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# 12/14/2015

Homework#2Ch26

Homework#2Ch26
Due:11:59pmonFriday,October23,2015

ElectricFieldduetoMultiplePointCharges
Twopointchargesareplacedonthexaxis.Thefirstcharge,
1
alongthepositivexaxisthesecondcharge,q 2 =6.00nC,
negativexaxis.

PartA
CalculatetheelectricfieldatpointA,locatedatcoordinates(0m,12.0m).
coulombtothreesignificantfigures.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
findthedistanceofeachchargefrompointA.

Hint2.CalculatethedistancefromeachchargetopointA
CalculatethedistancefromeachchargetopointA.
Enterthetwodistances,separatedbyacomma,inmeterstothreesignificantfigures.
r A1

,r A2 = 20.0,15.0 m

Hint3.Determinethedirectionsoftheelectricfields
WhichofthefollowingdescribesthedirectionsoftheelectricfieldsEA1 andEA2 createdbychargesq 1
Typesettingmath:23%
andq 2 atpointA?
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E A1

pointsupandleftandEA2 pointsupandright.

E A1

pointsupandleftandEA2 pointsdownandleft.

E A1

pointsdownandrightandEA2 pointsupandright.

E A1

pointsdownandrightandEA2 pointsdownandleft.

Hint4.CalculatethecomponentsofE A1

Hint1.Calculatethemagnitudeofthetotalfield
EA1

= 0.180 N/C

Hint2.Howtofindthecomponentsofthetotalfield
Onceyouhavefoundthemagnitudeofthefield,usetrigonometrytodeterminethexandy
componentsofthefield.Theelectricfieldofapositivepointchargepointsdirectlyawayfromthe
thetwo.Usethepositioncoordinatesofq 1 andpointAtofindtheanglethatthelinejoiningthetwo
makeswiththexoryaxis.Thenusethisangletoresolvetheelectricfieldvectorintocomponents.
EA1x , EA1y

= 0.144,0.108 N/C

Hint5.CalculatethecomponentsofE A2

Hint1.Calculatethemagnitudeofthetotalfield

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EA2

= 0.240 N/C

Hint2.Howtofindthecomponentsofthetotalfield
Onceyouhavefoundthemagnitudeofthefield,usetrigonometrytodeterminethexandy
componentsofthefield.Theelectricfieldofapositivepointchargepointsdirectlyawayfromthe
thetwo.Usethepositioncoordinatesofq 2 andpointAtofindtheanglethatthelinejoiningthetwo
makeswiththexoryaxis.Thenusethisangletoresolvetheelectricfieldvectorintocomponents.
EA2x , EA2y

= 0.144,0.192 N/C

EAx , EAy

= 0,0.300 N/C

Correct

PartB
Findthemagnitudeandsignof\texttip{q_{\rm3}}{q_3}neededtomakethetotalelectricfieldatpointAequalto
zero.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
{q_2}.Nowfindthecharge\texttip{q_{\rm3}}{q_3}neededtomakeanoppositefieldatpointA,sowhenthe

Hint2.Determinethesignofthecharge
Whichsignofcharge\texttip{q_{\rm3}}{q_3}isneededtocreateanelectricfield\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmA3}}
{E_A3_vec}thatpointsintheoppositedirectionofthetotalfieldduetotheothertwocharges,
\texttip{q_{\rm1}}{q_1}and\texttip{q_{\rm2}}{q_2}?
positive
negative

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Hint3.Calculatingthemagnitudeofthenewcharge
Keepinmindthatthemagnitudeofthefielddueto\texttip{q_{\rm3}}{q_3}isE_{\rmA3}=kq_3/r_{\rmA3}^2,
andthefieldmustbeequalinmagnitudetothefieldduetocharges\texttip{q_{\rm1}}{q_1}and
\texttip{q_{\rm2}}{q_2}.
\texttip{q_{\rm3}}{q_3}= 0.300 \rm{nC}

Correct

PhETTutorial:ChargesandElectricFields
LearningGoal:
Tounderstandthespatialdistributionoftheelectricfieldforavarietyofsimplechargeconfigurations.
Forthisproblem,usethePhETsimulationChargesandFields.Thissimulationallowsyoutoplacemultiplepositive
andnegativepointchargesinanyconfigurationandlookattheresultingelectricfield.

Startthesimulation.Youcanclickanddragpositivecharges(red)ornegativecharges(blue)intothemainscreen.If
arrowsindicatethattheelectricfieldisweakerthanatlocationswherethearrowsarebrighter(thissimulationdoesnot
usearrowlengthasameasureoffieldmagnitude).
Feelfreetoplayaroundwiththesimulation.Whenyouaredone,clickClearAllbeforebeginningPartA.

PartA
screen,rightontopoftwointersectingboldgridlines.Youshouldseesomethingsimilartothefigurebelow.

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Theelectricfieldproducedbythepositivecharge

wrapscircularlyaroundthepositivecharge.

Correct
Thismeansthatanotherpositivecharge,ifplacedneartheoriginalcharge,wouldexperienceaforcedirected

PartB
Now,let'slookathowthedistancefromthechargeaffectsthemagnitudeoftheelectricfield.SelectShow
magnitudeoftheelectricfieldgiveninunitsofV/m(voltspermeter,whichisthesameasnewtonspercoulomb).
PlacetheEFieldSensor1\rmmawayfromthepositivecharge(1\rmmistwoboldgridlinesawayifgoingina
horizontalorverticaldirection),andlookattheresultingfieldstrength.
Considerthelocationstotheright,left,above,andbelowthepositivecharge,all1\rmmaway.

