apI-s-Sp hfp-]nXmhmbpw KWn-p sskZns lrZ-b-n A\-`n-em-Wo-b-amb tXmep-Isfmpw Dm-p-I-bn? sskZns ImgvN-bn Xs `mcy hf-NvOs acp-aI-fmWv. sImp Dkm-a(-ssk-Zns aI)-bp-sSbpw apn apl-Zv tami-m-c-\mht? \nw-i-bw, ssk\-_n-t\m-Sp apl--Zns B{Klw sskZnepw Dkm-abnepw shdpp-f-hmpw{]hm-N-I F {]Xn-Om-b-Xs XI-cpw. ]s, apl-Zns Pohn-X-I-Y- hm-bn-p--hsc kvX_v-[-cm-p-Xv sskZpw Dkm-abpw
XfpsS Pohn-X-Imepw apgn-h At-l-tmS ImWn-p kvt\lhpw kaWhpw hnizm-khpw _lp-am-\-hp-am-Wv.
{]hm-N-I\v Bbn-j-tbm-Sp Dujva-f-amb CjvSw kp-a-dn-bm-hp Hcp
hkvXp-X-bm-bn-\n-e-\np ka-b-mWv ssk\-_ns IY Dbp hcp--Xv.
sskZpw km\_pw Xn-ep CSn-n, Xm\-\p-`-hn ZpxJhpw `bhpw kn-Kv[m-hbpw, ssk\-_ns hnhm-l-tam-N\w, ssk\-_p-am-bp ]cn-W-aw Ch-bvn-Sbn-sempw {]hm-N-I Xs lpssddm34bpambn kvt\l-n--em-Xm-bn-n-. ssk\_ns kw`hw Xs XmXv]-cy--tftbm hnIm-c--tftbm shp-hn-fn-p kwKXn-bmbn Bbni IW-n-se-Sp-n-t-bn-. _pn-a-Xnbpw teme-{]-Ir-Xbpw Akq-bbp--hfpw kml-kn-I-bp-amb kv{Xobm-bn-cpp Bbn-i.35 Ahs-s\ {]hm-NI asmcp kv{Xobp-ambn t{]a-n-em-bXv \n-_vZw kln-m-\mbn? C{_mlw
Fv km-\s km-\n acnb F `mcy-bp-ambn \_n-Im-Wn \n-lm-bamb ASp--q-Sp-Xt]mepw kln-m-\m-hmsX s]mn-s-dn-bn-tepw A]-hm-Zn-tepw \bn KqV-]Xn Bhn-jvI-cn-n-cpp Bbn-i.36 \_nsb Ip-s-Spm am{Xw Akq-b-bm tm]n-n-cpp Ah. Fn-p-sa-t, apl--Zn\p
asm-cp-n-tbmSv AXpw Xs Zp-]p-{Xs ap`m-cy-tbmSv Am-c-W-m
XnIpw A]-am-\-I-c-hp-amb hnIm-tcm-jva-fhpw s]s-p-f-hm-b-Xp-amb
{]Wbns\-Sntc Bbni Ftmfw {]Xn-I-cWw ImWn-p-Itbm AXn DXvIWvU-s-Sp-I-t]mepw sNbvXn-? As-n tUmkn, ImsUapX-emb ss{IkvXh
]mXn-cnamcpw bqtdm-]y Hmdn-b-en-p-Ifpw ssk\-_ns \nim-h-kv{Xhpw
sskZns {]im--amb Krlnshv Xs Am-hn-bpsS aIsf H-bvp-I-tm t{]a-hn-Im-c-]m-c-hiyw sImv apl-Zv samgn--hm-p-Ifpw hf-sc-hn-i-Z21

ambn Ip-]n-Sn Cu t{]amcys-n {]hm-N-Is CX-c-`m-cy-amBbn-it]mepw Hp-a-dnn Fp \mw [cn-Ww!


buh\w ]qp-e-bp L-nt{]aw A\y-am-bn-cp apl--Zv, At-l-ns
FXn-cm-fn-I ]d-bp--X-\p-k-cn-v, Adp-]-tXm-S-Sp-p Ctm-gmWv Xs Am-hnbpsS aIsf Hcp t\mp-Im-Wp-tm-tgv t{]aw aqew Xe-Iogv adn-bp-Xv.
FXnibw!
ssk\_vap-lZv t{]a-I-Ysb kwi-bnm\pw AsXmcp sIp-I-Y-bm-sWp
ImWm\pw ssk\-_p-am-bp {]hm-N-Is hnhmlw At-l-ns an-hn-hm-l-sfbpw t]mse kmaq-ln-I-amb Bh-iy-fpw BI-kvan-I-Xbpw hnizm-k-tmSp {]Xn-_--Xbpw \nan-w kw`-hn--Xm-sW-p-d-n-m\pw Kth-j-Isc iambn Dp-I-s-Sp-p-Xv hnIm-cm-th-i-m \S {]kvXpX hnhm-l-n\p
tijw Ahn-S-bn A-s\-bp bmsXmcp hnIm-c-hmbvt]m t{]atam Ism Ign-bp-n F hkvXp-X-bm-WXv. {]hm-N-Is\ hnhmlw sNbvXp-Ss\
ssk\_v av {]hm-N-I-]-Xv\n-am-cpsS Iq-n Hcpham-{X-am-bn-op. Bbn-ibpsS {]`-bn Ah-cpsS ]In--{Xbpw apn-tm-bn. {]hm-N-I-Po-hn-X-n ssk\_n-t\-m- l^vk-bp-sSbpw Dp-ka-bp-sSbpw t]cp-I-fmWv A[nIw ]cm-ain-s-Sp--Xv.
hm\-temIw hsc-sb-p-Ibpw Pn_vco CS-s]-Sp-Ibpw sNbvX apl--Zn\pw
ssk\-_n\panS-b-p C-c-samcp hnIm-tcm-jva-f-kvt\lw (Hmdn-b-en-p-I
]d-bp--X-\p-k-cn-v) Bbni Adn-n-sp Xs \mw iTy]qw hniz-knmepw apl-Zv t{]a-]miw sImv Xs Zp-]p-{Xs `mcysb Ah-cpsS IpSnen\npw sImfp-n-h-en-p-sIm-p-hp kzw `h-\-n ]mn-npw Bbni
AtX-p-dn--dn-n- Fw-Ko-I-cnpI Akm-[yw. ssk\-_p-am-bp AXy-[n-I-amb- kvt\lw Xo-bmbpw {]hm-N-I\v Xs lpssa-d-tbm-Sp kvt\l-n Ipdhp--cp-n-bn-cn-Ww, Fn-pw Bbni AX-dn-bp-n-stm? {]hm-N-IlrZ-b-
Bg--fn\n-p-b-cp kvt\l-hm--ey-fpsS F{X \nmc-amb Btm-f-\-hpw
\qdn-cn hep-Xmn {]Xn-^-en-n-p AXn-tem-e-amb Im-Sn-bm-Wv, Fs A`n{]m-bn Bbn-i-bpsS lrZ-bw. Fnpw ssk\_v _-s-p-dn-h
]q au\n-bm-Wv. {]hm-N-Is\ kw_-n-n-S-tmfw ssk\-_ns IY apl--Zv-lp-ssadm IYbvv kam-\-ta-b-, Hpw.
{]hm-N-I-s\-Xntc Bs-dn-b-s Btcm-]-W--fn\nv At-ls c-s-SppI F {]Xn-m-_-X Cu Kth-j-W-ns Bcw`n F\n-p-m-bncpn. kvt\l-hn-Im-c-n-\-[o-\-\m-W-t-l-a ap[m-c-Wbpw F\n-p-m-bn-cpn. Fnpw {lkz-amb Cu Kth-j-W
- n-\pw ]c-Nn--\-n\pw tijw F\np- tXm-p-p, apl--Zn-sbpw ssk\-_n-sbpw IY kXy-n-\p-thn kzw
A-ns\ \nm-ambn _en-I-gn t\Xm-hns Bob Hun-Xy-ns Ghpw D-e-amb {]I-\-am-sWv F{Xtbm t\Xm--m P\-X-bvp-thn XfpsS hnizm-k-fpw DZm-c-ambn Zm\w \In-bn-pv. ]s {]Xn-^-e-ambn AhB-Z-c-hpw bkpw t\Sn. Fm hnizm-k-n\pw P\-Xbvpw thn-kzw {]ikvXn-tbbpw _lp-am-\y-Xsbbpw BlpXn-sN-m Ghpw D-X-amb BmXbpw kzbw ka-W-hpw Bh-iy-amWv imco-cn-Im-W-ns \nav\ -hn-Xm-\-n\-pdw t]mhm Ign-bm--hv Cu {]iv\-ns Bgan-bm Ign-bp-I-bn-.

******
22

_lp-`m-cyXzw37
a\p-jys\ kw_-n-p ]e {]iv\--fp-sSbpw A-n Ncn{Xw hyXymkw
hcp-n-bnp-v. hmp-Iv amw kw`-hn-p-Xv t]mse kmaq-ln-Ihpw [manI-hp-amb hnj-b-fpw amdp-p. Imehpw Npp-]m-Sp-amWp hmp-IfpsS Dm-c-Wnepw A-n-epw amw hcp-p--Xv. iqJvF ]mkn ]Zw DZm-l-c-W-amsb-Sp-mw. apjn-Xv Fm-bn-cpp ]v CXn-\w. Fm C-Xns
Aw Iman-Xm--fpsS t{]aw s]mgn-bp B{Z-t\mw Fm-Wv. F{X Imhy-I-amb hmIy- sImpw hyhl-cnm km[n-m arZp-e-Xsb kqNn#v-]-]npp AXv.
_IXv (A-\p-{K-lw) F ]Z-amWv asm-cp-Zml-c-Ww. apw sshtmXpcppw Ie H-I-m-WIw Fm-bn-cpn apn-Xn-\w. Cm-I-s, a\p-jys
bpn-m-\n-\pw hnIm-c-p-a-Xo-X-amb Znhym-\p-{K-l-amWv AXns kqN\. Nne-tm-gXv ssZh-ns Hcp KpW-hn-ti-j-ambpw ]d-bm-dp-v!
hmp-Ipw P\-\hpw ac-W-hp-apv. ssii-hhpw Iuam-chpw hm[-Iyhpw acWhpw _m[-I-amb Pohn-I. `mj-bpsS kh-ti-j-X-bmb Cu kp{]-[m\ XXz-sp-dn---cmb A[-lr-Z-b-cmb \psS Fgp-p-Im hmp-I-fpsS cq]-L-S-\bvp-kw-`-hn-p hnIm-k-]-cn-Wm-a--sf-smn hne-]n-p-p. C-]-Z-ns
Dm-cWw C-s\-bm-sWpw Aw CXm-sWpw Nne-tm-g-h ]WvUn-tXm-NnX-ambn hn[n {]kvXm-hn-p-I-fbpw. As-n Ah ]d-bpI C-am-Xn-cn-bp
kvJen-X- k-km[m-c-W-am-sWtm Hcp {]tXy-I-hmv F-hn-[-nte
Fgp-Xp-Itbm hmbn-p-Itbm sNmhq Ftm Bbn-cn-pw. KZm amdn-sm-n-cnp ktN-X-\-]-Z--fpsS k-b-amWv `mj-sbpw ss_l-Jn-bp-tStbm ^nZukn-bp-tStbm \kvdp-m- apjn-bp-tStbm38 Imev \ne-\n A k`ntem `mjmLS-\-bntem AXp-d-p-\n-p-sIm--W-sa-n Fpw Ah a\-nem-p-n-.
hnhn[ kmaq-ln-I, am\-kn-I, [manI {]iv\--sfbpw CtX-]-cn-h\{]{Inb
_m[n-pp. Hmtcm Xe-ap-dbpw Cu {]iv\-p hyXy-b-kvX-amb Ahpw
kbpw [-hpw I]n-p-p. ehpw kml-N-cy-hpw AXn cq]-]-cn-Wmaw
hcp-pw. F{X-tm-f-sa-m aqem-n\np `ntam hncp-tam Bb
A-amhpw Nne-tm Ime--fn hp-tN-cpI.
_lp-`m-cyXzw CXp-t]m-ep Hcp hnj-ba-a-Wv. KX-Ime tKm{X\mtSm-Sn--]n-XrtI{oIrX kaq-l--fn \S-p-m-bn-cp-Xpw B[p-\nI ko _qjzm- \m-Kcn-I-XIfnepw GI-]-Xv\o-Kr-l--fnepw A{X ]cn-N-b-an-m--Xp-amb Cu
{]iv\s bqtdm-nse B[p-\nI \mK-cnI-k-aq-l-ns Af-hp-tIm-ep-Ifpw ]cnt{]-y-hpw D]-tbm-Kn-p- hn-e-bn-cp-p-I-bm-sWn Xo-bmbpw \ma-Xns\ XnckvI-cnpIbpw A]-e-]n-p-Ibpw sNpw. \ho-\-aq-ey--fpsS shfn-n ]g-bk-{-Zm-b- ]cn-tim-[n-p A]-{K-Y-\-coXn hen-b-{]-Nm-c-th-e-bpw DtZzn\pw Imc-W-am-hp Af-hnXs Kth-jW ]T-\--fpsS imkv{Xo-b-Xbvv
lm\n-I-c-hp-am-Wv. Imcy- bYmw ImWm-Xn-cn-pamdv Kth-j-Is ZrjvSnsb
AXv Xa--Wn-bnpw.
_lp-`m-cyXzw am{X-a hnhm-lw -Xsbpw C-t-Xn\npw hfsc hyXy-kvXamb coXn-bn-emWv KX-Im-ev ssIIm-cyw sN-bvXn-cp-Xv. hfsc A]q-amsb
23

