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PHN M U

C th ni rng, trong dng chy ca lch s nhn loi. S ra i ca


gm s, m trc ht l gm, nh du mt ct mc v cng quan
trng. Ngay t 8000 nm trc cng nguyn, Cc gm u tin
c tm thy Gng a r (Iran), Mu ry bt (Sire). V xut hin
Bc Phi khong thin nin k th 10 trc cng nguyn, Nam M
khong thin nin k th 7 trc cng nguyn. s ra i mun hn
gm kh lu, n nm 620 sau cng nguyn, Trung Hoa mi l nc u
tin sn xut S trn th gii.
Ngh lm gm l mt trong nhng ngh c truyn thng lu i nht
ti Vit nam. Kt qu kho c hc cho bit Gm c ngi Vit ch
tc, s dng cch y khong 10. 000 nm.
Tri qua nm thng, Gm s khng ch cn l nhng dng th cng
phc v nhu cu thit yu trong i sng con ngi: chn, ni, m, a
m cn hn th, gm s tr thnh mt nt hn dn tc, tr thnh mt
v p ring, mt nim t ho ring ni ln ct cch, tm hn ca c mt
t nc.
lm ra gm ngi th gm phi qua cc khu chn, x l v pha
ch t, to dng, to hoa vn, ph men, v cui cng l nung sn phm.
Kinh nghim truyn i ca dn lng gm Bt Trng l "Nht xng, nh
da, th ba dc l".
Ngi th gm quan nim hin vt gm khng khc no mt c th
sng, mt v tr thu nh trong c s kt hp hi ha ca Ng hnh (
) l kim (), mc (), thu (), ho () v th (). S pht trin ca
ngh nghip c xem nh l s hanh thng ca Ng hnh m s hanh
thng ca Ng hnh li nm trong qu trnh lao ng sng to vi nhng
quy trnh k thut cht ch, chun xc.
Ngh gm Vit Nam gm cc thi k sau
- Gm thi L (1010-1224)
- Gm thi Trn (1225-1339)

Gm thi L s (1428-1526)
Gm thi Hu L (1593-1789)
Gm thi nh Mc.
s hoa lam thi cc Cha Nguyn

Trong , gm L - Trn tr thnh khi nim m hc, ging nh


th ng, tranh Tng, ngha l nhc n n l nhc n ci p, mc
nhin v gi tr ca n. Cho n nay, vn cha c phong cch gm no
Vit Nam vt qua c gm L - Trn.
Mc d ng v mt ngh thut ngi ta hay nhc chung mt t l
ngh thut L - Trn, nhng y l hai thi i rt khc nhau, c xu hng
pht trin ring bit v mi thi i ko di n hai trm nm, khong thi
gian khng nh c c nhng thay i cn bn. Nh L (1009 1225)
v nh Trn (1226 1400) c l vi c im chung ln nht l u ly
Pht gio lm quc o, v t nhiu chung nhau phng thc sn xut
nng nghip khai thc lao ng nng n v nng dn. S dn t dao ng
t mt triu thi L n ba triu vo cui thi Trn cho php xy dng mt
quc gia quy m nh v thng nht, c bit l to ra mt phong cch
ngh thut ton th (phong cch ph qut), ngha l c nc ch c mt
phong cch ngh thut. Phong cch ny thng nht t kin trc, iu khc,
trang tr n gm.

PHN NI DUNG

CHNG I : TM HIU V GM THI L TRN


I.

NGUN GC V PHONG CCH GM VIT NAM


Sau khi Ng Quyn dng li nn c lp, nh inh, nh Tin L bt
u m mang t nc, nhng phi n i nh L, vn ha Vit Nam
mi pht trin rc r. i L, i Trn l giai on thng hoa ca gm
Vit Nam. Khi L Thi T di kinh t Hoa L (Ninh Bnh) vo Thng
Long, xy dng thnh tr, cung in, tn sng Pht gio th mt nhu cu to
ln v gm din ra. Theo gt di , nhng nh lm gm khp ni
hoc dn v gn kinh thnh, hoc tng mc sn xut. Di thi vi tinh
thn dn tc mnh m, vi tinh thn Pht Gio nh hng trn ngp x
hi.
Nhu cu xy dng cung thnh, nhu cu ca gii trng gi, ca cc
nh cha c xy dng tng ln bi phn. T ti nng, k thut, ngh
thut ca nhng l gm pht trin, a n mt cuc bng n rc r ca
gm Vit Nam, trong quyt tm bo v vn ha dn tc, h pht trin
gm thnh mt ngh thut to hnh Vit Nam, ring bit, rc r, phong
ph cng nh nn vn ha Ho Bnh, Phng Nguyn, Bc Sn, ng Sn
trc .
Lch s Vit Nam, tp 1, trang 38 c ghi: Trong giai on Phng
Nguyn, k thut to ch t n trnh cc thnh. Nhng chic
ru, v c quy m to nh khc nhau, c ch to bng cch mi, ca
khoan, rt hon thin. Nhng vng tay, hoa tai, ht chui bng c
chau chut, tin, gt tinh vi. Nhng loi hnh gm (ni, bt, cc, v)
c hnh dng p, chc, kho, phn nhiu c ch to t bn tay. Mt
ngoi gm ph y hoa vn trang tr vi nhng ng vch sc so,
nhng nt cong uyn chuyn, mm mi, c phi tr, i xng v hi
ha. l mt biu hin v c thm m kh cao ca ngi Vit Nam lc
by gi.

