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B GIO DC V O TO

CNG HA X HI CH NGHA VIT NAM

TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI

c lp - T do - Hnh phc

--------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------

NHIM V N TT NGHIP
H v tn sinh vin: ..... S hiu sinh vin:
Kho:

Khoa: in t - Vin thng Ngnh: .........

1. u n:
..
......

2. Cc s liu v d liu ban u:


.........
.
.....

3. Ni dung cc phn thuyt minh v tnh ton:


...
...
...
...

4. Cc bn v, th ( ghi r cc loi v kch thc bn v ):


...
...
.

5. H tn ging vin hng dn: ..


6. Ngy giao nhim v n: ....
7. Ngy hon thnh n: ..
Ngy
Ch nhim B mn

thng

nm

Ging vin hng dn

Sinh vin hon thnh v np n tt nghip ngy

thng

nm

Cn b phn bin

B GIO DC V O TO
TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI

---------------------------------------------------

BN NHN XT N TT NGHIP
H v tn sinh vin: ....................................................................... S hiu sinh vin: ...........................
Ngnh: .................................................................................................. Kho: ....................................................
Ging vin hng dn:..............................................................................................................................................
Cn b phn bin: .......................................................................................................................................
1. Ni dung thit k tt nghip:
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2. Nhn xt ca cn b phn bin:


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..........................................................................

Ngy

thng

nm

Cn b phn bin
( K, ghi r h v tn )

LI NI U
***
Trong cuc sng hng ngy thng tin lin lc ng mt vai tr rt quan trng
v khng th thiu c. N quyt nh nhiu mt hot ng ca x hi, gip con
ngi nm bt nhanh chng cc thng tin c gi tr vn ho, kinh t, khoa hc k
thut rt a dng v phong ph.
Ngy nay vi nhng nhu cu c v s lng v cht lng ca khch hng
s dng cc dch v vin thng ngy cng cao, i hi phi c nhng phng tin
thng tin hin i nhm p ng cc nhu cu a dng ca khch hng mi lc, mi
ni m h cn.
Thng tin di ng ngy nay tr thnh mt dch v kinh doanh khng th
thiu c ca tt c cc nh khai thc vin thng trn th gii. i vi cc khch
hng vin thng, nht l cc nh doanh nghip th thng tin di ng tr thnh
phng tin lin lc quen thuc v khng th thiu c. Dch v thng tin di ng
ngy nay khng ch hn ch cho cc khch hng giu c na m n ang dn tr
thnh dch v ph cp cho mi i tng vin thng.
Trong nhng nm gn y, lnh vc thng tin di ng trong nc c
nhng bc pht trin vt bc c v c s h tng ln cht lng phc v. Vi s
hnh thnh nhiu nh cung cp dch v vin thng mi to ra s cnh tranh
thu ht th phn thu bao gia cc nh cung cp dch v. Cc nh cung cp dch v
lin tc a ra cc chnh sch khuyn mi, gim gi v thu ht c rt nhiu
khch hng s dng dch v. Cng vi , mc sng chung ca ton x hi ngy
cng c nng cao khin cho s lng cc thu bao s dng dch v di ng
tng t bin trong cc nm gn y.
Cc nh cung cp dch v di ng trong nc hin ang s dng hai cng
ngh l GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication - H thng thng tin di
ng ton cu) vi chun TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access - a truy cp
phn chia theo thi gian) v cng ngh CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access - a
truy cp phn chia theo m). Cc nh cung cp dch v di ng s dng h thng

thng tin di ng ton cu GSM l Mobiphone, Vinaphone, Viettel v cc nh cung


cp dch v di ng s dng cng ngh CDMA l S-Fone, EVN, Hanoi Telecom.
Cc nh cung cp dch v di ng s dng cng ngh CDMA mang li nhiu
tin ch hn cho khch hng, v cng ang dn ln mnh. Tuy nhin hin ti do nhu
cu s dng ca khch hng nn th phn di ng trong nc phn ln vn thuc v
cc nh cung cp dch v di ng GSM vi s lng cc thu bao l p o. Chnh
v vy vic ti u ha mng di ng GSM l vic lm rt cn thit v mang mt
ngha thc t rt cao.
Trn c s nhng kin thc tch lu trong nhng nm hc tp chuyn ngnh
in T - Vin Thng ti trng i hc Bch Khoa H Ni v sau thi gian thc
tp ti phng K thut_Khai thc thuc Trung tm di ng KVI_cng ty VMSMobiFone cng vi s hng dn ca thy Nguyn Tin Quyt, em tm hiu,
nghin cu v hon thnh n tt nghip vi ti Ti u ha mng di ng
GSM.
Em xin chn thnh cm n Trng phng V Anh_Phng Cng ngh v
Pht trin mng, Trng phng Nguyn Xun Ngha_Phng K thut Khai thc
to iu kin gip em trong t thc tp tt nghip.
ng thi, em xin gi li cm n chn thnh ti thy Nguyn Tin Quyt
cng vi t trng t ti u ha anh Trung Minh v cc cn b phng K
thut_Khai thc thuc cng ty thng tin di ng VMS_MobiFone khu vc I trc
tip hng dn v gip em hon thnh n tt nghip ny.
H Ni, Ngy

Thng

Nm 2007

Sinh vin thc hin


Hong Anh Dng

MC LC
Trang

LI NI U ......................................................................................................................3
DANH SCH HNH MINH HA ......................................................................................9
DANH SCH T VIT TT ...........................................................................................11
PHN M U .................................................................................................................16

Phn I
TNG QUAN V MNG GSM
Chng I
GII THIU CHUNG V MNG GSM
1.1. Lch s pht trin mng GSM .....................................................................................................................2
1.2. Cu trc a l ca mng.............................................................................................................................3
1.2.1. Vng phc v PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) .................................................................4
1.2.2. Vng phc v MSC ......................................................................................................................4
1.2.3. Vng nh v (LA - Location Area) ..............................................................................................5
1.2.4. Cell (T bo hay ) .......................................................................................................................5

Chng II
H THNG THNG TIN DI NG GSM
2.1. M hnh h thng thng tin di ng GSM ..................................................................................................6
2.2. Cc thnh phn chc nng trong h thng ..................................................................................................7
2.2.1. Trm di ng (MS - Mobile Station) ............................................................................................7
2.2.2. Phn h trm gc (BSS - Base Station Subsystem) ......................................................................7
2.2.2.1. Khi BTS (Base Tranceiver Station): ....................................................................................8
2.2.2.2. Khi TRAU (Transcode/Rate Adapter Unit): ........................................................................8
2.2.2.3. Khi BSC (Base Station Controller):.....................................................................................8
2.2.3. Phn h chuyn mch (SS - Switching Subsystem) ......................................................................9
2.2.3.1. Trung tm chuyn mch di ng MSC: ............................................................................... 10
2.2.3.2. B ghi nh v thng tr (HLR - Home Location Register): ............................................. 11
2.2.3.3. B ghi nh v tm tr (VLR - Visitor Location Register): ................................................ 11
2.2.3.4. Thanh ghi nhn dng thit b (EIR - Equipment Identity Register): .................................... 12

2.2.3.5. Khi trung tm nhn thc AuC (Aunthentication Center) ................................................... 12


2.2.4. Phn h khai thc v bo dng (OSS) ...................................................................................... 13
2.2.4.1. Khai thc v bo dng mng: ............................................................................................ 13
2.2.4.2. Qun l thu bao:................................................................................................................. 14
2.2.4.3. Qun l thit b di ng: ...................................................................................................... 14
2.3. Giao din v tuyn s................................................................................................................................ 14
2.3.1. Knh vt l.................................................................................................................................. 14
2.3.2. Knh logic................................................................................................................................... 15
2.4. Cc m nhn dng s dng trong h thng GSM...................................................................................... 17

Phn II
TI U HA MNG GSM
Chng III
TNH TON MNG DI NG GSM
3.1. L thuyt dung lng v cp dch v ................................................................................................... 22
3.1.1. Lu lng v knh v tuyn ng trc ..................................................................................... 22
3.1.2. Cp dch v - GoS (Grade of Service) ................................................................................... 23
3.1.3. Hiu sut s dng trung k (ng trc) .................................................................................... 25
3.2. Cc yu t nh hng ti cht lng ph sng ......................................................................................... 26
3.2.1. Tn hao ng truyn sng v tuyn ......................................................................................... 26
3.2.1.1. Tnh ton l thuyt............................................................................................................... 26
3.2.1.2. Cc m hnh chnh lan truyn sng trong thng tin di ng: ............................................... 29
3.2.2. Vn Fading ............................................................................................................................. 32
3.2.3. nh hng nhiu C/I v C/A ...................................................................................................... 32
3.2.3.1. Nhiu ng knh C/I: .......................................................................................................... 32
3.2.3.2. Nhiu knh ln cn C/A: ..................................................................................................... 34
3.2.3.3. Mt s bin php khc phc ................................................................................................ 35
3.2.4. Phn tn thi gian ....................................................................................................................... 36
3.2.4.1. Cc trng hp phn tn thi gian ...................................................................................... 37
3.2.4.2. Mt s gii php khc phc ................................................................................................. 38

Chng IV
THIT K H THNG
4.1. H thng thng tin di ng t bo ............................................................................................................. 41
4.2. Quy hoch Cell ......................................................................................................................................... 43
4.2.1. Khi nim t bo (Cell) ............................................................................................................... 43

4.2.2. Kch thc Cell v phng thc ph sng ................................................................................. 44


4.2.2.1. Kch thc Cell.................................................................................................................... 44
4.2.2.2. Phng thc ph sng ......................................................................................................... 45
4.2.3. Chia Cell (Cells Splitting)........................................................................................................... 46
4.3. Quy hoch tn s ....................................................................................................................................... 51
4.3.1. Ti s dng li tn s .................................................................................................................. 52
4.3.2. Cc mu ti s dng tn s ......................................................................................................... 55
4.3.2.1. Mu ti s dng tn s 3/9:.................................................................................................. 55
4.3.2.2. Mu ti s dng tn s 4/12:................................................................................................ 57
4.3.2.3. Mu ti s dng tn s 7/21:................................................................................................ 58
4.3.3. Thay i quy hoch tn s theo phn b lu lng .................................................................... 60
4.3.3.1. Thay i quy hoch tn s ................................................................................................... 60
4.3.3.2. Quy hoch ph sng khng lin tc..................................................................................... 62
4.3.4. Thit k tn s theo phng php MRP (Multiple Reuse Patterns) ............................................ 63
4.3.4.1. Nhy tn _ Frequency Hopping ........................................................................................... 63
4.3.4.2. Phng php a mu s dng li MRP _ Multiple Reuse Patterns ..................................... 66
4.4. Antenna ..................................................................................................................................................... 71
4.4.1. Kiu loi anten: ........................................................................................................................... 71
4.4.2. tng ch anten (Gain of an Antenna) ..................................................................................... 72
4.4.3. Cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng - EIRP ................................................................... 73
4.4.4. cao v gc nghing (down tilt) ca anten: ............................................................................ 73
4.5. Chuyn giao cuc gi (Handover) ............................................................................................................ 76
4.5.1. Phn loi Handover..................................................................................................................... 77
4.5.2. Khi to th tc Handover .......................................................................................................... 80
4.5.3. Quy trnh chuyn giao cuc gi .................................................................................................. 80

Chng V
CC CH TIU CHT LNG H THNG
5.1. Khi nim v cht lng dch v QOS ..................................................................................................... 86
5.2. Cc i lng c trng ............................................................................................................................ 86
5.2.1. T l thit lp cuc gi thnh cng CSSR (Call Setup Successful Rate) .................................... 86
5.2.2. T l rt cuc gi trung bnh (Average Drop Call Rate - AVDR) .............................................. 87
5.2.3. T l rt mch trn TCH (TCH Drop Rate - TCDR) .................................................................. 87
5.2.4. T l nghn mch TCH (TCH Blocking Rate - TCBR).............................................................. 88
5.2.5. T l rt mch trn SDCCH (SDCCH Drop Rate - CCDR) ........................................................ 90
5.2.6. T l nghn mch trn SDCCH (SDCCH Blocking Rate - CCBR)............................................ 91
5.2.7. Mt s i lng c trng khc ................................................................................................ 91
5.2.7.1. S knh hot ng (Available Channels) ............................................................................ 92
5.2.7.2. T l thnh cng handover n (Incoming HO Successful Rate - IHOSR) ......................... 92
5.2.7.3. T l thnh cng handover ra (Outgoing HO Successful Rate - OHOSR) .......................... 92

5.2.7.4. EMPD .................................................................................................................................. 93


5.2.7.5. Thi gian chim mch trung bnh (MHT - Mean Holding Time) ........................................ 94
5.3. Cc ch tiu cht lng thc t mng VMS_MobiFone ............................................................................ 94
5.3.1. S liu thng k cht lng mng hin ti .................................................................................. 94
5.3.2. Nhn xt, nh gi ...................................................................................................................... 96
5.4. Mt s gii thch v cc thut ng thng dng ....................................................................................... 97

Chng VI
MT S MINH HA CNG TC TI U HA MNG VMS_MOBIFONE
6.1. o kim tra Handover gia hai trm ......................................................................................................... 98
6.2. Phn tch kt qu o sng pht hin nhiu tn s ............................................................................... 100
6.3. Thc hin m rng TRX nng cao ch tiu cht lng ...................................................................... 102

KT LUN .......................................................................................................................105
TI LIU THAM KHO ...............................................................................................106
PH LC ..........................................................................................................................107

Ti u ha mng di ng GSM

DANH SCH HNH MINH HA


***
Hnh 1-1 Th phn thng tin di ng trn th gii nm 2006 ...............................................3
Hnh 1-2 Phn cp cu trc a l mng GSM......................................................................3
Hnh 1-3 Phn vng v chia ...............................................................................................4
Hnh 2-1 M hnh h thng thng tin di ng GSM .............................................................6
Hnh 2-2 Chc nng x l cuc gi ca MSC ....................................................................10
Hnh 2-3 Phn loi knh logic .............................................................................................16
Hnh 3-1 Lu lng: Mun truyn, c truyn, nghn.....................................................23
Hnh 3-2 Xc sut nghn GoS.............................................................................................24
Hnh 3-3 Truyn sng trong trng hp coi mt t l bng phng ...................................27
Hnh 3-4 Vt chn trong tm nhn thng.............................................................................28
Hnh 3-5 Biu cng trng ca OKUMURA .........................................................29
Hnh 3-6 T s nhiu ng knh C/I...................................................................................33
Hnh 3-7 t BTS gn chng ngi vt trnh phn tn thi gian ..................................39
Hnh 3-8 Phm vi vng Elip................................................................................................40
Hnh 4-1 Cu trc h thng thng tin di ng trc y ....................................................41
Hnh 4-2 H thng thng tin di ng s dng cu trc t bo ............................................42
Hnh 4-3 Khi nim Cell .....................................................................................................43
Hnh 4-4 Khi nim v bin gii ca mt Cell ...................................................................43
Hnh 4-5 Omni (3600) Cell site ...........................................................................................45
Hnh 4-6 Sector ha 1200 ....................................................................................................45
Hnh 4-7 Phn chia Cell ......................................................................................................46
Hnh 4-8 Cc Omni (3600) Cells ban u ...........................................................................47
Hnh 4-9 Giai on 1 :Sector ha ........................................................................................48
Hnh 4-10 Tch chia 1:3 thm ln na ................................................................................49
Hnh 4-11 Tch chia 1:4 (sau ln u chia 3) .....................................................................49
Hnh 4-12 Mng mu gm 7 cells .......................................................................................53
Hnh 4-13 Khong cch ti s dng tn s .........................................................................53
Hnh 4-14 S tnh C/I .....................................................................................................54
Hnh 4-15 Mu ti s dng li tn s 3/9 ............................................................................56

Hong Anh Dng

in t 3 K47

Ti u ha mng di ng GSM
Hnh 4-16 Mu ti s dng li tn s 4/12 ..........................................................................58
Hnh 4-17 Mu ti s dng tn s 7/21 ...............................................................................59
Hnh 4-18 Thay i quy hoch tn s .................................................................................61
Hnh 4-19 Ph sng khng lin tc .....................................................................................63
Hnh 4-20 Mt v d v hiu qu ca k thut nhy tn trn phn tp nhiu ca mt mng
li. Kch thc ca mi tn phn nh nhiu tng quan gia cc cell ng knh. ...........64
Hnh 4-21 V d v thit k tn s vi phng php MRP.................................................68
Hnh 4-22 Anten v hng (Omni antenna) .......................................................................71
Hnh 4-23 c Sector ha ............................................................................................72
Hnh 4-24 Anten v hng c gc nghing bng 0 .......................................................74
Hnh 4-25 th quan h gia gc thng ng v suy hao cng trng ...................75
Hnh 4-26 V d v hiu qu ca downtilt.......................................................................75
Hnh 4-27 Intra-cell Handover ............................................................................................78
Hnh 4-28 Inter-cell Handover ............................................................................................78
Hnh 4-29 Intra-MSC Handover .........................................................................................79
Hnh 4-30 Inter-MSC Handover .........................................................................................79
Hnh 4-31 G 1: Trong lc kt ni, MS vn tip tc o c mc thu v cht lng truyn
dn ca cell phc v v nhng cell xung quanh. .................................................................81
Hnh 4-32 Quyt nh chuyn giao_Handover Decision ....................................................81
Hnh 4-33 G 1: BSC khai bo thng tin vi MSC ...........................................................82
Hnh 4-34 G 2: MSC1 yu cu MSC2 cp Handover Number ........................................83
Hnh 4-35 G 2: Cp m HON v knh v tuyn cho MSC1 ............................................84
Hnh 4-36 G 3: MSC1 chuyn mch kt ni cho MS trn knh lu lng thit lp vi
MSC2 ...................................................................................................................................84
Hnh 4-37 Kt ni vi BTS c c gii phng .................................................................85
Hnh 6-1 o kim tra Handover t trm Trng nh sang trm i La ..........................98
Hnh 6-2 Kt qu o Handover gia hai trm l tt ............................................................99
Hnh 6-3 Kt qu o sng ti khu th mi Php Vn ...................................................100
Hnh 6-4 Pht hin nhiu tn s ........................................................................................101
Hnh 6-5 Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng trc v sau khi m rng TRX ti Hng Lc
(Cell A_Bng tn 1800) .....................................................................................................102

