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Digestion and Absorption of carbohydrates

By,Dr Mohammad waseem kausar Assistant professor,Biochemistry IMDC

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Carbohydrates
‡ Sugars, Starches, Fibers ‡ Major food sources: plants ± Formed during photosynthesis

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Objectives
‡ Provide an overview of the structures, mechanisms, and processes of the GI tract. ‡ Understand how food is digested and absorbed within the body. ‡ Explain how foods are transported after they are digested and absorbed. ‡ Describe how the body keeps the complex processes of digestion, absorption, and nutrient transport running smoothly. ‡ Explain various influences on digestion and absorption along with various nutrition and GI 3 disorders.

The Gastrointestinal Tract
‡ Organization
± Mouth anus ± Accessory organs ‡ Salivary glands, liver, pancreas, gallbladder

‡ Functions
± ± ± ± ± ± Ingestion Transport Secretion Digestion Absorption Elimination

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Overview of Digestion
‡ Physical movement
± Peristalsis ± Segmentation

‡ Chemical breakdown
± Enzymes ± Other secretions
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Overview of Absorption
Types of absorptive processes ‡ Passive Diffusion

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Facilitated Diffusion

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Active Transport

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Diet
Liquid , solid and semisolid  Polysaccharides = starch and glycogen  Disaccharides = sucrose, lactose and maltose  Monosaccharides = fructose and pentoses.

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Digestion in Mouth 

Saliva and Enzymes ‡ Salivary amylase(ptyline) acts on starch ‡ Moistens food for swallowing
‡ - amylase requires . Optimum pH and Cl- ions ‡ 6.6 -6.8 ‡ It hydrolysis -1 4 linkages at random deep inside of p/s molecule like starch, glycogen, and dextrin, producing smaller molecules maltose, glucose and trisaccharide.

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Digestion in the stomach 
No action on meal  no enzymes

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The Pyloric Valve

Small Intestine

Stomach

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Small intestine (Duodenum)
Pancreatic juice Pancreatic amylase completes starch digestion  Requirs - amylase requires . Optimum pH(7.1) and Cl- ions  End products of carbohydrate digestion  Glucose, fructose, galactose  Absorbed into bloodstream  Fibers are not digested, excreted in feces 

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Small Intestine 
Pancreatic enzymes E-amylase
maltotriose G G G G G amylose GG G maltose G G

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E amylase
G GG GG G ELimit dextrins

G GG GG GG GGGG amylopectin

Small intestine 
Brush border enzymes digest disaccharides 

Intestinal amylase hydrolyzes terminal 1 4 linkages liberating free glucose.  Lactase ( -galactosidase) = 

pH 5.4 ± 6.0 

Isomaltase = hydrolysis 1 ± 6 = linkages splitting - limit dextrin producing maltose and glucose  Maltase =  Sucrase =
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Oligosaccharide digestion..cont
ELimit dextrins GG G GG G G sucrase G G G Glucoamylase (maltase) or G G G E-dextrinase E-dextrinase GG GG G G G GG G G maltase G

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Absorption 
Small intestine  Absorption
‡ Folds, villi, microvilli expand absorptive surface ‡ Most nutrients absorbed here ‡ Fat-soluble nutrients go into lymph ‡ Other nutrients into blood

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Transit Times

*Assuming 24 hour Transit Time 23

Signaling Systems: Command, Control, Defense
‡ Nervous system
± Regulates GI activity
‡ Local system of nerves ‡ Central nervous system

‡ Hormonal system
± Increases or decreases GI activity

‡ Immune system
± Identifies and attacks foreign invaders
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Nutrition and GI Disorders
‡ Constipation
± Hard, dry, infrequent stools ± Reduced by high fiber, fluid intake, exercise

‡ Diarrhea
± Loose, watery, frequent stools ± Symptom of diseases/infections ± Can cause dehydration

‡ Diverticulosis
± Pouches along colon ± High fiber diet reduces formation
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Nutrition and GI Disorders
‡ Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
± Reduced by smaller meals, less fat

‡ Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) ‡ Colon cancer
± Antioxidants may reduce risk

‡ Gas ‡ Ulcers
± Bacterial cause; helicobacter pylori

‡ Functional dyspepsia
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Bacteria in the mouth ferment sugars and in the process produce an acid that dissolves tooth enamel. Sticky foods stay on the teeth longer and keep yielding acid longer than unsticky foods. 27

Lactose Intolerance
‡ Lactose in milk and other dairy foods ‡ Lactase enzyme ‡ Symptoms

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‡ Sucrase deficiency ‡ malabsorption

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Carbohydrates in Your Diet
‡ Recommended carbohydrate intake
± 55-60% of kilocalories ± Daily Value (for 2,000 kcal) = 300 grams ± Dietary Guidelines ‡ Moderate sugar intake ‡ Variety of grains, fruits, vegetables ± Fiber intake of 25 grams/day

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Carbohydrates in Your Diet
‡ Increasing complex carbohydrate intake
± Grains, especially whole grains ± Legumes ± Vegetables

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Carbohydrates in Your Diet
‡ Reducing sugar intake
± Use less added sugar ± Limit soft drinks, sugary cereals, candy ± Choose fresh fruits or those canned in water or juice

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