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One of the first recorded formalized intelligence efforts, with format, can also be found in the Holy Bible
Numbers 13:17
And Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan and said unto them, get you up this way southward,
and go up into the mountain; and see the lands, what it is; and the people that dwell therein, whether they
are strong or weak, few or many; and what the land they dwelt in, whether in tents, or in strongholds; and
what land is; whether it be fat or lean, whether there be wood therein, or not. And be of good courage
and bring of the fruit of the land. The scriptures also named the twelve intelligence agents whom the
Lord directed Moses to sent into the land of Canaan and records that all those men were heads of the
children of Israel.
The Harlot of Jericho (Joshua 2:1-21) who sheltered and concealed the agents of Israel, made a covenant with
the agents and duped their pursuers. She was not only an impromptu confederate of immense value for the Jewish leader
of that far distant day, but also established a plot-pattern which is still of periodic relief to motion picture producers.
The Philistine used her when she allowed Philistine spies to hide in her house (Judges 16). Delilah was an
impromptu intelligence agent. Apart from her tonsorial specialty, she also allowed sex to gain intelligence from a
powerful enemy. She achieved the largest effective force of her employers adversaries and contriving the stroke
which put that force out of action.
Sun Tzu
Know thy enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the results of a hundred battles If you know yourself
and not the enemy, for every victory, you are a fool who will meet defeat in every battle.
Alexander the Great
When Alexander the Great was marching to Asia, were rumors of disaffection growing among his allies and
mercenaries, he sought the truth, and got it by simplest expedient by devising the first and opening to obtain
He was the Roman Commander in Spain who possessed a White Fawn and allowed it to become widely known that he derived secrets and guidance from the fawn. His intelligence agents credited their information to the supernatural
power of animals.
He was known to be the sagacious master of the Hindustan. He employed more than 4,000 agents for the sole
purpose of bringing him the truth that his throne might rest upon it.
Genghis Khan
He was known The Great Mongol, who used intelligence to conquer China and invade Cathay. He instructed his
Generals to send out spies and used prisoners as sources of information. The leader of the so-called MONGOL
CONQUERORS - made use of effective propaganda machine by spreading rumors of Mongol Terror, they collected
information on weaknesses and rivalries of Europe. The leaders usually disguised as merchants.
With the rise of Nationalism and development of modern armies, intelligence became apparent to large states. In
England, Sir Francis Walsingham, under Queen Elizabeth, organized the first National Intelligence Service. He

employed spies on the staff of the Admiral in Command of the Spanish Army and able to obtain information regarding
Spanish Army as to their ships, equipment, forces and stores. He protected Queen Elizabeth I from countless assassins.
In France, Richlieu introduced the network of covert collectors who transmitted prompt and accurate information to
Paris regarding the activities of the rebels and dissidents of the kingdom.
Louis XIV systematized political policy, continuous surveillance, postal censorship and military intelligence
organization were his contributions.
The French Intelligence System continued since 15th Century.
Napoleon Bonaparte once said, One Spy in the right place is worth 20,000 men in the field. He organized two
Bureaus of Interest: Bureau of Intelligence which consolidate all incoming information regarding the enemy for
presentation to the emperor and to obtain information as desired, and Topographic Bureau which maintains a large map
which covers the latest information regarding both enemy and friendly forces. He maintained Military Intelligence and
Secret Political Police Service all over Europe. His main arm was Spy against spy concept.
Frederick the Great
He was known as the Father of Organized Military Espionage. He has divided his agents into four classes:
Common spies those recruited among poor folk, glad to earn a small sum or to accommodate as military officer.
Double spies are unreliable renegades, chiefly involved in spreading false information to the enemy.
Spies of Consequences couriers and noblemen, staff officers, and kindred conspirators, requiring a substantial
bribe or bait,
Persons who were forced to undertake espionage against their own will.
He was considered one of the brilliant military strategists in the history of military intelligence. He had developed
an effective intelligence system for 15 years in Rome. He usually roam around the city often disguise himself as a beggar
to gather first hand information.
George Washington
Conspirator under oath abounds in the history of every nation. George Washington was grand master in
intelligence. He mobilized the Free Masons of the colonies at the outbreak of the American war of Independence.
Karl Schulmeister
Karl Schulmeister was Napoleons eye, Napoleons military secret, born on August 5, 1770. He began his career
in offensive espionage under a cover role. He was able to infiltrate the Austrian General Staff.
Wilhelm Stieber
He incorporated intelligence in the General Staff Support System. He further device military censorship and
organized military propaganda. He introduced military censorship and organized military propaganda. He works as a
census taker and developed informal gathering of data.
Alfred Redl
He was one of the most brilliant intelligent agents. Though a homosexual, he became Chief of the Austro
Hungarian Secret Service. He became a double agent of Russia. In 1913, his treason was discovered and he was forced to
commit suicide. His treason also led to the death of almost 500,000 agents and soldiers combined in his 13 years
espionage episode.
Maj. General Donovan
He was the organizer of the OSS, builder of a central intelligence system - OSS whose exploits become legendary
in World War II.
Battle of Midway
In June 1442, the turning point of the Naval in the Pacific, the victory gained by the Americans was due to the
disrupted messages from the Imperial Japanese Navy.
Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto

April 1943, He was the crypto analyst of the U.S. Navy Communications Intelligence intercepted a top-secret
signal relaying the travel of the Admiral. En route, he was intercepted and crashed in the Jungles of Baungainville.
State Informer
Edward I, King of England in 1725 organized a systematic police system so called Witch and Ward. By Royal
proclamation, the profession State Informer was created in 1734 enjoining all informers to expose criminal activities
and be compensated.
Fouche of France
A Frenchman born in 1759, rose to become the most feared and respected intelligence director in French history.
He created a network of agent. His assistance founded the modern system of spying on spies, which later was known as
counter espionage.
Joseph Petrosino
He was member of the New York Police Department in early 1900, he was the head of the Italian Squad. Through
extensive intelligence network, he was credited to smash and neutralization of the Black Society.
Federal Bureau of Investigation
First established in 1908 as an investigative arm of the U.S. Department of Justice and became what is known as
the F.B.I. under its first director John Edgar Hoover in 1924. On September 6, 1939 by a presidential directive, it came to
its responsibility the task of a domestic intelligence.
Central Intelligence Agency
The agency was created under the US National Security Act of 1947. It was the Central Intelligence group
established during the time of President Truman in January 1946. The CIA was under the National Security Council.
Committee for State Security
Russia - The Intelligence agency known as the KGB - Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti (KGB)
British Secret Service Great Britain
Mossad Israel,
BND West Germany
KCIA Korean Central Intelligence Agency
Britain: Scotland Yard, London Metropolitan Police Force
It was established by Sir Robert Peel in 1829 which signaled the beginning of a colorful legendary police force
and considered one of the most efficient in the world today.


Intelligence Defined
According to Government - Commission Task Force - It means the collection, processing, collation, interpretation,
evaluation and dissemination of information, with references to national security. In certain context, it may also mean the
network or the system for the collection, collation, interpretation, evaluation, processing, and dissemination of
information. The term as used here doesnt include any police powers or authorities, any investigative function other than
those involve in the collection of information nor any function involved in the enforcement of laws, orders, or regulation.
According to Military Terminologies - Intelligence is the end product resulting from the collection, evaluation,
analysis, integration and interpretation of all available information which my have immediate or potential significance to
the development and execution of plans, policies and programs of the users.

According to Police Parlance - The end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration and
interpretation of al available information regarding the activities of criminal and other law violators for the purpose of
affecting criminals and other law violators for the purpose of affecting their arrest, obtaining evidence, and forestalling
plan to commit crime.
Functions of Intelligence in General
Today all counties have their intelligence services. They maybe different in their organization, efficiency and
method but they all have the basic functions such as:

the collection or procurement of information

the evaluation of the information which then become intelligence
the dissemination of intelligence to those who need it.
counter intelligence or negative intelligence, which is dedicated to the concealment and protection of ones
own information from the adversary intelligence operation. It is a defensive function of intelligence.