Hong Anh Dng

10

in t 3 K47

Ti u ha mng di ng GSM

DANH SCH T VIT TT


***
A
ACCH

Associated Control Channel

Knh iu khin lin kt

AGCH

Access Grant Channel

Knh cho php truy nhp

ARFCH

Absolute Radio Frequency

Knh tn s tuyt i

Channel
AUC

Authentication Center

Trung tm nhn thc

AVDR

Average Drop Call Rate

T l rt cuc gi trung bnh

B
BCCH

Broadcast Control Channel

Knh iu khin qung b

BCH

Broadcast Channel

Knh qung b

BER

Bit Error Rate

T l li bt

Bm

Full Rate TCH

TCH ton tc

BS

Base Station

Trm gc

BSC

Base Station Controller

B iu khin trm gc

BSIC

Base Station Identity Code

M nhn dng trm gc

BSS

Base Station Subsystem

Phn h trm gc

BTS

Base Transceiver Station

Trm thu pht gc

C
C/A

Carrier to Adjacent

T s sng mang/nhiu knh ln


cn

CCBR

SDCCH Blocking Rate

T l nghn mch trn SDCCH

CCCH

Common Control Channel

Knh iu khin chung

CCDR

SDCCH Drop Rate

T l rt mch trn SDCCH

CCH

Control Channel

Knh iu khin

Hong Anh Dng

11

in t 3 K47

Ti u ha mng di ng GSM
CCS7

Common Channel Signalling No7

Bo hiu knh chung s 7

CCITT

International Telegraph and

U ban t vn quc t v in thoi v

Telephone Consultative Committee in bo


CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

a truy nhp phn chia theo m

Cell

Cellular

(t bo)

CI

Cell Identity

Nhn dng ( xc nh vng LA )

C/I

Carrier to Interference

T s sng mang/nhiu ng knh

C/R

Carrier to Reflection

T s sng mang/sng phn x

CSPDN

Circuit Switch Public

Mng s liu cng cng chuyn mch

Data Network

gi

Call Successful Rate

T l cuc gi thnh cng

CSSR

D
DCCH

Dedicated Control Channel

Knh iu khin dnh ring

E
EIR

Equipment Identification

B ghi nhn dng thit b

Register
ETSI

European Telecommunications

Vin tiu chun vin thng

Standard Institute

Chu u

F
FDMA

Frequency Division Multiple

a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s

Access
FACCH

Fast Associated

Knh iu khin lin kt nhanh

Control Channel
FCCH

Frequency Correction Channel

Hong Anh Dng

12

Knh hiu chnh tn s

in t 3 K47

Ti u ha mng di ng GSM

G
GMSC

Gateway MSC

Tng i di ng cng

GoS

Grade of Service

Cp phc v

GSM

Global System for Mobile

Thng tin di ng ton cu

Communication

H
HLR

Home Location Register

B ng k nh v thng tr

HON

Handover Number

S chuyn giao

I
IHOSR

Incoming HO Successful Rate

T l thnh cng Handover n

IMSI

International Mobile

S nhn dng thu bao di ng

Subscriber Identity

quc t

Integrated Service Digital

Mng s a dch v

ISDN

Network

L
LA

Location Area

Vng nh v

LAC

Location Area Code

M vng nh v

LAI

Location Area Identifier

S nhn dng vng nh v

LAPD

Link Access Procedures

Cc th tc truy cp ng

on D channel

truyn trn knh D

Link Access Procedures

Cc th tc truy cp ng

on Dm channel

truyn trn knh Dm

Haft Rate TCH

TCH bn tc

LAPDm
Lm

Hong Anh Dng

13

in t 3 K47

Ti u ha mng di ng GSM

M
MCC

Mobile Country Code

M quc gia ca mng di ng

MNC

Mobile Network Code

M mng thng tin di ng

MS

Mobile station

Trm di ng

MSC

Mobile Service

Tng i di ng

Switching Center
MSIN

Mobile station Identification

S nhn dng trm di ng

Number
MSISDN

Mobile station ISDN Number

S ISDN ca trm di ng

MSRN

MS Roaming Number

S vng lai ca thu bao di ng

N
NMC

Network Management Center

Trung tm qun l mng

NMT

Nordic Mobile Telephone

in thoi di ng Bc u

O
OHOSR

Outgoing HO Successful Rate

T l thnh cng Handover ra

OSI

Open System Interconnection

Lin kt h thng m

OSS

Operation and Support

Phn h khai thc v h tr

Subsystem
OMS

Operation & Maintenace

Phn h khai thc v bo dng.

Subsystem

P
PAGCH
PCH

Paging and Access Grant

Knh chp nhn truy cp

Channel

v nhn tin

Paging Channel

Knh tm gi

Hong Anh Dng

14

in t 3 K47

Ti u ha mng di ng GSM

PLMN

Public Land Mobile Network

Mng di ng mt t cng cng

PSPDN

Packet Switch Public

Mng s liu cng cng

Data Network

chuyn mch gi

Public Switched Telephone

Mng chuyn mch in thoi cng

Network

cng

PSTN

R
RACH

Random Access Channel

Knh truy cp ngu nhin

Rx

Receiver

My thu

S
SACCH

Slow Associated

Knh iu khin lin kt chm

Control Channel
SDCCH

Stand Alone Dedicated

Knh iu khin dnh ring

Control Channel

ng mt mnh (c lp)

SIM

Subscriber Identity Modul

M un nhn dng thu bao

SN

Subscriber Number

S thu bao

T
TACH

Traffic and Associated Channel

Knh lu lng v lin kt

TCBR

TCH Blocking Rate

T l nghn mch TCH

TCDR

TCH Drop Rate

T l rt mch trn TCH

TCH

Traffic Channel

Knh lu lng

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access

a truy nhp phn chia theo


thi gian

TRAU

Transcoder/Rate Adapter Unit

B thch ng tc v chuyn m

TRX

Tranceiver

B thu pht

Hong Anh Dng

15

in t 3 K47

Ti u ha mng di ng GSM

PHN M U
***
ti c chia thnh hai phn:
 Phn I: TNG QUAN V MNG DI NG GSM
 Phn II: TI U HA MNG DI NG GSM
Phn I ca ti s cp ti nhng khi nim c bn nht v h thng
thng tin di ng GSM.
Phn II trnh by cc tnh ton mng GSM cng vi cng tc ti u ha h
thng.
Ni dung chnh c trnh by trong cc chng nh sau:
 Chng I: Gii thiu v lch s pht trin mng GSM v cu trc a
l ca mng.
 Chng II: Trnh by v cc thnh phn chc nng trong h thng.
 Chng III: Trnh by cc tnh ton mng GSM v dung lng v cc
yu t nh hng ti cht lng ph sng.
 Chng IV: Trnh by nhng quy hoch thit k h thng.
 Chng V: Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng, gi tr khuyn ngh v
cc ch tiu cht lng thc t t c ca mng VMS_MobiFone.
 Chng VI: Gii thiu mt s cng tc ti u ha ti mng
VMS_MobiFone.

Hong Anh Dng

16

in t 3 K47

Chng I

Gii thiu chung v mng GSM

Phn I
TNG QUAN V MNG GSM

Chng I
GII THIU CHUNG V MNG GSM
H thng thng tin di ng ton cu (ting Php: Groupe Spcial Mobile
ting Anh: Global System for Mobile Communications; vit tt GSM) l mt cng
ngh dng cho mng thng tin di ng. Dch v GSM c s dng bi hn 2 t
ngi trn 212 quc gia v vng lnh th. Cc mng thng tin di ng GSM cho
php c th roaming vi nhau do nhng my in thoi di ng GSM ca cc
mng GSM khc nhau c th s dng c nhiu ni trn th gii.
GSM l chun ph bin nht cho in thoi di ng (TD) trn th gii.
Kh nng ph sng rng khp ni ca chun GSM lm cho n tr nn ph bin trn
th gii, cho php ngi s dng c th s dng TD ca h nhiu vng trn
th gii. GSM khc vi cc chun tin thn ca n v c tn hiu v tc , cht
lng cuc gi. N c xem nh l mt h thng TD th h th hai (second
generation, 2G). GSM l mt chun m, hin ti n c pht trin bi 3rd
Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).
ng v pha quan im khch hng, li th chnh ca GSM l cht lng
cuc gi tt hn, gi thnh thp v dch v tin nhn. Thun li i vi nh iu
hnh mng l kh nng trin khai thit b t nhiu ngi cung ng. GSM cho php
nh iu hnh mng c th kt hp chuyn vng vi nhau do vy m ngi s dng
c th s dng in thoi ca h khp ni trn th gii.

Hong Anh Dng

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Chng I

Gii thiu chung v mng GSM

1.1. Lch s pht trin mng GSM


Nhng nm u 1980, h thng vin thng t bo trn th gii ang pht
trin mnh m c bit l Chu u m khng c chun ha v cc ch tiu k
thut. iu ny thc gic Lin minh Chu u v Bu chnh vin thng CEPT
(Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications) thnh lp nhm c trch
v di ng GSM (Groupe Spcial Mobile) vi nhim v pht trin mt chun thng
nht cho h thng thng tin di ng c th s dng trn ton Chu u.
Ngy 27 thng 3 nm 1991, cuc gi u tin s dng cng ngh GSM c
thc hin bi mng Radiolinja Phn Lan (mng di ng GSM u tin trn th
gii).
Nm 1989, Vin tiu chun vin thng Chu u ETSI (European
Telecommunications Standards Institute) quy nh chun GSM l mt tiu chun
chung cho mng thng tin di ng ton Chu u, v nm 1990 ch tiu k thut
GSM phase I (giai on I) c cng b.
Nm 1992, Telstra Australia l mng u tin ngoi Chu u k vo bin
bn ghi nh GSM MoU (Memorandum of Understanding). Cng trong nm ny,
tha thun chuyn vng quc t u tin c k kt gia hai mng Finland
Telecom ca Phn Lan v Vodafone ca Anh. Tin nhn SMS u tin cng c
gi i trong nm 1992.
Nhng nm sau , h thng thng tin di ng ton cu GSM pht trin mt
cch mnh m, cng vi s gia tng nhanh chng ca cc nh iu hnh, cc mng
di ng mi, th s lng cc thu bao cng gia tng mt cch chng mt.
Nm 1996, s thnh vin GSM MoU ln ti 200 nh iu hnh t gn 100
quc gia. 167 mng hot ng trn 94 quc gia vi s thu bao t 50 triu.
Nm 2000, GPRS c ng dng. Nm 2001, mng 3GSM (UMTS) c i
vo hot ng, s thu bao GSM vt qu 500 triu. Nm 2003, mng EDGE i
vo hot ng.
Cho n nm 2006 s thu bao di ng GSM ln ti con s 2 t vi trn
700 nh iu hnh, chim gn 80% th phn thng tin di ng trn th gii. Theo d
on ca GSM Association, nm 2007 s thu bao GSM s t 2,5 t.
(Ngun: www.gsmworld.com; www.wikipedia.org )
Hong Anh Dng

in t 3 K47

Chng I

Gii thiu chung v mng GSM

Hnh 1-1 Th phn thng tin di ng trn th gii nm 2006

1.2. Cu trc a l ca mng


Mi mng in thoi cn mt cu trc nht nh nh tuyn cc cuc gi
n tng i cn thit v cui cng n thu bao b gi. mt mng di ng, cu
trc ny rt qun trng do tnh lu thng ca cc thu bao trong mng. Trong h
thng GSM, mng c phn chia thnh cc phn vng sau (hnh 1.2):

Hnh 1-2 Phn cp cu trc a l mng GSM


Hong Anh Dng

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Chng I

Gii thiu chung v mng GSM

Hnh 1-3 Phn vng v chia

1.2.1. Vng phc v PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network)


Vng phc v GSM l ton b vng phc v do s kt hp ca cc quc gia
thnh vin nn nhng my in thoi di ng GSM ca cc mng GSM khc nhau
c th s dng c nhiu ni trn th gii.
Phn cp tip theo l vng phc v PLMN, c th l mt hay nhiu vng
trong mt quc gia ty theo kch thc ca vng phc v.
Kt ni cc ng truyn gia mng di ng GSM/PLMN v cc mng khc
(c nh hay di ng) u mc tng i trung k quc gia hay quc t. Tt c cc
cuc gi vo hay ra mng GSM/PLMN u c nh tuyn thng qua tng i v
tuyn cng G-MSC (Gateway - Mobile Service Switching Center). G-MSC lm
vic nh mt tng i trung k vo cho GSM/PLMN.

1.2.2. Vng phc v MSC


MSC (Trung tm chuyn mch cc nghip v di ng, gi tt l tng i di
ng). Vng MSC l mt b phn ca mng c mt MSC qun l. nh
tuyn mt cuc gi n mt thu bao di ng. Mi thng tin nh tuyn cuc gi
Hong Anh Dng

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Chng I

Gii thiu chung v mng GSM

ti thu bao di ng hin ang trong vng phc v ca MSC c lu gi trong b


ghi nh v tm tr VLR.
Mt vng mng GSM/PLMN c chia thnh mt hay nhiu vng phc v
MSC/VLR.

1.2.3. Vng nh v (LA - Location Area)


Mi vng phc v MSC/VLR c chia thnh mt s vng nh v LA.
Vng nh v l mt phn ca vng phc v MSC/VLR, m mt trm di ng
c th chuyn ng t do m khng cn cp nht thng tin v v tr cho tng i
MSC/VLR iu khin vng nh v ny. Vng nh v ny l mt vng m
thng bo tm gi s c pht qung b tm mt thu bao di ng b gi. Vng
nh v LA c h thng s dng tm mt thu bao ang trng thi hot ng.
H thng c th nhn dng vng nh v bng cch s dng nhn dng vng
nh v LAI (Location Area Identity):
LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC
MCC (Mobile Country Code): m quc gia
MNC (Mobile Network Code): m mng di ng
LAC (Location Area Code) : m vng nh v (16 bit)

1.2.4. Cell (T bo hay )


Vng nh v c chia thnh mt s m khi MS di chuyn trong th
khng cn cp nht thng tin v v tr vi mng. Cell l n v c s ca mng, l
mt vng ph sng v tuyn c nhn dng bng nhn ng ton cu (CGI).
Mi c qun l bi mt trm v tuyn gc BTS.
CGI = MCC + MNC + LAC + CI
CI (Cell Identity): Nhn dng xc nh v tr trong vng nh v.
Trm di ng MS t nhn dng mt bng cch s dng m nhn dng trm
gc BSIC (Base Station Identification Code).

Hong Anh Dng

in t 3 K47

Chng II

H thng thng tin di ng GSM

Chng II
H THNG THNG TIN DI NG GSM
2.1. M hnh h thng thng tin di ng GSM

Hnh 2-1 M hnh h thng thng tin di ng GSM


Cc k hiu:
OSS

: Phn h khai thc v h tr

BTS

: Trm v tuyn gc

AUC

: Trung tm nhn thc

MS

: Trm di ng

HLR

: B ghi nh v thng tr

ISDN

: Mng s lin kt a dch v

MSC

: Tng i di ng

PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network):

BSS

: Phn h trm gc

Mng chuyn mch in thoi cng cng

BSC

: B iu khin trm gc

PSPDN

OMC

: Trung tm khai thc v bo dng CSPDN (Circuit Switched Public Data Network):

SS

: Phn h chuyn mch

Mng s liu chuyn mch knh cng cng

VLR

: B ghi nh v tm tr

PLMN

EIR

: Thanh ghi nhn dng thit b

Hong Anh Dng

: Mng chuyn mch gi cng cng

: Mng di ng mt t cng cng

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Chng II

H thng thng tin di ng GSM

2.2. Cc thnh phn chc nng trong h thng


Mng thng tin di ng cng cng mt t PLMN (Public Land Mobile
Network) theo chun GSM c chia thnh 4 phn h chnh sau:
 Trm di ng MS (Mobile Station)
 Phn h trm gc BSS (Base Station Subsystem)
 Phn h chuyn mch SS (Switching Subsystem)
 Phn h khai thc v h tr (Operation and Support Subsystem)

2.2.1. Trm di ng (MS - Mobile Station)


Trm di ng (MS) bao gm thit b trm di ng ME (Mobile Equipment)
v mt khi nh gi l moun nhn dng thu bao (SIM-Subscriber Identity
Module). l mt khi vt l tch ring, chng hn l mt IC Card hoc cn gi
l card thng minh. SIM cng vi thit b trm (ME-Mobile Equipment) hp thnh
trm di ng MS. SIM cung cp kh nng di ng c nhn, v th ngi s dng c
th lp SIM vo bt c my in thoi di ng GSM no truy nhp vo dch v
ng k. Mi in thoi di ng c phn bit bi mt s nhn dng in thoi di
ng IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity). Card SIM cha mt s nhn
dng thu bao di ng IMSI (International Subcriber Identity) h thng nhn
dng thu bao, mt mt m xc thc v cc thng tin khc. IMEI v IMSI hon
ton c lp vi nhau m bo tnh di ng c nhn. Card SIM c th chng vic
s dng tri php bng mt khu hoc s nhn dng c nhn (PIN).
Trm di ng GSM thc hin hai chc nng:
Thit b vt l giao tip gia thu bao di ng vi mng qua ng v
tuyn.
ng k thu bao, chc nng th hai ny mi thu bao phi c mt th
gi l SIM card. Tr mt s trng hp c bit nh gi cp cu thu bao ch c
th truy nhp vo h thng khi cm th ny vo my.