hnhmlw kvt\l-n-sbpw hnIm-c-n-sbpw {]I-S-\-am-bn-cp-pp Av. Hcp


_tam Icmtdm m]n-m-\p kmaq-ln-I-amb Hcm-Nmcw am{X-am-bn-cpp
Am-ev hnhmlw ]e-tmgpw.
cmjv{So-btam kmaq-ln-Itam km-n-Itam [man-Itam Bb XmXv]-cy--fmW
kvt\l-ttSm ssewKn-I-X-tb-tbm-m D]-cn-bmbn IW-n-se-Sp-n-cp--Xv.
{]mNo-\-{Ko-kn ]cn-jvIr-X-amb Hcp \mK-cnIX Dm-bn-p-IqSn hnhmlw
{]Xyp]m-Z--Xn-\p Hcp-]m-[nbpw `mcy-Ip-n-I-fpsS A am{X-am-bn-cp-p.
ssewKn-I-]-m-fn F ]cn-K-W-\-t]mepw Ahp-m-bn-cp-n. hon\p ]pdmbn-cpp A[n-I]hpw hnIm-c\n-hrn. kv{XoI s]mXpth Am-ev
tIhew {]k-hn-p b{- am{X-am-bn-cp-p. {Kl-\-S-n-n-\m-bn-cpp
hon kv{XoI-fpsS Bhiyw. ssewKn-Im-kzm-[-\-n-\m-bn-cp-n-. (Jm-_q-kv\ma.t].78). `m--m hon-\p-sh-fn-bn BInSm-smw can-p.
thZ ]pkvX-I--fn-epw(-e-q IY) kmln-Xy-Ir-Xn-I-fn-epw(-t]jy `mh-I-hn-Ifn-te-Xp-t]m-se) am{X-a tkm{I-o-kn-s\-tm-ep hen-b-a-\p-jy-m-cpsS Pohn-Xnepw Ccw IY-I \mw Is-p-p. {Koknse tZiob, ssk\n-I {]apJ\pw
Xs
injy-m-cn-sem-cm-fp-amb Akn-bm-_-b-Uo-kp-am-bn-m-bn-cpp
tkmIvo-kn\p _w. ]c-ky-ambn k-Xn-m Ccp-hpw aSn-bn-m--hn[w
km[m-c-W-amb Hcp _-am-bn-mWv AXv K-Wn--s--Xv. XXz-Nn--Is \ncp-ml-n ]cn-X-]n Akn-bm-_-b-Uo-knt\mSv tkm{I-okv Ak-nKv[w ]dp:
\ns \-Imew \o Ign-n-cn-pp.39
t]jy
klnXy-n
aXsF-ln-I-]-cn-jvIm-hmbn
And-b-s-Sp
(apkvenlp-o\n hpbm)[-Kp-cphpw B-m-\nbpw {]t_m-[-I\pw {K-Imc-\p-amb kAZnbmWv \ DZm-l-c-Ww. [manI-Xsbbpw A-S--sbpw
kw_n kzw IrXn-bn Atlw Xs Xs CS-]m-Sn-s\-p-dnpw Hcp la[m\o \ymbm-[n-]\p Icp-h-\p-amtbm Iim-p-Im-c-\mb _me-\p-amtbm Dm-bn-cp
_-s-p-dnpw ]d-bp-p. t]sc-Sp aX-im-kv{X--km-lnXy kmln-Xy-hynXzw F \ne-bn IivKh-enb ]n-bn Xm {]th-in--Xn-s\bpw AhnsS
InXm-t_m-Xp-I-bm-bn-cp Hcp _mes\ hnfnp Npw_n-p-Ibpw Hma-\n-m XpSp-Ibpw sNbvX-Xn-s\-n Atlw {]kvXm-hn-pp-v. AtX-{K--n Xssbmcp ]gb h Bt-j-hpw hm-eyhpw {]Xo-n-np \Im-sX Xm
AI-p-\n-Xpw Atlw hnh-cn-p-p. B sNdp--m-c-t\m-S-tlw ]d-Xv
Ahs i_vZ-kuIp-am-cyhpw icocku-cy-hpw \jvS-s-Sp-Ibpw apJ-p-ap-gn-h
XmSn tcma- hf-cp-Ibpw _mey-ns an\p-p-I A{]-Xy--am-hp-Ibpw
sNbvXn-pv , AXn-\m ]g-b-Xp-t]mse _w km[y-asm-Wv.40
Hc-O aI\p \Ip D]-tZ-i-f-S-nb [man-I-XXz {K-amb Jm_qkv \mabn AXns Imhv sNdp _mey-m-cs\ ]bvv D]-tZ-inpp. \ns
A`n-emjw kv{XoI-fntem Bthe-m-cntem s] Hcp hn`m-K-n am{X-ambn
Npcp-m-Xn-cn-pI. cv Iq-nnpw \n\v Xr]vXn-b-Sbmw Hcp hn`m-K-sbpw
\n\v ]nWtnbpw hcn--. (t].67).

41

Fm- tZ-i-fp-sSbpw Ncn-{X-nepw kmln-Xynepw kam-\-I-Y-I [mcmfw


ImWmw. Cp \mw hnNn-{Xtam Ahn-iz-k-\o-btam Bbn IW-m-p KX-Im-ep-\n-e-\n hnhm-l-k-w bmYm-sf Ah-bpsS hyXy-kvX-amb kz`m-hhntji-tfmsS icn-bmb hn[-n hne-bn-cp-m \s klm-bn-p-p.
24

{]hm-N-I-Po-hn-nse _lp-`m-cyXzw CXp-t]mse hyXy-kvX-ambn a\-n-em--stS Hcp bmYmy-am-Wv. Apl-Zv bYm-n asmcp tUm Pphm
Bbn-cptm? Hcmf kv{Xo e-S-\mbn Nn{Xo-I-cn-m apXcp--h {]kvXp-X-hyn-bpsS buh-\-Im-e-s-p-dn--t\z-jn--Ww. ImcWw bphm-hm-bn-cn-p-tm-gmWtm Imahpw ssewKn-Im-`n-em-j-hpw ]c-tIm-Sn-bn-se-p-I. ]s `mcy-am-cp-ambp {]hm-N-Is Xam-i-Ifpw t\c-tm-p-Ifpw hsc tcJ-s-Sp-n-sh Ncn{Xw
bphm-hmb apl--Zns Ima Xpc-Xz-s-p-dnv Hc-cw Ipdn-n-n-. Ccp-]mw hb-p-hsc A\m-Y-Xzhpw Zmcn-{Zhpw IjvSv]-]m-Sp-Ifpw AP-]me\-hpamWv apl--Zn-\p-Iqv. buh-\-ns kvt^mS-Imh--bn Atlw hnhmlw
sNbvX {]Ya JZo-P-\m]Xp \m]p hb-p Hcp hn[-h-bm-bn-cpp.
t\cs cv XhW Ahhn-hm-ln-X-bm-bn-cp-p. apl--Zns {]mb-ap Ipn-Ifp-m-bn-cpp Ahv. Xs bph-Xz-Imew apgp-h JZo-P-tbm-sSm--amWv
Atlw Nne-h-gn--Xv. Ah-cpsS Ccp-]-sv hjs Zm-Xyb-n-\n-Sbvv
asm-cp-`m-cysb Atlw kzoI-cn-n-n-. at-sXmcp Jpssdjn bphm-hn-s\bpw
t]msebp bphm-hm-bn-cpp apl-Zv Cu hj--fn FtmWw. kaq#ql-n {]tXy-I-amb ]Z-hntbm [mnIamb `mc-tfm FSpp-]-d-bm-hp
cmjv{So-b--ssk-\nI D-c-hm-Zn--tfm Am-e--fn apl--Zn\v _m[n-n-cpn-. ]nme-mWv Ah At-l-n\v hv tNcp-Xv. kthm-]cn {]hm-N-IZuXyw At-ln\p knnn-cp-n-. {]mbm-[n-Iyns Ah-i-X-Ifpw Atln-\p-m-bn-cp-n. Cu \ne-bn A`nem-j- ian-n-p--h-cn\nv Atls Hpw XS-bm-\p-m-bn-cp-n-. Fnpw hnhm-l-_m-ly-_-- apl-Zv
tXSn-tm-bn-cp-n-. A_vZp--bpsS ]p{X-\mb B bphmhv X\nv {]tXy-Inv Dc-hm-Zn---sfm-pan-m-Xn-cp-npw Xs Pohn-X-nse {][m-\-amb Ime-b-fhv
\m]tXm \m]tm hb-p Hcp hn[-h-bp-amtbmsSmw, Fgp-]Xmw hbnse Ah-cpsS \ncymWw hsc, asmcp kv{Xosb-p-dnp Nnn-msX sNe-hgnp Fm-W-pXw. G-hp-a-[nIw ap[m-c-W-I shp-]p-ep {InkvXy
anj-\-dn-amt]mepw apl--Zns a-bnse Zn\--fn kpJ-hmZ kao-]\w Btcm]n-m-\m-hn Fp- k--Xn-pp. ]ns-sb-s-s\-bmWv Xs 53m-as hbn ssZhn-I-Zu-Xyhpw cmjv{Sob, kmaq-ln-I, ssk\nI D-c-hm-Zn--fpw
t]dn, kaq-l-n AXyp--X-amb m\-ns DS-a-bmbn, P\-p
hnizm-kw, `n, a, ka-Ww, ITn-\m-[zm-\w, kl\w Fn-h-bn-p {]tNm-Z\-ambn aZo-\-bn-tep ]mem-b\w sNbvX ka-bv Hmdn-b-en-p-I ]d-bp--Xpt]mse, hnIm-c-ns \mfw s]s--t-ls ]nSn-Iq-Sp-Ibpw Ima-tam-l-
A[o-\-s-Sp-p-Ibpw sNpI?
tUm Pphm bphXzw ]nn--tm kv{XoIsf `kn-p-Ibpw B{K-l-
shSn-bp-Ibpw \-bp-sSbpw ka-W-n-sbpamb PohnXw \bn-p-Ibpw
sNbvXp-sh--dnbmw \ap-v. ]ns-sb--s\-bmWv Ccp-]-nAmw hb-n
Xs-m Ccp-]-v hbv A[n-I-ap Hcp hn[-hsb hnhmlw sNbvXpXs53a-sbpw Ah-fpsS 73m-a-sbpw hb-kp-h-scbpw Pohnv hm[-Iy-nse-p-Ibpw \nc--c-amb ssk\nI cmjv{Sob kwLj-p Imc-W-amb
{]hm-N-I-Xz-]-Zhn t\Sp-Ibpw sNbvX k`-n apl-Zv tUm Pphm-\mbn
amdp-I.?
{]hm-N-I Iptd kv{XoIsf hnhmlw sNbvX aZo-\-bnse Pohn-X-co-Xn-bmWv
{InkvXy {]Nm-c-I-m henb {]Nm-cWtIme-l-e--tfmsS hnain--Xv. Fm
{in--s-SmsX t]mbXv kv{XoI-fpsS F-a ku-cy-amWv ]pcp-js a\w \ndbvpI F-XmWv. irwKm-cn-Ifpw hnem-k-h-Xn-I-fp-amb s]Ip-n-I-sf-bmWv