Principles of Intelligence
a. Universality of application - it should apply to as many phases and aspects of intelligence as possible. It should
guide not only the production of intelligence but also the concomitant activities essential to the process as well as
the organization and the thought and actions of the individual composing it.
b. It must be broad - it should form the basis for a formulation of corollary and subsidiary guides.
c. It must be important, indeed essential, to intelligence- if a guide is truly important and essential, then its violations
should bring its own immediate penalties.
a. There exists an essential unity between knowledge and action; that knowledge enhances the effectiveness of
action and minimizes the chances of error.
b. The knowledge requirements of decision-making are complex and beyond the capacities of anyone necessary to
meet there requirements.
Objectivity - in intelligence, only the well guided succeed. It is a basic intelligence concept that there must be
unity between knowledge and action. It follows therefore that intelligence should interact and condition the decision.
Intelligence must be adapted to the needs of the decision; it is both giver and taker. Action or decision is planned by
knowledge and guided by it at every step.
Interdependence - Intelligence is artificially subdivided into component elements to insure complete coverage,
eliminate duplication and to reduce the overall task or manageable sizes. Nevertheless, each subdivision remains as
essential part of unity; contributes proportionately to the end result; possesses a precise interrelationship; and interacts
with each other so as to achieve a balanced and harmonious whole.
Continuity - Intelligence must be continuous. It is necessary that coverage be continuous so that the shape of what
happens today could be studied in the light of what happened before, which in turn would enable us to predict the
shape of things to come.
Communication - Intelligence adequate to their needs must be communicated to all the decision makers in
manner that they will understand and form that will permit its most effective use.
Usefulness - Intelligence is useless if it remains in the minds, or in the files of its collectors or its producers. The
story must be told and it must be told well. The story must be convincing and to be convincing it must not only be
plausible or factual but its significance must be shown.
Selection - Intelligence should be essential and pertinent to the purpose at hand. Intelligence involves the plowing
through a maze of information, considering innumerable number of means or of picking the most promising of a
multitude of leads. The requirement of decision-making covers very nearly the entire span of human knowledge.
Unless there is selection of only the most essential and the pertinent, intelligence will go off in all directions in one
monumental waste of effort.
Timeliness - Intelligence must be communicated to the decision maker at the appropriate time to permit its most
effective use. This is one of the most important and most obvious, for Intelligence that is too soon or too late are
equally useless. Timeliness is one principle that complements all the others.
Security - Security is achieved by the measures which intelligence takes to protect and preserve the integrity of its
activities. If intelligence has no security, it might be as well being run like a newspaper to which it is similar.
General Activities in Police Intelligence

Strategic Intelligence it is an intelligence activity which is primarily long range in nature with little practical
immediate operation value.