2.2.2. Phn h trm gc (BSS - Base Station Subsystem)


BSS giao din trc tip vi cc trm di ng MS bng thit b BTS thng
qua giao din v tuyn. Mt khc BSS thc hin giao din vi cc tng i phn

Hong Anh Dng

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Chng II

H thng thng tin di ng GSM

h chuyn mch SS. Tm li, BSS thc hin u ni cc MS vi tng i v nh


vy u ni nhng ngi s dng cc trm di ng vi nhng ngi s dng vin
thng khc. BSS cng phi c iu khin, do n c u ni vi phn h vn
hnh v bo dng OSS. Phn h trm gc BSS bao gm:
 TRAU (Transcoding and Rate Adapter Unit): B chuyn i m v
phi hp tc .
 BSC (Base Station Controler): B iu khin trm gc.
 BTS (Base Transceiver Station): Trm thu pht gc.
2.2.2.1. Khi BTS (Base Tranceiver Station):
Mt BTS bao gm cc thit b thu /pht tn hiu sng v tuyn, anten v b
phn m ha v gii m giao tip vi BSC. BTS l thit b trung gian gia mng
GSM v thit b thu bao MS, trao i thng tin vi MS qua giao din v tuyn.
Mi BTS to ra mt hay mt s khu vc vng ph sng nht nh gi l t bo
(cell).
2.2.2.2. Khi TRAU (Transcode/Rate Adapter Unit):
Khi thch ng v chuyn i m thc hin chuyn i m thng tin t cc
knh v tuyn (16 Kb/s) theo tiu chun GSM thnh cc knh thoi chun (64 Kb/s)
trc khi chuyn n tng i. TRAU l thit b m qu trnh m ho v gii
m ting c th ring cho GSM c tin hnh, ti y cng thc hin thch ng
tc trong trng hp truyn s liu. TRAU l mt b phn ca BTS, nhng cng
c th c t cch xa BTS v thm ch cn t trong BSC v MSC.
2.2.2.3. Khi BSC (Base Station Controller):
BSC c nhim v qun l tt c giao din v tuyn thng qua cc lnh iu
khin t xa. Cc lnh ny ch yu l lnh n nh, gii phng knh v tuyn v
chuyn giao. Mt pha BSC c ni vi BTS, cn pha kia ni vi MSC ca phn
h chuyn mch SS. Giao din gia BSC v MSC l giao din A, cn giao din gia
BTS v BSC l giao din A.bis.

Hong Anh Dng

in t 3 K47

Chng II

H thng thng tin di ng GSM

Cc chc nng chnh ca BSC:


1. Qun l mng v tuyn: Vic qun l v tuyn chnh l qun l cc cell v
cc knh logic ca chng. Cc s liu qun l u c a v BSC o c v
x l, chng hn nh lu lng thng tin mt cell, mi trng v tuyn, s lng
cuc gi b mt, cc ln chuyn giao thnh cng v tht bi...
2. Qun l trm v tuyn gc BTS: Trc khi a vo khai thc, BSC lp cu
hnh ca BTS ( s my thu/pht TRX, tn s cho mi trm... ). Nh m BSC c
sn mt tp cc knh v tuyn dnh cho iu khin v ni thng cuc gi.
3. iu khin ni thng cc cuc gi: BSC chu trch nhim thit lp v gii
phng cc u ni ti my di ng MS. Trong qu trnh gi, s u ni c BSC
gim st. Cng tn hiu, cht lng cuc u ni c my di ng v TRX
gi n BSC. Da vo m BSC s quyt nh cng sut pht tt nht ca MS v
TRX gim nhiu v tng cht lng cuc u ni. BSC cng iu khin qu
trnh chuyn giao nh cc kt qu o k trn quyt nh chuyn giao MS sang
cell khc, nhm t c cht lng cuc gi tt hn. Trong trng hp chuyn
giao sang cell ca mt BSC khc th n phi nh s tr gip ca MSC. Bn cnh
, BSC cng c th iu khin chuyn giao gia cc knh trong mt cell hoc t
cell ny sang knh ca cell khc trong trng hp cell ny b nghn nhiu.
4. Qun l mng truyn dn: BSC c chc nng qun l cu hnh cc ng
truyn dn ti MSC v BTS m bo cht lng thng tin. Trong trng hp c
s c mt tuyn no , n s t ng iu khin ti mt tuyn d phng.

2.2.3. Phn h chuyn mch (SS - Switching Subsystem)


Phn h chuyn mch bao gm cc khi chc nng sau:
 Trung tm chuyn mch nghip v di ng MSC
 Thanh ghi nh v thng tr HLR
 Thanh ghi nh v tm tr VLR
 Trung tm nhn thc AuC
 Thanh ghi nhn dng thit b EIR
Phn h chuyn mch (SS) bao gm cc chc nng chuyn mch chnh ca
mng GSM cng nh cc c s d liu cn thit cho s liu thu bao v qun l di

Hong Anh Dng

in t 3 K47

Chng II

H thng thng tin di ng GSM

ng ca thu bao. Chc nng chnh ca SS l qun l thng tin gia nhng ngi
s dng mng GSM vi nhau v vi mng khc.
2.2.3.1. Trung tm chuyn mch di ng MSC:
Tng i di ng MSC (Mobile services Switching Center) thng l mt
tng i ln iu khin v qun l mt s cc b iu khin trm gc BSC. MSC
thc hin cc chc nng chuyn mch chnh, nhim v chnh ca MSC l to kt
ni v x l cuc gi n nhng thu bao ca GSM, mt mt MSC giao tip vi
phn h BSS v mt khc giao tip vi mng ngoi qua tng i cng GMSC
(Gateway MSC).
Chc nng chnh ca tng i MSC:
 X l cuc gi (Call Processing)
 iu khin chuyn giao (Handover Control)
 Qun l di ng (Mobility Management)
 Tng tc mng IWF(Interworking Function): qua GMSC

Hnh 2-2 Chc nng x l cuc gi ca MSC


(1): Khi ch gi quay s thu bao di ng b gi, s mng dch v s lin kt
ca thu bao di ng, s c hai trng hp xy ra :
 (1.a) Nu cuc gi khi u t mng c nh PSTN th tng i sau
khi phn tch s thoi s bit y l cuc gi cho mt thu bao di
ng. Cuc gi s c nh tuyn n tng i cng GMSC gn
nht.

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H thng thng tin di ng GSM

 (1.b) Nu cuc gi khi u t trm di ng, MSC ph trch m


trm di ng trc thuc s nhn c bn tin thit lp cuc gi t MS
thng qua BTS c cha s thoi ca thu bao di ng b gi.
(2): MSC (hay GMSC) s phn tch s MSISDN (The Mobile Station ISDN)
ca thu bao b gi tm ra HLR ni MS ng k.
(3): MSC (hay GMSC) s hi HLR thng tin c th nh tuyn n
MSC/VLR qun l MS.
(4): HLR s tr li, khi MSC (hay GMSC) ny c th nh tuyn li cuc
gi n MSC cn thit. Khi cuc gi n MSC ny, VLR s bit chi tit hn v v
tr ca MS. Nh vy c th ni thng mt cuc gi mng GSM, l chc nng
x l cuc gi ca MSC.
kt ni MSC vi mt s mng khc cn phi thch ng cc c im
truyn dn ca mng GSM vi cc mng ny. Cc thch ng ny gi l chc nng
tng tc IWF (Inter Networking Function). IWF bao gm mt thit b thch ng
giao thc v truyn dn. IWF c th thc hin trong cng chc nng MSC hay c
th thit b ring, trng hp hai giao tip gia MSC v IWF c m.
2.2.3.2. B ghi nh v thng tr (HLR - Home Location Register):
HLR l c s d liu tham chiu lu gi lu di cc thng tin v thu bao,
cc thng tin lin quan ti vic cung cp cc dch v vin thng. HLR khng ph
thuc vo v tr hin thi ca thu bao v cha cc thng tin v v tr hin thi ca
thu bao.
HLR bao gm:
 Cc s nhn dng: IMSI, MSISDN.
 Cc thng tin v thu bao
 Danh sch cc dch v m MS c s dng v b hn ch
 S hiu VLR ang phc v MS
2.2.3.3. B ghi nh v tm tr (VLR - Visitor Location Register):
VLR l mt c s d liu cha thng tin v tt c cc MS hin ang vng
phc v ca MSC. Mi MSC c mt VLR, thng thit k VLR ngay trong MSC.
Ngay c khi MS lu ng vo mt vng MSC mi. VLR lin kt vi MSC s yu

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Chng II

H thng thng tin di ng GSM

cu s liu v MS t HLR. ng thi HLR s c thng bo rng MS ang


vng MSC no. Nu sau MS mun thc hin mt cuc gi, VLR s c tt c cc
thng tin cn thit thit lp mt cuc gi m khng cn hi HLR, c th coi VLR
nh mt HLR phn b. VLR cha thng tin chnh xc hn v v tr MS vng
MSC. Nhng khi thu bao tt my hay ri khi vng phc v ca MSC th cc s
liu lin quan ti n cng ht gi tr.
Hay ni cch khc, VLR l c s d liu trung gian lu tr tm thi thng
tin v thu bao trong vng phc v MSC/VLR c tham chiu t c s d liu
HLR.
VLR bao gm:
 Cc s nhn dng: IMSI, MSISDN, TMSI.
 S hiu nhn dng vng nh v ang phc v MS
 Danh sch cc dch v m MS c v b hn ch s dng
 Trng thi ca MS ( bn: busy; ri: idle)
2.2.3.4. Thanh ghi nhn dng thit b (EIR - Equipment Identity Register):
EIR c chc nng kim tra tnh hp l ca ME thng qua s liu nhn dng
di ng quc t (IMEI-International Mobile Equipment Identity) v cha cc s liu
v phn cng ca thit b. Mt ME s c s IMEI thuc mt trong ba danh sch sau:
1. Nu ME thuc danh sch trng ( White List ) th n c quyn truy
nhp v s dng cc dch v ng k.
2. Nu ME thuc danh sch xm ( Gray List ), tc l c nghi vn v cn
kim tra. Danh sch xm bao gm nhng ME c li (li phn mm hay li sn xut
thit b) nhng khng nghim trng ti mc loi tr khi h thng
3. Nu ME thuc danh sch en ( Black List ), tc l b cm khng cho truy
nhp vo h thng, nhng ME thng bo mt my.
2.2.3.5. Khi trung tm nhn thc AuC (Aunthentication Center)
AuC c ni n HLR, chc nng ca AuC l cung cp cho HLR cc tn s
nhn thc v cc kho mt m s dng cho bo mt. ng v tuyn cng c
AuC cung cp m bo mt chng nghe trm, m ny c thay i ring bit cho
tng thu bao. C s d liu ca AuC cn ghi nhiu thng tin cn thit khc khi

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Chng II

H thng thng tin di ng GSM

thu bao ng k nhp mng v c s dng kim tra khi thu bao yu cu
cung cp dch v, trnh vic truy nhp mng mt cch tri php.

2.2.4. Phn h khai thc v bo dng (OSS)


OSS (Operation and Support System) thc hin 3 chc nng chnh:
1) Khai thc v bo dng mng.
2) Qun l thu bao v tnh cc.
3) Qun l thit b di ng.
2.2.4.1. Khai thc v bo dng mng:
 Khai thc:
L hot ng cho php nh khai thc mng theo di hnh vi ca mng nh
ti ca h thng, mc chn, s lng chuyn giao gia hai cell.v.v.. Nh vy nh
khai thc c th gim st c ton b cht lng dch v m h cung cp cho
khch hng v kp thi nng cp. Khai thc cn bao gm vic thay i cu hnh
gim nhng vn xut hin thi im hin thi, chun b tng lu lng
trong tng lai v m rng vng ph sng. h thng vin thng hin i, khai
thc c thc hin bng my tnh v c tp trung mt trm.
 Bo dng:
C nhim v pht hin, nh v v sa cha cc s c v hng hc, n c mt
s quan h vi khai thc. Cc thit b h thng vin thng hin i c kh nng t
pht hin mt s cc s c hay d bo s c thng qua kim tra. Bo dng bao
gm cc hot ng ti hin trng nhm thay th cc thit b c s c, cng nh
vic s dng cc phn mm iu khin t xa.
H thng khai thc v bo dng c th c xy dng trn nguyn l ca
TMN (Telecommunication Management Network - Mng qun l vin thng). Lc
ny, mt mt h thng khai thc v bo dng c ni n cc phn t ca mng
vin thng (MSC, HLR, VLR, BSC, v cc phn t mng khc tr BTS). Mt khc
h thng khai thc v bo dng c ni ti my tnh ch ng vai tr giao tip
ngi - my. Theo tiu chun GSM h thng ny c gi l trung tm vn hnh v
bo dng (OMC - Operation and Maintenance Center).

Hong Anh Dng

13

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H thng thng tin di ng GSM

2.2.4.2. Qun l thu bao:


Bao gm cc hot ng qun l ng k thu bao. Nhim v u tin l nhp
v xo thu bao khi mng. ng k thu bao cng c th rt phc tp, bao gm
nhiu dch v v cc tnh nng b sung. Nh khai thc c th thm nhp c cc
thng s ni trn. Mt nhim v quan trng khc ca khai thc l tnh cc cc
cuc gi ri gi n thu bao. Khi HLR, SIM-Card ng vai tr nh mt b
phn qun l thu bao.
2.2.4.3. Qun l thit b di ng:
Qun l thit b di ng c b ng k nhn dng thit b EIR thc hin.
EIR lu tr ton b d liu lin quan n trm di ng MS. EIR c ni n MSC
qua ng bo hiu kim tra tnh hp l ca thit b. Trong h thng GSM th
EIR c coi l thuc phn h chuyn mch NSS.

2.3. Giao din v tuyn s


Cc knh ca giao din v tuyn bao gm cc knh vt l v cc knh logic.

2.3.1. Knh vt l
Knh vt l t chc theo quan nim truyn dn. i vi TDMA GSM, knh
vt l l mt khe thi gian mt tn s sng mang v tuyn c ch nh.
 GSM 900 nguyn thy
Di tn s: 890 915 MHz cho ng ln uplink (t MS n BTS).
935 960 MHz cho ng xung downlink (t BTS n MS).
Di thng tn ca mt knh vt l l 200KHz. Di tn bo v bin cng
rng 200KHz.
Ful (n) = 890,0 MHz + (0,2 MHz) * n
Fdl (n) = Ful (n) + 45 MHz
Vi 1 n 124
Cc knh t 1 124 c gi l cc knh tn s v tuyn tuyt i ARFCN
(Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number). Knh 0 l di phng v.

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Vy GSM 900 c 124 tn s bt u t 890,2MHz. Mi di thng tn l mt


khung TDMA c 8 khe thi gian. Nh vy, s knh vt l GSM 900 l s 992
knh.
 EGSM (GSM m rng E : extended)
H thng GSM nguyn thy c m rng mi bng tn thm 10 MHz
(tng ng 50 knh tn s) th c gi l EGSM:
Di tn s: 880 915 MHz uplink.
925 960 MHz downlink.
Ful (n) = 880 MHz +(0,2 MHz)*n
Fdl (n) = Ful (n) + 45 MHz.
Vi n=ARFCN , 1 n 174 . Knh 0 l di phng v.
 DCS 1800:
DCS 1800 c s knh tn s tng gp 3 ln so vi GSM 900
Di tn s: 1710 1785 MHz uplink.
1805 1880 MHz downlink.
Ful (n) = 1710MHz + (0,2 MHz)*(n - 511)
Fdl (n) = Ful (n) + 95 MHz
Vi 512 n 885.

2.3.2. Knh logic


Knh logic c t chc theo quan im ni dung tin tc, cc knh ny c
t vo cc knh vt l. Cc knh logic c c trng bi thng tin truyn gia
BTS v MS.
C th chia knh logic thnh hai loi tng qut: cc knh lu lng TCH v
cc knh bo hiu iu khin CCH.

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Hnh 2-3 Phn loi knh logic


a. Knh lu lng TCH: C hai loi knh lu lng:
Bm hay knh lu lng ton tc (TCH/F), knh ny mang thng tin ting
hay s liu tc 22,8 kbit/s.
Lm hay knh lu lng bn tc (TCH/H), knh ny mang thng tin tc
11,4 kbit/s
b. Knh iu khin CCH (k hiu l Dm): bao gm:
Knh qung b BCH (Broadcast Channel).
Knh iu khin chung CCCH (Common Control Channel).
Knh iu khin ring DCCH (Dedicate Control Channel).
 Knh qung b BCH: BCH = BCCH + FCCH + SCH.
FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel): Knh hiu chnh tn s cung cp
tn s tham chiu ca h thng cho trm MS. FCCH ch c dng cho ng
xung.
SCH (Synchronous Channel): Knh ng b khung cho MS.