25

kv{Xoe-S-m At\z-jn-p-I; hn[-h-Is


- ftbm Ipn-I-fp hb--n-sbtbm Dadns aI l^vk-sb-tm-ep Akp--cn-I-tftbm A. `m--m-cpsS ac-WtmsS ku-cya hmp-t]m-b-h-cp-sSbpw I\ym-I-Xz-ns ]-p-Sn-p-I
\jvS-shcpsSbpw buh-\-ns hnIm-chpw A`n-em-j--n-bpw hgn-amdn
hm[-Iyns Npfn-hp-Ifpw aqns PU-Xbpw acym-Z-bpsS Kuc-hhpw ]Icw
e`n--h-cp-sSbpw ]nd-sI-b hnj-bm-kIvX t]mhpI.
`mKy-h-im apl--Zns A-]p-cnse inJWvVn Ncn-{X-am-Wv. At-l-ns
Pohn-X-nse apgp-h kv{XoI-sfbpw Ah-sc-s\ At-lns ]Xv\n-]-Zn hp-shpw At-l-ns `h-\-n Ah-sc-s\ Pohn-p-shpw
AXn-\-dnbmw. {InkvXy ]mXn-cn-am-sc-mfpw bqtdm-]y Hmdn-b-en-p-I-sf-mfpw
\mbn {]hm-N-Is `mcy-am-sc-p-dn--dn-bpI Ncn-{X-n-\m-sWp Xo!

******
{]hm-N-I- ]-Xv\n-am
Bbni
{]hm-N-Is {]Ya `mcy JZo-P -Xs Fgp-]-Xm-as hb-n A-cn-p. {]hm-NI-\-tm- hbv AXv Ign-n-cp-p. am-Po-hn-X-L-n {]hm-N-I\v G-hpa-[nIw {]bmkw t\cn ka-b-hp-am-bn-cpp AXv. Xs A\p-bm-bn-I-fn [mcmfw
t] l_vko-\n-b-bn-tep ]mem-b\w sNbvXp i{Xp- \nd \K-cn
{]hm-N-I\pw GXm\pw A\p-bm-bn-Ifpw GXm\pw _n-I-sf-tmse Ign-tb-
nXn. \mn kzm[o-\-ap--bmfpw Xs kwc--I-\p-amb A_q-Xzm-en_pw AtX
hjw Xs acn-p. apl-Zv H-bvm-bn. hon\p ]pdv i{Xp-XXpw ]oU\hpw
am{Xw. AIv sImp-^m-Xzn-abpw acn-p-t]mb Ah-fpsS amXm-hn-s\-p-dn X]vXkvac-W-Ifpw, kplr-p- At-lns Ah--bn ZpxJw ]qp. ]p\hnhmlw sNm Ah At-ls \n_np.
acWw X\np a\-n Xmtem-enp sImp \SvI-Im am{X-ap JZo-P-tbm-Sp
kvt\lhpw, {]bm-k-fpw, Zpcn-X-fpw A]-I-S-fpw \nd cmjv{Sob PohnXhpw ]p\hn-hm-l-s-p-dnpw Nnn-p--Xn \n-t-ls XS-p.
Ckveman P\n BZys s]X-cn-bmWv A_q-_--dns aI Bbni.
Pmln-enm bpKns kvac-W-I-fnm Ah- {]hm-N-Is `mcy-bm-hs Fv
At-lns A\p-N-c-mcpw kplr-p-fpw \ntinp. arZp-e-amb lrZ-b-nt\ Cu Bi-bns ku-cyhpw kp`-K-Xbpw Dsm-m-\mhq. Bpnbpw
X-hp-a AXn-\p-th--Xv. ]pXp-Xmbn \p-h-fnb ]qtm-nse {]Ya
]pjv]w At-s-n tXm-n BZy-ambn ]gp-p I\n tXm-m-cs A[zm-\n-\ kvac-W-bmWv. BZy-]pjv]w AYhm ^ew tXm-m-c-\p--Xs{X. tXmm-c\p am{X-am-W-Xns Ah-Im-iw.
teme-hn-Im-c--fp hyn-bm-bn-cpp A_q-_-. {]hm-N-I-\n-ep hyXym-kvXXn-\p- ]p-dsa {]hm-N-I-kvt\lw Ic-I-hn-sm-gp-Ip lrZ-bns DS-a-bm-bncpp At-lw. Xs aIsf {]hm-N-I hnhmlw Ign-s F-tlw
26

\ntinp. Fm B ka-bv Bbn-ibvv Ggpw {]hm-N-I\v A-Xn-e-[n-Ihp-am-bn-cpp {]mbw. At-l-ns hon amXr-{i--bm-h-iy-ap ^mXzn-abpw
Dm-bn-cp-p. hon\v ]pdv A_q-P-l-en-s\43-tm-ep i{Xp-fpw. Pohn-X-amsI
ti-fpw Zpcn-X-fpw A]-I-S-fpw A{I-a-fpw Nqgvp \npp. Hcp
Xmv klm-b-lkvXw B-bn-cpp At-l-n-t\w Bhiyw. A_q_--dns
Ggp-h-b-m-b-a-I B ka-bv Atl-n\p tN XpW-bm-Ip-am-bn-cp-n-.
AXn-\m Atm \n-bap-d-p(-]n-oSv cv hjw Ign-mWv Ah Hcp-anp
Pohn-X-am-cw-`n-Xv). Cs\ CkmemanI bpK-n ]nd Hm-as s]Ipnbpw {]Y-a-apkvenw Xe-ap-d-bpsS apWn \mbn-I-bp-amb Bbni {]hm-N-Is
PohnX ]m-fn-bm-bn. Am{X-a Cu _w {]hm-N-I-s\bpw At-l-ns klNm-cnbpw kplr-p-amb A_q-_--dn-s\bpw _p--fp-am-n. As ]cn-Xn-Xn-bn cv Iqn-bn-W-p Ghpw i-amb ]miw IpSpw-_-_--am-sWv
_ZhotKm{X-h kmaq-ly-imkv{Xw kmy-s-Sp-pp.
{]hm-N-I hnhmlw sNbvX GI I\yI Bbn-i-bm-Wv. tl-n-s lrZ-b-ntev sNdp-hpw ku-cy-hpambn IS-p-h GI h\n-Xbpw Ah am{Xw. ]s
ku-cy-am-bn-cp-n Ah-cpsS tNbvm[m-cw. SImp-_m-en-I-bpsS apJ-emhWyw A-Xp-Im-cs hnIm-c-sf Do-]n-n-p-n-. \ymb-_--amb {]bm-P\]cX-bn Dunb {]Xo-Im-avX-I-amb hnhm-l-am-bn-cpp Ah-cp-tS-Xv. {]W-btam
hnIm-ctam Cu hnhm-l-ns tlXp-hmbn ImWp-Xv \nc-I-as{X. Bbni
a-bn \_n-tbm-sSmw Pohn-n-n-. Cv hjw Ignv aZo-\-bnh-mWv
Ah-scm-np Pohn-X-am-cw-`n--Xv.
apl--Zn\p Bbn-i-tbm-Sp kvt\lw, CuPn]vjy Fgp-p-Im-c-\mb apl-Zv
lpssk ssl ]d-bp--Xp-t]mse, Ah-cpsS hnhm-lw-ti-j-am-Wmcw`n--Xv,
AXn-\p-ap--. {]Wbw hgn-bm-W-tlw Bbn-isb hnhmlw Ign-Xv Fp-]-dbm ]n-. Htc-hp-h-b-p-Im-cn-tbmSv {]hm-N-I hnhm-l-n-embn Fp hnizkn-pI Akmyw(A-mkv al-vaqZv AJvJm-Zv, lJm-bn-Jp Ckvemw h A_mXzn-ep Jpka t].12). ap-hm-p-I-fn, Xs `mcy-am-cn I\y-Ibpw kp-cnbpw
sNdpm-cn-bp-amb Htc-sbm-cp-nbpw Xm ]noSv AXn-cv kvt\ln--h-fp-amb
Bbn-i-tbm-Sp hnhmlw {]W-b-n \np-m-bn-cp--X-. adnv kmaq-lnIhpw cmjv{So-b-hp-amb {]bm-P-\-]-c-X-bpsS ^e-am-bn-cp-p.
C\n At-l-ns ap hnhm-l--sf-p-dnpw l{k-ambn ]cn-Nn-n-mw.

kuZ
kam-C-lns aI kuZ Xs amepX ]p{X-\mb kpIvdm C_v\p Awdns
`mcy-bm-bn-cp-p. Ckvemans `bm-\-Ihpw Ccp--Xp-amb BZy-L--nXs`m-shm-nv Ah Ckvemw Bt-jn-p. hnizm-k-\-ns t]cn
]oU\n-c-bmb Ah A_vko-\n-b-bn-tep ]mem-b\w sNbvXp. aSn
hcp-tm- `mhv Pohn-n-cn-p-m-bn-cp-n. XpW-bn-msX kuZ H-s-p. hdpXnbpw Zpcn-Xhpw am{X-am-bn-cp-n B hn[-hsb hc-thm-\p-m-bn-cp-Xv.
Hp-Ip-e-hv Xm Ism-gn aX-hnizm-k- hp-]p-ep Xs IpSpw_-m-tcm-sSmw tNcmw. As-n Xm hf-sc-tbsd XymK- klnp kwcnp t]m hnizmkw ssIsh-Snv hn{K-lm-cm-[-\-bn-tep aSntmhmw.
AXp-a-sn X\n-p- kvt\-ln-m Ign-bm Bcp-sS-sbnepw IqsS s]mdpmw. Ckveman-\p-thn ISp--]-co--W- kln--Xn\p tijw PohnXw
27