Vy l k ngh gm giai on Phng Nguyn (cch ta gn 4.000 nm)


nc ta pht trin mnh. Con ngi bui bit ngh ra bn xoay
v ch to ra th men ph ngoi, tng thm v dp k diu ca gm.
y l mt thi k ca nc Vn Lang. Cho ti thi u Lc, k ngh
gm pht trin mnh lm. Ngh nung gch, lm ngi cng c t
ngy ny.
Phi ni thi cc thnh ca gm s l thi k L Trn (th k XI
XIV). l nhng nm t nc phn thnh, kinh t mnh m, qun s
vng mnh, vn ha pht trin, t nc an bnh, mi k ngh c
khuyn khch pht t.
Ngi th gm Vit Nam to nn rt nhng dng kiu, sc men
v hoa vn rt Vit Nam, th hin tinh thn sng to phng tng v phong
ph, khng th thy trong vn ha Trung Hoa vn nhiu khun kh g b.
V th cho d h c hc c mt vi k thut ngh nghip, nhng phn
ngh thut gn nh khng c my cht nh hng ca ngh thut
gm Trung Hoa.
Trong khung cnh hng khi ca nn t ch va tm li c, cng
cc nhu cu xy dng thnh quch, cung in, nh cha, nh hng
mnh ca Pht Gio, Lo Gio v truyn thng vn minh Vit hi nhp
trong cc t, chn a, bnh Vit Nam. S khi u n gin, vi cc mn
cn nh hng gm nh Tng, bng vn mnh ln qua bn tay
sng to ca ngi th Vit Nam thnh mt nn vn minh rc r, m ngy
hm nay, khi nng niu nhng mn tuyt p y trn tay, chng ta cn
cm thy bng bng sc sng mnh lit ca dn Vit, nh nhn thy ci
phng tng ca bn tay ngh s trn bn xoay, hay trn nt v nhanh, thot
nh gi thi, nh nc tri di nc men mng. Theo Phan Huy L,
trong bi Thnh c Thng Long H Ni, mt di sn vn ha v gi ng
trn bo Nhn Dn s ngy 19-1-2004 th: Nm 2003, khi hong thnh
Thng Long i nh L c khm ph khu Ba nh, H Ni, trong
nhiu mn c khai qut, c khun c gm s v ph phm kt
dnh thnh tng chng, chng t c nhng l sn xut gm s cao cp ti
kinh thnh Thng Long. C nhng mn gm ghi r nin hiu ch to;
Nh i Vit quc qun thnh chuyn (Thi inh, Tin L), hay L gia

tam Long Thy Thi Bnh t nin (1057). ng vit thm: Cc di


vt ny cho thy trnh k thut v ngh thut cao ca nc i Vit
Ngi ngh s Trung Hoa v gm mt cch cn trng, t m, h v
nh ngi quan st thin nhin mt cch khch quan, tun theo nhng
quy lut nht nh, ng thng nh k thc, ng cong nh cnh
cung, bn phi bn tri i xng, bn trn bn di u n. ti rt tn
nghim Long Ly Quy Phng, h v nh c hnh mt nghi l.
Trong khi ngi ngh s Vit Nam v t nhin, v thoi mi, v nh
chi, nh th diu, nh nh o, v t nhin nh n nh ng; ti l
hoa, l l, l chim, l th, l cn trng, l tho mc ca ng rung, thn
qu k cn bn mnh, nh chim s, nh tm, nh cua, chun chun, cc
nhi. H v i sng nng thn ca h ln cc mn gm . H v
ti ca h l mt; Con chim s, con c bng, con chch che sng trong
ngi h ri trn ra nt bt t nhin, sng ng, khng c gng.Nt bt
ngi ngh s Vit ma nh, mi tre ct vo t sc m nhanh, men ch
dy ch mng th cng t nhin ch u c sao, ci hnh bn ny nh hn
ci pha bn kia mt cht th li cng ng cng xinh ch h chi.
Ni nh th khng phi l ch gm Tu khng p, Tu cc p
l ng khc. Nhng hai ci cch lm p v hng p rt khc nhau.
gm Tu p nh mt c gi trang im lng ly ca d hi, gm Vit
p nh c gi hng xm th ngy, ti mt. Ci p ca Tu l ci
p ca th L Bch: Vn tng y thng hoa tng dung Xun phong
pht hm l hoa nng, trong khi ci p ca Vit l th Nguyn
Khuyn: Sng bic theo ln hi gn t l vng trc gi s a vo.
Mt bn o gt tinh xo, mt bn mc mc n s, mt bn l ci p
ca tr tu, mt bn l ci p ca tm hn.

II.

