Plan for An Alternative Transportation

System
Along the Selma to Montgomery
(Voting Rights Act) National Historic Trail
Presented To:
2016 National Environmental Justice
Conference
& Training Program
Washington, DC
March 9-12, 2016
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
SELMA TO MONTGOMERY (VOTING RIGHTS ACT) NATIONAL

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In Appreciation:
 
U.S. Department of the Interior
Supt. Sandra Taylor & Staff, National Park Service
Environmental Protection Agency
Alabama Department of Transportation
Alabama Department of Environmental Management
West Alabama Transit Authority
Mayors, Officials, & Residents of Hayneville, Mosses, White
Hall, and communities of surrounding Lowndes County, AL
Mayor, Officials, & Residents of Selma, and communities
of surrounding Dallas County, AL
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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Participants:
 
Michael Burns, Senior Advisor & CUPP Program Manager,
EPA Region 4
Walter Hill, Dean, Project Director, TU
Miles Robinson, Project Co-Director, TU
Gertrude Wall, Extension Agent, TU
Tuskegee University 
Robert R. Taylor School of Architecture and Construction
Science
Carla Jackson Bell, Dean
 
Roderick Fluker, Project Co-Director, TU
Emile Dixon, Project Co-Director, TU
 
Students:
Megan Brightharp,
Perry
Couch,TRANSPORTATION
Zenobia Johnson,
Michael
PLAN FOR
AN ALTERNATIVE
SYSTEM
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Objectives:
 
At the conclusion of the presentation, participants
should be able to:

Discuss why alternative forms of transportation is
important to improving quality of life in rural
communities.

Explain different delivery modes and methods for
transportation and their potential benefit.

Discuss innovative approaches to increasing
transportation, and thereby economic development
in rural and small communities, similar to Lowndes
County, Alabama.

Discuss the economic impact of better connecting
similar communities such as those in Lowndes
PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
County to urban
centers like Selma and Montgomery.
SELMA TO MONTGOMERY (VOTING RIGHTS ACT) NATIONAL

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Historic Context

National Park Service
U.S. Department of the Interior

Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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Study Background
• September 2013 – The creation of the Tent City Economic
Empowerment Group (TCEEG), an umbrella group for cites in the
center of the Trail (White Hall, Mosses and Hayneville), which
work together to address issues and share resources.
• September 2014 – The National Park Service (NPS) provided a
grant of $50,000 to Tuskegee University (TU) for development of
the alternate transportation plan.
• October 2014 – EPA HQ Brownfield Office committed $30,000
worth of contractual support to assist in the planning, to include;
starting the clean-up of two of the five brownfield sites to be
reused as bus stops. EPA is also beginning the cleanup effort and
teaching TU how to participate in the brownfield efforts.
• May 2015 - The plan was formally briefed to NPS and EPA.

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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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Statement of Purpose

The plan is in support of environmental
justice issues in underserved
communities and cities along the Voting
Rights Act Trail, such as:

Lack of access to medical care and job
opportunities

Food desert issues

Lack of access to educational
opportunities leading to increased
employment opportunities.

Lack of access to historic landmarks and
sites, which would provide important
educational opportunities to youth in the
underserved areas.

Lack of access to historical landmarks
and sites, which would provide important
educational opportunities to visitors from
outside of the area, and the potential
financial benefit from an increase in
tourism.

PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
recreational
venues,
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Lack of access to

7

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Population Survey for Montgomery and
Selma, Alabama
City

1980

1990

2000

2010

2014

Montgomery

_

_

201,69
4

205,59
5

200,48
1

Selma

26,684

23,755

20,439

20,756

19,814

Data: US Census, 1980 thru 2014
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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Population Survey for Lowndes County, Alabama
Quick Facts
Lowndes
County

Alabama

10,580

4,849,377

White

25.8%

66.2%

Black or African American

72.9%

26.7%

1.2%

4.1%

.1%

3%

$26,230

$43,253

Home Ownership Rate

74.9%

69.7%

Unemployment Rate

> 9.7%

< 7.7%

Households With No Vehicle

12.8%

6.6%

People Quick Facts
Population - 2014

Hispanic or Latino
Asian, Other
Median Household Income

Data: US Census,
thruTime
2015;To
Alabama
Health, 2013, Selected
Mean 2010
Travel
Work Dept. of Public
30.4
24.2 Health
Status Indicators

(mins.)

ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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Lack of Access to Medical Care

Vaughan Regional
Medical Center – 30.5
mi.

Jackson Hospital – 34.9
mi.
Selma Baptist
Hospital – 30.5 mi.

Baptist Medical
Center South – 32.9
mi.
Baptist Medical
Center East – 42.4
mi.
Children’s Hospital of
Alabama – 42.4 mi.

Central Alabama
Veterans Health Care –
38.6 mi.

*Using Whitehall, Al. as a reference, distances may vary.

Data compiled by EPA Atlanta Regional Office
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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Lack of Access to Educational Opportunities
Alabama State
University – 29 mi.

Selma University – 27
mi.

Faulkner University –
34 mi.

Concordia College –
26.8 mi.

Auburn University @
Montgomery – 35 mi.

Wallace Community
College– 28.8 mi.

*Using Whitehall, Al. as a reference, distances may vary.

Data compiled by EPA Atlanta Regional Office
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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Food Desert Issues
Valley Grande
Grocery– 33.8 mi.

Piggly Wiggly- 35 mi.

Walmart Supercenter
– 25.8 mi.

Publix Supermarket 35 mi.

Washington Street
Super- Market– 25.6
mi.
2m
18.

Winn-Dixie – 28.7 mi.

Langley Inc.

i l es

Hayneville
Associated Grocery

Data compiled by EPA Atlanta Regional Office
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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Project Scope
To gather the requirements to determine
the following:

ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
ARCHITECTURE AND CONSTRUCTION SCIENCE

Route for the proposed transportation

Number of bus stops to be incorporated
into the routes, to include the use of
brown fields sites for the purpose of
redevelopment where possible

Type of vehicles to be used, and
proposed locations for storage and
maintenance of such vehicles

Accurate justification for the need for
this transportation, to include input
from citizens of the impacted areas

Draft design of bus stops, to include the
use of alternate energy for lighting and
other needs where possible

Estimates of potential ridership

Estimates of total project, with a
breakdown of each major component

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Public Meeting _ Mosses, AL
Public meetings were held in Hayneville, Mosses, White Hall, and
Selma to receive direct input on preferences for locations and
number
of bus stops for transit.
14
PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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SELMA TO MONTGOMERY (VOTING RIGHTS ACT) NATIONAL

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,
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Potential
Brownfield Site(s)

Bus Stop Locations
Community
Preference:
Reds = 1st Choice
Blues = 2nd Choice

Composite Map _ Community Stop Preferences & Potential
Brownfield Sites
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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Tuskegee Student Design Session _ Weekly Meetings to
Discuss and Develop Project Ideas
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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Site Visit _ Site Visits and Route Schedule Planning
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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Preliminary Bus Routes Map _ 14 Potential Stop Locations
Proposed: ‘A’ Stops are along Highway 80 and ‘B’ Stops are along
18
aPLAN
loop
route
in Lowndes
County
FOR
AN ALTERNATIVE
TRANSPORTATION
SYSTEM
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,
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Sample Bus Route Schedule
Number of Buses estimated to execute = 6
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Transit Delivery Modes:
 

Fixed Route
Services
Service provided on a repetitive, fixed
schedule basis along a specific route with
vehicles stopping to pickup and deliver
passengers to specific locations; each fixed
route trip serves the same origins and
destinations, such as rail and bus; unlike
demand responsive and vanpool services.

