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Enthalpy

Group 1

Enthalpy Changes

Energy
Energy
Energy

Energy

Enthalpy - the amount of heat used or released at constant


pressure.
H = U + PV
Exothermic - releases energy to the surroundings, causing the
temperature to rise.
Surroundings:
- the solvent
- the air around the test tube
- the test tube itself
- anything else

Fires

Enthalpy Changes

Energy

Energy

Energy

Photosynthesis

Enthalpy - the amount of heat used or released at constant


pressure.
H = U + PV
Endothermic - absorbs energy from the surroundings, causing
the temperature to lower/decrease.
Surroundings:
- the solvent
- the air around the test tube
- the test tube itself
- anything else

Classify each of the processes below


as exothermic or endothermic:

QUIZ TIME

a.
b.

????

c.
d.

the burning of magnesium in air


the thermal decomposition of
magnesium nitrate
the fermentation of glucose by
yeast
the evaporation of seawater.

Standard Enthalpy
Changes

Standard
Conditions
Pressure: 100 kPa
Temperature: 298 K (25 C)
Each substance involved in the reaction
is in its normal physical state (gas, solid,
liquid) at 100 kPa and 198 K

Variety of enthalpy changes:


1. Reaction
2. Formation
3. Combustion
4. Neutralisation
5. Solution
6. Atomisation
7. Anhydrous Salt

Enthalpy Change of Reaction


The enthalpy change when the amounts reactants shown in
the equation react to give products under standard
conditions.
H2 (g) + O2 (g) H2O (l)
Hrxn = -286 kJ/mol
2H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2H2O (l)
Hrxn = -572 kJ/mol

Enthalpy Change of Formation


The enthalpy change when one mole of a compound is formed
from its elements under standard conditions.

Enthalpy Change of Combustion


The enthalpy change when one mole of a substance is burnt in
excess oxygen under standard conditions.
1.
2.

Always exothermic
Can either be elements or compounds

Enthalpy Change of
Neutralisation
The enthalpy change when one mole of water is formed by the
reaction of an acid with an alkali under standard conditions.

Enthalpy Change of Solution


The enthalpy change when one mole of solute is dissolved in a
solvent to form an infinitely dilute solution under standard
conditions.

Heat of dilution =

Enthalpy Change of Atomisation


The enthalpy change when one mole of gaseous atoms is
formed from its element under standard conditions.
H2 (g) H (g)
Hat [ H2(g) ] = +218 kJ/mol

Enthalpy Change of Hydration of


Anhydrous Salt
The enthalpy change when one mole of a hydrated salt is
formed from one mole of the anhydrous salt under standard
conditions.
Na2S2O3 (s) + 5H2O (l) Na2S2O3 . 5H2O (s)

H = -55.0 kJ/mol

Classify the following reaction as


Hrxn, Hf, Hc:

QUIZ TIME

1.
2.
3.
4.

C (graphite) + O2 (g) CO2 (g)


MgCO3 (s) MgO(s) + CO2 (g)
HCl (g) + NH3 (g) NH4Cl (s)
H2 (g) + O2 (g) H2O (l)

Measuring Enthalpy Changes


1.
2.
3.
4.

Calorimetry
Change of Neutralisation by Experiment
Change of Solution by Experiment
Change of Combustion

Calorimetry
The specific heat capacity of water is 4.18 J/g/C

Change of Neutralisation by
Experiment
We can find the enthalpy change of neutralisation of Sodium Hydroxide with
Hydrochloric Acid by :
1.
2.

Mixing equal volumes of both solution into a polystyrene cup.


Stir the reaction mixture with a thermometer.

100 x 4.18 x 6.5 = 2717 J


concentration = (1.0 x 50) : 1000 = 0.050 moles
Therefore, for one more of acid, the energy release is :
2717 : 0.050 =-54340 J/mol

Change of Solution by
Experiment

a solute dissolves in excess solvent to form a solution:


solute + solvent solution