NGH GM V GM THI L TRN

Ngh gm, xem ra pht trin ri rc khp t nc. tnh no cng


c nhng vng lm ngh gm. C ven cc dng sng, chng ta gp nhiu
mnh snh, mnh gm cn vng st li. Hoc chng ta gp nhng dy l
gm ang n khi nghi ngt. Nhng trung tm s gm nc ta, xut
hin t thi L Trn m n nay vn cn hng thnh ngh nghip, l
Bt Trng (H Ni), Th H, Ph Lng (Bc Ninh), Hng Canh (Vnh
Phc), Qu Quyn (H Nam Ninh), Chum Thanh (Thanh Ha) Mi vng
qu gm li gi k ngh ring bit. V mi ni, li c mt hng gm c
trng ring ca mnh, to thm ci a dng v phong ph ca cng ngh
gm Vit Nam. Nu ni trung tm gm nc ta, phi ni ti Bt Trng
Th H Hng Canh. Mt c im ring bit v r nt nht ca ngh
gm l u pht trin dc st cc trin sng. Bi l n tin ng chuyn
ch, v t st dc cc trin sng l th nguyn liu qu sn xut gm,
s.
Theo ti liu gii thiu Lch s ngh gm Th H ca Ty Vn ha H
Bc, v ti liu Tm hiu ngh gm Bt Trng, t liu nh my ca Vin
M thut, nm 1964, cho bit: Vo khong thi L Trn c ngi Thi
hc sinh (c bit chc Thi hc sinh th mi c t thi Trn) c c i
s nh Tng (Trung Quc) l: Ha Vnh Kiu, ngi lng B Bt (Thanh
Ha), o Tr Tin, ngi lng Th H (H Bc), Lu Phong T, ngi
lng K St (Hi Dng). C ba ng ny, khi i s hc c ngh s
gm. Khi v nc, ba ng chn ngy lnh thng tt lp n bn sng
Hng lm l truyn ngh cho dn lng. Cng ngh c c phn nh sau:
ng Kiu v B Bt, ng Tin v Th H, ng T v Ph Lng, v:
- Lng B Bt chuyn ch cc hng gm sc trng.
- Lng Th H chuyn ch cc hng gm sc .
- Lng Ph Lng chuyn ch cc hng gm sc vng, thm.
Na nm sau nghin cu, ch to thnh cng, ba ng ly cc gm
do tay mnh ch c, dng Vua xem. Nh Vua thy sn vt p, lin khen
thng cc quan s thn bn ch Trung i Qun Th v phong cho ba
ng danh Khi ngh tin trit. Tc truyn, dp ny, dn lng ba ni u
t l sm ut v linh nh. Sau dng ba tun ru, dn chng nhy nht
hoan h biu dng cc ngi em ngh v truyn cho dn. Sau khi ba
ng mt, dn chng ba ni u tn ba ng l T s, tc T ngh.
Phng gm B Bt sau c ri ra ngoi Bc. Dc theo con sng
Hng, ti mt bi sng c t th trng, h dng li lp l gm , vi
tn gi Bch Phng th, sau ny i l Bt Trng phng. V ngy nay,
ta quen gi l Bt Trng.

m men ngc, m hoa nu, m men nu thi L-Trn


gm thi L Trn pht trin mnh, nhiu s lng v qu
cht lng. Thnh hnh hai loi gm chnh, l:
- Gm trang tr kin trc, thng l t nung mc, hoc ph mt lp men
c gi tr c o. V d nh gch c in hoa vn trang tr vi nhiu dng
hnh, kch thc khc nhau. Hoc ngi b c gn u phng, u rng.
Hoc hnh gm trang tr hnh chic l nhn u gn trn nc hoc rim
nh
- Cn nh gm gia dng, th th loi. No bt a, m, u, chn, vi,
chum, v
gm thi k ny, ngoi ngha s dng trong nc, cn c xut
i nhiu nc khc.
Lch s tng ghi li, t u nh L c nhiu nc ti bun bn,
trao i hng ha vi nc ta nh Nam Dng, Xim La (Thi Lan) Ti
th k XII, cc thuyn bum ngoi quc cp bn nc ta cng ng. Nm
1149, Triu L cho lp cng Vn n, thuyn b cc nc vo ra bun
bn. Cho ti nay, dc hai bn b bn cng Vn n cn li nhiu mnh
gm ca nhiu thi i Vit Nam sn xut. Trong , c c mnh gm
men ngc ca thi L. Vy, chng l du tch khng nh hng gm
ca ta t xa t trnh cao sao?
Hin ti, Bo tng Lch s Vit Nam v Bo tng M thut Vit Nam
cn lu gi c nhiu gm, s cc thi i ca nc ta. l
nhng du tch chng minh k ngh phm nc ta sm pht trin, v
t xa, ngh gm nc ta chim a v quan trng trong nn kinh t,
vn ha ca dn tc. Qua y, chng ta cng thm yu qu i bn tay
kho lo v b c giu sng to ca nhng ngi th gm Vit Nam.

hiu su thm v ngh gm, chng ti mun gii thiu mt i nt v cc


kiu l gm v men gm t xa nc ta.

CHNG II : SO SNH GIA GM THI L V THI TRN


I.C IM CHUNG
1. L gm xa xa
Thc ra, nguyn l ca l gm xa v nay khng khc nhau nhiu
lm. N vn da trn nguyn l c bn, cu to gm 3 phn: bu l, thn
l, h thng ng khi. Ch c iu, l gm ngy xa th nh b v n gin.
Do s phn chia cng dng ca mi loi l, nn c tn gi ring
cho l gm: l quan v l dn. Sn phm l quan ch yu phc v cung
nh v giao bng quc t. Cn sn phm l dn l nhng vt dng thng
thng cho con ngi sinh hot hng ngy nh: cc, bt, m, l, l, chum,
vi Theo l thng, sn phm l quan bao gi cng c u t k
thut cao hn l dn.
Theo ti liu ca Vn Ninh (Vin Kho c) v vic khai qut khu l
nung gm s Bt Thp (Thun Thnh) cho thy: Khu l nung gm s
ny gm 4 l vi cu trc kiu l tng t ging nhau. Ton b l nhn bn
ngoi c hnh qu da, gia phnh rng, hai u ct. Kch thc o c
mt l c hnh thc b th v to ln hn ba l kia, cho thy: chiu di
3,35 mt, chiu rng nht gn 2 mt. Nh th, quy m ca l nung thi
nh gn.
im ng ch l cc l gm, hu ht dng nhin liu t bng tre,
g; nhin liu than cha dng vo thi k ny. Qua y, n th hin tiu
chun k thut nung thi v thc t lc t cng ngun nguyn liu
sn c a phng rt cao.
Phn khc, thy rng, cu trc l rt n gin v sng to; th p l
thi xa ch dng t st m p ch cha phi dng ti gch chu la
cun bu l v thn l. Trong khi , Trung Quc, l s gm thi ng
khng ln lm (thng di 3 mt, rng 2 mt), vy m phi dng ti
gch chu la xy ca t v xy ng khi.
Cng theo ti liu v kho c hc nm 1975 ca Trn nh Luyn (S
Vn ha Bc Ninh) cho chng ta bit thm v khu l nung gm, gch
ng Yn thuc phn t Bc Ninh, nm bn b sng Ng Huyn vo thi
L Mt. Cu trc ca l c khc kiu l Bt Thp. l l gm hnh trn,
c ng knh 1,2 mt, tng l p t c ln mnh snh gnh nh, dy
1 mt, chn tng choi, bn trn thu nh dn theo kiu vm cun. Bu l