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greatestbelowthecharge.
greatesttotheleftofthecharge.
Forthesefourlocations,themagnitudeoftheelectricfieldis

thesame.
greatestabovethecharge.
greatesttotherightofthecharge.

Correct
Thisresultimpliesthatthestrengthoftheelectricfieldduetoonepointchargedependssolelyonthe
distanceawayfromthecharge.Mathematically,wesaytheelectricfieldissphericallysymmetric.

PartC
Whatisthemagnitudeoftheelectricfield1mawayfromthepositivechargecomparedtothemagnitudeofthe
electricfield2maway?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
UseanEFieldSensortodeterminethefieldstrengthbothat1\rmmawayandat2\rmmawayfromthe
charge.Then,taketheratioofthetwofieldstrengths.
equalto
twotimes
Themagnitudeoftheelectricfield1\rmmawayfromthepositivechargeis

fourtimes
onehalf
onequarter

themagnitudeoftheelectricfield2\rmmaway.

Correct
Themagnitudeofthefielddecreasesmorequicklythantheinverseofthedistancefromthecharge.The
magnitudeoftheelectricfieldisproportionaltotheinverseofthedistancesquared(E\propto1/r^2,where
\texttip{r}{r}isthedistancefromthecharge).Youshouldverifythisbylookingatthefieldstrength3or4
metersaway.ThisisconsistentwithCoulomb
s law,whichstatesthatthemagnitudeoftheforcebetween

twochargedparticlesisF=kQ_1Q_2/r^2.

PartD

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Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Themagnitudeoftheelectricfieldisinverselyproportionaltodistancesquared(E\propto1/r^2).Soifthe
distanceisincreasedbyafactorofthree,thefieldstrengthmustdecreasebyafactorofthreesquared.
Youcouldusethesimulationtomakeameasurement(youmighthavetodragthechargeawayfromthe
centersoyouhaveenoughroomtoget3\rmmaway).
\texttip{E}{E}= 1 \rmV/m

Correct
Correct.SinceE\propto1/r^2,ifthedistanceisincreasedbyafactorofthree,theelectricfieldisdecreased
byafactorofnine.

PartE
ofthescreen.Determinehowtheelectricfieldisdifferentfromthatofthepositivecharge.
Whichstatementbestdescribesthedifferencesintheelectricfieldduetoanegativechargeascomparedtoa
positivecharge?
decreasesatalllocations.
change.
doesn
tchange.

Correct
Theelectricfieldisnowdirectedtowardthenegativecharge,butthefieldstrengthdoesn
tchange.The

electricfieldofapointchargeisgivenby\vec{E}=(kQ/r^2)\hat{r}.Becauseofthesignofthecharge,thefield
producedbyanegativechargeisdirectedoppositetothatofapositivechargebutthemagnitudeofthefield
isthesame.

PartF
Now,removethenegativecharge,anddragtwopositivecharges,placingthem1\rmmapart,asshownbelow.

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Let
s lookattheresultingelectricfieldduetobothcharges.Recallthattheelectricfieldisavector,sothenet

electricfieldisthevectorsumoftheelectricfieldsduetoeachofthetwocharges.
Whereisthemagnitudeoftheelectricfieldroughlyequaltozero(otherthanveryfarawayfromthecharges)?
Theelectricfieldiszeroatanylocationalongaverticallinegoingthroughthepointdirectlybetweenthe
twocharges.
Theelectricfieldisnonzeroeverywhereonthescreen.
Theelectricfieldisroughlyzeronearthemidpointofthetwocharges.

Correct
Directlybetweenthetwocharges,theelectricfieldsproducedbyeachchargeareequalinmagnitudeand

PartG
Considerapoint0.5\rmmabovethemidpointofthetwocharges.Asyoucanverifybyremovingoneofthe
magnitudeofthetotalelectricfieldduetobothchargesatthislocation?
zero
25\rmV/m
36\rmV/m
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Correct
Noticethatthisnumberislessthantwicethemagnitudeofthefieldduetoeachcharge.Thisoccursbecause

PartH
Makeanelectricdipolebyreplacingoneofthepositivechargeswithanegativecharge,sothefinalconfiguration
lookslikethefigureshownbelow.

directedtotheleft.
Theelectricfieldatthemidpointis

zero.
directedtotheright.

Correct
Theelectricfieldduetothepositivechargeisdirectedtotheright,asistheelectricfieldduetothenegative
charge.Sothenetelectricfield,whichisthesumofthesetwofields,isalsototheright.

PartI
Makeasmalldipolebybringingthetwochargesveryclosetoeachother,wheretheyarebarelytouching.The
midpointofthetwochargesshouldstillbeononeofthegridpointintersections(seefigurebelow).

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Measurethestrengthoftheelectricfield0.5\rmmdirectlyabovethemidpointaswellas1\rmmdirectlyabove.
Doesthestrengthoftheelectricfielddecreaseas1overdistancesquared(1/r^2)?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Ifthestrengthofthefieldisdecreasingas1/r^2,thentheratioofthemagnitudesoftheelectricfield
measuredattwodistances,say0.5\rmmawayand1\rmmaway,wouldbe
E_{r=0.5}/E_{r=1}=(1/0.5)^2/(1/1)^2=4.
ComparethisvaluetothevalueyoumeasurewithanEFieldSensor.
No,itdecreasesmorequicklywithdistance.
Yes,itdoes.
No,itdecreaseslessquicklywithdistance.

Correct
Infact,itturnsoutthatthestrengthoftheelectricfielddecreasesroughlyas1/r^3!Sothefield1\rmmabove
themidpointisroughlyeighttimesweakerthanat0.5\rmmabovethemidpoint.Theimportantlessonhereis
charge.