Line Intelligence it is an intelligence activity that has the immediate nature and value necessary for more
effective police planning and operation.
3. National Intelligence - it is the integrated product of intelligence developed by all the governmental branches,
departments concerning the broad aspect of national security and policy. It is concerned to more than one
department or agency and it is not produced by single entity. It is used to coordinate all the activities of the
government in developing and executing integrated and national policies and plans.
4. Counter-Intelligence phase of intelligence covering the activity devoted in destroying the effectiveness of
hostile foreign activities and to the protection of info against espionage, subversion and sabotage.
5. Undercover Work is an investigative process in which disguises and pretext cover and deception are used to
gain the confidence of criminal suspects for the purpose of determining the nature and extent of any criminal
activities that maybe contemplating or perpetuating.
Functional Classification of Police Intelligence
1. Criminal Intelligence refers to the knowledge essential to the prevention of crimes and the investigation, arrest,
and prosecution of criminal offenders.
2. Internal Security Intelligence refers to the knowledge essential to the maintenance of peace and order.
3. Public Safety Intelligence refers to the knowledge essential to ensure the protection of lives and properties.
Forms of Intelligence
1. Sociological Intelligence deals with the demographic and psychological aspects of groups of people. It includes
the population and manpower and the characteristics of the people, public opinion attitude of the majority of the
people towards matter of public policy and education.
2. Biographical Intelligence deals with individuals personalities who have actual possession of power.
3. Armed Force Intelligence deals with the armed forces of the nation. It includes the position of the armed
forces, the constitutional and legal basis of its creation and actual role, the organizational structure and territorial
disposition, and the military manpower recruitment and Order of Battle
4. Geographical Intelligence deals with the progress of research and development as it affects the economic and
military potential of a nation.
A. Strategic Intelligence as defined earlier, it is an intelligence data that are not of an immediate value. It is
usually descriptive in nature, accumulation of physical description of personalities, modus operandi. It does not have
immediate operational value but rather long range that may become relevant to future police operations.
B. Line Intelligence It is the kind of intelligence required by the commander to provide for planning and
conduct tactical and administrative operation in counter insurgency. This pertains to knowledge of People, Weather,
Enemy and Terrain (PWET) used in planning and conducting tactical and administrative operation in a counter
Intelligence information to be determined in Line Intelligence are:
People - living condition of the people, sources of income, education of the people, government livelihood
projects, extent of enemy influence to the people
Weather visibility, cloudy, temperature, precipitation (rain), wind
Enemy - location of the enemy, strength of the enemy, disposition, tactical capability, enemy vulnerability
Terrain - relief and drainage system, vegetation, surface material, man made features. There are military aspects
of terrain which includes cover and concealment, obstacle, critical key terrain features, observation and fields of
fire, and avenues of approach.
C. Counter Intelligence (CI) - this kind of intelligence covers the activity devoted in destroying the effectiveness
of hostile foreign activities and to the protection of info against espionage, subversion and sabotage. Hence, the three
activities of CI are: protection of information against espionage; protection of personnel against subversion; and
protection of installations and material against sabotage.
Counter Intelligence is also known as Negative Intelligence - a generic term meaning three different things;
Security Intelligence means that the total sum of efforts to counsel the national policies, diplomatic decisions,
military data, and any other information of a secret nature affecting the security of the nation form unauthorized persons.
It is an effort to deny information to unauthorized persons by restricting to those who are explicitly authorized to possess
Counter-Intelligence - counter intelligence is the organized effort to protect specific data that might be of value to
the opponents own intelligence organization. Some of its functions are: Censorship of the following: correspondence,
broadcast, telecast, telephone conversations, telegrams and cables, etc., prevention of the dissemination of any
information that might aid an opponent; maintenance of files of suspect; surveillance of suspects; mail reading, wire

tapping and recording; infiltration of the enemy intelligence organized to procure information about its method, personal,
specific operations and interest.
Counter-Espionage - In counter-espionage, negative intelligence becomes a dynamic and active effort. Its
purpose is to investigate actual or theoretical violation of espionage laws, to enforce those laws and to apprehend any
Five Categories of CI Operation
1. Military Security it encompasses the measures taken by a command to protect itself against espionage, enemy
operation, sabotage, subversion or surprise.
2. Port Frontier and Travel Security has to do with the application of both military and civil security measures
for CI control at point of entry and departure, international borders or boundaries.
3. Civil Security it encompasses active and passive CI measures affecting the non-military nationals permanently
or temporarily residing in an area under military jurisdiction.
Censorship it is the control and examination of the civil, national, armed forces, field press, and
Special Operations counter subversion, sabotage and espionage
Counter Intelligence (CI) Operation
1. Counter Human Intel (HUMINT) seeks to overcome enemy attempts to use human sources to collect
information or to conduct sabotage and subversion which includes CI special operations, liaison, counter security,
and CI screening.
2. Counter Imagery Intel (IMINT) - includes action taken to determine enemy SIGINT and related enemy
weaknesses, capabilities and activities. These actions include surveillance radar, photo thermal and infrared
systems. Successful counter IMINT operations rely heavily on pattern and movement analysis and evaluation of
the enemy.
3. Counter Signal Intel (SIGINT) determine enemy SIGINT and related enemy weaknesses, capabilities and
activities, assess friendly operations to identify patterns, profiles and develop, recommend and analyze counter