XIp-t]mb [ocbpw Nmcn-{X-h-Xn-bp-amb Cu kv{Xosb {]hm-N-I hnhmlw


sNbvXp kwc--W-`mcw Gs-Sp-p. JZo-P-bpsS ac-W-n\p tijw {]hm-N-I-`-h\-n Dm-bn-cp iq\yX kuZ \nIn

lnv (Dp-ka)
A_q Da--bpsS ]p{Xnbpw _Zv, DlvZv bp--fn apdn-hp-]-nb alm-\mb
t]mcmfn A_q ke-a-(A-_v-Zpm aJvkp-an)bpsS ]Xv\n-bp-am-bn-cpp lnv. AkZv
tK{Xm-cp-am-bp hnP-b-I-c-amb Hcp bpw Ignp aSsh A_q ke-a-bpsS
tZls apdnhv hopw Xpd-p-Ibpw AX-t-lns ac-W-n\p Imc-W-am-hpI-bpw sNbvXp ssZh-amKvn khw kan Xs kplr-ns\ {]hm-N-I
tcmK-i--bn kjn-p-Ibpw At-l-n-\p-thn {]mnp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
Atlw \ncym-X-\m-b-tm {]mhm-N-I At-bw ZpxJn-p-Ibpw hmsX
tXn-c-bp-Ibpw sNbvXp. A_vZp--bpsS hn[h Dp-k-ea oWn Hcp
kv{Xobm-bn-cpp. _mey-nepw Iuam-c-n-ep-sa-n-\np Iptd a-fp-m-bncp-p Ahv.
`m-hns ac-W-tijw \mep amkw Dpk-ea ZpxJhpw Zpcn-X-hp-ambn Ign-pIqn. kvt\l-k--\pw Ipeo-\-\p-amb Xs `m-hn-s\-p-dn kvac-W-I
]Xps an-h-p. kwc--W-an-msX hfp-sIm-n-cn-p A\m-Y-k-m-\-tfm-sSm--ap {]Xom cln-X-amb Pohn-X-s-p-dn Nn-I Hm-I-fpsS
Xotcm-`m-h-n\p thKw Iqn.
c-km-n-bmb X-fpsS ktlm-Z-cs IpSpw-_-n\p t\v {]ap-J-cmb apkv
enw t\Xm-v D-c-hm-Zn t_m[-ap-m-bn. Dp ke-asb hnhmlw Snm
A_q-_- Xm-dmbn. ]s AhXp k-X-am-bn-. Xs buh\w Ignv
t]mbn-cn-p-p. Fpw Ipsd Ipn-I-fpv Fp-amWv Ah ]d XS-w. Dadpw
hnhml \ntZiw aptmv shs-nepw AtX adp-]Sn Xs-bmWv Ah \Inb-Xv. ]noSv {]hm-N-I Ahsc kin-p. Atlw ]d-p. \ns IjvS-m-SpIv Am-lp-hn-t\mSv {]Xn-^ew tNmZn-p-I. ap `m-hn-t\-mfpw \
Hcmsf \o \ns Gn-p-Ibpw SnpI ZpxtmsS Ah {]Xn-h-Pnp: A_p
ke-a-sbm \-h Bcm-sW-\nv? Ahsc Gs-Sp-m {]hm-N-I kzbw
k--\m-bn. ]s A_q-_--dn\pw Da-dn\pw \In AtX adp-]Sn Xs-bmWv
{]hm-N-I-t\mSpw Ah ]d--Xv. {]hm-N-I Xs \ntZ-i-n Ddp \np.
HSp-hn Ah-cpsS aq aI ke-a-bpsS ap Im hnhmlw \S-p. c
kmnXzw hcn Xs A\p-N-cs hn[-hsb bpw A\m-Y-Ip-n-I-sfbpw \_n
Gs-Sp-p-Ibpw ]c-am-h[n kvt\lhpw BZ-chpw Ahv \Ip-Ibpw sNbvXp.
lnns kmnyw {]hm-N-I-\n kZm JZo-Psb Ipdn kvacW DWn.
ImcWw _pn in-bnepw Ipeo-\-amb hyn-Xz-nepw am{X-a s]mcp-am coXnbnepw ]cn-N-c-W-nepw JZo-P-tbmSv hf-sc-tbsd kmZr-iy-ap-mbncpp Ahv.
{]hm-NI ]Xv\n-am-cn lnv am{X-amWv Cn[w JZo-Psb A\p-kva-cn-n--Xv.

dwe (Dpl_o-_)
A_p kp^vbms ]p{Xn dwe Ckveman\p thn XymKw-A-\p-jvSn-n-pv . abn Xs ]nXm-hmb A_p kp^ym-\p-amb#pff {]hm-N-Is kwLjw sImSp_ncn sm k`-n-emWv dwe kz`m-hmb Dss_-Zp-m-ln_v\p Plvip
Ak-Zn-tbm-sSw Ckvemw Bt-jn-Xpw A_v ko\n-b-bn-tev ]mem-b\w

28

sNbvX-Xpw. A_vko-\n-b-bnse Npp-]m-Sp-I Dss_-Zp-sb kzm[o-\n-p-Ibpw


Abm {InkvXp aX-n-tev ]cn-h\w sNp-Ibpw sNbvXp. Fm dwe
Xs hnizm-k-n AN-ew Dd-p-\n-p. B A]-cn-NnX \mn Ah `mhn-\m Dt]-n--s-p. Hcp kwc--W-an-msX FtXym-]y-bn Xp-hmt\m
{]hm-N-I\pw kJm-fpw CXn-\Iw aZo-\-bn-tep ]mem-b\w sNbvXp Ign--Xn\mkz-tZ-i-amb a-bn-te-va-S-p-hmt\m \nhr-n-bp--bn-cp-n-. Ahv.
hnizmkw ]cn-Xy-Pn-m Ahsf kzoI-cn-m A_p kp^ym HSp--ambn cpp.
]s B A]-am-\-n\p hg-m Ah-tfmcp\nepw k--bm-bn-cp-n-.
Cu XymK-n\p {]Xn-^-e-ambn _lp-am-\y-bmb Hcp-a-ln-fsb {]bm-k--fn
\np cn-pI F DtiytmsSbpw Xs sImSnb i{Xp-hns aIsf Abmtfm-Sp-ff i{Xp-X-bpsS aq[-\ym-h--bn hnhmlw sNp--Xn\pw {]hm-N-I
Ah-cpsS apmsI hnhml \ntZiw BZ-c-]p-c-cw kzoI-cn--s-p. t\Kkv
cmPmhv 44 \_nsb {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cn-p-Ibpw hnhm-l-aqeyw \Ip-Ibpw sNbvXp.
hnhmlw \S-p.

Ppssh-cnb
_\p apkvX-enJv hwi--e-h-\mb lmcn-kns ]p{Xn-bm-bn-cpp Ppssh-cnb ._\p apkvX-en-Jp-am-bp-ff bp-n45 Ppsshcnb sb km_n-Xp_v\p Jbvkn\p
bp-k-mbn e`n-p. tamN-\-{Z-hy-ambn46 km_nXv X\np \Im-\m-hm
hey kwJy tNmZn-p-p-shv Ppssh-cnb {]hm-N-I-t\mSp sNv ]d-p.
X\np thn tamN\w {Zhyw \Im\pw {]hm-N-I-t\m-Sm-h-iy-sp {]hm-N-I
tNmZnp: AXn-t\-m anI hXpw \n\-m-h-iy-aptm? Fm-WXv?
Ppssh-cnb tNmZn-p. tamN\ {Zhyw sImSp Ahsf hnhmlw sNbvXp sImf-fmsav {]hm-N-I ]d-p. Ah Bm-Z-tmsS {]kvXpX \ntZiw kzoI-cn-p.
tamN-\-{Zhyw \In At-l-a-hsf hnhmlw sNbvXp. _pn-]qh-amb Cu Xocpam\w hgn _\p apkvX-en-Jns, {]tXy-Inv Ah-cpsS t\Xm-hns t{Im[w
AIn _lp-am\w BPnm {]hm-N-I\p km[np. Cu hnhm-l-tmsS
apkvXevJv tKm{Xw {]hm-N-Is _p--fm-hp-Ibpw i{XpX Ah-km-\n-n-pIbpw sNbvXp. {]hm-N-Is Ghpw A]-I-S-Im-cn-I-fmb i{Xp--fm-bn-cpp
_\p apevX-en-Jv. Ah-cn-tm Ahn-Sps _p--fm-bn. lmcnkv ]oSv Xs
aIsf ImWm hp. Xtm-sSmw kztKm-{X-n-tev aS-ptm AtXm apl-Zn-t\m-sSmw Xma-kn-ptm F-tlw aI-tfmSp tNmZn-p. _-\-n\p apv
Ah Xs amXpe ]p{X A_vZp--bpsS `mcy-bm-bn-cp-p.

k^nb
Jpssdk47 tKm{XXe-hs aI-fm-bn-cpp k^nb. Ah-cp-am-bp-ff bp-n
k^nb {]hm-N-Is bp-hn-ln-X-am-bn. {]hm-N-I Ahp cv kuI-cy-
A\p-h-Znp. Hv IpSpw_n-tev aS-p-I. As-nkz-X-{-bmbn Xs `mcybm-hp-I.-k-^nb cm-a-tXp kzoI-cn-p.48

ssaaq\
Amkv_v\p49A_vZn ap-en-_ns `mcy Dp ^ns ktlm-Z-cn-bm-bncpp ssaaq-\. lpss_-Zn-bm-kn50 bpsSHcp hj-n\p tijw {]hm-N-I