PartJ
Makealonglineofpositivecharges,similartothatshowninthefigurebelow.Trytoplaceallofthecharges
centeredalongahorizontalgridline.Feelfreetolookattheelectricfield,asitisinteresting.
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Measurethestrengthoftheelectricfield1\rmmdirectlyabovethemiddleaswellas2\rmmdirectlyabove.Does
thestrengthoftheelectricfielddecreaseas1overdistancesquared(1/r^2)?
No,itdecreaseslessquicklywithdistance.
Yes,itdoes.
No,itdecreasesmorequicklywithdistance.

Correct
Infact,itturnsoutthatthestrengthoftheelectricfielddecreasesroughlyas1/r.Sothefield1mabovethe
chargesproducesanelectricfieldthatisverydifferentfromthatofasinglecharge.

PhETInteractiveSimulations

ChargedRing
charge\texttip{q}{q}distributedevenlyalongitscircumference.

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PartA
Whatisthedirectionoftheelectricfieldatanypointonthezaxis?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Approach1
ofthering.Inwhatdirectionisthenetfield?Whatifyoudidthisforeverypairofpointsonoppositesidesof
thering?
Approach2
Considerageneralelectricfieldatapointonthezaxis,i.e.,onethathasazcomponentaswellasa
axis.Asaresultoftherotation,thecomponentoftheelectricfieldinthexyplanewillrotatealso.Nowyou
rotatedlooksjustliketheonethatisn't.However,theyhavethecomponentoftheelectricfieldinthexy
fieldhasaparticularvalue.Whatisthisvalue?
Doesasimilarargumentholdforthezcomponentofthefield?
paralleltothexaxis
paralleltotheyaxis
paralleltothezaxis
inacircleparalleltothexyplane

Correct

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PartB
Whatisthemagnitudeoftheelectricfieldalongthepositivezaxis?

Hint1.Formulafortheelectricfield
YoucanalwaysuseCoulomb'slaw,\large{F=k\frac{q_1q_2}{r^2}},tofindtheelectricfield(theCoulomb
forceperunitcharge)duetoapointcharge.Giventheforce,theelectricfieldsayat\texttip{q_{\rm2}}{q_2}
dueto\texttip{q_{\rm1}}{q_1}is\large{E=\frac{F}{q_2}=k\frac{q_1}{r^2}}.
Inthesituationbelow,youshoulduseCoulomb'slawtofindthecontribution\texttip{dE}{dE}totheelectric
Then,youcanintegrateovertheringtofindthevalueof\texttip{E}{E}.Consideraninfinitesimalpieceofthe
ringwithcharge\texttip{dq}{dq}.UseCoulomb'slawtowritethemagnitudeoftheinfinitesimal\texttip{dE}
{dE}atapointonthepositivezaxisduetothecharge\texttip{dq}{dq}showninthefigure.

orallofthevariables\texttip{dq}{dq},\texttip{z}{z},and\texttip{a}{a}.
\texttip{dE}{dE}= \large{\frac{kdq}{z^{2}+a^{2}}}

Hint2.Simplifyingwithsymmetry
Bysymmetry,thenetfieldmustpointalongthezaxis,awayfromthering,becausethehorizontal
componentofeachcontributionofmagnitude\texttip{dE}{dE}isexactlycanceledbythehorizontal
componentofasimilarcontributionofmagnitude\texttip{dE}{dE}fromtheothersideofthering.Therefore,
{dE_z}oftheelectricfieldcausedbythechargeonaninfinitesimallysmallportionofthering\texttip{dq}{dq}
inthezdirection?

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\texttip{dE_{\mitz}}{dE_z}= \large{\frac{dEz}{\sqrt{z^{2}+a^{2}}}}

Hint3.Integratingaroundthering
Ifyoucombineyourresultsfromthefirsttwohints,youwillhaveanexpressionfor\texttip{dE_{\mitz}}
{dE_z},theverticalcomponentofthefieldduetotheinfinitesimalcharge\texttip{dq}{dq}.Thetotalfieldis
\vec{E}=E_z\hat{k}=\hat{k}\displaystyle{\oint}_{\rmring}dE_z.
Ifyouarenotcomfortableintegrating\texttip{dq}{dq}overthering,changetoaspatialvariable.Sincethe
\large{\displaystyle{\oint}_{\rmring}dq=\int_{0}^{2\pi}\frac{q}{2\pi}d\theta}.
\texttip{E\left(z\right)}{E(z)}= \large{\frac{kqz}{\left(z^{2}+a^{2}\right)^{\frac{3}{2}}}}

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Correct
Noticethatthisexpressionisvalidforbothpositiveandnegativechargesaswellasforpointslocatedonthe
positiveandnegativezaxis.Ifthechargeispositive,theelectricfieldshouldpointoutward.Forpointsonthe
positivezaxis,thefieldpointsinthepositivezdirection,whichisoutwardfromtheorigin.Forpointsonthe
negativezaxis,thefieldpointsinthenegativezdirection,whichisalsooutwardfromtheorigin.Ifthecharge
isnegative,theelectricfieldshouldpointtowardtheorigin.Forpointsonthepositivezaxis,thenegativesign
fromthechargecausestheelectricfieldtopointinthenegativezdirection,whichpointstowardtheorigin.For
pointsonthenegativezaxis,thenegativesignfromthezcoordinateandthenegativesignfromthecharge
cancel,andthefieldpointsinthepositivezdirection,whichalsopointstowardtheorigin.Therefore,even
thoughweobtainedtheaboveresultforpostive\texttip{q}{q}and\texttip{z}{z},thealgebraicexpressionis
validforanysignsoftheparameters.Asacheck,itisgoodtoseethatif\texttip{|z|}{|z|}ismuchgreaterthan
\texttip{a}{a}themagnitudeof\texttip{E\left(z\right)}{E(z)}isapproximately\large{k\frac{q}{z^2}},independent
ofthesizeofthering:Thefieldduetotheringisalmostthesameasthatduetoapointcharge\texttip{q}{q}
attheorigin.