c to hnh phu, p lin vi tng l, cng bng t vi b dy xp x


0,2 mt.
Qua kho cu, l gm ng Yn c phn tin b hn Bt Thp.
Song c dc tuyn tin trin ca cc l gm qua cc thi i, ta thy, cho
ti u th k XX ny, cc l nung mi c ci tin mt bc ln. l
chuyn hnh thc t un l con cc sang hnh thc un l rng nhiu bu.
Chuyn dn th thc un tre g sang un than v un du. l nhng
bc tin xa v khng nh sc sng bt h ca k ngh gm th cng.
Ngy nay, vi kiu l gm hin i, ngi ta thit k kiu l vng
lin hon. l mt hnh thc ca l gch tin tin. Ngi ta ch vic
nhm l mt ln, v ngn la l c chy truyn t bu l ny sang bu l
kia, ngn la y c chy mi cho ti ngy l hng. Nhng ci tin vn
minh , l khi ngun t chic l gm c th s thu xa
2. Men gm thi L Trn
Thi L Trn: t th k 10 nh du bc ngot trong lch s Vit
Nam. Thi k phc hi c lp dn tc sau hn mi th k h ca
phong kin Trung Hoa. Sut bn th k, t nh L sang nh Trn, gm
t c nhng thnh tu rc r. Quy m sn xut, chng loi sn phm,
cht liu u c m rng. Nhiu loi men c ng dng v n nh
v cng ngh. c bit men trng cng xut hin thi k ny ngoi men
tro v men t. Ba yu t c bn to nn v p ca gm l hnh dng,
hoa vn trang tr, men mu. S pht trin ca k thut v trnh thm m
cao to nn sn phm gm thi k ny c nhng loi ni ting l gm
men trng ng chm p ni, gm hoa nu, gm men ngc, gm hoa lam.
3. To dng
V to dng gm L Trn ngoi nhng hnh mu trong thin nhin
nh hoa, qu l cch to dng ca nhng ng trc . Trang tr trn
gm L Trn, hoa vn hnh hc chim v tr ph. Nhng ho tit chnh
y l hoa l, chim, th, ngi. Hoa vn trang tr vi cch miu t gin d,
mc mc rt gn gi vi thin nhin v con ngi Vit Nam. Mt c im
na l nt chm c lm b ra, mt bn r cnh, mt bn bin dn vo
sn phm, lm ch chy dn men, to nn m nht cho ho tit nh
trn gm men ngc hoc lm gii hn t nu.
Thi L Trn l thi thnh vng ca k ngh gm. V th, men gm
thi L Trn phong ph l iu tt yu.
Trc thi k ny, mt s gm dng gm mc, khng ph men
m c bao ngoi mt lp o gm, khu ph o gm khng phi ni no
cng lm, nhng Th H v Ph Lng u c dng ti o gm. o gm l
mt dung dch tng hp gia t v chay, vi cng thc 4 t 1 chay. t
l gm, gi nh, sng lc cn thn. Cn chay l mt th c ln g st
ngay a phng. Chay cng phi gi nh, sng lc k cng. C hai th

t v chay ri, trn ln, pha nc, ha tan thnh mt dung dch. Tt c
cc gm trc khi em nung c nhng vo dung dch ny, to ra mt
lp o gm. Nu c th em nung ln, l c gm p ri. Hoc gi, mun
ph men ngoi th ta ph men ln lp o gm.

gm men trng thi L

Bt gm men trng thi L.

a men ngc trang tr vn in hoa cc dy, thi L


4. K thut
V k thut, l nung gm L - Trn c mt bc tin ln nh vic s
dng cc l cc, l nm, c khi c l rng nng nhit nung cho sn
phm ln n 12000C - 13000C. Vic s dng bao nung v k thut nung

chng bng con k (lng dong) c ng dng rng ri i vi nhiu loi


sn phm cho thy t trnh sn xut gm cao cp, nht l gm men
ngc. Nhiu a phng sn xut gm nh Hi Dng, Thanh Ha, H
Ni, Nam nh... Chng t s hnh thnh gm tp trung v mang tnh
chuyn nghip.
5.