29

XoYm-S\mYw a-bn-tep t]mbn. Icm hyh--b-\p-k-cpp aqp Znh-k-ne-[nIw At-l-n-\-hnsS Xma-kn-m ]p-am-bn-cp-n-. a-bn sNe-h-gn- Cu
lrkz-amb kabw Xs kvt\lw, hm-yw , HuZmcyw, ktlm-Zc\nhn-ti-jamb s]mcp-amw,am-v,-F-n-h-bn-eqsS a-m-cpsS lrZbw Iog-S-m Atlw
D]-tbm-Kn-p. As\ P\-lr-Z-b-n Ahn-iz-kn-I-fpsS t\Xm- Dm-Zn-n
tZjyhpw ap[m-c-W-Ifpw Zpco-I-cn-m Atlw {ian-p. P\-lvMsf im
Nn-cm-m\pw Ah-cp-ambn _w \ne-\nm-\p-ap-ff Ah-kcw IqSp-X Inp-Xn-\mbn a-bnse Xmakw ZoLn-n-m-\p-ff hgn-I Atlw Bcm-p.
Cu ka-b-mWv Atmgpw Ahn-izm-kn-I-fpsS Iq-n-em-sW#p IW-m--sn-cp Amkv ssaaq-\sb \_np ]cn-N-b-s-Sp-p--Xv. apkvenwIfpsS
kz`mhhnti-j- ssaaq-\sb KmV-ambn BIin-n-cp-p. Xqew Ckvemw
Bt-jn-m-\p-ff B{K-lhpw Ahp-mbn. Am-kns ktlm-Z-c-`m-cybpw
DlvZv bp-n Jpssd-in-I-fpsS hoc-t]m-cm-fn-bm-bn-cp JmenZv_v\p heo-Zns
Am-bn-bm-bn-cpp ssaaq-\. {]hm-N-Is cq]hpw kz`mhhpw Bo-b-K-cn-abpw
Cu lrkz t\cw sImv J-dn ssaap\ hnIm-c-`-cn-Xbpw Bm-Z-Nn--bpambn Ah-fpsS lrZ-b-n Xo{h-amb {]W-b-ns I\-ep-I Fcn-p. hm\temIw hsc AXns {]Xn-Qz\nsbn. ssPh-Zq-X-t\mSv Ahp-ff t{]ansc ]cn-ip-nsb hmgvp Znhy shfn-]m-Spt]m-ep-ap-m-bn.
Xs ktlm-Z-cnv Hcp `m-hns\ Is-m Amkv_v\p A_vZp apen-_ns\ At-l-ns `mcy Npa-X-e-s-Sp-n. Atlw Ahv {]hm-N-Is\
\ntZ-in-p. ssaap-\v Ckveman-t\m-Sp-ff Xm]-cyhpw DlvZyp--ns KXn
apkvenwIs-Xn-cmbpw Jpssd-in-I-\p-Iq-e-ambpw Xncn-p--Xn apJy ]p
hln Jmen-Zp_v\p heo-Xp-ambn Ahp-ff IpSpw-_-_-hpw {]apJ
Jpssdio IpSpw-_--fp-am-bp-ff Ag-fpsS Nbpw IW-n-se-Spv {]hm-N-I
ssaap-\sb hnhmlw sNm k-Xn-p. am{X-a Cu Ah-kcw Xs ey-km[y-n-\mbn D]-tbm-Kn-m\pw Atlw B{K-ln-p. AXn-\m a-bnse Xsc
Xma-k-ns aq-a-tXpw Ah-km-\-t-Xp-amb Znh-k-t-mWv hnhm-l-ob-Xn-Ip-dn--Xv. hnhml kyv Jpssd-in-Ip-Spw-_--sf apgp-h Wn-m-\m-bncpp Dtiyw ssaaq-\-bpsS Cm-a-tjw ]c-ky-am-n-bn-cp-n-. Ahn-izm-kn-IfpsS Iq-n-emWv Ah F-s-n-cp--Xv. _Z-dnepw DlvZnepw At\y\yw hm
hoin-b-h As\ ky-h--n Hcp-anv IqSm Ah-k-c-sam-cppw . Ccp-Iqp-an-S-bn-ep-ff cmjv{Sn-b-ssh-c-hpw A\y-Xzhpw Cm-Xm-m Cu Hcp-anv IpS
DXIpw Fm-bn-cpp {]Xo-. hnhm-l-tmsS a-bnse Xs Xmakw ZoLnp-Ibpw lpss_-Znbm kn-bn hn`m-h\ sNbvX-Xn-t\-m-f-[nIw {]tbm-P-\-apm-m AXp-aqew Ah-kcw e`n-p-Ibpw CkvemanI {]t_m-[-\-ns ASnd `{Z-am-hp-Ibpw sNpw F {]hm-N-I Nnn-p.
Jpssdin t\Xm- ]s PmK-cq-I-cm-bn-cp-p. Ah {]hm-N-Is Bibw
AkvKv[w Xn. As\ hnhmlw aZo-\-bn-te-p-ff bm{Xm as[y \nh-lnm {]hm-N-I \n_-n-X-\mbn. Fn-cp-mepw ssaaq-\-bp-am-bp-ff hnhmlw
At-ls ]e Jpssdio {]ap-J-cp-sSbpw _p-hm-n. JmXnZv, Awdv_v\p
Bkn, Dkvam-\p_v\p Xl XpS-n-b-h Gsd-m-a-kn-bmsX aZo-\-bn-tev
bm{X Xncn-p(-C-kvem-am-t-jn-m)

l^vk

30

Dadv_v\p Jm-_ns aI-fm-bn-cpp l^vk. `Xr-hn-tbm-K-n\p tijw5 1 Bcpa-hv hnhm-lm-tem-N-\-bp-ambn hn-; Da-dns aI-fm-bn-cp-npw. HSp-hn-D-a
Xs Cm-cy-n CS-s]-tS-n-h-p. BZy-a-tlw A_q-_--dns\ kao-]n-p.
Xs aIsf hnhmlw sNbvXv Xcm-sav ]d-p. Xs ]gb kplr-s
\nebvv l^vksb hnhmlw sNm Atlw Xbm-dm-dm-hp-sa {]Xo--bnemWv sN-Xv. ]s A_q-_-dv Hpw ]d-n-. ]no-S-tlw Dkvams\ kao]n-p. At-l-hpw au\w ]men-p. Da AXy-[nIw \ncm-i-\mbn. cv B-an-{X-fpsS \ncmkw At-ls thZ-\n-n-p. Atlw {]hm-N-Isc sNp-Ip Xs
kSw Adn-bnp Da-dns\ kzm-\n-n-m-\mbn Atlw ]dp A_q-_--dns\
Dkvam-t\-m \cm l^vksb hnhmlw sNp-sa-v. Xs-p-dnv Xs-bmW-tlw kqN-\-\In-b-Xv. C{]-Imcw Ckv emans hyn-Xz--fn inbpw
kvgm[o-\-hp-ap Da-dn\pw X\n-p-sa-Xn-sc-bp _w Atlw Hp-IqSn ZrV-amn. t\c-s Bbn-isb hnhmlw sNbvX A_q-_--dp-ambpw asf hnhm-lw
sNbvXp-sIm-Spv Dkvam, Aen Fn-h-cp-ambn _w kpZr-V-am-n-b-Xp-t]mse.
aIp hcs\ Is-m Da kln {]bm-khpw A_q-_-dpw Dkvam\pw
Hgn-pamdn-bXpw l^vk-bpsS kucypdnv \ap-smcp [mcW \Ip-pv. kv{Xoe\pw kv{XoI-fpsS ku-cy-n\p ]ndsI {`mv ]nSnv HmSn-b-h-\psav {InkvXy anj-\-dn-am Nn{Xo-I-cn-p apl-Zv Xs A[n-Im-cn-sbpw
kzm[o-\-nsbpw Dn-bn-se-n-\ns hnhmlw sNbvXXv Bcpw kzoI-cnm Iqmm-Xn-cp Hcp kv{Xosb. h[p-hns ]nXm-hns Xs hmp-I
tIm apl--Zns\ icnp a\-n-emhpw. kp-cnbpw bph-Xn-bp-amb Bbn-i-tbmsSmw \_nsb Ip-s-Sp-m KqVm-tem-N\ \SvX-Xp-Ibpw \_ntbmSp s]cpam--n Bbn-isb A\p-I-cn-p-Ibpw sNbvX kzw aIsf Da tcmjm-Ip-e\mbn imknp: Xs kucyw sImpw {]hm-N-Is {]tXy-I-kvt\lw
sImpw kpc-n-X-bmb Ch-sf(-B-bn-i-sb)-tmse \obpw Xpp-pthm?
\o\ns Ah-fp-ambn kmZr-iy-s-Sp--cpXv Am-lp-hmtW, Rm kXyw sNbvXp
]d-bpp, {]hm-N-I \ns kvt\ln-p-I-bp. Fs Hms-n \ns-btlw Cu \nanjw samgn-sNm-p-am-bn-cp-p.

ssk\_v
Jpssk-a-bpsS aI ssk\_v _Z bp-n kmn-bmb Dss_-Z-p_v\p
lmcn-k-bpsS `mcy-bm-bn-cp-p. B ka-b--h Zp_-ebpw hrbpw hfsc hn\oX-bp-amb Hcp kv{Xobm-bn-cpp. Xs Ay-\m-fp-I-fn Fn-sm-n-cn-p-I-bmbn-cp Cu kv{Xosb {]hm-N-I hnhmlw sNbvXXv alm-\mb Hcp tbmm-hns
`mcy kwc--W-an-msX Ay-imkw hen-m-\n-S-bm-h-cpXv Fm-{K-ln-Xn\memWv. \_n-bp-am-bp hnhm-l-n-\p-tijw cv hj-n-e-[nIw Ah Pohn-n-.
JZo-Z-sb-q-SmsX {]hm-N-Is ap-bmbn acn GI`mcybpw Ahcs{X.
PohnXw apgp-h A\m-Y-scbpw AK-Xn-I-sfbpw Dgn-p-sh DZm-c-bp-w XymKnbp
am-bn-cpp ssk\-_v. Dp ankvIo(-Z-cn-{Z-\m-cm-b-W-m-cpsS D)-F A]-cm-`n[m\w e`n-p-amdv InS-b ka-W-am-bn-cpp Ah-cp-tSXv.
apl--Zns A-]p-cnse kv{XoIsf pdn-mWv \man-Xp-hsc ]dXv!
N kam-]n-p-sImpw GXm\pw Nne- Im-cy- Hmm Rm\m-{K-ln-pp.
Hcp apkvenw hnhmlw sNp `mcy-amcpsS Fw \membn ]cn-an-X-s-Sp-p
31