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BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel): Knh iu khin qung b cung cp


cc tin tc sau: M vng nh v LAC (Location Area Code), m mng di ng
MNC (Mobile Network Code), tin tc v tn s ca cc cell ln cn, thng s di
qut ca cell v cc thng s phc v truy cp.
 Knh iu khin chung CCCH: CCCH l knh thit lp s truyn thng
gia BTS v MS. N bao gm: CCCH = RACH + PCH + AGCH.
RACH (Random Access Channel), knh truy nhp ngu nhin. l
knh hng ln MS a yu cu knh dnh ring, yu cu ny th hin trong bn
tin u ca MS gi n BTS trong qu trnh mt cuc lin lc.
PCH (Paging Channel, knh tm gi) c BTS truyn xung gi MS.
AGCH (Access Grant Channel): Knh cho php truy nhp AGCH, l
knh hng xung, mang tin tc phc p ca BTS i vi bn tin yu cu knh
ca MS thc hin mt knh lu lng TCH v knh DCCH cho thu bao.
 Knh iu khin ring DCCH: DCCH l knh dng c hng ln v
hng xung, dng trao i bn tin bo hiu, phc v cp nht v tr, ng k v
thit lp cuc gi, phc v bo dng knh. DCCH gm c:
Knh iu khin dnh ring ng mt mnh SDCCH dng cp nht v
tr v thit lp cuc gi.
Knh iu khin lin kt chm SACCH, l mt knh hot ng lin tc
trong sut cuc lin lc truyn cc s liu o lng v kim sot cng sut.
Knh iu khin lin kt nhanh FACCH, n lin kt vi mt knh TCH
v hot ng bng cch ly ln mt khung FACCH c dng chuyn giao cell.

2.4. Cc m nhn dng s dng trong h thng GSM


Trong GSM, mi phn t mng cng nh mi vng phc v u c a
ch ho bng mt s gi l m (code). Trn phm vi ton cu, h thng m ny l
n tr (duy nht) cho mi i tng v c lu tr ri rc trong tt c cc phn t
mng.
 M xc nh khu vc LAI ( Location Area Identity ): LAI l m quc t
cho cc khu vc, c lu tr trong VLR v l mt thnh phn trong m nhn dng

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t bo ton cu CGI (Cell Global Identity). Khi mt thu bao c mt ti mt vng


ph sng no , n s nhn CGI t BSS, so snh LAI nhn c trc xc
nh xem n ang u. Khi hai s liu ny khc nhau, MS s np LAI mi cho b
nh. Cu trc ca mt LAI nh sau:

MCC

MNC

LAC

Trong :
MCC (Mobile Country Code): m quc gia ca nc c mng GSM.
MNC (Mobile Network Code): m ca mng GSM, do quc gia c
mng GSM qui nh.
LAC (Location Area Code): m khu vc, dng nhn dng khu vc
trong mng GSM.
 Cc m s a dch v ton cu (International ISDN Numbers): Cc phn
t ca mng GSM nh MSC, VLR, HLR/AUC, EIR, BSC u c mt m s tng
ng a dch v ton cu. M cc im bo hiu c suy ra t cc m ny c s
dng cho mng bo hiu CCS7 trong mng GSM.
Ring HLR/AUC cn c mt m khc, gm hai thnh phn. Mt phn lin
quan n s thu bao a dch v ton cu - MSISDN (International Mobile
Subscriber ISDN Number) c s dng trong vic thit lp cuc gi t mt mng
khc n MS trong mng. Phn t khc lin quan n m nhn dng thu bao di
ng quc t - IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) c lu gi trong
AUC.
 M nhn dng t bo ton cu CGI: CGI c s dng cc MSC v
BSC truy nhp cc t bo.
CGI = LAI + CI.

CI (Cell Identity) gm 16 bit dng nhn dng cell trong phm vi ca LAI.
CGI c lu gi trong c s d liu ca MSC/VLR.

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 M nhn dng trm gc BSIC (Base Station Identity Code):


Cu trc ca m nhn dng trm gc nh sau:
NCC (3 bits) BCC (3 bits)
Trong :
NCC (Network Color Code): m mu ca mng GSM. c s dng
phn bit vi cc mng khc trong nc.
BCC ( BTS Color Code ): m mu ca BTS. Dng phn bit cc knh s
dng cng mt tn s ca cc trm BTS khc nhau.

 S thu bao ISDN ca my di ng - MSISDN (Mobile Subscriber ISDN


Number):
Mi thu bao di ng u c mt s my MSISDN c ghi trong danh b
in thoi. Nu mt s dng cho tt c cc dch v vin thng lin quan n thu
bao th gi l nh s duy nht, cn nu thu bao s dng cho mi dch v vin
thng mt s khc nhau th gi l nh s m rng.
MSISDN c s dng bi MSC truy nhp HLR khi cn thit lp cuc
ni. MSISDN c cu trc theo CCITT, E164 v k hoch nh s ISDN nh sau:
CC

NDC

SN

Trong :
CC (Country Code): m nc, l ni thu bao ng k nhp mng (Vit Nam
th CC = 84).
NDC (National Destination Code): m mng GSM, dng phn bit cc
mng GSM trong cng mt nc.
SN (Subscriber Number): s thu bao, ti a c 12 s, trong c 3 s
nhn dng HLR.

 Nhn dng thu bao di ng ton cu IMSI (International Mobile


Subscriber Identity):
IMSI l m s duy nht cho mi thu bao trong mt vng h thng GSM.
IMSI c ghi trong MS v trong HLR v b mt vi ngi s dng. IMSI c cu
trc nh sau:

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MCC

MNC

MSIN

Trong :
MCC (Mobile Country Code): m nc c mng GSM, do CCITT qui nh
nhn dng quc gia m thu bao ang c mt.
MNC (Mobile Network Code): m mng GSM.
MSIN (Mobile Subscriber Identification Number): s nhn dng thu bao di
ng, gm 10 s c dng nhn dng thu bao di ng trong cc vng dch v
ca mng GSM, vi 3 s u tin c dng nhn dng HLR.
MSIN c lu gi c nh trong VLR v trong thu bao MS. MSIN c
VLR s dng khi truy nhp HLR/AUC to lp H khu thng tr cho thu
bao.

 Nhn dng thu bao di ng cc b - LMSI (Location Mobile subscriber


Identity):
Gm 4 octet. VLR lu gi v s dng LMSI cho tt c cc thu bao hin
ang c mt ti vng ph sng ca n v chuyn LMSI cng vi IMSI cho HLR.
HLR s dng LMSI mi khi cn chuyn cc mu tin lin quan n thu bao tng
ng cung cp dch v.

 Nhn dng thu bao di ng tm thi - TMSI (Temporaly Mobile


subscriber Identity):
TMSI do VLR t to ra trong c s d liu ca n cng vi IMSI sau khi
vic kim tra quyn truy nhp ca thu bao chng t hp l. TMSI c s dng
cng vi LAI a ch ho thu bao trong BSS v truy nhp s liu ca thu bao
trong c s d liu ca VLR.

 S vng lai ca thu bao di ng - MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming


Number ):
MSRN do VLR tm thi to ra yu cu ca HLR trc khi thit lp cuc gi
n mt thu bao ang lu ng n mng ca n. Khi cuc gi kt thc th MSRN

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cng b xo. Cu trc ca MSRN bao gm CC, NDC v s do VLR tm thi t to


ra.

 S chuyn giao HON (Handover Number):


Handover l vic di chuyn cuc ni m khng lm gin on cuc ni t t
bo ny sang t bo khc (trng hp phc tp nht l chuyn giao nhng t bo
thuc cc tng i MSC khc nhau). V d khi thu bao di chuyn t MSC1 sang
MSC2 m vn ang s dng dch v. MSC2 yu cu VLR ca n tm thi to ra
HON gi cho MSC1 v MSC1 s dng HON chuyn cuc ni sang cho
MSC2. Sau khi ht cuc thoi hay thu bao ri khi vng ph sng ca MSC1 th
HON s b xo.

 Nhn dng thit b di ng quc t - IMEI (International Moble


Equipment Identity):
IMEI c hng ch to ghi sn trong thit b thu bao v c thu bao
cung cp cho MSC khi cn thit. Cu trc ca IMEI:
TAC

FAC

SNR

Trong :
TAC (Type Approval Code): m chng nhn loi thit b, gm 6 k t, dng
phn bit vi cc loi khng c cp bn quyn. TAC c qun l mt cch
tp trung.
FAC (Final Assembly Code): xc nh ni sn xut, gm 2 k t.
SNR (Serial Number): l s Seri, dng xc nh cc my c cng TAC v
FAC.

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Phn II
TI U HA MNG GSM

Chng III
TNH TON MNG DI NG GSM
3.1. L thuyt dung lng v cp dch v
Trong qu trnh pht trin mng, tng cng dung lng ca mng l mt
nhu cu cp thit. Tuy nhin, cng cn xc nh dung lng cn tng l bao nhiu
ph hp vi tng giai on pht trin ca mng v ph hp vi yu cu v mt
k thut v kinh t hin ti.

3.1.1. Lu lng v knh v tuyn ng trc


Trong lnh vc giao thng vn ti, ng trc cho nhiu xe c i n mi
ni. Hiu qu s dng ca ng trc ln hn nhiu so vi ng ct (ch ni vi
mt x vng su chng hn). Nu lin lc v tuyn bng knh v tuyn dnh ring
PRM (Private Mobile Radio), th phn ln thi gian knh v tuyn khng c
s dng. Ti nguyn knh v tuyn l rt hn ch, nn phi qun l n trn phm vi
quc gia v quc t. T , xu hng l knh v tuyn ng trc dng chung.
H thng thng tin di ng cellular p dng knh v tuyn ng trc: Mi
BTS c mt s knh v tuyn dng chung cho nhiu ngi. T l ngi dng trn
s knh dng chung cng cao th hiu qu s dng ng trc cng cao. Hiu sut
s dng ph tn s li cng cao khi cng mt tn s m c dng li nhiu ln
cc cell cch xa nhau.

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Lu lng: Trong h thng vin thng, lu lng l tin tc c truyn dn


qua cc knh thng tin.
Lu lng ca mt thu bao c tnh theo cng thc:
A=

C *t
3600

Trong :
C : s cuc gi trung bnh trong mt gi ca mt thu bao.
t

: thi gian trung bnh cho mt cuc gi.

A : lu lng thng tin trn mt thu bao (tnh bng Erlang).


Theo s liu thng k in hnh th:
C=1

: trung bnh mt ngi c mt cuc gi trong mt gi.

t = 120s : thi gian trung bnh cho mt cuc gi l 2 pht.


A=

1 * 120
33 mErlang/ngi s dng
3600

Nh vy, phc v cho 1000 thu bao ta cn mt lu lng l 33 Erlang.

3.1.2. Cp dch v - GoS (Grade of Service)


Nu mt knh b chim ton b thi gian, th knh t c dung lng
cc i 1 Erl. V ngi s dng truy cp knh v tuyn theo kiu ngu nhn, nn
khng th trnh khi nhng khong thi gian trng knh v tuyn , do vy
knh v tuyn khng t c dung lng l tng (1 Erl). Khi s ngi dng tng
ln, s cuc gi i qua knh cng tng, nn thng lng tng ln.C th xy ra tnh
hung nhiu ngi dng ng thi truy cp mt knh v tuyn, khi ch c mt
ngi c dng knh, nhng ngi khc b tc nghn.

Hnh 3-1 Lu lng: Mun truyn, c truyn, nghn

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Lu lng mun truyn = Lu lng c truyn + Lu lng nghn.


Offered Traffic

= Carried Traffic

+ Blocked Traffic

Cp phc v (GoS = Grade of Service):


mt knh ng trc c cht lng phc v cao th xc sut nghn phi
thp. Vy nn s ngi dng c th phi b gii hn, tc l lu lng mun truyn
phi gi trong dung lng knh. Nu chp nhn mt cp phc v thp hn, tc l
xc sut nghn ln hn, th tng ng tng c dung lng mun truyn (tng s
ngi dng). GoS cng mt ngha vi xc sut nghn:
Lu lng mun truyn: A (lu lng mun truyn)
Lu lng b nghn : A*GoS (lu lng mt i)
Lu lng c truyn : A*(1 - GoS) (lu lng pht ra)
Theo thng k cho thy th cc thu bao c nhn s khng nhn ra c s
tc nghn h thng mc di 10%. Tuy nhin mng hot ng vi hiu sut
cao th mng cellular thng c GoS = 2 % ngha l ti a 2% lu lng b nghn,
ti thiu 98% lu lng c truyn.

M hnh ERLANG B:
y l m hnh h thng thng tin hot ng theo kiu tiu hao. Thu bao
khng h gi li khi cuc gi khng thnh. ng thi gi thit rng: Xc sut cuc
gi phn b theo lut ngu nhin Poisson, s ngi dng rt ln so vi s knh
dng chung, khng c knh d tr dng ring, cuc gi b nghn khng c gi li
ngay.

Hnh 3-2 Xc sut nghn GoS

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M hnh Erlang B l m hnh thch hp hn c cho mng GSM. T cc cng


thc ton hc, ngi ta lp ra bng Erlang B cho tin dng (phn Ph lc).
V d: S knh dng chung l 10, GoS l 2%. Tra bng Erlang B ta c lu
lng mun truyn l A = 5,084 Erl. Vy lu lng c truyn l:
A*(1 - GoS) = 5,084*(1 0,02) = 4,9823 Erl.

3.1.3. Hiu sut s dng trung k (ng trc)


Hiu sut s dng trung k l t s gia lu lng c truyn vi s knh
ca ng trc.
v d trn, ta ang xt trung k c s knh dng chung n = 10, GoS = 2 %,
nn lu lng c truyn s l 4,9823 Erl. Ta c:
Hiu sut s dng trung k =

4,9823
* 100% = 49,823 %
10

Hiu sut c v thp ny tng ng vi GoS tt (Xc sut nghn thp).


Chng hn, nu GoS = 10 % (ti hn) th lu lng mun truyn l 7,511 Erl, tng
ng lu lng c truyn l: 7,511*(1 0,1) = 6,7599 Erl. Khi , hiu sut s
dng trung k ln n

6,7599
* 100 % = 67,599 %.
10

GoS cng tt th hiu sut s dng trung k cng thp, cn phi c nhiu
knh v tuyn cho lu lng mun truyn cho. GoS cng km th vi mt lu
lng cho th ch cn s knh v tuyn l t hn.
Vi cng mt cp phc v, trung k cng ln (s knh dng chung ln) th
hiu qu s dng trung k cng cao.
S knh

Lu lng c truyn

Hiu sut s dng

TCH

(GoS = 2%)

trung k

2,2305 Erlang

37 %

10

4,9823 Erlang

49,82 %

15

8,8300 Erlang

58,86 %

25

17,155 Erlang

68,62 %

40

30,377 Erlang

75,94 %

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3.2. Cc yu t nh hng ti cht lng ph sng


3.2.1. Tn hao ng truyn sng v tuyn
H thng GSM c thit k vi mc ch l mt mng t ong dy c v
bao trm mt vng ph sng rng ln. Cc nh khai thc v thit k mng ca mnh
cui cng t c mt vng ph lin tc bao tt c cc vng dn c ca t
nc. Vng ph sng c chia thnh cc vng nh hn l cc cell. Mi cell c
ph sng bi mt trm pht v tuyn gc BTS. Kch thc cc i ca mt cell
thng thng c th t ti bn knh R = 35 km. V vy, suy hao ng truyn l
khng th trnh khi.
Vi mt anten cho trc v mt cng sut pht bit, suy hao ng truyn
t l vi bnh phng (d.f), trong d l khong cch t trm thu n trm pht gc
BTS. Trong mi trng thnh ph, vi nhiu nh cao tng, suy hao c th t l vi
lu tha 4 hoc cao hn na.
D on tn hao ng truyn trong thng tin di ng GSM bao gm mt
lot cc vn kh khn, m l do chnh bi v trm di ng lun lun di ng v
anten thu thp. Nhng l do thc t ny dn n s thay i lin tc ca a hnh
truyn sng, v vy trm di ng s phi vo nhng v tr tt nht thu c cc
tia phn x.
3.2.1.1. Tnh ton l thuyt
Cch c bn m n gin ta coi khng gian truyn sng l khng gian t do.
Gi thit rng khng c tia phn x v sng v tuyn c truyn trong khng gian
t do. Vi anten v hng, ta c cng thc suy hao ng truyn trong khng gian
t do:
Lf = 20log(4d /)

[dB]

Cng thc ny c th c vit li nh sau:


Lf = 32,5 + 20logd + 20logf [dB]
Trong :
d = khong cch t anten pht n anten thu [km].
f = tn s lm vic [MHz].

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Nhng cng thc l thuyt n gin v trn vn trn khng cn ph hp


trong mi trng di ng na, ni m truyn sng do nhiu ng l ch yu.
Nhng sng ny cng b tn x, nhiu x, suy gim do nhiu trng thi khc nhau
ca c vt th c nh v vt th chuyn ng. Hn na, s khc x tng i lu
lm ng truyn sng b un cong.
 M hnh mt t bng phng:
M hnh mt t c trnh by trong hnh 3.3 cho thy tng tn hiu n
trong my thu bao gm thnh phn n trc tip cng vi thnh phn phn x t
mt t (thnh phn ny c th c coi nh l tn hiu gc t mt anten o trong
lng t). Hai sng ny cng nhau to thnh sng khng gian (Space Wave).

Hnh 3-3 Truyn sng trong trng hp coi mt t l bng phng


Ta c cng thc sau tnh suy hao ng truyn:
L = 20.log(d2 /h1.h2 )
Nhng trong thc t, khong khng gian gia my thu v my pht thng
c cc vt chn (hnh 3.4). Theo l thuyt v truyn sng v tuyn, mt chng
ngi vt s lm suy gim cng ca tn hiu truyn thng. S suy gim ny ph
thuc vo vt chn trong tm nhn thng ca vt chn.