Phn loi
C ba loi men gm tiu biu thi L Trn. l gm men ngc,
gm hoa nu, gm hoa lam.
Trong cun Gm Vit Nam, ha s Trn Khnh Chng vit: Trong
lng a bt thi L ta thng gp nhng n m b cc chung c tnh
khng u n hoa vn c khi c in bng khun in nhng thng l
nhng nt khc tay rt cng phu. Ph ln ton b sn phm l mt lp
men xanh mt, c trong nh ngc m ngi ta thng gi l men ngc
hay men ng thanh. Qua lp men trong, tu nt khc to hay nh, nng
hay su m hoa vn hin ln vi m nht khc nhau, khi n, khi hin,
kn o, trang nh. Trn nhng bt a thuc loi ny, hoa vn c khi c
in bng khun in, nhng thng l nhng nt khc tay rt cng phu. y
hn l loi sn phm cao cp, c l l gm gia dng ca tng lp qu
tc. Chic bt gm men ngc v rng ny chc chn l thuc tng lp
i qu tc vng cng. Thi Trn nhiu vng gia c dinh ph, c qun
i ring. Hnh rng ny ta c th thy c s tip ni ca thi L s
trong mt bt hoa lam v rng pht hin thnh c khu A TK XV. Li ha
tit in ni ta cng tm thy trong Hong thnh mt np hp gm men
xanh lc (vert glazed) thuc dng gm c mu sc men quyn r, hoa vn
trang tr p, cc ti hoa l, trong nhng tinh xo trang tr rng
tm thy trong Hong thnh h A9MR l mt tiu bn t liu c sc. Chic
bt gm ming rng hnh l sen men ngc ny c lm t t st trng.
Khi cm ln c cm gic dy dn, xng t c lc k, vi mu men
xanh lc c thy tinh trong nn bng kh cao, nhn du mt, mt tay.
Xng gm chm khc rng tinh t c ph men dy nn hoa vn c
chiu su lung linh. Bt men ngc trang tr rng thuc TK XIII, XIV ny cn
nguyn vn him thy, t ti nhng tiu chun in hnh trong gm s,
dng hnh thanh nh, ha tit khong t, tinh t, rng my uyn nh, lp
men ca loi t xt c ban nhiu, tinh khit nn t c sc xanh
trong, mt nh ni ting mt thi v l tiu bn qu him.

Thp, h, lin trang tr hoa v chim. Gm hoa nu, triu Trn th k


13,14

Thng trang tr hoa sen, cc dy. Gm hoa nu, triu Trn, th k 13


14

a i men xanh ngc thi Trn


Phn bit theo nc men: men ngc, L trng, L nu, L lc
1. men ngc (celadon): nh hng Pht Gio chen k vi nh
hng men ngc i Tng. Hoa vn vi nhng m thc Pht Gio nh
cnh sen, hoa cc. i kh c nh hng gm nh Tng nhng Vit
ha (m ha hnh nh 2, 3 hay 4 em b trai chi trong mt vn hoa, m

ha hnh 2 lc s u vt). Ngoi nhng bt, chn v a men ngc nh,


ta cn thy c nhiu tc (hay bi), bnh tr, nm ru nh. C nhng
nm ru men ngc chm ni hnh 2 con c chp ang bi. C nhng
nm ru hnh qu bu. Cc nm ru ny nh (cao khong 12cm) chc
dng trn bn th nhiu hn l dng cha ru ung.
Ngoi nhng a trang tr bng cc m ha hoa sen, hoa cc, cng c
nhng a nh (5cm) chm ni hnh c chp ang bi. Men ngc mu
xanh ru vi nhiu sc t nht n m, c khi rt m, gn nh xanh
en. So vi men ngc i nh Tng, men ngc i L thng dy
hn, nc men cng kh dy, ct men bng t st trng pha ct, cm
trn tay thy nng, ting g c ting vang ngn v nh ( men ngc i
Tng men mng, nh, ting vang trong v ngn rt di v lm bng t pha
nghin). Ni y rng Vit Nam bay cng hoa l, iu khng th thy
trong gm hay tranh v Trung Hoa.
So vi cc mn L trng, L nu th men ngc (cng nh L lc)
khng cn nhiu, phi chng v khng c lm nhiu?
2. L trng: Bt chn L trng cng cc bnh m rt p, mt v
p thanh nh m cao sang, cng nhn cng a. Bnh v m vn theo
truyn thng Vit Nam, quai cm ch c tnh cch trang tr, khng thc
dng. Nc men rt mn, mu trng tuyn, nhn mt ri, thng hoc c
mn men trng trng ng hay men trng thong n sc xanh dng. C
chn nh m lng chn trng men trng, nhng bn ngoi li trng men
nu. Bnh men trng thng cao khong 16 22cm, i khi c phc ha
mt vi cnh hoa mu xm nht.
Hoa vn gm i L thng l m ha, hoa vn v mu ch thy
trn cc mn L Trng m cng ch l mt mu men xm. Phi chng y
cng l nh hng Pht gio trong tinh thn n s ca truyn thng thn
lng? Nn Pht gio ni y l Pht Gio truyn theo ng phng Ty,
phng Nam m vo ch cha phi l nn Pht Gio truyn t Trung Hoa
xung nh sau ny, tng ng vi thi Pht cn thng c gi l bt
(Budha), cch k m Vit Nam, ch cha theo cch k m Trung Hoa v
ging c Hn Vit m thnh ch Pht.
C nhng t L trng m ha hnh nh ca vn ha Rp, hnh nh
trng li lim v cc v sao cng vi 2 on ao bt choC nhng
bt, trong lng ton l biu tng Pht Gio nh ch Vn, nh hnh nh
bt bu, hay trong lng chn, lng a l c mt bng hoa sen, bng hoa