Jp-B-\n-I-hn[n lnPvd Fmw A_v-Z-n-em-Wp-m-bXv. AXn-\m Znhy shfn-]mSn\p tijw \mep `mcy-amsc \ne-\nn _mn-bp {]hm-N-I\v Hgn-hm-m-am-bncpp Fp ]d-bp--Xn Hcp bpn-bpan.52
]e-tmgpw a\-n\nv hgp-Xp-tm-Ip Hcp kwKXn Ckvemw _lp-`m-cy-Xzs
\nb-a-am-n-bn-n F-XmWv. Ckveman-\p-anv Hcmv F{X kv{XoIsf thW-sanepw thm-am-bn-cpp. `mcy-am-cpsS F-n ]cn[n Gs-Sp-p-I-bmWv
Ckvemw sNbvXXv. Hcph \mep-sI-Ww F AXns XmXv]cyw. \men-e[nIw sI-cpXv Fm-Wv. Cu cp {]kvXm-h-\-Ifpw hyXy-kvX--fm-Wv.
`mcy-am-cpsS F-s-p-dn-p Jp-B-\nIkq-ns kqvamh-tem-I\w
AXns ]nnse XXz-sa-spw AXn\p \nkvN-bn D]m-[n-I-sf-spw hyam-pw.
kv{XoI-tfmSp \-\n-e-bn hn-m Jp-B BZyw ]pcp-j-msc Dt_m-[nn-p-p. XpSp ]d-bpp `mcy-amn-S-bn Xpey-\o-Xn-]p-em \np
km[y-a \np \oXn--sN-m Ign-bp-I-bn-sp \n `b-s-Sp ]w
Hcp-nsb am{Xw(hn-hmlw sNp-I)53
hnkva-bm-h-lhpw Iem-Nm-cp-X-bm-Xp-amb Cu hmIy- Jp-Bs ssNX\yw
Adn-bp--hcpw kzw Xm]-cy--fp hymJym-Xm--fpsS ko-amb Aey-`m-jy- Adn-bm--hcpw _lp-]Xv\n Pohn-X-tmSp B{Klw ImWn-m-h-cp-amb kmln-Xy-hn-Z-Kv[sc A\m-bmkw t_m[y-s-Sppw, {]bm-k-I-c-amb \n_-\-I Ckvemw \n-bn-Xv kmaq-ln-Ihpw sshb-n-I-hp-amb Akm-[m-cW
kml-N-cy--fpsS A\n-hm-cy-X-I-fn {]tbm-Kn-m th-n-bm-sWv.
Cn-j-b-I-ambn hyn-Isf _m[n-p Imcy- Jp-B-\n\nv s]dp-n-sbSp-m Ignbpw. A\m-Y-cpsS {]iv\- N-sN-p-n-N-mWv _lp-`m-cyXz
{]iv\w Jp-B\o kq--fn {]Xy--s-Sp-Xv A\m-Y-I-fpsS Imcy-n
\n \oXn-]m-en-p-I-bn-sp `b-s-Sp]w \n CjvS-s-Sp
kv{XoIsf54 ctm aqtm \mtem hnhmlw sNp-I. (4:2) hnI-kn-X-cq-]-n-ep
`c-W-{I-atam kmaq-ln-I-L-S-\tbm Cm Ckveman\p app-m-bXp t]msebp tbm-pJ kaq-l--fn hn[-h-I-sfbpw A\m-Y-scbpw Zbm-iq-\ycpw
Zp\n-an--Ihp-amb hn[np hnp-sIm-Sp nXn-b-bm-bn-cp-p.
hyn-Ip \nb-a-]-chpw km-n-Ihpw a\-m-kv{X-]-c-hp-amb kzmX-{y-fp \psS Ime-L--nse ]cn-jvIr-X-tem-sI-s hnI-kn-X-k-aq-l--fn
{]tXy-In-pw kv{XoI kz-amb hynXzw t\Sn-sb-Sp-p-Ibpw ]pcp-j-m-tcmSp
Xpey-X -BPn-p-I-bpw sNbvX-km-l-N-cy-n _lp-`m-cy-Xzn\p AXn-t-Xmb
kmaq-ln-I-[-apv.
cmw- tem-I-bp--n-\p- tijw, Zi-e---W-n\p ]pcp-j-m-cpsS \njvIm-k-\s XpSv bqtdm-n hnti-jnv P-\n-bnepw Bkv{Sn-b-bnepw t]mf-nepw
Kpcp-X-c-amb {]Xn-k-n- cq-]-sp. thiy-bm-{]-hr-nbpw [m\n-Im-[--X-\hpw
at\m-hn-{`m-nbpw Fhn-sSbpw hym]np. hn[-h-I-sfbpw A\m-Y-scbpw ZpcnXw
hngp-n. bqtdm-]y kaq-l--fpsS Bm-hn-\pw [mn-I-X-bpw amc-I-amb
sX G]n-pw- hn[w Xo-W-X-c-ambn Cu {]iv\w. Kpcp-X-c-amb [a-{_w-in\p Imc-W-ambn. _lp-`m-cy-Xzhpw ]p\hn-hm-lhpw hne-p Itm-enm

32

hnizm-k-n-s\-Xnsc kv{XoI \nc-cw sXcp-hn {]I-S\w \S-n. Cu {]I-S-\ _lp-`m-cyXzw tIhew ssewKnI hnIm-c-i-a-\-n-\p amK-am-sWp IcpXp hnizm-kn-I-sfbpw AXns\ a\p-jy-hn-cp--ambn ]cn-K-Wn-p _pn-Po-hn-Isfbpw {]kvXpX CkvemanI \nb-a-n\p kmaq-ln-I-amb \oXn-I-c-Whpw A\n-hmcy-Xbpw Ahpw t_m[y-s-Sp-p--Xm-bn-cp-p.
1958 APo-cn-b tZiob hntam-N\ apWn apPm-ln-Zp-I X-fpsS c
kmn-I-fmb ktlm-Z-cam-cpsS ISpw-_--fpsS kpc-m-Imcyw {in--W-sav
AwK--tfmSp \ntZ-in-p.55 bp-n `m-am \jvS-s kv{XnIsf
hnhmlw sNbvXp Ahsc Zpcn-X-n \np Ic-I-b--W-sapw c-km-n-IfpsS ISpw_w Zmcn-Zy-nepw [man-Im-[--X-\-nepw hoWp-t]m-hp-Xp XS-b-Wsapw \ntZ-in--s-p.56
{]mIvX\ kaq-l--fnse _lp-`m-cyXz {]iv\s Cs kml-N-cy-n
ImW-cp-sXpw ka-Im-eo\ ]cn-k-c-n \npsImv hnain--cp-sX-p-amWv
Rm kan-m {ian-p--Xv.
Bbni Hgn-sI-bp-ff `mcy-am-scmw X-fpsS ap `m-amv Ipn-Isf
\In-b-hn-[-h-I-fm-bn-cp-p-pw-a-\o-\-bnse Pohn-X-Im-ev \_nv Ah-cn Hcp
km-\hpw P\n-n- F hk-Xp-Xbpw At-l-ns kzImcy PohnXspdnp ]d-bp-tm \mw {in--Ww.-ap-l-avZns Pohn-X-nse Ap-X-fn-tem-m-WnXv!
C\n-bpw, {]hm-N-Is _lp-]Xv\o Pohn-Xs pdnp ]Tn-p-tm asmcp
Imcyw IqSn kv]jvS-am-hp-p. GsXmcp a\p-jy-s\bpw t]mse apl--Zn\pw {]tXyInpw Xs Pohn-X-ns cmw ]mX-bn Hcp Ipn Dm-bn-m-Wm-\p-ff
kzm`m-hn-I-amb B{Klw Dm-bn-cpp F-Xm-W-Xv. PohnX kmbm--n amcnbm-bn Hcm Ipn-bmWv At-l-n-\p-m-b-Xv. Ah ]s P\n DSs\
Xs acn-p. {]kvXpX Ipn-bpsS \ncym-W-n {]hm-N-I-\p-mb AS-m-\mhm ZpxJw57 Ipnbp-m-hm-\p-ff At-l-ns Xo{h-amb A`n-em-js kqNnn-p-p.-]s, km-\--fp-m-hp-Xv A`n-am-\-ambn KWn-n-cp Ad-_n-I-fpsS
alm-\mb \mb-I\v hn[n Hcp km-\s am{Xsa \nn-bp-f-fp. AsXmcp s]
Ipn-bm-bn-cp-p. hn[n apl--Zns\ ITn-\-ambn thZ-\n-n-n-cp-p-sh-nepw AsX-{Xip`w!

******
apl--Zns Ax-]pcw
]s apl--Zns A-pc sp-dn-sp ]d-bm-\pv ? aZo-\-bnse ]f-fntbmSp tNv a--Ism-p-]-Sp-p-bn Cu--\-tbm-e-Ifpw XpIfpw taIq-c-bmbn ]mInb GXm\pw IpSn-ep-I-fm-bn-cpp AXv. Xs Ax-]pcnse CjvS-k-Jn-IfpsS apdn-I-fn \new ]IpXn ]cp- arK-tm-epsImpw _mn ]IpXn aW sImpw Ae--cn--Xm-bn-cpp .F-cn-bp
Cu--\--p-I-fm-bn-cp-p-{]-kvXpX sImm-c-nse Zo]m-e-m-c-..

33

ASp--fbpw Blm-chpw Fs\ bpf-f-Xm-bn-cp-p-sh-t? A_p-lp-dbvd58 hnhcn-pp: acWw hsc \_n Hcn-epw aXn-bm-thmfw `n-n-n-. Xs \nXy
`-W-amb _men--n-cn-s]m-epw. Nne-tm amk--tfmfw At-l-ns
hon Xo ]pI-bp-I-bn-. ]-sh-f-fhpw Imc-bpw am{X-am-bn-cnpw Atcw
At-l-nsbpw IpSpw-_-n-sbpw `-Ww. Nne-tm hni-ns ImTn\yw
\nanw hb-dn\p Nppw Ip-I _n-pw.......
{]hm-N-Is Pohn-X-sbpw Krl-sbpw Ipdn-m-tem-Nn-p-tm, Xs
bphXzw AXv hb-p-ff Hcp hn[h (J-Zo-P) tbmsSmw Atlw Fs\ sNeh-gnp Ftmp-tm, Dp ke-a-sbbpw ]mh--fpsS amXm-hmb ssk\_v
_np Jpssk-a-sbbpw l^vk-sbbpw t]mep-ff {]mbm-[n-Iy-ns IvioWw
_m[n-, Ipn-I-fp-ff hn[-h-Ip thn kzbw `Ww Ign-m-sXbpw Df-fXp
`mKnp sImSppw Atlw Xs hmIyw tlman--Xns\ Ipdn-m-tem-Nn-ptm At-l-n\p Ipsd IqSn \ PohnXw \bn-m km[n-p-am-bn-cpp
Fpw Rm k-S-s-Sm-dpv. apl--Zns hnImcsbpw A ]pcsbpw
Ipdnp Nne Fgp-p-I#m Fgp-Xn-n-Svnp hmgn-p-tm-sgms Ncn-{X-ns
\n[nbpw am\-hn-I-X-bpsS A`n-am-\-hp-amb B kXy-ns kp-c-amb apJw Agpm-m Cu a\p-jy (F-gp-p-Im) \nIr-jvS-X-bpsS K-n-tep ]qn-dp--Xn Rm enp thZ-\n-pp!

******

34

Ipdn-p-I
1. Cdm-\n CkvemanI hnhw hnP-bn--Xn\p (1979) tijw ] \K-c--fnepw
{Kma--fnepw km-{Xn-I-am-bn-cn-p-p. Ahn-sS-bXv kv{Xnv A-p-ff
thj-am-Wv. aX-]-c-amb A\p-im-k\sa \ne-bn ap-f-f-hcpw AXn-jvS-sSp-p.
2. Cdm-\n-b ]WvUn-X-\mb apkm apX-lvlcn (19191979) bpsS Cm-an
kv{XnbpsS Ah-Im-i- (\n-kmsa lpJqsJ k Z Ckv emw ) Cu
hni-b-n Hscm-m-Xcw tcJm-{K--am-Wv. Zssdvkv Hm^v hna C
Ckvemw F-t]-cn AXv Cwn-jn e`y-am-Wv.400 ]pd--fp-v.
3. {]hm-N-Is BK-a-\-Im-ev temIv \ne-hn-en-cp kmaply]cnXx
nXn-I-fn kv{Xn A\p-`-hn-n-cp A\o-Xnbpw Ah-Im-i-cm-ln-Xyhpw \mw
ImW-Ww. s] Ipn P\n-m Poh-t\msS Ipgnp aqSp `oI-c-X-bm-bn-cpp-A-td-_y-bn. temI-nsc CXc `mK--fnse kvYnbpwkv{Xnsb
kw_-n-n-S-tmfw sa-am-bn-cp-n-. {]d-hm-N-I Xs PohnX Imep
XsCu kvXnYn-amn. BcmWv D-a F tNmZy-ns Dcw
kv{XnI-tfmSv D-a-ambn s]mcp-am-dp--h Fv-A-tlw Hcn- ]Tn-n-p.
Xm
hcp-nb
amw
imiz-X-am-tI--Xn\v
Xs
hnS-hm-
{]kwKnepw Atlw kv{XnI-fpsS Imcy-n\v {]tXyIw Du \In.
{]hm-N-I\p tijw kv{Xn hntam-N-\-hp-ambn _-sv temI-p-m-bn-p-ff-Fm \ kwcw-`-pw {]hm-N-Is {]h-\-`v`-tfmS#p#w ]mT-tfmSpw IS-m-Sp-v.
4. {]kn Ncn-{X-Im-c-\mb C_v\p-k-A-Zv(-ln.-h.230) Xs Xz_-m-n
{]hm-N-Is kv{Xnk-Jm--fpsS Hcp ]nI {]tXyIw sImSp-n-cn-p-p(-Xz_-mv hm. 8).
5. Ah-cn-sem-cmv s]Ipn P\n--Xmbn ktm-j-hm e`n-m ITn\-ZpxJw ISn-n-d-n-smv AbmfpsS apJw Idp-n-cpp t]mIpp.
Abm P\--fn\n-sm-fnp \nSpp. Cu No-h-am\w e`n--Xn\p-tijw Bscbpw ImWm-Xn-cp-m thn: A]-am\w klnv B
Ipns\ shn-cn--Wtam, AtXm an Ipgn-p-aq-S-Wtam? Adn-bp-I,
F{X No-bmb Xocp-am-\-aWv Ah FSp-p--Xv! (hn.Jp. 16:58,59)
6. ^mXzna au\w `Pnp AXv k-X-am-bn-cp-p. ln. cmw hj-n-emWv
Aenbpw ^mXzn-abpw Xn-ep hnhmlw \SXv.
7. ]Xv\n-am X-epsS km-n-Im-h-iy--fp--bnv {]hm-N-Is\ {]bm-k-sSp-n-b-Xns\ XpSm-bn-cpp CXv.
8. ]n-bn t]mIm-Xn-cp-Xv Hcp Znhkw Hcp t\cw am{X-am-Wv. CXv {]hm-NIs A\p-bm-bn-Isf DXvI-WvTm-Ip-e-cm-n.
9. {]hm-N-Is ]cn-Nm-c-I d_mlv hgn-bmWv Da ktiw \In-b-Xv.
10. Da-dns ]p{Xn-bm-bn-cpp {]hmNIs ]Xv\n l^vk.