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Hnh 3-4 Vt chn trong tm nhn thng


Cng thc sau dng tnh ton s suy gim do vt chn gy ra:
V=

2( d 1 + d 2 )
d1d 2

Trn thc t cc loi a hnh truyn sng rt phc tp, khng mt cng thc
no c th cp c ht cc loi a hnh ny. V vy, xut hin nhng m
hnh truyn sng nh nhng o c thc t ca cc nh khoa hc. Nhng kt qu t
nhng php o c chuyn thnh nhng th ch ra mi quan h gia cng
trng v khong cch vi mt s bin nh: chiu cao anten, loi a hnh...
 Phng php o cng trng:
Nm 1968, Y. Okumura l mt k s ngi Nht Bn a ra rt nhiu s
liu v vic o cng trng tham kho. ng chia a hnh thnh 5 loi chnh
1. Vng hu nh bng phng
2. Vng nhiu i
3. Vng c chm ni c lp
4. Vng c a hnh dc
5. Vng ranh gii gia t v nc (b sng, b bin...)
ng a ra nhng th nghim trn tt c cc loi a hnh trn ti nhng tn
s khc nhau, vi nhng cao anten khc nhau v s dng cc cng sut pht

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khc nhau. i vi mi loi a hnh c mt biu tng ng ch ra tn hao ng


vi loi a hnh (hnh 3.5).

Hnh 3-5 Biu cng trng ca OKUMURA


Ta thy rng s o lng ca Okumura ch cho thy s suy gim ca cng
tn hiu theo khong cch, nhng n gim nhanh hn nhiu so vi nhng g ta
bit trong khng gian t do.
3.2.1.2. Cc m hnh chnh lan truyn sng trong thng tin di ng:
 M hnh truyn sng Hata:
Vo khong nm 1980, M.Hata gii thiu m hnh ton hc trong vic
tnh suy gim ng truyn da trn nhng phn tch d liu ca Okumula.

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Cng thc Hata:


Lp( th ) = 69,55 + 26,16.logf 13,82.log(hb) a(hm) + [44,9 6,55log(hb)].logd
Trong :
Lp( th)

: suy hao ng truyn i vi th ng dn [dB]

: tn s sng mang (1501500) MHz

hb

: chiu cao ca anten trm gc (30200) m

hm

: chiu cao anten my di ng (120) m

: khong cch t trm gc n my di ng (120) km

H s hiu chnh anten a(hm) :


a(hm) = (1,1.logf 0,7).hm (1,56.logf 0,8)
V cng thc tnh suy hao cho vng ngoi th:
Lp(ngoi ) = Lp( th) 2.[log(f/28)]2 5,4
Lp(nng thn) = Lp( th) 4,78(logf)2 + 18,33.logf 40,94
M hnh Hata c s dng rng ri nhng trong cc trng hp c bit
nh nh cao tng phi s dng Microcell vi anten lp t di mi nh cn phi s
dng m hnh khc c gii thiu tip theo.
 M hnh COST 231:
COST (Collaborative studies in Science and Technology - Cng tc nghin
cu khoa hc v cng ngh) c s bo tr ca EU. COST231 bao gm mt s
vn lin quan ti v tuyn ca v nhng m hnh truyn sng. Mt Microcell
c COST231 nh ngha l mt cell nh vi phm vi t 0,5 n 1 km, trong phm
vi ny anten gc ni chung c t thp hn cao ca to nh cao nht.
Anten trm gc ca cell ln hoc cell nh ni chung u c t pha trn
ca to nh cao nht. Cell nh ca GSM c gii hn trong phm vi bn knh
khong 13 km, tri li cell ln c th m rng phm vi bn knh ln ti 35 km.
Da trn c s ny, COST a ra m hnh Hata COST231.
M hnh Hata COST231
M hnh ny c thit k hot ng trong di tn t 15002000 MHz
th hoc ngoi , ta c cng thc:
Lp = 46,3 + 33,9.logf 13,82.loghb a(hm) + (44,9 6,55.loghb).logd + Cm
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Trong :
Lp

: suy hao ng truyn ( dB )

: tn s hot ng ( MHz )

hb

: cao anten trm gc ( m )

hm

: cao anten my di ng ( m )

a(hm) : h s hiu chnh anten


d

: khong cch t trm gc n my di ng ( km )

Cm

= 0 dB i vi thnh ph c trung bnh hoc trung tm ngoi


= 3 dB i vi trung tm th

 M hnh SAKAGAMIKUBOL:
y l m hnh c pht trin da trn kt qu ca m hnh Okumura. Kt
qu l c c mt m hnh ng quan tm bi nhng l do sau:
1. N a ra rt nhiu tham s cho mi trng th.
2. N c th p ng c trn phm vi tn s 4502200 MHz.
3. N a ra nhng qui nh hp l i vi nhng cao ca anten trm gc
thp hn nh cc to nh, to ra m hnh hu ch cho ng dng ca Microcell.
Cng thc ca m hnh ny l:
Lp = 100 7,1.logW + 0,023. + 1,4.loghs + 6,1.log<H> [24,37
3,7.(H/hb)2].loghb + (43,42 3,1.loghb).logd + 20logf + exp[13(logf 3,23)]
Trong :
Lp

: suy hao [dB]

: b rng ca ng ti im thu ( 550 m )

: gc gia trc ca ng vi ng thng ni t anten trm gc n

my di ng
hs

: cao ca ta nh c t anten trm gc pha im thu (580 m)

<H> : cao trung bnh ca cc to nh xung quanh im thu (550 m)


hb

: cao ca anten trm gc ti im thu (20100 m)

: cao trung bnh ca cc ta nh xung quanh trm gc (H > hb)

: khong cch gia trm gc v im thu (0,510 km)

: tn s hot ng (4502200 MHz)

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3.2.2. Vn Fading
 Fading chun Loga: trm di ng thng hot ng cc mi trng c
nhiu chng ngi vt (cc qu i, to nh...). iu ny dn n hiu ng che
khut (Shaddowing) lm gim cng tn hiu thu, khi thu bao di chuyn cng
thu s thay i.
 Fading Rayleigh: Khi mi trng c nhiu chng ngi vt, tn hiu thu
c t nhiu phng khc nhau. iu ny ngha l tn hiu thu l tng ca nhiu
tn hiu ging nhau nhng khc pha v bin .
gim phn no tc hi do Fading gy ra, ngi ta thng tng cng sut
pht ln to ra mt lng d tr Fading, s dng mt s bin php nh: phn
tp anten, nhy tn ...

3.2.3. nh hng nhiu C/I v C/A


Mt c im ca cell l cc knh ang s dng c th c s dng
cc cell khc. Nhng gia cc cell ny phi c mt khong cch nht nh. iu
ny c ngha l cell s b nhiu ng knh do vic cc cell khc s dng cng tn
s. Cui cng vng ph sng ca trm gc s b gii hn bi l do ny hn l do tp
m thng thng. V vy, ta c th ni rng mt h thng t ong hon thin l gii
hn c nhiu m c qui chun, loi tr c nhiu h thng. Mt vn
trong thit k h t ong l iu khin cc loi nhiu ny mc chp nhn c.
iu ny c thc hin mt phn bi vic vic iu khin khong cch s dng li
tn s. Khong cch ny cng ln th nhiu cng b.
cht lng thoi lun c m bo th mc thu ca sng mang mong
mun C (Carrier) phi ln hn tng mc nhiu ng knh I (Interference) v mc
nhiu knh ln cn A (Adjacent).
3.2.3.1. Nhiu ng knh C/I:
Nhiu ng knh xy ra khi c hai my pht pht trn cng mt tn s hoc
trn cng mt knh. My thu iu chnh knh ny s thu c c hai tn hiu vi
cng ph thuc vo v tr ca my thu so vi hai my pht.
T s sng mang trn nhiu c nh ngha l cng tn hiu mong mun
trn cng tn hiu nhiu.
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C/I = 10log(Pc/Pi) .
Trong :
Pc = cng sut tn hiu thu mong mun
Pi = cng sut nhiu thu c.

Hnh 3-6 T s nhiu ng knh C/I


Hnh 3.6 trn ch ra trng hp m my di ng (cellphone) t trong xe
ang thu mt sng mang mong mun t mt trm gc phc v (Serving BS) v
ng thi cng ang chu mt nhiu ng knh do nhiu pht sinh ca mt trm gc
khc (Interference BS).
Gi s rng c hai trm u pht vi mt cng sut nh nhau cc ng
truyn sng cng tng ng (hu nh cng khng khc nhau trong thc t) v
im gia, my di ng c C/I bng 0 dB, c ngha l c hai tn hiu c cng
bng nhau. Nu my di ng i gn v pha trm gc ang phc v n th C/I > 0
dB. Nu my di ng chuyn ng v pha trm gy ra nhiu th C/I < 0 dB.
Theo khuyn ngh ca GSM gi tr C/I b nht m my di ng vn c th
lm vic tt l 9 dB. Trong thc t, ngi ta nhn thy rng gi tr ny cn thit phi

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ln n 12 dB ngoi tr nu s dng nhy tn th mi c th lm vic mc C/I l


9dB. mc C/I thp hn th t l li bit BER (Bit Error Rate) s cao khng chp
nhn c v m ho knh cng khng th sa li mt cch chnh xc c.
T s C/I c dng cho cc my di ng ph thuc rt ln vo vic quy
hoch tn s v mu ti s dng tn s. Ni chung vic s dng li tn s lm dung
lng tng ng k tuy nhin ng thi cng lm cho t s C/I gim i. Do vic
quy hoch tn s cn quan tm n nhiu ng knh C/I.
3.2.3.2. Nhiu knh ln cn C/A:
Nhiu knh ln cn xy ra khi sng v tuyn c iu chnh v thu ring
knh C song li chu nhiu t knh ln cn C-1 hoc C+1. Mc d thc t sng v
tuyn khng c chnh thu knh ln cn , nhng n vn ngh mt s p
ng nh l cho php knh ln cn gy nhiu ti knh m my thu ang iu chnh.
T s sng mang trn knh ln cn c nh ngha l cng ca sng mang
mong mun trn cng ca sng mang knh ln cn.
C/A = 10.log(Pc/Pa)
Trong :
Pc = cng sut thu tn hiu mong mun
Pa = cng sut thu tn hiu ca knh ln cn
Gi tr C/A thp lm cho mc BER cao. Mc d m ho knh GSM bao gm
vic pht hin li v sa li, nhng vic thnh cng th cng c gii hn i
vi nhiu. Theo khuyn ngh ca GSM, cho vic quy hoch tn s c tt th
gi tr C/A nh nht nn ln hn - 9 dB.
Khong cch gia ngun to ra tn hiu mong mun vi ngun ca knh ln
cn ln s tt hn cho C/A. iu ny c ngha l cc cell ln cn khng nn c n
nh cc sng mang ca cc knh cnh nhau nu C/A c c ngh trong
mt gii hn nht nh.
C hai t s C/I v C/A u c th c tng ln bng vic s dng quy
hoch cu trc tn s.

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3.2.3.3. Mt s bin php khc phc


Vn can nhiu knh chung l mt thch thc ln vi h thng thng tin di
ng t bo. C cc phng php gim can nhiu knh chung nh:
1. Tng c ly s dng li tn s (D)
2. H thp cao anten trm gc
3. S dng Anten nh hng BTS (Sector ha)
Vi phng php th nht: vic tng c ly s dng li tn s D s lm gim
can nhiu knh chung, tuy nhin khi s cell trong mi mng mu s tng, tng
ng vi s knh tn s dnh cho mi cell s gim v nh vy th dung lng phc
v s gim xung.
Phng php th hai vic h thp anten trm gc lm cho nh hng gia
cc cell dng chung tn s s c gim bt v nh vy can nhiu knh chung cng
c gim bt. Tuy nhin, vic h thp anten s lm nh hng ca cc vt cn
(nh cao tng) ti cht lng ca h thng tr nn nghim trng hn.
Phng php th 3 c hai ch li: Mt l bin php lm gim can nhiu knh
chung trong khi c ly s dng li tn s khng i, hai l tng dung lng h thng.
Phng php ny s c trnh by trong phn sau.
Ngoi ra, cc k thut khc nh:
iu khin cng sut pht sng kiu ng
Truyn pht gin on
Nhy tn
cng lm ci thin thm ng k t s C/ I ca h thng
 Mt s k thut tng cht lng h thng:
Nhy tn:
Thc cht ca vic nhy tn l thc hin tri cc cm (burst) d liu trn cc
knh tn s khc nhau mt cch ngu nhin, nhm gim nhiu trong ton b h
thng. iu ny c ngha rt ln i vi cc mng ln m vic s dng li tn s
l cc k kh khn. nhy tn cn ch trong trng hp t hp nhy tn, s tn
s ny c th nhiu hn s trm thu/pht TRX ca cell. Khi chn cc tn s nhy

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tn khc nhau s lm cho cc cm d liu nhy tn theo cc cch khc nhau v lm


gim kh nng trng tn s gia cc cm s liu trn 2 cell.
Truyn pht gin on _ Discontinuous Transmission (DTX):
Thc cht ca phng php DTX l BTS hay MS ch pht khi nhn c tn hiu
u vo nh c tn hiu thoi v khi kt thc tn hiu n s ngng pht. Vic pht
hay khng c thc hin trn c s tng khe thi gian. Mc ch ca phng php
ny l tit kim nng lng v gim nhiu trn knh ln cn mt cch ti a. Khi s
dng phng php truyn dn gin on ta cn thm cc thit b ph tr khc nh
VAD (Voice Active Detector) pht hin tn hiu vo v to ra ting n gi khi
mt pha no ngng cung cp tn hiu.
iu khin cng sut thu pht ca MS v BTS: Vic iu khin tng
gim cng sut thu pht ca MS v BTS cng lm ci thin ng k t s C/ I.

3.2.4. Phn tn thi gian


Phn tn thi gian xy ra l do c nhiu ng truyn sng t my pht n
my thu. Hin tng phn tn thi gian gy ra mt s vn cho mng thng tin di
ng s. Vic s dng truyn dn s cng gy ra mt s vn khc nh: phn tn
thi gian do cc tn hiu phn x (Reflection) gy ra.
S phn tn thi gian s gy ra hin tng giao thoa gia cc k t. Gi
thit chng ta pht i mt chui bit 1 v 0. Nu tn hiu phn x i chm hn tn
hiu i thng ng 1 bit th my thu pht hin bit 1 t sng phn x ng thi cng
pht hin bit 0 t sng i thng.
Ca s thi gian c nh ngha l khong thi gian 15 ms sau khi my thu
nhn c tn hiu trc tip t my pht. Gi s cc tia phn x n my thu bn
ngoi ca s thi gian, tc l sau 15 ms, s gy phin phc cho h thng ging nh
l nhiu.Ta bit gi tr ti thiu ca C/I trong h thng GSM l 9 dB.
Chng ta c th coi gi tr ny l gi tr cc i ca phn tn thi gian. Ngha
l tt c cc tn hiu phn x m n tr hn 15 ms, bn ngoi ca s thi gian, phi
c gi tr tng nh hn 9 dB. T s ny chnh l C/R.

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3.2.4.1. Cc trng hp phn tn thi gian


 Nhng mi trng nguy him: (l nhng mi trng c th gy nn vn
v phn tn thi gian).
Nhng vng ni
H su hoc nhiu nh cao tng
Nhng to nh cao c kt cu kim loi , ...
Trong tt c nhng trng hp nh vy phn tn thi gian ch c th xy ra
khi hiu qung ng gia tn hiu trc tip v tn hiu phn x t nhng chng
ngi vt k trn ln hn ca s cn bng (4,5 km).
Ni chung, s nguy him ca phn tn thi gian s tng cng vi khong
cch gia BTS v MS. Khi mt MS gn BTS c th nhn c tn hiu phn x
mnh vi hiu qung ng ln nhng vn khng nh hng g do tn hiu trc tip
mnh m bo t s C/R trn ngng ti hn. Khi MS chuyn ng ra xa BTS th
nguy c t s C/R thp s tng ln do tn hiu trc tip yu i.
Tuy nhin, mt iu cn ch l tia phn x cng l mt phn ca sng
mang cho nn vic quy hoch mt h thng cn phi ch ra c cc trng hp c
th c th xy ra hin tng giao thoa k t.
 Phn tn thi gian vi cc trng hp khc nhau
Trng hp 1:

Trng hp ny: Tuy hiu s qung ng = DR D0 ln (DR = D1 + D2),


nhng tn hiu trc tip mnh, tn hiu phn x yu. Do vy t s C/R trn ngng.

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Trng hp 2:

Trng hp ny: Hiu s qung ng vn cn kh ln nn cc tn hiu phn


x nm ngoi ca s thi gian.
Trong khi tn hiu n trc tip yu i, tn hiu phn x mnh hn. T s
C/R gn hoc thp hn ngng.
y l trng hp nguy him nht, hin tng phn tn thi gian biu hin
r rng nht.
Trng hp 3:

Trng hp ny: Tn hiu phn x mnh gn nh tn hiu trc tip, t s C/R


gn hoc di ngng. Nhng do hiu qung ng nh nm trong ca s cn
bng, hay cc tn hiu phn x nm trong ca s thi gian, nn trng hp ny
khng b nh hng bi phn tn thi gian.
3.2.4.2. Mt s gii php khc phc
Nhng gii php kh thi trnh tc hi ca phn tn thi gian l:
1. Chn v tr t BTS:
Di chuyn BTS n cng gn vt gy phn x cng tt. iu ny s m
bo cho hiu khong cch lun nh nm trong phm vi ca s cn bng.