PartC
Imagineasmallmetalballofmass\texttip{m}{m}andnegativechargeq_0.Theballisreleasedfromrestatthe
point(0,0,d)andconstrainedtomovealongthezaxis,withnodamping.If0<d\lla,whatwillbetheball's
subsequenttrajectory?
repelledfromtheorigin
attractedtowardtheoriginandcomingtorest
oscillatingalongthezaxisbetweenz=dandz=d
circlingaroundthezaxisatz=d

Correct

PartD
Theballwilloscillatealongthezaxisbetweenz=dandz=dinsimpleharmonicmotion.Whatwillbetheangular
frequency\texttip{\omega}{omega}oftheseoscillations?Usetheapproximationd\llatosimplifyyourcalculation
thatis,assumethatd^2+a^2\approxa^2.

Hint1.Simpleharmonicmotion
Recallthenatureofsimpleharmonicmotionofanobjectattachedtoaspring.Newton'ssecondlawforthe
systemstatesthat
\large{\omega=\displaystyle{\sqrt{\frac{k'}{m}}}}
(here,theprimeonthesymbolrepresentingthespringconstantistodistinguishitfrom\large{k=\frac{1}
{4\pi\epsilon_0}}).Thesolutiontothisdifferentialequationisasinusoidalfunctionoftimewithangular
frequency\texttip{\omega}{omega}.Writeananalogousequationfortheballnearthechargedringinorder
tofindthe\texttip{\omega}{omega}term.
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Hint2.Findtheforceonthecharge
Whatis\texttip{F_{\mitz}}{F_z},thezcomponentoftheforceontheballontheballatthepoint(0,0,d)?
Usetheapproximationd^2+a^2\approxa^2.
and\texttip{a}{a}.

Hint1.Aformulafortheforceonachargeinanelectricfield
Theformulafortheforce\texttip{\vec{F}}{F_vec}onacharge\texttip{q}{q}inanelectricfield
\texttip{\vec{E}}{E_vec}is
\vec{F}=q\vec{E}.
Therfore,inparticular,
F_z=qE_z.
equationabovetofindanexpressionforthezcomponentoftheforce\texttip{F_{\mitz}}{F_z}onthe
ballatthepoint(0,0,d).Don'tforgettousetheapproximationgiven.
\texttip{F_{\mitz}}{F_z}= \large{\frac{kqq_{0}d}{a^{3}}}

\texttip{\omega}{omega}= \large{\sqrt{\frac{kqq_{0}}{a^{3}m}}}

Correct

PSS26.1:TheElectricFieldofMultiplePointCharges
LearningGoal:
TopracticeProblemSolvingStrategy26.1forpointchargeproblems.
Threepositivelychargedparticles,withchargesq_1=q,q_2=2q,andq_3=q(whereq>0),arelocatedatthecornersof
asquarewithsidesoflength\texttip{d}{d}.Thechargeq_2islocateddiagonallyfromtheremaining(empty)corner.
Findthemagnitudeoftheresultantelectricfield\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmnet}}{E_net_vec}intheemptycornerofthe
square.
PROBLEMSOLVINGSTRATEGY26.1Theelectricfieldofmultiplepointcharges
MODEL: Modelchargedobjectsaspointcharges.
VISUALIZE: Forthepictorialrepresentation:

Establishacoordinatesystem,andshowthelocationofthecharges.
IdentifythepointPatwhichyouwanttocalculatetheelectricfield.
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DrawtheelectricfieldofeachchargeatP.
Usesymmetrytodetermineifanyofcomponentsof\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmnet}}{E_net_vec}arezero.
SOLVE: Themathematicalrepresentationis\vecE_{\rmnet}=\sum\vecE_i.

Foreachcharge,determineitsdistancefromPandtheangleof\texttip{\vec{E}_{\iti}}{E_i_vec}fromthe
axes.
Calculatethefieldstrengthofeachcharge'selectricfield.
Writeeachvector\texttip{\vec{E}_{\iti}}{E_i_vec}incomponentform.
Sumthevectorcomponentstodetermine\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmnet}}{E_net_vec}.
Ifneeded,determinethemagnitudeanddirectionof\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmnet}}{E_net_vec}.
ASSESS: Checkthatyourresulthasthecorrectunits,isreasonable,andagreeswithanyknownlimitingcases.

Model
Modelthechargedparticlesaspointcharges.

Visualize
PartA
Belowisanincompletepictorialrepresentationofthesituationdescribedinthisproblem.Completethesketchby
drawingtheelectricfieldduetoeachchargeatpointP.Makesurethatallyourvectorshavethecorrect
orientation.

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Correct

PartB
Now,considertheresultantelectricfield\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmnet}}{E_net_vec}atP.Withreferencetothe
coordinatesystemshowninthepreviouspart,whichcomponentof\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmnet}}{E_net_vec},ifany,is
zerointhisproblem?
onlythexcomponent
onlytheycomponent
boththexandycomponents
neitherthexnortheycomponent

Correct
Althoughneitheroftheelectricfieldcomponentsiszerointhissituation,thereisstillsymmetrythatyoucan
youneedtodointheSolvestep.

