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The idea of prevention strategies can be understood through Williams 4S
conceptual framework of classroom management (2013, p. 6). The
intersecting idea of setting can be considered in terms of the ways in
which this can promote productive behaviour. Williams discusses the
importance of arrangement skills in establishing a productive learning
environment and the need to consider the topography of the learning
environment, resources, interaction, movement and space (TRIMS) (2013,
p. 8). The acronym TRIMS, allows for an understanding of the ideas to
consider when organising the physical setting of the classroom. The
specific considerations would include the seating layout within the
classroom and also the seating plan of the student, the monitoring and
supervision, the location of the resources and the planning of the
additional physical requirements of the classroom (Williams, 2013). The
physical setting should be considered carefully to ensure that
unproductive behaviour is kept at a minimum within the classroom and
simple ideas and considerations around the placement of tables to create
a safe and welcoming environment and ensure students can access the
classroom and resources at all times reduces disruptions and increase
productive behaviours.
Within Williams (2013) 4s conceptual framework the idea of systems is a
key element to consider when identifying strategies to prevent
unproductive behaviours. Systems within a classroom can be recognised
as the administrative and management systems that are integrated within
the classroom community (Williams, 2013). The need to create an
environment that has clear rules and procedures that are understood by
students is particularly important in preventing unproductive behaviour.
This can be considered through McDonald who states, the aim of class
routines and procedures is to enhance the learning environment. They are
meant to increase academic engagement by lessening opportunities for
disruption and off task behaviour (2013, p. 140). Routines around how
students enter the room, where they can get materials/resources from,
gaining their attention, what to do when they finish their work and many
other ideas can ensure lessons and the day runs smoothly. It can also be
understood that having the routines and procedures in place allows for
self-regulation of the students, which increases their sense of equality
within the classroom.
Rules can be understood through Charles who states rules help specify
behaviours that are acceptable, or unacceptable, in the classroom. When
carefully planned, rules help meet everyone's needs (1999, p. 206).
Students must have the opportunity to buy in and assume responsibility
in order to allow for the students to have ownership over the rules as well
as the consequences of their actions (McDonald, 2013 and Good and
Brophy, 2008). The way in which students can be incorporated in the

establishment of classroom rules would be in terms of a class meeting to

discuss and outline the need for rules as well as the consequences of not
following them. Ensuring students play a part in creating the rules and
routines we all must abide by creates an environment in which students
are treated as equals and have a say in their own learning environment.
The respect shared further instils a sense of community within the
classroom as students feel heard and a necessary part in the classroom
management, this in turn preserves their dignity as is respects their life
and acknowledges their ideas and needs and is a fundamental prevention
technique to ensure students are aware of the expectations within the
The emphasis of the student dimension in the 4S framework outlined by
Williams focuses on the ways in which students interact with one another
and the ways this can promote a productive learning environment.
Watkins (2005) discusses the required ingredients for a community to
succeed and include agency, a sense of being part of the collective,
cohesion and an understanding of diversity and the need to embrace this.
This can be further understood through specific characteristics of a
classroom community outlined by Sapon-Shevin (2010). In order for
students to take risks in the community all students must support a safe
and secure environment in which all students can feel free to take risks
with their learning, ask for help and support and express themselves
freely (Sapon-Shevin, 2010). This can prevent unproductive behaviour as
students can share the fact they dont understand, as they know they will
be met with support instead of humiliation (Sapon-Shevin, 2010). Students
will have many opportunities to work together in small and large groups,
this creates a mutual liking in the classroom as defined by Sapon-Shevin
as an opportunity for students to become friends with one another as the
classroom is structured so that students learn to see and appreciate their
classmates (2010, p. 23). This creates a positive learning environment for
students and ensures productive behaviours as it gives students a sense
of belonging and that they are needed for the classroom to run they
therefore will not want to let each other down.
The role of self within Williamss 4S framework is one of the most crucial
aspects to consider when promoting productive behaviour. It must first be
understood that the 4S framework is an interconnected model in which
the 4S overlap and a look at self must involve the setting, systems and
students also. Kounin (1970 cited in Good and Brophy, 2008) discusses
the idea that effective teachers are able to minimise the frequency of
disruptions and resolve minor unproductive behaviours using a few key
strategies. These include withitness which involves regularly monitoring
the classroom and ensuring the students know the teacher is aware of
their behaviour allows for problems to be nipped in the bud before they
escalate. Overlapping where teachers must do more than one thing at a
time. Group alerting where a teacher must have strategies to alert the

group to maintain or re-establish attention, which can be done through a

random selection of students to be called on. Accountability ensures that
students are responsible for paying attention and the last idea is variety
and challenge where the work provided must be both familiar for students
to complete successfully yet challenging and varied to support their
enthusiasm (Kounin, 1970 cited in Good and Brophy, 2008).