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Hnh 3-7 t BTS gn chng ngi vt trnh phn tn thi gian


Chuyn hng anten ca BTS ra khi pha vt chng ngi gy phn x
nu BTS c t xa n. Anten nn chn c t s tng ch trc trn sau cao.
2. Thay i anten v gc nghing anten:
Nu vt phn x khng b chiu vo th s khng c hin tng phn x. Nh
vy, ta phi c gng gim phn nng lng bc x t vt phn x m c th gy ra
hin tng phn x c hi.
S dng anten down tilt l mt cch c th p dng c. Anten down tilt
vi rng bp sng vo khong 100, c s dng trnh chiu vo nhng vng
ni v trong trng hp cn ph sng cho mt trc ng quc l. Vn chnh khi
s dng anten ny l chng phi c lp t tht chnh xc, sai s khng c
vt qu 10.
3. iu chnh tham s cell:
Mt cch khc chng phn tn thi gian l thay i tham s ca cell.
Nu mt vng no trong mt cell c cng tn hiu thp so vi vng
cn li trong cell th cc tham s iu khin chuyn giao nn c thit lp tin
hnh cc cuc chuyn giao ra ngay khi cell ny trc khi my di ng MS i
vo vng nguy him . Cc tham s ca cc cell bn cnh cng nn c thit lp
sao cho cc cuc chuyn giao khng b chuyn vo nhng vng c xy ra tn sc
thi gian nm trong cell .

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4. o lng:
Bin php o lng c a ra trong nhng mi trng khc nhau m
nhng chng ngi vt gy nn phn tn ch nm ngoi vng ellipe c to nn
bi v tr gia BTS v MS v phm vi ca s cn bng (hnh 3.8).
Nng lng sng phn x t l vi R-4 ca khong cch. C ngha l n s
gim rt nhanh khi ra xa chng ngi vt. V li, nu BTS v MS nhn thy c
nhau th tn hiu trc tip s mnh hn rt nhiu so vi tn hiu phn x v tc hi
lm cho cht lng cuc kt ni khng c n nh trong thi gian phn tn thi
gian s rt nh.

Hnh 3-8 Phm vi vng Elip

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Thit k h thng

Chng IV
THIT K H THNG
4.1. H thng thng tin di ng t bo
H thng thng tin di ng t bo s dng mt s lng ln cc my pht v
tuyn cng sut thp to nn cc cell hay cn gi l t bo (n v a l c bn
ca h thng thng tin v tuyn). Thay i cng sut my pht nhm thay i kch
thc cell theo phn b mt thu bao, nhu cu thu bao theo tng vng c th.
Khi thu bao di ng di chuyn t cell ny sang cell khc, cuc m thoi ca h s
c gi nguyn lin tc, khng gin on. Tn s s dng cell ny c th c
s dng li cell khc vi khong cch xc nh gia hai cell.
 Cu trc h thng thoi di ng trc y
Dch v thoi di ng truyn thng c cu trc ging nh h thng truyn
hnh pht thanh qung b: Mt trm pht sng cng sut mnh t ti mt cao im
c th pht tn hiu trong vng bn knh n 50km.

Hnh 4-1 Cu trc h thng thng tin di ng trc y

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Thit k h thng

 H thng thng tin di ng t bo


Khi nim mng t ong cu trc li h thng thng tin di ng theo cch
khc. Thay v s dng mt trm cng sut ln, ngi ta s dng nhiu trm cng
sut nh trong vng ph sng c n nh trc. Ly v d, bng cch phn chia
mt vng trung tm thnh 100 vng nh hn (cc t bo), mi cell s dng mt
my pht cng sut thp vi kh nng cung cp 12 knh thoi cho mi my. Khi
nng lc ca h thng v l thuyt c th tng t 12 knh thoi s dng mt my
pht cng sut ln ln n 1200 knh thoi bng cch s dng 100 my pht cng
sut thp. Nh vy l dung lng h thng tng ln rt nhiu.
Bng cch gim bn knh ca vng ph sng i 50% (din tch vng ph
sng gim 4 ln), nh cung cp dch v c th tng kh nng phc v ln 4 ln. H
thng c trin khai trn vng c bn knh 1 Km c th cung cp s knh ln hn
gp 100 ln so vi h thng trin khai trn vng c bn knh 10 Km. T thc t rt
ra kt lun rng, bng cch gim bn knh vng i vi trm mt th nh cung cp c
th phc v thm vi triu cuc gi.

Hnh 4-2 H thng thng tin di ng s dng cu trc t bo


Khi nim cell (t bo) c s dng vi cc mc cng sut thp khc nhau,
n cho php cc cell (cc t bo) c th thay i vng ph sng tu theo mt ,
nhu cu ca thu bao trong mt vng nht nh. Cc cell c th c thm vo tng

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Thit k h thng

vng tu theo s pht trin ca thu bao trong vng . Tn s cell ny c th


c ti s dng cell khc, cc cuc in thoi vn c duy tr lin tc khi thu
bao di chuyn t cell ny sang cell khc.

4.2. Quy hoch Cell


4.2.1. Khi nim t bo (Cell)
Cell (t bo hay ): l n v c s ca mng, ti trm di ng MS tin
hnh trao i thng tin vi mng qua trm thu pht gc BTS. BTS trao i thng tin
qua sng v tuyn vi tt c cc trm di ng MS c mt trong Cell.

Hnh 4-3 Khi nim Cell


Hnh dng l thuyt ca Cell l mt t ong hnh lc gic:

Hnh 4-4 Khi nim v bin gii ca mt Cell

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Thit k h thng

Trn thc t, hnh dng ca cell l khng xc nh. Vic quy hoch vng ph
sng cn quan tm n cc yu t a hnh v mt thu bao, t xc nh s
lng trm gc BTS, kch thc cell v phng thc ph sng thch hp.

4.2.2. Kch thc Cell v phng thc ph sng


4.2.2.1. Kch thc Cell
 Cell ln: Bn knh ph sng khong: n km n*10 km (GSM: 35 km)
V tr thit k cc Cell ln:
Sng v tuyn t b che khut (vng nng thn, ven bin )
Mt thu bao thp.
Yu cu cng sut pht ln.
 Cell nh: Bn knh ph sng khong: n*100 m. (GSM: 1 km)
V tr thit k cc Cell nh:
Sng v tuyn b che khut (vng th ln).
Mt thu bao cao.
Yu cu cng sut pht nh.
C tt c bn kch thc cell trong mng GSM l macro, micro, pico v
umbrella. Vng ph sng ca mi cell ph thuc nhiu vo mi trng.
Macro cell c lp trn ct cao hoc trn cc to nh cao tng.
Micro cell li c lp cc khu thnh th, khu dn c.
Pico cell th tm ph sng ch khong vi chc mt tr li n thng c
lp tip sng trong nh.
Umbrella lp b sung vo cc vng b che khut hay cc vng trng gia
cc cell.
Bn knh ph sng ca mt cell tu thuc vo cao ca anten, li anten
thng th n c th t vi trm mt ti vi chc km. Trong thc t th kh nng
ph sng xa nht ca mt trm GSM l 32 km (22 dm).
Mt s khu vc trong nh m cc anten ngoi tri khng th ph sng ti
nh nh ga, sn bay, siu th... th ngi ta s dng cc trm pico chuyn tip
sng t cc anten ngoi tri vo.

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Thit k h thng

4.2.2.2. Phng thc ph sng


Hnh dng ca cell trong mi mt s chun ph thuc vo kiu anten v
cng sut ra ca mi mt BTS. C hai loi anten thng c s dng: anten v
hng (omni) l anten pht ng hng, v anten c hng l anten bc x nng
lng tp trung trong mt r qut (sector).
 Pht sng v hng Omni directional Cell (3600)
Anten v hng hay 3600 bc x nng lng u theo mi hng.

Hnh 4-5 Omni (3600) Cell site


Khi nim Site: Site c nh ngha l v tr t trm BTS.
Vi Anten v hng: 1 Site = 1 Cell 3600
 Pht sng nh hng Sectorization:
Li ch ca sectorization (sector ha):
Ci thin cht lng tn hiu (Gim can nhiu knh chung).
Tng dung lng thu bao.

Hnh 4-6 Sector ha 1200


Vi Anten nh hng 1200: 1 Site = 3 Cell 1200

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Thit k h thng

4.2.3. Chia Cell (Cells Splitting)


Mt cell vi kch thc cng nh th dung lng thng tin cng tng. Tuy
nhin, kch thc nh i c ngha l cn phi c nhiu trm gc hn v nh th chi
ph cho h thng lp t trm cng cao hn.
Khi h thng bt u c s dng s thu bao cn thp, ti u th kch
thc cell phi ln. Nhng khi dung lng h thng tng th kch thc cell cng
phi gim i p ng vi dung lng mi. Phng php ny gi l chia cell.
Tuy nhin, s khng thc t khi ngi ta chia nh ton b cc h thng ra
cc vng nh hn na v tng ng vi n l cc cells. Nhu cu lu lng cng
nh mt thu bao s dng gia cc vng nng thn v thnh th c s khc nhau
nn i hi cu trc mng cc vng cng khc nhau.
Cc nh quy hoch s dng khi nim cells splitting phn chia mt khu
vc c mt thu bao cao, lu lng ln thnh nhiu vng nh hn cung cp
tt hn cc dch v mng. V d cc thnh ph ln c phn chia thnh cc vng
a l nh hn vi cc cell c mc ph sng hp nhm cung cp cht lng dch
v cng nh lu lng s dng cao, trong khi khu vc nng thn nn s dng cc
cell c vng ph sng ln, tng ng vi n s lng cell s s dng t hn p
ng cho lu lng thp v s ngi dng vi mt thp hn.

Hnh 4-7 Phn chia Cell


ng trn quan im kinh t, vic hoch nh cell phi bo m lu lng
h thng khi s thu bao tng ln, ng thi chi ph phi l thp nht. Thc hin

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Thit k h thng

c iu ny th yu cu phi tn dng c c s h tng ca i trm c. p


ng c yu cu ny, ngi ta s dng phng php gim kch thc cell gi l
tch cell (cells splitting).Theo phng php ny vic hoch nh c chia thnh
cc giai on sau:
1. Giai on 0 (phase 0):
Khi mng li mi c thit lp, lu lng cn thp, s lng i trm cn
t, mng thng s dng cc omni cell vi cc anten v hng, phm vi ph sng
rng.

Hnh 4-8 Cc Omni (3600) Cells ban u


Khi mng c m rng, dung lng s tng ln, p ng c iu ny
phi dng nhiu sng mang hn hoc s dng li nhng sng mang c mt cch
thng xuyn hn.
Tuy nhin, mi s thay i trong quy hoch cu trc tn s phi gn lin vi
vic quan tm ti t s C/I. Cc tn s khng th c n nh mt cch ngu nhin
cho cc cell. thc hin c iu ny, phng php ph bin l chia cell theo
th t.
2. Giai on 1 (Phase 1): Sector ha
Thay anten v hng (omni) bng 3 anten ring bit nh hng di qut
0

120 l mt gii php tch chia mt Cell thnh 3 Cells. l gii php di qut ha
(sectorization sector ha). Cch lm ny khng i hi thm mt bng cho cc

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Thit k h thng

Cell mi. Tuy cc Cell mi phn bit nhau theo chc nng mng nhng chng vn
ti mt bng c.
Khi , ti mi v tr c (Site) by gi c th phc v c 3 cell mi, nhng
cell ny nh hn v c 3 anten nh hng c t v tr ny, gc gia cc anten
ny l 1200.

Hnh 4-9 Giai on 1 :Sector ha


3. Giai on 2: Tch chia nh hn na v sau
 Tch chia Cell 1:3 thm ln na
Hnh 4.10 trnh by vic tch chia 3 thm ln na. Ln tch ny s dng li
mt bng c v thm mi gp i mt bng mi cho cc BTS mi.
mt bng c, anten cn quay i 300 ngc chiu kim ng h. Nh vy
tng s mt bng gp 3 ln mt bng c tr gi cho s tng dung lng mng ln
gp 3 ln.

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Thit k h thng

Hnh 4-10 Tch chia 1:3 thm ln na


 Tch chia 1:4 (sau ln u chia 3)

Hnh 4-11 Tch chia 1:4 (sau ln u chia 3)

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Thit k h thng

S tch chia ny khng i hi xoay hng anten tt c cc BTS c mt


bng c. V tr BTS mt bng mi c biu th trn hnh v 4.11.
S ln s dng li tn s, dung lng h thng v s lng mt bng BTS
u tng 4 ln so vi trc khi chia tch.
Ty theo yu cu v dung lng h thng, vic chia cell c th c thc
hin tip tc. Tuy nhin, mi s thay i trong quy hoch cu trc tn s phi gn
lin vi vic quan tm ti t s nhiu C/I.
By gi ta hy xt mt v d thy c s tng dung lng khi thu hp
kch thc cell. Gi thit rng h thng c 24 tn s v chng ta bt u t mt cm
7 cell c bn knh cc i 14 km. Sau chng ta thc hin cc giai on 1 tch 3
v 1 tch 4.
Cng gi thit rng mt thu bao c lu lng 0,02 Erlang vi mc phc
v GoS = 5%. Vi 24 tn s, ngha l s knh logic ca h thng s l:
24 x 8 = 192 knh
Trong giai on th nht, khi 1 cm (s nhm tn s) l N = 7, th s knh
lu lng TCH cho mi cell l:
(192 - 2 x7 )/7 = 178/7 = 25 TCH
Trong giai on tip theo, khi mt cm c N = 21. S knh lu lng cho
mi cell l:
(192 - 21)/21 = 171/21 = 8 TCH
Trong giai on th nht, ta phi s dng 2 knh cho vic iu khin. Trong
cc giai on tip theo ta ch cn dnh 1 knh cho vic iu khin l .
Cn c bng Erlang ta s c bng thng k v mt lu lng qua cc
bc tch cell nh sau:
TCH

Phm vi

mi

25

499,2km2

999

2,0

76%

8 km

21

166,4km2

227

1,4

54%

4 km

21

41,6 km2

227

5,5

54%

2 km

21

10,4 km2

227

21,8

54%

Giai

Bn knh

on

14 km

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S thu

S thu

Hiu qu

bao/ 1 bao/km2

trung k

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Chng IV

Thit k h thng

T bng ta thy, trong ln tch th nht, dung lng b gim (s thu bao
trn 1 km2 gim t 2 xung cn 1,4) l do hiu sut trung k b gim khi s knh
trn mt cell t i. Tuy nhin, y l mt bc khng th thiu c thc hin
cc bc tip theo. i vi cc bc tip theo l qui trnh 1 tch 4, bn knh cell
gim 2 ln, nhng dung lng tng 4 ln.
Nh vy, ta thy rng bin php cell split lm gim kch thc ca cell.
Nhng cng lm tng dung lng h thng. Bin php ny phi c p dng theo
tng giai on pht trin ca mng. Tuy nhin, bin php ny cng c mt s hn
ch bi kch thc cell cng c gii hn (gii hn trn l do cng sut bc x ca
BTS v MS c hn, gii hn di l do vn nhiu). ng thi vic lp t cc v
tr trm mi i hi kinh ph ln, vic kho st chn c nhng v tr thch hp
cng gp nhiu kh khn (nh trm t thit b, xy dng ct anten, mng in li
thun tin...)
gii quyt vn dung lng nhng khu vc c mt rt cao m cc
bin php trn khng gii quyt c, th vic s dng cc minicell v cc
microcell s tr nn ph bin vi phm vi ph sng nh, cng sut bc x ca
BTS (thng l cc trm Repeater) thp.

4.3. Quy hoch tn s


Ngy nay cc nh cung cp dch v di ng GSM s dng hai di tn s,
l GSM 900 v GSM 1800.
Mt s quc gia Chu M th s dng bng 850 Mhz v 1900 Mhz do bng
900 Mhz v 1800 Mhz y c s dng trc .
Di tn s dng cho GSM 900 l 890 960 MHz, gm 124 tn s sng mang
vi mi hng:
Uplink: 890 ~ 915 MHz v Downlink: 935~960 MHz.
Di tn s dng cho GSM 1800 l 1710 1880 MHz, gm 374 tn s sng
mang vi mi hng:
Uplink: 1710~1785 MHz v Downlink: 1805~1880 MHz.

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Thit k h thng

Hin nay, ti Vit Nam ang c 3 nh cung cp dch v di ng GSM l


Vinaphone, Mobiphone, Viettel, cng ng thi hot ng, nn di tn s hn hp
phi chia s u cho c 3 mng.
Vi mng di ng VMS-Mobifone di tn c n nh cho mng nh sau:
GSM 900: Di tn s dng trong VMS l 41 tn s t knh 84 n 124
tng ng vi:
Uplink: 906,6 MHz 914,8 MHz.
Downlink: 951,6 MHz 959,8 MHz.
GSM 1800: Di tn s dng trong VMS l t knh 579 n 644 tng ng
vi:
Uplink: 1723,6 MHz 1736,6 MHz.
Downlink: 1818,6 MHz 1831,6 MHz.
Ti nguyn tn s c hn trong khi s lng thu bao th ngy cng tng ln,
nn vic s dng li tn s l iu tt yu. Tuy nhin, khi s dng li tn s th vn
nhiu ng knh xut hin. Do cn c s hoch nh tn s tt ti thiu
ha nh hng ca nhiu ti cht lng ca h thng.

4.3.1. Ti s dng li tn s
Mt h thng t ong l da trn vic s dng li tn s. Nguyn l c bn
khi thit k h thng t ong l cc mu s dng li tn s. Theo nh ngha s dng
li tn s l vic s dng cc knh v tuyn cng mt tn s mang ph sng
cho cc vng a l khc nhau. Cc vng ny phi cch nhau mt c ly ln
mi nhiu giao thoa ng knh (c th xy ra) chp nhn c. T s sng mang
trn nhiu C/I ph thuc vo v tr tc thi ca thu bao di ng do a hnh khng
ng nht, s lng v kiu tn x.
 Mng mu (Cluster)
Cluster l mt nhm cc cell. Cc knh khng c ti s dng tn s trong
mt cluster.
Nh khai thc mng c giy php s dng mt s c hn cc tn s v
tuyn. Vic quy hoch tn s, ta phi sp xp thch hp cc tn s v tuyn vo mt
mng mu sao cho cc mng mu s dng li tn s m khng b nhiu qu mc.