Solve
PartC
Determinethemagnitude\texttip{E_{\rmnet}}{E_net}ofthenetelectricfieldatpointP.Use\texttip{K}{K}forthe
electrostaticconstant.

Hint1.Exploitsymmetry
AttheendoftheVisualizestep,itwasdeterminedthatthexandycomponentsof\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rm
net}}{E_net_vec}areequal.Soyouonlyneedtocomputeoneofthem(say,thexcomponent)tosolvethe
problem.Notethat\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rm1}}{E_1_vec}hasnoxcomponent,asyoucanseefromthediagram
youdrewinPartB.

Hint2.Findthexcomponentoftheelectricfieldduetocharge3
Find(E_3)_x,thexcomponentoftheelectricfielddueto\texttip{q_{\rm3}}{q_3}atpointP.Use\texttip{K}
{K}fortheelectrostaticconstant.
(E_3)_x= \large{\frac{Kq}{d^{2}}}
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Hint3.Findthexcomponentoftheelectricfieldduetocharge2
Find(E_2)_x,thexcomponentoftheelectricfielddueto\texttip{q_{\rm2}}{q_2}atpointP.Use\texttip{K}
{K}fortheelectrostaticconstant.

Hint1.Findthemagnitudeoftheelectricfieldduetocharge2
Whatisthemagnitudeof\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rm2}}{E_2_vec},theelectricfielddueto\texttip{q_{\rm
2}}{q_2}atpointP?Use\texttip{K}{K}fortheelectrostaticconstant.

Hint1.Findthedistancebetweencharge2andpointP
Findthedistance\texttip{d_{\rm2}}{d_2}betweenq_2andpointP.
\texttip{d_{\rm2}}{d_2}= d\sqrt{2}

|\vecE_2|= \large{\frac{Kq}{d^{2}}}

Hint2.Howtocalculatethexcomponent
Recallthat(E_2)_x=|\vec{E}_2|\cos(\theta),where\texttip{\theta}{theta}istheanglebetweenthex
axisand\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rm2}}{E_2_vec}.Whatis\texttip{\theta}{theta}inthiscase?
(E_2)_x= \large{\frac{Kq\sqrt{2}}{2d^{2}}}

Hint4.Findthexcomponentofthenetelectricfield
Findthexcomponentofthenetelectricfield\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmnet}}{E_net_vec}atpointP.Use
\texttip{K}{K}fortheelectrostaticconstant.

Hint1.Thenetelectricfield
Recallthat\vec{E}_{\rmnet}=\sum\vec{E}_i.Incomponentform,thisrelationbecomes(\vecE_{\rm
net})_x=\sum(E_i)_xand(\vec{E}_{\rmnet})_y=\sum(E_i)_y.Sotofind(\vec{E}_{\rmnet})_x,
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(\vecE_{\rmnet})_x= \large{\frac{Kq\left(2+\sqrt{2}\right)}{2d^{2}}}

\texttip{E_{\rmnet}}{E_net}= \large{{\frac{Kq}{d^{2}}}\left(1+\sqrt{2}\right)}

Correct

Assess
PartD
Intuitively,whichofthefollowingwouldhappento\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmnet}}{E_net_vec}if\texttip{d}{d}became
verylarge?
A. \texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmnet}}{E_net_vec}shouldreducetothefieldofapointchargeofmagnitude
\texttip{q}{q}.
B. \texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmnet}}{E_net_vec}shouldreducetothefieldofapointchargeofmagnitude4q.
C. Thelarger\texttip{d}{d}becomes,thesmallerthemagnitudeof\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmnet}}{E_net_vec}
willbe.
D. Thelarger\texttip{d}{d}becomes,thegreaterthemagnitudeof\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmnet}}{E_net_vec}
willbe.
C

Correct
decreaseas\texttip{d}{d}getslarger,justasyouwouldexpect.Yourresultsdomakesense!Itisinteresting
tonoticethatthefieldwillnotreducetothatofapointcharge(ofmagnitude4q)unlessthepointPismoved
fartherawayfromthethreechargeswhiletheythemselvesremainattheiroriginalpositions.

PSS26.2TheElectricFieldofaContinuousDistributionofCharge
LearningGoal:
TopracticeProblemSolvingStrategy26.2forcontinuouschargedistributionproblems.
Astraightwireoflength\texttip{L}{L}hasapositivecharge\texttip{Q}{Q}distributedalongitslength.Findthe
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thelineextendingfromthewire.

PROBLEMSOLVINGSTRATEGY26.2Theelectricfieldofacontinuousdistributionofcharge

uniformlydistributed.
VISUALIZE: Forthepictorialrepresentation:

1. Drawapictureandestablishacoordinatesystem.
2. IdentifythepointPatwhichyouwanttocalculatetheelectricfield.
3. Dividethetotalcharge\texttip{Q}{Q}intosmallpiecesofcharge\texttip{\DeltaQ}{DeltaQ}usingshapes
divisionintopointcharges.
4. DrawtheelectricfieldvectoratPforoneortwosmallpiecesofcharge.Thiswillhelpyouidentify
distancesandanglesthatneedtobecalculated.
5. Lookforsymmetriesinthechargedistributionthatsimplifythefield.Youmayconcludethatsome
componentsof\texttip{\vec{E}}{E_vec}arezero.
SOLVE: Themathematicalrepresentationis\vecE_{\rmnet}=\sum\vecE_i.