cc ang n, c lu nh cao 25cm rng 18cm m np lu l c mt bng sen


v ming lu cng chm ni nhng cnh sen ang nC t ng knh
12cm, y t l mt bng cc n, qu anh lng t l nhng nhnh l v hoa
cc. Bnh m rt p, nhiu ci hnh qu da, qu bu, hnh con tm cng
ci trn long con c chp
3. L Nu: ta gi chung l L nu, nhng y mu nu c rt
nhiu sc. T nu nht n nu m gn nh l en. Ngay trn cng mt
mn, men nu cng pha nhiu sc. C nhng bt, chn men nu c g
ming khng nhn m li gy cnh nh hnh hoa cc, trong lng bt l
nhng m ha hoa cc khc, r rng l chn bt dng trn bn th ch
khng phi dng trong i sng hng ngy. Bt thng c ng knh
ming ln bng 3 ln ng knh trn bt (Nh ming 18, trn 6cm). C
nhng th bt men nu da bo, nc men nu khi ut c nh ln vi
git nc y , lm cho men chy thnh nhng m loang l nh da
con bo.
Trong nhng s lng su tp, bt chn c m ha biu tng nh
Pht nh hoa cc, hoa sen men nu c rt nhiu. C phi y li l
mt nh hng Pht gio khc? Bnh m men nu rt c sc, c nhiu
bnh men nho (sau khi trng xong men nu, ng ta ti ln bnh mt
sc men nu m hn, ri cho t chy loang l, hoc sau khi trng men
xong h tt nc ln cho men chy nho).
Nc men trn bt chn men nu mng, nc men trn bnh men nu
dy, bng sng mn, dy mng ca nc men trn bnh cng khng
u, to ra nhiu sc m nht khc nhau. C nm ru men nu trang tr
hnh chn chim (do bt tre vch ln nn men sau khi trng). Nhiu bt men
nu c trang tr hnh chm ni t khun c rt p. Cng nh L trng,
bnh m L nu rt p, hnh dng thay i t trn sang bu hay hnh con
ngh
4. L lc: Mu men lc ni y l mu men xanh cnh tr, trong
bic. Nc men mng, m ha ni. S lng L lc cn li khng
nhiu. Tm c mt mn L lc p rt kh. Bnh L lc rt p nhng
him thy, hoa vn nhnh ru, vi rt hnh u makara. Bt a, bnh m
L lc cng c nhiu sc, hoc xanh bic, hoc xanh ru, hoa vn trn bt
a cng vn l biu tng hoa cc, hoa sen ca nh Pht hay hnh c
chp theo kiu song ng ca vn ha nh Tng. a thng thy vi
ng knh khong t 14 n 20cm, chn thng c ng knh t 10
n 14cm.

II.

C IM RING

1. GM THI L

Vi qu trnh pht trin ngh thut Gm c truyn Vit Nam, c kinh


nghim tch lu lu i. n thi L th k XI-XII ngh gm rt pht trin.
Cc ngh nhn Gm thi L pht huy sng to, thc y ngh lm Gm.
t ti trnh kho lo v ti ngh cao c v k thut ln ngh thut.
Trong cun gm Nht Bn (La Cramique Japonaise) nh xut bn
Leroux- Paris nm 1983, tc gi Oueda Tokonosouk cng ni: Nht
Bn c nhiu th gm gii bt chc lm theo gm c Vit Nam (gi l
gm Giao Ch - Kotchi). Nhng trung tm sn xut gm thi L thng
ni th dn, hay dc ven sng c sn nguyn liu sn xut, li thun tin
chuyn ch tiu th nh: Thng Long (cng mt s vng ph cn nh Bt
Trng, Th H, Ph Lng), v Thanh Ho... gm vi cc chng loi
nh: Gm gia dng c cc loi bt, a, m, chn, bnh, lin, cng, chum,
vi, thp. gm loi ny phn ln c trng men, biu hin mt trnh
cao. Nhiu sn phm gm qu v p. Gm Thng Long v Thanh Ho
c nhiu nt c o nh gm Men Ngc rt qu. Loi ny cht t c
lc k, xng gm mn, rn chc v nng, c ph lp men dy c mu
xanh du trong bng trng ging nh ngc (nn gi l men ngc). gm
Men Ngc ca ta c ca tng, (v thng so snh vi gm Long Tuyn
thi Tng ca Trung Quc). Nhng hin vt gm Men Ngc cn nguyn
vn, hin nay cn su tp c c cc hoa vn trang tr theo li in khun
ni hoc chm.
a s i L thng du con k, i khi thy c vnh men co.
y l nhng k thut thng dng cho khi dnh vo nhau trong l
nung.
Cc ha tit trn gm t nung thi L phong ph, nh: v hnh ngi
c: V n t nung (nh cha Dm, Pht Tch, Long i sn...). c bit
hnh tng cc con vt (Rng, Phng, c, chim, h), n cc hnh: Hoa
l (hoa sen, hoa cc, hoa Ph Dung, l ), Sng nc: sng hnh sin hay
sng ba lp chng nhau nh ba ngn ni (cn gi l sng tam sn)... Tt
c u c n gin ho, to nhng nt gin d. gm dn gian: kiu
thc phng khong, cht t th hn gm men ngc. Ct gm dy, bn
ngoi ph lp men mng mu nu hoc trng ng. Cc hnh v, khc

trc ph men sau. ng nt trang tr gin d mc mc m sinh ng.