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Thit k h thng

Hnh 4.12 m t cch ph sng bng mng mu gm 7 cell n gin.

Hnh 4-12 Mng mu gm 7 cells


 C ly dng li tn s
Ta bit rng s dng li tn s cc cell khc nhau th b gii hn bi nhiu
ng knh C/I gia cc cell nn C/I s l mt vn chnh cn c quan tm.
D dng thy rng, vi mt kch thc cell nht nh, khong cch s dng
li tn s ph thuc vo s nhm tn s N. Nu N cng ln, khong cch s dng
li tn s cng ln v ngc li.
Ta c cng thc tnh khong cch s dng li tn s:
D = R* 3 * N
(trong : R l bn knh cell)

Hnh 4-13 Khong cch ti s dng tn s

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Thit k h thng

 Tnh ton C/I


ng thi ta c cng thc tnh t s C/I nh sau:

Hnh 4-14 S tnh C/I


P l v tr ca MS thuc cell A, chu nh hng nhiu knh chung t cell B l
ln nht.
Ti v tr P (v tr my di ng MS) c:
x

C..R = I ..(D-R)

x
D
C ( D R)
1 = (

=
=
I
Rx

3.N -1)

Trong : x l h s truyn sng, ph bin nm trong khong t 3 n 4 i


vi hu ht cc mi trng.

C
(dB ) = 10*lg( 3.N -1)x
I

T s C/I (dB)

S cell (N)
Kch thc mng

x
3,0

3,5

4,0

9,0

10,5

12,0

11,7

13,7

15,6

16,6

19,4

22,2

18,7

21,8

24,9

12

21,0

24,5

28,0

21

25,2

29,4

33,6

Bng quan h N & C/I

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Thit k h thng

xc nh v tr ca cc cell ng knh ta s dng cng thc:


N = i2 + i.j + j2.

(i; j nguyn)

Theo cng thc ny: di chuyn t cell th nht i i cell theo mt hng, sau
quay i 600 v di chuyn i j cell theo hng ny. Hai cell u v cui ca qu
trnh di chuyn ny la hai cell ng knh.
Phn b t s C/I cn thit h thng c th xc nh s nhm tn s N m
ta c th s dng. Nu ton b s knh quy nh c chia thnh N nhm th mi
nhm s cha ( /N) knh. V tng s knh l c nh nn s nhm tn s N nh
hn s dn n nhiu knh hn mt nhm v mt i trm. V vy, vic gim s
lng cc nhm tn s s cho php mi i trm tng lu lng nh s gim s
lng cc i trm cn thit cho ti lu lng nh trc.

4.3.2. Cc mu ti s dng tn s
K hiu tng qut ca mu s dng li tn s: Mu M /N
Trong : M = tng s sites trong mng mu
N = tng s cells trong mng mu
Ba kiu mu s dng li tn s thng dng l: 3/9, 4/12 v 7/21.
4.3.2.1. Mu ti s dng tn s 3/9:
Mu ti s dng li tn s 3/9 c ngha cc tn s s dng c chia thnh 9
nhm tn s n nh trong 3 v tr trm gc (Site). Mu ny c khong cch gia cc
trm ng knh l D = 5,2R.
Cc tn s mu 3/9 (gi thit c 41 tn s t cc knh 84 n 124 - l s
tn s s dng trong mng GSM900 ca VMS):
n nh tn s
A1

B1

C1

A2

B2

C2

A3

B3

C3

BCCH 84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

TCH1

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

TCH2

102

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

TCH3

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

TCH4

120

121

122

123

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in t 3 K47

Chng IV

Thit k h thng

Ta thy mi cell c th phn b cc i n 5 sng mang.


Nh vy, vi khi nim v knh nh ni phn trc th phi dnh mt
khe thi gian cho BCH, mt khe thi gian cho SDCCH/8. Vy s khe thi gian
dnh cho knh lu lng ca mi cell cn (5 x 8 2) = 38 TCH.
Tra bng Erlang-B (Ph lc), ti GoS 2 % th mt cell c th cung cp dung
lng 29,166 Erlang.
Gi thit trung bnh mi thu bao trong mt gi thc hin 1 cuc gi ko di
120s tc l trung bnh mi thu bao chim 0,033 Erlang, th mi cell c th phc v
c 29,166/0,033 = 833 (thu bao).

Hnh 4-15 Mu ti s dng li tn s 3/9


Theo l thuyt, cu trc mng 9 cells c t s C/I > 9 dB m bo GSM lm
vic bnh thng.
T s C/A cng l mt t s quan trng v ngi ta cng da vo t s ny
m bo rng vic n nh tn s sao cho cc sng mang lin nhau khng nn c
s dng cc cell cnh nhau v mt a l.

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Thit k h thng

Tuy nhin, trong h thng 3/9 cc cell cnh nhau v mt a l nh A1 & C3,
C1 & A2, C2 & A3 li s dng cc sng mang lin nhau. iu ny chng t rng t
s C/A i vi cc my di ng hot ng bin gii gia hai cell A1 v C3 l
0dB, y l mc nhiu cao mc d t s ny l ln hn t s chun ca GSM l (- 9
dB). Vic s dng cc bin php nh nhy tn, iu khin cng sut ng, truyn
dn gin on l nhm mc ch gim ti thiu cc hiu ng ny.
4.3.2.2. Mu ti s dng tn s 4/12:
Mu s dng li tn s 4/12 c ngha l cc tn s s dng c chia thnh
12 nhm tn s n nh trong 4 v tr trm gc. Khong cch gia cc trm ng
knh khi l D = 6R.
Cc tn s mu 4/12:
n nh tn s
A1

B1

C1

D1

A2

B2

C2

D2

A3

B3

C3

D3

BCCH 84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

TCH1

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

107

TCH2

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

TCH3

120

121

122

123

124

Ta thy mi cell c th phn b cc i l 4 sng mang.


Nh vy, vi khi nim v knh nh ni phn trc, mt khe thi gian
dnh cho knh BCH, mt khe thi gian dnh cho knh SDCCH/8. Vy s khe thi
gian dnh cho knh lu lng ca mi cell cn (4 x 8 2) = 30 TCH. Tra bng
Erlang-B ( Ph lc ), ti GoS = 2 % th mi cell c th cung cp dung lng 21,932
Erlang. Gi s mi thu bao chim 0,033 Erlang th mi cell c th phc v c
21,932/0,033 = 664 thu bao.
Trong mu 4/12 s lng cc cell D sp xp theo cc cch khc nhau
nhm phc v cho cc cell A,B,C. Hiu qu ca vic iu chnh ny l m bo
hai cell cnh nhau khng s dng hai sng mang lin nhau (khc vi mu 3/9). Vi
mu ny, khong cch ti s dng tn s l ln hn.

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Thit k h thng

Hnh 4-16 Mu ti s dng li tn s 4/12


V l thuyt, cm 12 cells c t s C/I > 12 dB. y l t s thch hp cho
php h thng GSM hot ng tt. Tuy nhin, mu 4/12 c dung lng thp hn so
vi mu 3/9 v:
a) S lng sng mang trn mi cell t hn (mi cell c 1/12 tng s sng
mang thay v 1/9).
b) H s s dng li tn s thp hn (ng ngha vi khong cch s dng li
l ln hn).
4.3.2.3. Mu ti s dng tn s 7/21:
Mu 7/21 c ngha l cc tn s s dng c chia thnh 21 nhm n nh
trong 7 trm gc. Khong cch gia cc trm ng knh l D = 7,9R.
Cc tn s mu 7/21:

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Chng IV

Thit k h thng
n nh tn s
A1
B1
C1
D1
E1
F1
G1
A2
B2
C2
D2
E2
F2
G2
A3
B3
C3
D3
E3
F3
G3

BCCH
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

TCH
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124

Hnh 4-17 Mu ti s dng tn s 7/21

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Chng IV

Thit k h thng

Ta thy mi cell ch c phn b ti a 2 sng mang.


Nh vy vi khi nim v knh nh ni phn trc. Phi c mt khe
thi gian dnh cho BCH v c t nht mt khe thi gian dnh cho SDCCH, s khe
thi gian dnh cho knh lu lng ca mi cell cn (2 x 8 2) = 14 TCH . Tra bng
Erlang-B (Ph lc), ti GoS = 2 % th mi cell c th cung cp mt dung lng
8,2003 Erlang. Gi s mi thu bao chim 0,033 Erlang, nh vy mt cell c th
phc v c 8,2003/0,033 = 248 thu bao.
Nhn xt:
Khi s nhm tn s N gim (21, 12, 9), ngha l s knh tn s c th dng
cho mi trm ( /N) tng th khong cch gia cc trm ng knh D s gim 7,9R;
6R; 5,2R. iu ny ngha l s thu bao c phc v s tng ln l: 248; 664 v
883, nhng ng thi nhiu trong h thng cng tng ln.
Nh vy, vic la chn mu s dng li tn s phi da trn cc c im
a l vng ph sng, mt thu bao ca vng ph v tng s knh ca mng.
Mu 3/9: s knh trong mt cell l ln, tuy nhin kh nng nhiu cao. M
hnh ny thng c p dng cho nhng vng c mt my di ng cao.
Mu 4/12: s dng cho nhng vng c mt lu lng trung bnh.
Mu 7/21: s dng cho nhng khu vc mt thp.

4.3.3. Thay i quy hoch tn s theo phn b lu lng


4.3.3.1. Thay i quy hoch tn s
S phn b lu lng
S thay i lu lng v hiu ng im nng (hotspot) hnh thnh nhu cu
tng thm knh tn s mt cell no . Khi ngi ta ngh ngay n kh nng
ly knh tn s cell no c lu lng rt nh thm vo cho cell no c lu
lng qu ln. Tuy nhin, vic lm ny ph hng quy hoch tn s v mang li can
nhiu qu mc cho php nu nh vic thc thi khng ng khoa hc.

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Chng IV

Thit k h thng

Hnh 4-18 Thay i quy hoch tn s


Hnh 4.18 biu th mt tnh hung nh vy: y l mu ti s dng tn s
4/12. Ti mng mu X, cell D1 cn 3 knh tn s m bo lu lng, trong khi
cell C3 ch cn 1 knh tn s p ng lu lng ti thi im ang xt.

Ti cell C3, c hai knh tn s 94 v 106, nh vy nn chn ti tn 94 hay


106 chuyn sang D1 ?
nh hng ti

C
A

Cell D1 v cell D3 l hai cell lin k. M ti tn 94, 106 ca cell C3 lin k


vi ti tn 95, 107 ca cell D3. Chnh v vy, chn ti tn no d l 94 hay 106

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Chng IV

Thit k h thng

a sang D1 th u lm tng can nhiu knh k, i vi MS bin gii D1 v D3


th t s

C
ca chng gn bng 0 dB.
A

nh hng ti

C
I

Nu chn ti tn 94 (hay 106) t cell C3 a sang D1, th c ly s dng li


tn s 94 (hay 106) by gi l t cell D1 ca mng mu X n cell C3 ca mng
mu Y, tc l gim i mt na so vi ban u. Ngha l nhiu knh chung tng
ln nghim trng, t s C/I gim ng k.
V bn knh cell R vn gi nguyn, m c ly s dng li tn s ca ti tn
chuyn sang gim ch cn mt na, ngha l D/ R cn li mt na so vi quy hoch
trc. V l thuyt, iu lm gim t s C/ I i chng 6 8 dB.
Mun phn tch chnh xc C/ I, phi k n yu t a hnh thc t v cc
nhn t mng mu. iu ny cn n cng c phn mm c bit x l vn
bng my tnh.
Mt trong nhng gii php cho vn ny l cu trc ng tm ca cell
c tng cng thm ti tn ly t cell khc. Khi , cc ti tn sn c ban u ca
cell vn c dng nh vn c, cn ti tn tng cng c pht cng sut b hn
mc microcell.
Cc nhn t khc
Cng c phn mm quy hoch v tuyn s tnh n nhiu yu t sau y khi
chuyn knh tn s:
S khc nhau v cng sut pht v tuyn c cc BTS.
S khc nhau v anten c dng cc c s mt bng.
a hnh thay i
Mng mu thay i. .v.v..
V GSM l h thng b gii hn bi can nhiu, nn phi xt mu s dng li
tn s no c mc can nhiu chp nhn c.
4.3.3.2. Quy hoch ph sng khng lin tc
Bi ton quy hoch ny phi x l c bit. Tuy nhin, c s gii bi ton
ny vn l quy hoch tn s sao cho cc t s C/ I v C/ A t mc quy nh cht
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Chng IV

Thit k h thng

lng. Nhng mu thun pht sinh c th c dung ha ty hon cnh. V d:


trong lng x ven quc l c th chu C/ I nh.

Hnh 4-19 Ph sng khng lin tc

4.3.4. Thit k tn s theo phng php MRP (Multiple Reuse Patterns)


Thit k h thng c dung lng ln vi chi ph cho h tng l ti thiu ang
ngy cng tr nn quan trng trong cuc chy ua gia cc nh iu hnh di ng.
Phn ny trnh by v vic p dng k thut nhy tn kt hp vi mt phng php
thit k tn s tin tin, Multiple Reuse Patterns (MRP)_a mu s dng li.
4.3.4.1. Nhy tn _ Frequency Hopping
Vic tng dung lng mng bng cch gim c ly ti s dng li tn s s
ko theo nhng vn v nhiu tn s tr nn trm trng hn, iu ny gy kh
khn cho vic thit k tn s vi cht lng tt. Mt s k thut c s dng nhm
gim bt nh hng ca nhiu nh: nhy tn, iu khin cng sut, truyn pht gin
on DTX (Discontinuous Transmission). Trong phn ny ta quan tm n k thut
nhy tn _ Frequency Hopping.
K thut nhy tn a ra hai khi nim phn tn tn s v phn tn nhiu.

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Thit k h thng

Phn tn tn s: Tn s c phn chia nhm cn bng cht lng tn hiu


gia cc thu bao cho d thu bao ang di chuyn nhanh hay chm. iu ny c
ngha l d tr cho Fainh nhanh (Rayleigh Fading) l khng cn thit. Chnh
nh hiu qu ca phn tn tn s m vng ph sng c tng ln do gim c
d tr cho Fainh nhanh. Ngy nay, quy hoch cell tiu biu dng 3 dB cho d tr
Fainh nhanh.
Phn tn nhiu: Cng nhiu c chia s u cho cc thu bao quy v
mc nhiu trung bnh.
Ni chung, vi mt mng li s dng k thut nhy tn th ta c th gim
c ly ti s dng tn s do c th ci thin c dung lng ca h thng so vi
mng khng s dng k thut nhy tn.
 Hiu qu ca k thut nhy tn
Phn tn nhiu trong k thut nhy tn c th c nhn nhn nh s gim
tng quan ca tn hiu nhiu tri qua nhng cm (burst) lin tip. Hnh 4.20 m t
s suy gim tng quan tn hiu trong ba trng hp, khi ng ln uplink ca mt
kt ni trong cell A b gy nhiu bi cc trm di ng trong cc cell ng knh. Cell
A c n nh tn s 1 v 10 trong c ba trng hp.

Hnh 4-20 Mt v d v hiu qu ca k thut nhy tn trn phn tp nhiu


ca mt mng li. Kch thc ca mi tn phn nh nhiu tng quan gia
cc cell ng knh.

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Thit k h thng

Trng hp th nht, mng khng s dng k thut nhy tn. MS kt ni


trn knh tn s 1 trong cell A. Sau nhiu I xut hin t mt thu bao cell B
ng thi hot ng trn cng knh tn s 1. Tng quan ca tn hiu nhiu trn cc
cm lin tip do l rt cao. Nh vy cht lng ca kt ni l xu. Tnh hnh ch
c th ci thin nu cell ng knh ngng pht tn hiu trn knh tn s ny hoc
kt ni cell A c thc hin chuyn giao Handover (bi Intra-cell Handover, hay
Inter-cell Handover).
Trong trng hp th hai l trng hp nhy tn trong quy hoch tn s
truyn thng, khi cc nhm tn s n nh cho tng cell. Kt ni trong cell A nhy
trn hai knh tn s (1 v 10), cell B cng vy. Do , ngun nhiu c th thay i
gia hai thu bao trong cell B, gy ra hai tn hiu nhiu I1 v I2. Bi v cng hai
tn hiu nhiu ny c s khc nhau kh r rt, tng quan tn hiu nhiu c th thp
hn cho cc cm lin tip. Ni cch khc, s phn tn nhiu tng ln so vi
trng hp khng dng k thut nhy tn.
Trng hp cui cng, mt thit k tn s bt quy tc kt hp vi k thut
nhy tn. im c bit trong trng hp ny l khng c s n nh tn s s dng
trong mt cell v cc cell ng knh ca n. Do , cell B ch l mt cell ng knh
b phn ca cell A, bi chng ch c mt tn s dng chung. Mt khc, s sp xp
ny to ra s cell ng knh b phn l ln hn, trong v d trn l cell C. Trong
trng hp ny, nhng cm khc nhau ca mt kt ni ti cell A s b nhiu bi cc
thu bao nhng cell khc nhau. Do , cc cm lin tip s tri qua cc tn hiu
nhiu I1 v I2 , thng thng l khng tng quan. Chnh v vy, trng hp ny
phn tn nhiu l cao hn so vi thit k tn s theo truyn thng. M thut ng gi
l Phn tn nhiu ti a _ Maximizing Interference Diversity.
V d trn y trnh by cch thc c th t c phn tn nhiu ti a,
mt thit k tn s khng s dng cc nhm tn s c nh l thch hp hn c. Tuy
nhin, cch thit k tn s ny biu hin nhng hn ch, bao gm c vic thit k li
trn phm vi rng cn thit cho mt h thng tin trin v m rng khng ngng.
p dng k thut a mu s dng li_MRP c th t c phn tn nhiu
ti a m vn duy tr cu trc thit k tn s.