35

11. Xs ]Xv\n-am-cpsS Imcyw Ah-cpsS ]nXm--fp-ambn kwkm-cnv


HpXon-se-n-m-\p Xm]cyw t]mew \jvS-s-Sm am{Xw {]hm-NI Ah-cp-ambn ]nW-n-bn-cp-p-sh-mWv Da-dn\v BZyw Atlw {]th-i\m-\p-aXn \ImXncp--Xn\nv a\-n-em-Ip--Xv.
12. A Alv_m-kqd 28,29 kq--fm-Wn-Xv. CXns Ah-X-c-W-s-pSp ]nWw Xop. \nv B`m-S-]qW-amb euIn-I-Po-hnXw
thtWm, AtXm Am-lphpw {]hm-N-I\pw ]mc-{XnIPohn-Xhpw aXntbm
F tNmZyw Db-s--tm Rv Am-lphpw {]hm-N-I\pw
]mc-{XnIPohn-Xhpw aXn Fv ]dv ]Xv\n-am {]hm-N-Is\ sIn-pWp.
13. CuPn]vjy Fgp-p-Im-c-\mb apl-Zv ssl-ens apl--Zns
PohnXw(l-bmp apl--Zv) ImWp-I. CXv ae-bm-f-nepw e`y-am-Wv.
14. kv{Xo kvt\ln--s-tS--hfpw BZ-cn--s-tS--h-fp-sa ]mTw Xs
Ime-L--nse ]cp- a\-p-Isf {]tXy-I-ambn ]Tnn-p Cu
hmIys, {]hm-N-I-\n Aan-X-amb kv{Xo t{]aw Btcm-]n-m-\mWv
h{I_pn-I sXfn-hm-n-bn-cn-p--Xv.
15. Cwojv Ihnbpw D]-tZ-in-bp-am-bn-cp tUm (15731631) bph-Xz-n
kv{Xoe-S\pw BVw-_-c-{]-bn-b-\p-am-bn-mWv Pohn-n-cp--Xv. Khv \nd
hcn-I-fm-bn-cpp Abm-fpsS Ihn-X-I. ]noSv a\-m--c-s-v aX PohnXw
\bn-p-Ibpw hmNm-e-ambn aX-{]-`m-jWw \S-p-Ibpw sNbvsX-nepw
tUmWns BZyImePohnXw Ncn-{X-n an-hmdpw {]knam-bn.
16. Amkv alvaqZv AJvZmZv, lJm-bn-Jp Ckvemw h A_m-Xzo-ep Jpk-a(Ckvemans bmYmy-hpw i{Xp-fpw Pev]-\hpw), ss_dq-v, t]Pv 255.
17. A Alvkm_v 4mw hmIyw Ah-X-cn--tXm-Sp-Iq-Sn, C\n- ta-en sskZns\
apl--Zns ]p{X Fv hnfn--cpXv, lmcn-k-bpsS ]p{X sskZv FpXs hnfn--W-sav {]hm-N-I P\-sf Adn-bn-p. hfp-]p-{Xs\
bYm-]p-{X-\mbn hnti-jnn-p-Xv \ncp-m-l-s-Sp-X-p--XmWv
{]kvXp-X-hm-Iyw.
18. {]hm-N-I Ipkp_v\p Pm_n A^n-l-cnsb ]np-Sv k^zm-\ntemew t]mb Hmw _Z F-dn-b-s-Sp ]S-\o--ns sskZns\ aZo\-bpsS `c-W-p-a-Xe G]n-n-cp-p.
19. ln. 8mw hjw Pam-Zp A amk-n \S apA bpamWnhnsS Dtiyw. sskZv Cu bp-n c-Im-n-bm-bn.
20. {]hm-NI ]Xv\n l{kv Bbn-i-bpsS t]cn Ahsc If--s-Sp-m\pw
As\ {]hm-N-Is\ hnj-an-nm\pw thn aZo-\-bnse I]-S-hn-izm-knI Hcp A]-hm-Z-Y sIn--av {]N-cn-n-p-I-bp-m-bn. apkvenwI-fn
]e-scbpw AXv Bi-b-p-g--n-em-n, Xm-e-t-m-sW-nepw. AXmWn-hnsS hnh-n-Xw.

36

21. apXn aplm-Pn-dp-Ifpw Akm-dp-I-fp-ap-m-bn-cns sNdp-mc-\mb


Dkm-asb ssk\n-I-t\-XrXzw G]n--Xn\nv P\-n-S-bn\nv
apdp-ap-dp-p-bp. {]hm-N-I tcmK--bn-em-bn-cpp. Atlw Fgp-tv ]ck-lm-b-tmsS ]n-bn-sen {]m-\bvv tijw P\--tfmSv kwkmcn-p-sIm-p-]-dp: Dkm-a-bpsS t\Xr-Xz-n ssk\n-I-k-o-I-cWw
]qn-bm-p-I. Dkm-sb-pdnv \n-fp--bnp ]cmXn Ahs ]nXmhn-s\-p-dnpw \n-fp--bn-n-p--Xm-Wv. Fm ]nXm-hn-s\-tmse Dkmabpw tbmKy-\m-Wv.'
22. sskZp-ambn hnhm-l-_--n-tes-Sm ssk\_v hnk--Xn--XmWv Cu
kq-ns Ah-X-cW ]m--e-sav C_v\p Amkv ]d-Xv
C_v\pIko tcJ-s-Sp-n-bn-cn-pp.
23. Shnandel, Les Couseries de la Solitude, P.190
24 Hcp ]mc-knI Ihn.
25. auehn F Pem-ep-o dqan ({In. h. 12071273) temI-{]-kn ]mc-knI
kq^n Ihnbpw XXz-Nn--I-\p-amWv. Ct-l-ns kq^n amK-n\v auehnFmWv t]. akz\n F kq^n Imhyns Imhv dqanbmWv.
26. Zms Aen-Kdn ({In.-h. 12651321) Cm-en-b almIhn-bmWv. Ct-l-ns
Unssh tImaUn temI-{]-kn--am-Wv. Bo-b-Po-hn-X-amWv D-S-w.
27. Conde, Mahomet, Ses Femnes Et Ses Amours, P.181.
28. {^v t\mhm-c\pw Ihnbpw \mS-I-c-N-bn-Xm-hp-amWv hnIvS bqtKm
({In. h. 18021805). ]mh- t\{X-Zm-hnse Iq\ Fo-m-kn-p-I Ctl-ns t\mh-ep-I-fmWv. ]cn-l-k-Ir-Xn-Ifpw cmjv{Sob hnai-\-epw
Fgp-Xn-bn-p-v.
29. Oeuvert. Refer to Art of Rehetorics by foroughi, Essey by Victor Hugp and his
complete works quoted in several placecs.

30. A Alvkm_v kqd 4#m#w hmIyamWn-Xv. `mhv `mcy-tbmSv \o


F\nv Fs D-bpsS apXpIv t]mse-bmWv Fp ]d-bp k{-Zm-b-n\mWv fnlm Fp ]d-bpXv Dbpw aI\pw an `mcy-`Xr-_w
Cm-Xp t]mse Rm\pw \obpw Xn _-an Fm-Wv A-d-bpXns Aw.
31. A Alvkm_v ap-tgmw hmIy-am-Wn-Xv. sskZpw ssk\_pw Xn-ep
hnhmlw Ahsc Hn-n-n-n-spw Ah Hp-t]m-Im Hcp hgn-bp-anspw Ah Xn-ep _w th]n-cn-bp-sapw As\ kw`-hn-m
Xm ssk\-_ns\ hnhmlw sNp-sa-p-ap Imcyw {]hm-N-Is a\-nep-m-bn-cp-p. ]s, AX-tlw a\-n Xs ad-pshp. AXmWo
hmIvbn ]d--Imcyw.