Gm xy dng, Gm trang tr kin trc pht trin p ng xy dng kin
trc cung nh ca vng triu, n i lng tm, cc kin trc n, Cha,
hoc nh ca dn dng. Sn phm Gm xy dng l: gch xy, ngi lp,
ngi b p trn b nc, ngi u mi, hoc gch trang tr. Gch c hnh
hoa vn trang tr lt nn, hoc trang tr b mt tng trong cc kin trc
cung in, cha thp. C nhiu loi gch ngi vi hnh dng kch thc
khc nhau, nhng hoa vn trang tr phong ph. Nhng hnh Rng,
Phng, hoa l khc chm hoc p ni trn b mt gch. Trn mt trn
u mi ngi ng n ni hnh hoa sen, hoa cc, hoa th, c khi hnh mt
con th, h ph. Nhng trang tr trn mt gch p dng li in khun dp
ln mt gch khi t cn mm trc khi kh v nung. B cc thng c
ng ch g vin chung quanh trong cc b cc nh (hnh vung, ch
nht, hnh trn, hnh l , hnh a gic). Bn trong cc hnh c chm
cc: hnh hoa sen, hoa cc dy, hoa th, hay hnh Rng, Phng un ln.
S xp xp theo b cc trang tr ng i, i xng. C nhng b cc
trang tr to rng, gn ghp gm vi nhau. C nhng gm t nung c
p, nn, chm tr to, gn trn b nc, dim mi, u ao. Nhng gm
ln gn vo kin trc c hnh chim Phng, hnh Rng un mnh chu
ngc. C nhng u Rng c mo bm un ln, hnh chim Phng m
di qup li, c mo, hai cnh un cong ( gn trn u b nc hay u
ao). Gm loi ny thng a dng, p ng tnh cht trang tr phc tp
v a dng ca cc loi cng trnh kin trc Cha, thp, cung in, lu cc,
to nh ln b cc loi. Gm thi ny c nung gi mc nn c mu
ca t nung gch ti, hoc ngh. Tuy bng t nung th s, thm
ch to nng nhng khi kt hp gn kt vo kin trc, to thnh nhng nt
cong mm mi, hi ho trong dc, cao, ng cong ca u ao, b
mi, mang nt p c o ca kin trc c truyn Vit Nam.
gm trng men thi L c : gm men trng ng,men nu v men
ngc mu xanh. Gm men ngc thi L rt tinh t, xng t c lc k,
dy v chc. Lp men gm dy ph kn xng gm,mn,bng, s c cm
gic mt tay. Xng gm v lp men bm vo nhau rt chc.Men trong
sut, su thm,mn,lp lnh nh sng. Gm men ngc xanh c im thm
cc sc vng chanh, vng xm nht, vng rm
Gm men trng L c trng mn v ng mt v phn nhiu v
cht lng t ti trnh s. S khc nhau gia gm trng L v gm
trng Tng (Trung Quc) ch yu c nhn nhn qua sc m nht
ca mu men hay xng gm v k thut ch tc. y cng l c im
kh phn bit gia gm trng L vi gm trng Tng. gm nh thanh
(Gm trng xanh) (hay gm trng c nh xanh). Trc y cha bao gi

c ai ngh l Vit Nam c sn xut loi gm ny bi tao nh v tinh t


ca sc men trng nh xanh ph ln trn nhng n hoa vn ht sc
mm mi
Gm men ngc thi L thng to xng gm mng, thanh. Ti thi
Trn, th phn xng gm chc, dy hn. Hoa vn trang tr trn gm, a
phn l hnh tng hoa sen cch iu. Ngoi ra cn mt s ti khc,
nh trang tr hoa tho v cc hoa dy chy quanh bnh gm. C ba hnh
thc trang tr trn gm: hoa khc, hoa in v hoa p. Hoa in chm hoc
p ni th dng khun, cn hoa khc th ng mi dao u nhn hoc mt
u thanh tre v ln xng gm khi t cn mm. Khc hoa ri em nhng
vo men, men ng li v to ra cc hnh hoa vn trang tr rt p. Bn
cnh cc gm men ngc cu k v tinh xo , ngi th th cng cn
sn xut mt s gm i tr, c khi mc, c khi ph lp men mng
mu vng, mu nu, hoc mu da ln m xn mu v t bng. Loi gm
ny s dng thng dng v ngay khi nung, ngi ta nung tng chng
cao.
.

2. GM THI TRN
Gm thi Trn tm c kh nhiu trong cc h khai qut v thng
c tm thy cng vi nhng gm trang tr kin trc cng thi. Gm
thi k ny c rt nhiu loi, gm cc dng gm: men trng, men ngc,
men xanh lc, men nu, hoa nu v hoa lam.

Do pht trin k tha trc tip t gm thi L, nn cc loi gm thi


Trn c bn c phong cch ging vi gm thi L c v hnh dng, mu
men v hoa vn trang tr. Cng chnh v c th ny nn vic phn tch
gia gm thi L v gm thi Trn l iu khng phi d dng. Tuy nhin,
da vo mt s kt qu nghin cu k thut to chn , hin nay chng
ti bc u c th phn bit c s khc nhau gia gm L v gm
Trn.
Nhn chung, k thut to chn ca gm thi Trn thng khng
c lm k nh gm thi L. V hoa vn trang tr cng vy, mc d c
cch b cc hoa vn nh thi L, nhng v chi tit gm thi Trn khng
tinh xo v cu k nh gm thi L. c bit i vi gm men c sc,
bn cnh loi gm trang tr hoa vn khc chm, thi Trn cn ph bin loi
gm c hoa vn in khun trong. Dng nh y l loi hoa vn rt pht
trin thi Trn v n c s phong ph, a dng hn nhiu v hnh mu
so vi gm thi L. Ti h o khu D cng tm thy mnh khun in
gm thi k ny cng nhiu mnh bao nung, con k v gm ph thi.
(th k XIII-XIV) tip tc pht trin trn c s truyn thng thi L vi
nhiu loi phong ph mang tnh dn tc v phong cch ca thi Trn. Gm
gia dng v Gm trang tr kin trc c ch to khc thi L. Cc l gm
c thm nh Ph Thin Trng (Nam nh), ni bt l gm Hoa Nu.
Gm gia dng ph men c ba loi:
- Gm Men Ngc to dng chc kho, cn i, men dy, dng men
chy khng u, i khi cn ngn ng thnh git. Hoa vn n hoc p
ni, cc ha tit trang tr l: hoa sen, hoa cc, hoa vn hnh xon c. Cc
loi bt a hnh dng hi th, trang tr s si v trn. Lp men mu
vng nht, mu da ln, hay nu thng ph mng phc v i tng
rng ri. Song cng c nhng gm Men Ngc ch tc cng phu phc v
tng lp vua, quan, qu tc. thi Trn trn gm c ch vit di trn
mc nh Thin Trng ph ch, hoc bi nu trn .
Khi c xng gm tt, ngi ta ph ngoi mt lp men dy mu
xanh mt, trong bng nh thu tinh, do mi gi l gm men ngc.
gm men ngc ta rt gi tr, c trong v ngoi nc a chung.
Ngi ta thng snh gm men ngc ca ta vi gm Long Tuyn thi
Tng ca Trung Quc.