Definitions: The National Transit Database Program Website
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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Transit Delivery Modes:
 

Demand Response
A transit mode comprised of passenger cars, vans or
small buses operating in response to calls from
passengers or their agents to the transit operator, who
then dispatches a vehicle to pick up the passengers
and transport them to their destinations. A demand
response (DR) operation is characterized by the
following: 
a)   The vehicles do not operate over a fixed route or
on a fixed schedule except, perhaps, on a temporary
basis to satisfy a special need; and
b)   Typically, the vehicle may be dispatched to pick
up several passengers at different pick-up points
before taking them to their respective destinations and
Definitions:
The National Transit
Database
may even
be interrupted
en route
to Program
these Website
destinations
to pick up other passengers.
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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Transit Delivery Modes:
 

Vanpool Service
Transit service operating as a ride sharing
arrangement, providing transportation to a
group of individuals traveling directly between
their homes and a regular destination within
the same geographical area. The vehicles
shall have a minimum seating capacity of
seven persons, including the driver.
Vanpool(s) must also be open to the public
and that availability must be made known.

Definitions: The National Transit Database Program Website
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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22

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,
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Bus Stop Design _ Small Bus Stop Prototype
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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Bus Stop Design _ Small Bus Stop Prototype Plans – 250 sf
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,
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Bus Stop Design _ Medium Bus Stop Prototype
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,
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Bus Stop Design _ Medium Bus Stop Prototype Plans – 400 sf
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE,
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Bus Stop Design _ Medium Bus Stop Prototype
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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Bus Stop Design _ Connection Bus Stop Prototype
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PLAN FOR AN ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
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Bus Stop Design _ Large Bus Stop Prototype (AB5) – 900 sf
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Highway 80 _ Sample Sites for Bus Stop
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Lowndes County _ Sample Sites for Bus Stop
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EXISTING

Lowndes County _ Sample 1 Acre Site for Bus Stop
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PROPOSE
D

Lowndes County _ Sample Site for Bus Stop_Site Plan
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Solar (PV) Panels at
Roof - Generating Power
for Lighting and Outlets

Composting Toilet –
Limited Water Usage at
Restrooms

Natural Ventilation
Promoted by Wall and Roof
Openings

Cutaway View _ Bus Stop Environmental / Energy Systems
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Solar (PV) Panels:
Approx. 250 SF
Min. Array
2 to 4 kW GridConnected
System
(3,000 kWh/yr)
$25,000 Budget

Composting Toilet

Self Contained
Unit
Vented Through
Bldg.
Stack
Data_ Bus Stop Environmental / Energy$2000
Systems
Budget
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ITEM * DESCRIPTION

UNIT

UNIT COST

A Bus Stop: Interpretative Cntr Interior
Transfer Station
B Sitework: Interpretative Cntr Station

1

500,000

TOTAL
COST
500,000

1

50,000

50,000

C Bus Stop: Exterior Stops Along Hwy. 80
D Sitework: Hwy 80 Stops, Incl. Pull-offs
E Bus Stop: Exterior Stops – Other
Location(s)
F Sitework: Exterior Stops - Other Location
(s)
G Bus Stop: Connection at Selma
Subtotal
Contingency

5
5
6

350,000
100,000
250,000

1,750,000
500,000
1,500,000

7

50,000

350,000

1

100,000

100,000
4,750,000
712,500

15%

Subtotal

5,462,500

Preliminary Project Scope _ Cost Estimates – Bus Stop
Sites
ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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ITEM * DESCRIPTION

UNIT

H Project Planning, Design , & Engineering

UNIT COST

TOTAL
COST
546,250

10%

J Bus: 16 Passenger
K Bus: 25 Passenger
L Bus: 25 Passenger – Alt. Fuel (CNG)

3
1
1

50,000
60,000
80,000

150,000
60,000
80,000

M Bus: 28-30 Passenger

1
6

80,000

80,000

N Brownfield Site Remediation – 200k per
Site (Est. 1.5 Acre Redevelopment Sites)

5

200,000

1,000,000

P Site Acquisition (Market Value) – 2k per
Acre (Est. 1.5 Acre Sites)

12

3,000

36,000

Subtotal

370,000

Total

7,414,750

Preliminary Project Scope _ Cost Estimates – Buses,
Property
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Preliminary Bus Routes Map _ With Overlay of Historic Sites
(Stars)
Within
Study
Area
PLAN FOR
AN ALTERNATIVE
TRANSPORTATION
SYSTEM
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ROBERT R. TAYLOR SCHOOL OF
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