Usesuperpositiontoformanalgebraicexpressionforeachofthethreecomponentsof\texttip{\vec{E}}
{E_vec}atpointP.(Notethatoneormorecomponentsmaybezero.)
Letthe(x,y,z)coordinatesofthepointremainasvariables.
Replacethesmallcharge\texttip{\DeltaQ}{DeltaQ}withanequivalentexpressioninvolvingacharge
densityandacoordinate,suchas\texttip{dx}{dx},thatdescribestheshapeofcharge\texttip{\DeltaQ}
{DeltaQ}.Thisisthecriticalstepinmakingthetransitionfromasumtoanintegralbecauseyouneeda
coordinatetoserveastheintegrationvariable.
Expressallanglesanddistancesintermsofthecoordinates.
Letthesumbecomeanintegral.Theintegrationwillbeoverthecoordinatevariablethatisrelatedto
\texttip{\DeltaQ}{DeltaQ}.Theintegrationlimitsforthisvariablewilldependonyourchoiceofcoordinate
system.Carryouttheintegration,andsimplifytheresultasmuchaspossible.
ASSESS: Checkthatyourresultisconsistentwithanylimitsforwhichyouknowwhatthefieldshouldbe.

Model
Noinformationisgivenonthecrosssectionofthewire.Forsimplicity,assumethatitsdiameterismuchsmallerthan
thewire'slength,andmodelthewireasalineofcharge.Also,assumethatthetotalchargeisuniformlydistributed
alongthewire.Notethatthepointatwhichyouwanttocalculatetheelectricfieldisclosetooneoftheendsofthe
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distributedalongthewireintomanysmallsegmentsandmodeleachsegmentasapointlikecharge.

Visualize
PartA
Thediagrambelowisanincompletepictorialrepresentationofthesituationdescribedinthisproblem:Itshowsthe
positivelychargedwire,asuitablecoordinatesystemwiththeoriginattheleftendofthewire,andthepointPat
whichyouneedtocalculatetheelectricfield.Thetotalchargedistributedalongthewirehasbeendividedinto
smallsegments,eachoflength\texttip{\Deltax}{Deltax}andcharge\texttip{\DeltaQ}{DeltaQ}.Forclarity,onlythe
ithsegmentatpoint\texttip{x_{\iti}}{x_i}isshowninthediagram.
Completethispictorialrepresentationbydrawingtheelectricfield\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmi}}{E_i_vec}atPdueto
segmenti.
DrawthevectorstartingatP.

Correct
EachsmallsegmentwillcontributetothenetelectricfieldatP.Bymodelingeachsegmentasapointcharge
andusingtheprincipleofsuperposition,youcanmakeaquickestimateofthedirectionofthenetfieldatP.

PartB
Withreferencetothecoordinatesystemusedinthepreviouspart,whichcomponent,ifany,oftheelectricfield
duetothetotalchargeiszeroatP?
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neitherthexnortheycomponent
thexcomponent
theycomponent
boththexandycomponent

Correct
Sincethepointatwhichyouwanttocalculate\texttip{\vec{E}}{E_vec}liesonastraightlineextendingfrom
thewire,\texttip{\vec{E}}{E_vec}mustbedirectedalongthesameline.Therefore,bychoosingthexaxisto
beparalleltothewire,aswedidinPartA,wesimplifiedtheproblem:NowtheycomponentofthefieldatPis
zeroandthemagnitudeof\texttip{\vec{E}}{E_vec}issimplygivenbythemagnitudeofitsxcomponent.

Solve
PartC
Find\texttip{E_{\rmnet}}{E_net},themagnitudeoftheelectricfieldatpointPduetothetotalcharge.
andtheconstants\texttip{\pi}{pi}and\texttip{\epsilon_{\rm0}}{epsilon_0}.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Asexplainedinthestrategyabove,themathematicalexpressionforthenetfieldis\vecE_{\rmnet}=\sum
\vecE_i.Becauseofthenatureoftheproblem,whichdealswithacontinuousdistributionofchargerather
thanapointlikedistribution,thesummustbetreatedasanintegral.Tosetupthesummationandfindwhat
tointegrate,followthestepslistedinthestrategy.Afterdividingthetotalchargeintosmallsegments,and
modelingeachsegmentasapointcharge,aswedidinPartA,constructamathematicalexpressionfor
\texttip{\vec{E}_{\rmi}}{E_i_vec},theelectricfieldduetotheithsegment.Treat\texttip{x_{\iti}}{x_i},thex
coordinateoftheithsegment,asavariable.Expressthechargeontheithsegmentintermsof
\texttip{x_{\iti}}{x_i}.Then,let\sum\vecE_ibecomeanintegralandapplyyourknowledgeofcalculusto
evaluatetheintegral.

Hint2.Findanexpressionfortheelectricfieldduetosegmenti
Findthemagnitudeoftheelectricfield\texttip{E_{\rmi}}{E_i}atpointPduetoasegmentofcharge
\texttip{\DeltaQ}{DeltaQ}locatedat\texttip{x_{\iti}}{x_i}onthexaxis.
{DeltaQ},\texttip{L}{L},and\texttip{d}{d},andtheconstants\texttip{\pi}{pi}and\texttip{\epsilon
_{\rm0}}{epsilon_0}.