- Gm Hoa Nu: l loi gm n, kiu dng to, chc chn, ct


gm dy v th. Bn ngoi c ph lp men trng ng hoc vng nht.
Gm hoa nu xut hin vo cui thi L u thi Trn.
Hnh thc trang tr hoa vn trn gm hoa nu thng l hoa dy chy
vin quanh ming gm. c bit, hu ht cc sn gm hoa nu c
p ni hnh hoa tho, chim c, th bn chn, hoc tm c rt sinh ng.
Cc hnh rng trang tr gm hoa nu thi Trn c khc thi L. l
mnh rng khe mp, un khc thoi mi, khc hn con rng thi L thn
hnh thanh mnh v un khc g b
L hng gm dn dng, kiu dng to kho, ct gm dy, th xp hn gm
men ngc, ph lp men trng ng hay vng nht. C nhiu loi, c khc
nhau, thng to mp, c th tch cha ng ln nh cc loi: thp (thp
gm ln Nam nh, Thanh Ho). Cc loi lin dng cao, thn thng,
ming hi thu nh, vai bng v chung quanh vai p ni cch sen trn
mp, c bn nm tai ngang, chy quanh ming v chn lin khc v hoa
tho cch iu. Thn lin v nm con chim. C cc loi lin thp thnh,
chn chm thng. Vng quanh vai v chn lin p ni hnh vng cnh
hoa sen. Hoc c Lin trn thn chia trang tr xen k. Cc loi chu, lin
c khc v cc hnh: hoa tho, chim, c, tm nt v n gin nhng linh
hot. Cc loi bnh, m: Hoa vn v thnh ng vin, dng mu nu t
v, hoc khc chm t nu hoc mc. Cn c loi gm th cng nh:
M hnh Thp gm (cao 1m50) Cha Ch (Yn Phong, Yn Lng-Vnh
Ph). Trn Thp c nhiu hnh trang tr nh hnh hai sng t vt cho.
Tng Kim Cng bn ca thp. Bn trong c c tng gm c Pht
ngi xp bng. Gm Hoa Nu to dng phong ph, pht trin mnh thi
Trn. Cc hnh thc trang tr quanh ming v chn cc: thp, lin, bnh,
m thng p ni cnh sen, hnh khc t mu nu. Cc hoa l cch iu,
cn c hnh chim c, voi, h, tm c, c c ti gn vi sinh hot nh:
hai v s ang u kim (Thp gm Thanh Ho), Tin dng hoa trn gch
(cha Hang, ni c, Hong Lin Sn).

- Gm Hoa Lam: l loi gm ph men trng c v hnh trang tr


bng mu lam.
c mu men p, iu cn thit phi c ct xng gm tt. Xem
ra, thng thng th xng gm l t st c pha ct. Nu gm c, li pha
c mt s tp cht khc nh rm, r, tru hoc l c di tng lin
kt.

Hnh dng gm Hoa Lam thanh chc, ct t mu trng xm, lc sch mn,
ngoi ph men trng vi k thut nhng men u ri nung la kh
cao, men ph c nung m tan chy u. gm Hoa Lam (tr s t
bnh, l) th bt chn vn chim s lng nhiu. Ta thy loi bt lng su:
vng cao, c sn xut nhiu vi cc c khc nhau, nhng theo mt
t l: chiu cao chn bng 1/4 chiu cao bt, ng knh vng bng
1/2 ng knh vng ming bt. Bt, chn Hoa Lam dng cao to p ng
nhu cu thng dng. Trang tr trn gm c tin hnh sau khi to dng
xong, ngh nhn dng bt lng mm chm mu lam v hoa vn, ha tit
trc tip trn gm mt cch phng khong, lu lot v ch ng. Cc
ti thng l: hoa, l, tho mc, sen, cc, my tn. gm Hoa Lam vi
nhng c im c o v to dng, trang tr trang nh, thanh p li p
ng tt gi tr s dng gp phn pht trin kinh t. Ngh thut gm hai
thi: L - Trn gi v tr quan trng trong s pht trin ngh thut gm Vit
Nam. i sau k tha v pht trin, vi nhiu loi gm qu c truyn c
o nh s tinh t ca gm Men Ngc, gin d chc kho ca gm Hoa
Nu. Gm Hoa Lam (ph men trng v mu lam) duy tr c lu di v
pht trin mnh.

Thi L, gm hu nh khng vit ch. Ti thi Trn, ta thng


thy di trn cc loi gm c hng ch mu nu Thin Trng ph
ch.

KT LUN

Tm li, gm thi L Trn l mt giai on rt quan trng trong


ngh thut gm c truyn Vit Nam. y chnh l giai on thng hoa
ca ngh thut ny. Khi i t nhng mn khng trng men di thi
Ha Bnh, Bc Sn ng Sn, Bc Thuc, sang i L gm Vit Nam
pht trin rc r. S lng rt nhiu, mi th loi, mi sc men,
mi hoa vn vi nh hng Pht gio m to nn mt thi cc thnh
ca nn gm dn tc ri ln n tuyt nh vi gm Chu u vo
thi Hu L, thi nh Mc sau .

GM THI TRN