37

32. hfp-a-sf bYm-a--fmbn KWn-p-Xp ImcWw Ah hnhmlw


sNbvsXm-gn-hm-nb kv{XoIsf hfp-]n-Xm-p Hcp Imepw
hnhmlw sNbvXp-IqSm Fm-bn-cp-p Atd-_ym-bn \ne-\n-n-cp \nb-aw.
Cu k{-Zmbw Cm-Xm-pI FXp ssk\-_ns\ sskZv samgn sNn-btijw {]hm-N-I hnhmlw sNbvX-Xns Dt-iy-am-bn-cp-p.
33. ln. 5mw hjw PqX-mcpw _lp-ssZ-h-hmZn-Ifpw tNv k-am-n-b
alm-k-Jy-tk\ apkvenwIsf B{I-an-m-s\m-cp-p-Ibpw apkvenwI
Ahsc InS-p-Ip-gnp t\cn--Xp-amb kw`-hw. JZJv Fm InS-v. Cu
bp-n\v Alvkm_v Fpw t]cp-v.
34 {]hm-N-I Bbn-i-bvp -\Inb Ifn-tcv.
35. {]hm-NI ]Xv\n-am hnizm-kn-I-fpsS amXm-fpw amXr-I-I-fpamWv. kv{Xo
kl-P-amb s]cp-am-- Ahv A\y-am-Im Xc-an-. Ahsb Ah
AXn-P-bn-p-Ibpw bYm-`--m-cpsS amK-n-eqsS \op-Xpw
hnizm-kn-Ip ]mT-am-I-Ww. {]hm-N-I Xs BZy ]Xv\n-bpsS IpnbpsS amXm-hmb JZo-Psb A\p-kva-cn-p-tm Fm Ah-cnepw \Xv
Ctm-gnt Fv Bbni tNmZn-n-cp-p-h-s{X.
36. CuPn]vXnse apJu-hnkv cmPmhn acn-b, Ah-fpsS ktlm-Zcn koco Fo
bph-Xn-Isf Xs km-\-sa \ne-bn {]hm-N-I\v Abp-sIm-Sp-p. acnbsb {]hm-N-I\pw kocos\ {]kn--Ihn lm\pw hnhmlv Ignp. acnb
C{_m-lo-ans\ {]k-hn--tm Ah-cpsS hnip-n-bn kwibw tXmn-phm Ipn\v {]hm-N-I\v Ipn-t\m-Sp cq]-kmayw Bbni \ntj-[n-p.
(ssl--ens apl--Zns PohnXw ImWp-I).
37. _lp-`m-cy-Xz-n\v Cwojn km[m-cW Polygamy F ]N-ap-]-tbmKnpp. Cu IrXn-bpsS Cwojv hnh-I Polygyny F ]Z-am-Wp-]tbm-Kn-n-cn-p--Xv. sh_v-dpsS {]kv \nLp {]Imcw kv{Xotm
]pcp-jt\m Htckabw Hn-te-sd CW-I-fp-m-hp--XmWv Polygamy. ]pcpj\v Htc kabw Hn-e-[nIw `mcy-am-cpmbncp-p-Xv Polygynybpw . BZy]Zw _lp-`-Xr-Xz-sbpw Dsm-p-p. Ckvemw _lp-`m-cy-Xzta D\p-h-Znq. _lp-`-XrXzw A\p-h-Zn-p-n-. AXn-\m Ckvemans DnjvS
Bibw [z\n-n-m\p IrXy-amb ]Zw Polygyny BWv.
38. Cdm-\n Pnhn-n-cp ]WvVn-X-m-cm-Wn-h. ss_lJn ({In. h. 996 1077)
Ncn-{X-Im-c-\m-Wv. Pman-D--hm-coJv F Ct-l-ns {K-w 30 hmfy-apv. ^nZukn (9401020) temI-m-kn-mb j\m-abpsS I#v-X-Xm-hm-Wv.
6000 Cuc-Sn-I-fp Cu {K-n _n. kn. 3600\pw F. Un. 651\pan-Sbvp t]gvky cmPm--m-cpsS Ncn-{X-ap-v.
39. tUm. Imhn-bm-\n t]gvky `mj-bn-tev XP-a-sNbvX ttm-bpsS ]cyS\s B[m-c-am-n-bmWv {K-Imhv tkm{I-o-kn-s\-p-dnv CY
D-cn-n-cn-p--Xv. _n. kn. 470380 BWv tkm{I-o-kns Pohn-X-Imew.
hfsc sshIn-bmWv Ctlw kmn-sb hnhmlw Ign-Xv. Fnepw {]hmN-I-s\-p-t]mepw kwi-bn--s-Sp alm-\mb Cu XXz-m-\n-bpsS
38

Pohn-X-n C-c-samckmmKn-I-X-b-p m\-sav F tNmZyw


{][m-\-am-Wv. kzh-cXn Akm-mKn-I-ambn KWn--s-Sm Hcp Ime-ambn-cp-p. AsXp ]d-p-Iq-S. eqns Ncn{Xw At-lns hfsc
apm-Wv. {Kov kaq-l-n ico-An ]dbp Ah s]mXpsh \ne\n-n-cp-s-nepw tkm{I-okv AXn-\-]-hm-Z-am-Ims\ Xc-ap-q.
40. {In. h. 1194\pw 1292\pan-S-bvmWv kAZo indm-kn-bpsS PohnXw. KpenkvXm(-a-ehm-Sn), _pkvXm(-D-Zym-\w) Fnh At-l-ns At\Iw
IrXn-I-fn IqSp-X {]Nm-cWw t\SnhbmWv. sKmbvsY, Fta-gvk apXemb ]mm-Xy Nn-I kA-Znsb [mcmfw D-cn-n-pv. Xs IrXn-Ifn Xs ]m{X-amn kAZn ]d-bp IY-I apgp-h\pw Atlw t\cn-p
In-bmb kw`-h--fm-sW sXmb [mcW ico-A-nsb ]nSn-s]--Xmbn
tXmp-p. hyn-Po-hn-X-n-sbpw s]mXpPohn-X-n-sbpw kw_-np FmSpw IY-Ifpw \oXn-hm-Iy-fpw AS-p Imhy-amWv KpenkvXm. [man-I-Kp-cphpw kq^n-bp-amb kZm-Nm-c-hpw \oXn-km-c-hpw ]Tn#v-]]n-m-s\-gp-Xnb {K-nXs kzw Pohn-X-ns Zpjn hi-
Xpd-s-gp-Xn-bm At-l-ns ]mT-v B I]npw? kA-ZnbpsS ehpw Imehpw hyXy-am-bn-cp-p-shpw ]d-bm h. kzh-cXnsb A\m-im-kyhpw inml-hp-ambn hn[n Ckv emanI kaq-l-nse
HcwKw am{X-a-, Hcp Kpcp-Iq-Sn-bmWv kA-Zn. {]kw-K-a {]h-\-amWp
Imcy-sap kAZn Xs Hcp Imhy-n ]d-bppapv.
41. {In. h. 1049-\pw 1069-\p-an-S-bvmWv PpPms X_-dn-m-s-bpw-cm-Pm-hmb
Jm_qkv C_\p Ckv- cNn {Kw.
42. inJ-WvUn-sb-bmWv Ax-]pc Imhm-c-\mbn \nb-an-pI ]Xn-hv.
Imhm-c kv{XoI-fp-ambn _-s-Sm-Xn-cn-m-\m-bn-cpp CXv. Ax-]pc-c-l-ky--sfmw Ahv Adn-bm ]p-am-bn-cp-p.
43. {]hm-N-I-sbpw Ckv eman-sbpw ITn-\-i-{Xp-hm-bn-cp-p. aJvkqw hwi-mc-\m-bn-cp Awdp_v\plnimw F A_q-P-l. _Z bp-n sIms-p.
44. FtXym-]y N{I-hn-bm-bn-cpp t\K-kv. 400 Zo\m-dmWm hnhm-l-aq-ey\In-b-Xv. {]hm-N-I\p thn t\Kkv AXv Dp l_o-_-bpsS _p-hmb JmenZv C_v\p kCu-Zns\ G]n-p. sImm-c-n shm-bn-cpp
hnhm-lhpw kZy-bpw.
45. ln. hjw An-em-WnXv \S--Xv.
46. ASn-a-X-s tamNn-n-m bP-am-\\p \Ip kwJy.
47. aZo-\-bn-ep-m-bn-cp Hcp {]apJ PqX-tKm-{X-amWv _\q-Jp-ssd-k. Ch
{]hm-N-I-t\mSp sNbvX kwJyw ewLnv Alvkm_v bp-n a-bnse
_lp-ssZ-h-hm-Zn-I-tfm-sSmw tNp.
48. {]hm-N-I hnhmlw Ign-p-tm k^n-v 17 hbt Dm-bn-cpp-q.
Fnepw Ah apv cv t]cpsS `mcy-bm-bn-c-pn-pv. BZy `mhv
tbmm-hpw Ihnbpam-bn-cp kem-ap-_v\p-aivw Bbn-cp-p. hnhmlw

39

Ignv A[nIw Ign-bmsX AhX-n ]nW-n-n-cn-p. ]noSv In\m\


C_v\p A_n lpssJ-JmWv k^n-sb hcn-Xv. Ctlw ssJ_ bpn sIm-s-p. PqX-a-n-em-bn-cp--tm k^n--bpsS t] ssk\_v
Fm-bn-cp-p. Ckveman h-tm AXv k^n Fm-n. ln. 50-emWv
k^n A-cn--Xv.
49. {]hm-N-Is ]nXr-hy Am-kv.
50. ln. 6mw hj-sam-Sp-hn {]hm-N-I\pw a-m-cmb _lp-ssZ-h-hm-Zn-Ifpw
Xn a-bv-Sp-p lpssZ-_nm Xmgvh-c-bn shp-m-nb
{]knkn.
51. l^vk-bpsS BZy `mhv Jpss\-kp_v\p lpZm-^-bm-bn-cp-p. _Z
bp-n ]s-Spv ]cn-p-]-nb Ctlw aZo-\-bnshv \ncym-X-\m-bn.
52. lnPvd 11-mw hj-n-em-bn-cpp {]hm-N-Is ac-Ww.
53. Cu bp-cn cp hmIy-fpw An-km-Av kqd-bn-ep--Xm-Wv. BZytXv 129Dw cm-a-tXv 4Dw hmIy-. \n F{X B{K-ln-mepw
kv{SoIn-S-bn XpevS-\oXn ]pem \nm-hp-I-bn-. AXn-\m
Hcp-n-bpsS `mK-tp apgp-h-\mbn Nmv a-hsf _--b-tmse
hnS-cpXv Fv ]q-ambn hmbn--nte BZy-hm-Iy-ns icn-bmb {Kln km[y-am-hp-I-bp-q. A\oXn ]mSn-p ]d-bp--tXm-Sw a\-ns
kzm`m-hn-I-amb Nmbvhv A\o-Xn-bm-hp-I-bn---IqSn hmIyw kqNn-n-p-pv. AXv ]pd-mv {]I-S-am-h-cp-Xv. Hcmv cv `mcy-am-cp-m-bnv
Abm Ah-cn Hcp-h-fn-tep Nmm Dbp-\m-fn Ahs Hcp
]w Ncn-n-cn-p-sav {]hm-N-I ]d-Xv A_q-Zm-hqZv tcJ-s-Spn-bn-cn-p-p.
54. {]hm-N-I 4 A[nIw `mcy-amsc \ne-\nn-bXv Am-lp-hns `mK-p\n-p {]tXy-I-amb A\p-hm-Z-tm-sS-bm-bn-cpp Fv Jp-B
Alvkm_v kqd-bn ImWmw. Hmtcm hnhm-l-n-\p-ap {]XyI Imc-W CXn-\Iw hymbn Ign-p.
55. ico-An BPn-cn-bm kzmX-{-{]-m-\-hp-ambn _-sv {]hn-ncp-p.
56. Algerie par le text II and al-Mujahid Organ of the Algerian revolution, number 12,
December 1962.

_lp-`m-cys kw_-n hn-h-I-c-amb ImgvN-m-Sp-I ImcWw {]Ya


BPo-cn-b hntZ-i-Im-cy-a{n JmankvsX h[n--s-p.
57. lnPvd 10 mw hj-n Hcp hbv XnI-bp--Xn\p apm-bn-cpp C{_m-loans ac-Ww. {]hm-N-I\v JZo-P-bn P\n Bdv k-Xn-I-fn ^mna
Hgn-p--h-cmw AXn-\p-aps ac-W-s-n-cp-p. AXn-\m C{_mlow P\n-tm F-n-mv ktm-j-am-bn-cpp {]hm-N-I-\v. AXp-sImv Xs
Ahs \ncym-W-n F-n-m ZpxJhpw. {]hm-N-Is In \nv

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Ip-\o [mc-bm-bn-sm-bp-In. C{_mlow \ns t]cn R F{X-ta


ZpxJp-X-cm-Wv. Atlw acn-p-Io-S-p Ipns\ t\mn-]-d-p.
58. A_vZp-d-ln-am F A_q lpssdd {]hm-N-Is kl-Nm-cnbpw [mcmfw
{]hm-N-I-]m-c--cy- D-cn-n-p ]WvUn-X-\p-am-Wv.

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