Hint1.FindthedistancebetweenpointPandasegmentofchargeat\texttip{x_{\iti}}{x_i}
\texttip{d}{d}fromtheotherendofthewire.\texttip{L}{L}isthelengthofthewire.Whatisthe
distance\texttip{r_{\iti}}{r_i}betweenpointPandasegmentofchargelocatedat\texttip{x_{\iti}}{x_i}
onthexaxis?
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\texttip{r_{\iti}}{r_i}= L+dx_{i}

\texttip{E}{E}= \large{\frac{\Delta{Q}}{4{\pi}{\epsilon}_{0}\left(L+dx_{i}\right)^{2}}}

Hint3.Findanexpressionforthechargeofasmallsegment
Sinceyouwillintegratewithrespecttoacoordinate,itisimportanttoexpressthechargeonashort
segmentofwire,\texttip{\DeltaQ}{DeltaQ},intermsofitslength\texttip{\Deltax}{Deltax}.
Findamathematicalexpressionfor\texttip{\DeltaQ}{DeltaQ}assumingthechargeisuniformlydistributed
alongthewire.Recallthatthetotalchargeonthewireis\texttip{Q}{Q}andthelengthofthewireis
\texttip{L}{L}.
{L},\texttip{Q}{Q},and\texttip{d}{d}.

Hint1.Findthelinearchargedensity
Assumingthewire,whoselengthis\texttip{L}{L},hasatotalcharge\texttip{Q}{Q}uniformly
distributedalongitslength,whatisthelinearchargedensity\texttip{\lambda}{lambda}ofthewire?
\texttip{\lambda}{lambda}= \large{\frac{Q}{L}}

\texttip{\DeltaQ}{DeltaQ}= \large{\frac{{\Delta{x}}Q}{L}}

Hint4.Howtomakethetransitionfromasumtoanintegral
Atthispointintheproblem,youshouldhavefoundanexpressionforthemagnitudeoftheelectricfield
\texttip{E_{\rmi}}{E_i}duetoasmallchargesegmentoflength\texttip{\Deltax}{Deltax}locatedat
\texttip{x_{\iti}}{x_i}alongthexaxis.Makesurethatyourexpressionfor\texttip{E_{\rmi}}{E_i}contains
onlythefollowingquantities,besidestheelectrostaticconstant1/(4\pi\epsilon_0):\texttip{d}{d},\texttip{L}
{L},\texttip{Q}{Q},\texttip{x_{\iti}}{x_i},and\texttip{\Deltax}{Deltax}.Ifthisisnotthecase,gobackand
makethenecessarysubstitutions(theprevioushintsmayhelpyoudothat).
Assumingeachchargesegmenthasthesamelength\texttip{\Deltax}{Deltax},youcanconstructan
algebraicexpressionforthemagnitudeofthenetfieldusingtheprincipleofsuperposition,thatis,E=\sum
E_i,wherethesumcontainsasmanytermsasthenumberofchargesegments.Ifyouassumethatthereis
aninfinitenumberofsegmentsinthewire,\texttip{\Deltax}{Deltax}willbecomeinfinitesimallysmalland
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canbereplacedwith\texttip{dx}{dx}.Atthispoint,youcanreplacethesumwithanintegralanddropthe
subscriptifromthevariable\texttip{x_{\iti}}{x_i},whichwillthenbecometheintegrationvariable\texttip{x}
{x}.Notethattheremainingquantities\texttip{d}{d},\texttip{L}{L},and\texttip{Q}{Q}areconstants:Theyare
knownquantitiesgivenintheproblemstatement.

Hint5.Findthelimitsofintegration
Whenyouchangethesumoverchargesegmentsintoanintegral,thevariableofintegrationwillbethe
coordinate\texttip{x}{x}.Whatshouldthelimitsofintegrationbe?
0to\infty
0to\texttip{L}{L}
\texttip{d}{d}to\texttip{L}{L}
\texttip{d}{d}toL+d
0to\texttip{d}{d}

Hint6.Howtosimplifytheintegral
Youcansimplifytheintegralbychangingthevariableofintegrationfrom\texttip{x}{x}tox'=L+dx.Don't
alsobeuseful:
\large{\int\frac{dx}{x^2}=\frac{1}{x}}.
\texttip{E_{\rmnet}}{E_net}= \large{{\frac{1}{4{\pi}{\epsilon}_{0}}}{\frac{Q}{d\left(L+d\right)}}}

Correct

Assess
PartD
Imaginethatdistance\texttip{d}{d}ismuchgreaterthanthelengthofthewire.Intuitively,whatshouldthe
magnitudeoftheelectricfieldatpointPbeinthiscase?
constants\texttip{\pi}{pi}and\texttip{\epsilon_{\rm0}}{epsilon_0}.Thevariable\texttip{L}{L}shouldnot

Hint1.Envisioningthelimitingcase
Inthelimitingcased\ggL,thelengthofthewireisnotrelevantandthewireappearstobeapointchargein
thedistance.Whatisthemagnitudeoftheelectricfieldduetoapointcharge?

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\texttip{E_{\rmnet}}{E_net}= \large{{\frac{Q}{4{\pi}{\epsilon}_{0}}}{\frac{1}{d^{2}}}}

Correct
AshortwirefarawayfrompointPcreatesafieldverysimilartotheonecreatedbyapointcharge.Not
surprisingly,inthelimitingcased\ggL,themathematicalexpressionyouderivedfor\texttip{E_{\rmnet}}
{E_net}reducestothatoftheelectricfieldduetoapointcharge.
\large{E_{\rmnet}=\frac{Q}{4\pi\epsilon_0d(d+L)}}.
Whend\ggL,\texttip{L}{L}becomesnegligiblecomparedto\texttip{d}{d}andd+L\approxd.Thus,the
denominatorreducesto(4\pi\epsilon_0d^2),asweexpected.

Problem26.4
Whatarethestrengthanddirectionoftheelectricfieldatthepositionindicatedbythedotinthefigure?

PartA
Specifythestrengthoftheelectricfield.Let\texttip{r}{r}=6.3{\rmcm}.
E= 4800 \rmN/C

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PartB
Specifythedirection.
\theta= 90 ^\circbelowhorizontal

Correct

Problem26.11
Two10\rmcmdiameterchargedringsfaceeachother,23{\rmcm}apart.Theleftringischargedto18{\rmnC}and
therightringischargedto+18{\rmnC}.

PartA
Whatisthemagnitudeoftheelectricfield\texttip{\vec{E}}{E_vec}atthemidpointbetweenthetworings?
E= 1.9104\large{{\rm\frac{N}{C}}}

Correct

PartB
Whatisthedirectionoftheelectricfield\texttip{\vec{E}}{E_vec}atthemidpointbetweenthetworings?
Totheleftring.
Paralleltotheplaneoftherings.
Totherightring.

Correct

PartC
Whatisthemagnitudeoftheforce\texttip{\vec{F}}{F_vec}ona1.0\rmnCchargeplacedatthemidpoint?
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F= 1.9105{\rmN}

Correct

PartD
Whatisthedirectionoftheforce\texttip{\vec{F}}{F_vec}ona1.0\rmnCchargeplacedatthemidpoint?
Totheleftring.
Paralleltotheplaneoftherings.
Totherightring.

Correct

Problem26.22
Anelectronmovingparalleltoauniformelectricfieldincreasesitsspeedfrom2.0107{\rmm/s}to3.6107{\rmm/s}

PartA
Whatistheelectricfieldstrength?
E= 1.4105\large{{\rm\frac{N}{C}}}

Correct

Problem26.36
Thefigureisacrosssectionoftwoinfinitelinesofchargethatextendoutofthepage.Bothhavelinearchargedensity
\lambda.

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PartA
FindanexpressionfortheelectricfieldstrengthEatheightyabovethemidpointbetweenthelines.
appropriateconstants.
\large{{\frac{1}{4{\pi}{\epsilon}_{0}}}{\frac{y4{\lambda}}{y^{2}+\left(\frac{d}{2}\right)^{2}}}}

Correct

Problem26.40
ThefigureshowsathinrodoflengthLwithtotalchargeQ.

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PartA
Findanexpressionfortheelectricfieldstrengthontheaxisoftherodatdistancerfromthecenter.
constants.
E= \large{{\frac{1}{4{\pi}{\epsilon}_{0}}}{\frac{Q}{r^{2}{\frac{L^{2}}{4}}}}}

Correct

PartB
Verifythatyourexpressionhastheexpectedbehaviorifr\ggL.
E= \large{{\frac{1}{4{\pi}{\epsilon}_{0}}}{\frac{Q}{r^{2}}}}

Correct

PartC
EvaluateEat\texttip{r}{vr}=4.3{\rmcm}ifL=5.0{\rmcm}and\texttip{Q}{vQ}=5.0{\rmnC}.
E= 3.7104\large{{\rm\frac{N}{C}}}

Correct

Problem26.44
ChargeQisuniformlydistributedalongathin,flexiblerodoflengthL.Therodisthenbentintothesemicircleshownin
thefigure.

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PartA
Findanexpressionfortheelectricfield\vecEatthecenterofthesemicircle.
{j_unit},andappropriateconstants.
\vecE= \large{{\frac{Q}{2\left(L^{2}\right)\left({\epsilon}_{0}\right)}}\hat{i}}

Correct

PartB
Evaluatethefieldstrengthif\texttip{L}{vL}=14{\rmcm}and\texttip{Q}{vQ}=36{\rmnC}.
E= 1.0105\large{{\rm\frac{N}{C}}}

Correct

Problem26.50
Anelectronislaunchedata45^\circangleandaspeedof5.0\times\\\\10^{6}\{\rmm}/{\rms}fromthepositive
plateoftheparallelplatecapacitorshowninthefigure.Theelectronlands4.0cmaway.

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PartA
Whatistheelectricfieldstrengthinsidethecapacitor?
3550\large{{\rm\frac{N}{C}}}

Correct

PartB
Whatisthesmallestpossiblespacingbetweentheplates?
1.00{\rmcm}

Correct

Problem26.55

PartA
Whatistheorbitalfrequency?Theprotonissomuchmoremassivethantheelectronthatyoucanassumethe
protonisatrest.
f= 6.61015{\rmHz}

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Correct

Problem26.57
Anelectricfieldcaninduceanelectricdipoleinaneutralatomormoleculebypushingthepositiveandnegativecharge
inoppositedirections.Thedipolemomentofaninduceddipoleisdirectlyproportionaltotheelectricfield.Thatis,\vec
p=\alpha\vecE,where\alphaiscalledthepolarizabilityofthemolecule.Abiggerfieldstretchesthemoleculefarther
andcausesalargerdipolemoment.

PartA
Whataretheunitsof\alpha?
\rmC^2/kg
\rmC^2s^2m/kg
\rmC^2s^2m^2/kg
\rmC^2s^2/kg

Correct

PartB
Anionwithchargeqisdistancerfromamoleculewithpolarizability\alpha.Findanexpressionforthemagnitude
oftheforce\vecF_{{\rm{ion\on\dipole}}}.
appropriateconstants.
F_{{\rm{ion\on\dipole}}}= \large{\left(\frac{1}{4{\pi}{\epsilon}_{0}}\right)^{2}{\frac{2q^{2}{\alpha}}{r^{5}}}}

Correct

PartC
Whatisthedirectionofthisforce?
Towardion
Awayfromion
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Correct
ScoreSummary:
Yourscoreonthisassignmentis94.4%.