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Thit k h thng

4.3.4.2. Phng php a mu s dng li MRP _ Multiple Reuse Patterns


Phng php MRP l phng php tng qut t c dung lng cao
bng cch s dng li tn s kt hp vi k thut nhy tn. Phng php MRP khai
thc li th ca k thut nhy tn nhm tng dung lng. C s ca phng php
MRP l phn chia cc tn s thnh cc mu lp bng tn s khc bit vi cc mc
s dng li khc nhau v dng k thut nhy tn kt hp chng li mt mc s
dng li trung bnh. Vi mc ch l trin khai c cng nhiu cng tt cc b thu
pht TRX cc cell hin ti ti thiu chi ph cho lp t trm mi. Phn ny ta
ch xt ti MRP s dng nhy tn bng c bn.
4.3.4.2.1 Phn chia bng tn:
Bc u tin ca phng php MRP l phn chia ph tn sn c thnh cc
bng tn khc nhau. Mt bng tn l bng tn BCCH, v mt hay nhiu bng tn
TCH theo ngha rng mt tn s c dng lm tn s BCCH mt cell th s
khng c s dng lm tn s TCH mt cell khc v ngc li. Bng tn BCCH
dng thit k cho knh iu khin qung b BCCH. L do dng cc tn s
BCCH duy nht l:
Lu lng khng ph thuc vo c tnh gii m BSIC: Khi MS c
gng gii m BSIC (Base Station Identity Code_M nhn dng trm gc)
trn knh ng b SCH (Synchronisation Channel), c tnh ny khng b
nh hng bi ti lu lng. L do l lu lng c n nh vo cc tn s
TCH s khng lm nhiu lon bt k tn s BCCH m knh ng b SCH
nh x vo. Gii m nhn dng trm gc BSIC l rt quan trng i vi hiu
sut chuyn giao (Handover). Hiu sut handover khng tt s lm tng s
lng cc cuc gi b rt.
n gin ha vic khai bo danh sch cell ln cn: Vi mt bng tn
BCCH ring bit, s lng cc tn s cell ln cn s c gim bt. Vic
thit k s n gin khi m tt c cc tn s ngoi tr tn s BCCH ca chnh
cell v trong danh sch cell ln cn u c th c s dng. Nu s dng
tt c cc tn s sn c nh l cc tn s BCCH s dn ti kt qu l danh
sch cell ln cn di hn nh hng xu ti hiu sut handover.

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Thit k h thng

Vic thit k li tn s TCH khng nh hng g ti thit k tn s


BCCH: Nu nhng TRX b sung c thm vo cc cell c sn, vic
thit k tn s BCCH s khng b nh hng g. Hn ch duy nht cn tnh
n l nhiu tn s k bn. Chnh v vy, s l hp l khi gi cng thit k
tn s cho d TRX b sung c thm vo h thng. Nh iu hnh mng do
bit rng nu thit k tn s BCCH tt th n vn gi nguyn c tnh
trng tt, khng ph thuc vo nhng tn s TCH.
Li ch ca vic iu khin cng sut v pht gin on DTX: Ch c
cc tn s TCH c th s dng pht gin on v iu khin cng sut trn
hng xung downlink. Vi mt bng tn BCCH ring bit, li ch y t
vic iu khin cng sut v pht gin on DTX l t c trn hng
xung downlink.
Bc tip theo trong phng php MRP, nhng tn s cn li (TCH) c
phn chia thnh nhng bng tn khc nhau. Nh vy s tn ti mt bng tn BCCH
v vi bng tn TCH. tng chnh l mt vi bng tn TCH c p dng nhng
mu s dng li khc nhau trn nhng b thu pht khc nhau. B thu pht TCH th
nht trong tt c cc cell s s dng cc tn s ca bng tn TCH th nht, bng tn
TCH th hai cho b thu pht th hai, v.v
L do cho vic phn chia nhng tn s TCH thnh cc bng khc nhau l:
Kch c s dng li tn s trung bnh ph thuc vo phn b cc TRX
ca mng li: S phn b TRX quyt nh h s s dng li tn s trung
bnh m c th p dng trong mng. H s s dng li tn s trung bnh c
iu chnh theo s TRX ti a cn thit cho mi cell v s lng cell cn s
TRX nh vy. Theo cch ny th cht lng h thng c th kim sot tt
hn nh iu chnh trong x l thit k tn s.
Khi m rng thm TRX, nh hng ti thit k tn s hin ti s nh
hn: Vic phn chia bng tn TCH s gii hn s lng cc yu cu ca
cng tc thit k tn s khi c thm nhng TRX c b sung. Ch nhng
cell c cng s TRX hoc nhiu hn mi b nh hng nu c thm nhng
TRX b sung. V d, thm TRX th t vo mt cell c ba TRX s ch c nh
hng ti nhng cell c bn hoc c nhiu hn s TRX.
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Thit k h thng

Mt bin php cu trc cho thit k tn s: Vi vic phn chia bng tn


TCH thnh cc bng khc nhau, cu trc s tr nn hp l khi thit k quy
hoch tn s cho b thu pht TCH th nht m khng lm thay i quy
hoch BCCH hay nhng quy hoch cho nhng b thu pht TCH khc. Cu
trc ny gip n gin hn trong vic a ra thit k tn s mi v trong vic
pht hin ra thit k tn s khng tt.
4.3.4.2.2 n nh tn s
Vic n nh tn s c minh ha trong hnh 4.21, mt biu ch ra cch
nhng tn s khc nhau c th n nh cho mt cu hnh MRP vi ti a bn TRX
mi cell. V d ny xt thit k 12/10/8/6. iu ny ngha l c 12 tn s BCCH
(tn s 1, 3, 5, , 23), 10 tn s TCH cho nhm 1 (tn s 2, 4, 6, , 20), 8 tn s
TCH nhm 2 (22, 24, 26, , 36) v 6 tn s TCH cho nhm 3 (25, 27, , 35).
Hnh v cng ch ra s n nh tn s cho hai cell A v B vi s b thu pht theo
th t l hai v bn.

Hnh 4-21 V d v thit k tn s vi phng php MRP


Cell A c n nh tn s BCCH th 1 v tn s TCH th 6. Do cell A
s s dng nhy tn bng c bn trn hai tn s. Trong khi cell B c n nh
tn s BCCH th 23 v cc tn s TCH th 20, 26, 35. Do , cell B s dng nhy
tn bng c bn trn bn tn s. Ch rng, nhng tn s BCCH khng cn xc

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Thit k h thng

nh r v tr, do bt k tn s no trong di tn c sn u c th chn lm tn


s BCCH min sao s chia tch BCCH/ TCH c tha mn.
Khng cn phi lc no cng tun th cht ch vic n nh tn s theo
phng php MRP. Nu mt cell tn ti nhng vn v cht lng th c th gii
quyt vn ny bng thay i mt tn s trong cell sang mt tn s tri lut,
tn s m ban u c s dng trong nhm b thu pht khc. Tuy nhin, theo
khuyn ngh th vic tun th cu trc MRP nn thc hin mt cch cht ch nht c
th.
4.3.4.2.3 Thit k tn s
Phng php MRP c pht trin nhm x l c trng tiu biu ca mng
li khi s phn phi TRX l khng ng u. iu ny rt quan trng khi mng t
bo c s khc nhau v nhng c tnh mng nh kch c cell, s ph tn sn c v
a hnh. C ngha l trong mng li, mt s cell c nhiu TRX trong khi c nhng
cell vi s TRX t hn.
tm hiu cc trng thi s dng li tn s khc nhau ca nhng cell khc
nhau vi s TRX l khc nhau, ta xem xt v d sau: Cu hnh MRP 12/8/6/4 c
chn cho tng s 30 tn s sn c. Trong , 12 tn s BCCH, ba nhm tn s
TCH ln lt gm 8, 6, 4 tn s. Trong v d ny ta gi thit rng t l cc cell c 2,
3, 4 TRX ln lt l 20%, 30%, 50%.

H s s dng li tn s trung bnh ca mt cell = Tng s tn s trong nhm n


nh cho cell / S TRX ca cell
Do , cc cell khc nhau s c h s s dng li tn s khc nhau: h s
bng 10 vi cell c 2 TRX, bng 8,7 vi cell c 3 TRX, v bng 7,5 vi cell c 4
TRX.

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Thit k h thng

S TRX /cell

T l cell (%)

20%

30%

50%

MRP groups

12 / 8

12 / 8 / 6

12 / 8 / 6 / 4

H s s dng

12 + 8
= 10
2

12 + 8 + 6
= 8,7
3

12 + 8 + 6 + 4
= 7,5
4

10

9,0

8,5

Nh

Ln

Rt ln

li tn s TB
S dng li tn
s TB thc t
(Gii hn trn)
phn tn

H s s dng li tn s trung bnh thc t c hiu theo ngha ri rc, v


khng phi tt c cc cell u trang b y thit b. V d, TRX th 3 c s
dng trn 80% tng s cell, do vy m h s s dng li thc t ca TRX ny ri rc
s l 6/ 0,8 = 7 (lm trn t 7,5), ty thuc vo phn b a l ca nhng cell vi
TRX th 3. Do , gii hn trn ca h s s dng li tn s thc t ca cell c 3
TRX s l: (12+8+7)/3 = 9,0.
Li ch ca nhy tn s tng cng vi s lng nhng tn s trong chui
nhy tn. Nhng cell c nhiu TRX hn tng ng vi hiu qu s dng li cao
hn, cng ng ngha vi mc nhiu l cao hn, nhng vi phng php MRP iu
ny c cn bng vi mt phn tn nhiu l ln hn.
V d trn minh ha MRP c th iu chnh thit k tn s theo phn b
TRX trong h thng. Tuy nhin, cng phi ch rng MRP khng cn thit phi
thc hin trn ton b h thng, m ch cn p dng cho nhng vng c dung lng
cao. Cng c th s dng cc cu hnh MRP khc nhau cho nhng vng a l khc
nhau trong mng.
Mu MRP ti H Ni nm 2007 ca VMS_Center1 l cu hnh 15/ 12/ 9 /3:
Group

Cell A

Cell B

BCCH

84

86

88

90

TCH1

113

114

115

120

TCH2

95

99

107

TCH3

103

Patch

93

92

Cell C

94

96

98

100

117

118

119

124

105

109

87

91

102

104

106

108

110

121

122

123

116

85

89

97

112

101

15
12
9
3

111

2
41

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Thit k h thng

4.4. Antenna
Anten l thit b thc hin vic chuyn i nng lng gia sng c dn
hng (v d trong cp ng trc) v sng trong mi trng khng gian t do, hoc
ngc li. Anten c th c s dng pht hoc thu tn hiu v tuyn.
Trong thng tin di ng, vic s dng anten thch hp s c vai tr rt quan
trng, quyt nh ti cht lng h thng.

4.4.1. Kiu loi anten:


Trong thng tin di ng ngi ta thng dng hai loi anten chnh l:
Anten v hng (omni anten): Pht x tn hiu theo mi hng (3600).
Anten nh hng (sector anten): Ch pht x theo mt hng nht nh.
S dng Anten nh hng c hiu qu chng nhiu ng knh cao hn so
vi Anten v hng.
 Gim nhiu ng knh s dng anten nh hng (Sector ha)
Ta bit vn nhiu giao thoa ng knh thng lin quan n vic s
dng li tn s v mt trong nhng dng ca loi nhiu ny l t cc thu bao ang
hot ng nhng v tr cao (cc qu i, trn cc to nh cao tng...) gy nhiu ti
cc cell c cng tn s lm vic.
Khi dng Omni Antenna:

Hnh 4-22 Anten v hng (Omni antenna)


Ta gi thit hai cell E1 v E2 s dng chung mt tn s v E1 c a th cao
hn so vi E2. Mt thu bao MS ang di chuyn t E1 ti E2. Khi thu bao di
chuyn cng gn E2, kh nng gy nhiu ca n ti E2 cng ln.

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Thit k h thng

Khi dng Sector Antenna:

Hnh 4-23 c Sector ha


By gi ta cng vn dng E1 v E2. Nhng c sector ho thnh: EA1,
EB1, EC v EA2, EB2, EC2.
MS di chuyn v pha E2, xut pht t EA1 (c khong cch ln nht ti
E2). Khi MS vt qua v tr trm EA1, n c chuyn giao ti EB1 v khong
cch t MS ti E2 gn hn. EB1 cng tn s vi EB2 nhng nh a hnh ta thy,
cc nhiu n to ra u nm pha sau anten ca EB2 (v l anten nh hng nn c
t s nng lng hng trc trn hng sau = 6 15 dB). iu ny c ngha l kh
nng chng nhiu ca h thng tng t 6 15 dB. Tng t nh vy khi MS i
ti EA2 n ch to nhiu cho EA1 t pha sau ca anten EA1.
Tm li dng sector anten l mt bin php lm tng t s C/ I ca h thng.

4.4.2. tng ch anten (Gain of an Antenna)


tng ch ca mt anten l t s, thng tnh bng dB, gia cng sut cn
thit ti u vo ca mt anten chun khng suy hao vi cng sut cung cp u
vo ca anten sao cho mt hng cho trc to ra cng trng hay mt
thng lng cng sut nh nhau ti cng mt c ly. Nu khng c ghi ch g thm,
th tng ch anten c tnh i vi hng pht x ln nht.
Ty thuc vo s la chn vo anten chun, c cc loi tng ch anten sau:
1. Tng ch tuyt i hay tng ch ng hng (Gi) khi anten chun l mt
anten ng hng bit lp trong khng gian.

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Thit k h thng

2. tng ch ng vi mt dipol na bc sng (Gd) khi anten chun l


mt dipol na bc sng bit lp trong khng gian v mt phng vung
gc ca n cha hng pht x.
3. tng ch ng vi mt anten thng ng ngn (Gv) khi anten chun l
mt dy dn thng ngn hn nhiu so vi mt phn t bc sng, vung
gc vi mt phng dn in l tng cha hng pht x.

4.4.3. Cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng - EIRP


Cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng EIRP (Equivalent Isotropic
Radiated Power) l tch s ca cng sut sinh ra cung cp cho mt anten vi tng
ch ca anten hng nht nh ng vi anten ng hng ( tng ch ng
hng hay tng ch tuyt i)
EIRP c xc nh bi cng thc:

PEIRP (W) = Pt (W)* 10(G - L)/10


Hay

PEIRP (dB) = Pt (dB) L + G


Trong :
- PEIRP (dBm): cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng;
- Pt (dBm): tng cng sut ca cc my pht;
- L (dB): tng suy hao t cc my pht n anten (v d do combiner,
feeder);
- G (dBi): tng ch cc i ca anten tng ng vi anten ng
hng.

4.4.4. cao v gc nghing (down tilt) ca anten:


Khi anten t thng ng, hng bp sng chnh s nm trn mt ng
thng nm ngang.

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Thit k h thng

Hnh 4-24 Anten v hng c gc nghing bng 0


nhng khu vc th trn nh hay nng thn, lu lng ca h thng thp
nn vic ti s dng tn s l khng cn thit. Do vy, ta nn s dng cc v tr cao
hay t anten cao ti a ho vng ph sng.
Tuy nhin nhng khu vc th ln, lu lng h thng cao, kch thc
cell hp th c l thch hp nht l gim cao anten c lm gim can nhiu
knh chung. Tuy nhin, nu t qu thp, cc vt cn (nh cao tng...) s c nh
hng ln ti cht lng h thng. Do vy, hin nay cao anten cc th
thng l 30 50 m. gii quyt phm vi vng ph sng hp, mt k thut c
a ra l lm nghing hng bp sng chnh ca anten (down tilt).
thy r hiu qu ca downtilt i vi cht lng h thng ta xt minh
ha sau:
Chng ta bit rng cng sut bc x ca anten cng gim khi cng ri xa
bp sng chnh. th thc nghim sau y (c xy sng t c tnh bc x ca
anten trong mt phng ng) ch r quan h .
th ny s dng cho 3 loi anten c rng bp sng trong mt phng
ng ln lt l 70 , 140 , 280 .
Trong :
Trc X biu din gc l gc gia hng ta ang xt v hng bc x chnh
trn mt phng ng (Vertical Angle Degree 0C).
Trc Y biu din s suy hao cng trng (Gain Reduction - dB).

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Thit k h thng

Hnh 4-25 th quan h gia gc thng ng v suy hao cng trng


Gi thit c hai cell A v B s dng cng tn s. Bn knh mi cell r = 500m,
khong cch hai cell l d = 4 km, cao anten l h = 30 m, rng bp sng l 70 .

Hnh 4-26 V d v hiu qu ca downtilt


S dng th thc nghim ta tnh c:
Suy hao tn hiu nhiu ca cell A gy ra ti cell B:

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Thit k h thng

h
d

= arctg ( ) = arctg (

30
) = 0,43 0
4000

T th thc nghim ta c Gain Reduction = 0,2 (dB).


Suy hao tn hiu ca anten A ti bin ca cell A:
h
r

= arctg ( ) = arctg (

30
) = 3,44 0
500

Nn Gain Reduction = 4 (dB).


By gi ta nghing gc ca anten A i mt gc 4,930, khi hng bp sng
chnh lch i gc 4,930 . Lc ny:
Suy hao tn hiu nhiu ca cell A gy ra ti cell B:
= dt - = 4,930 0,430 = 4,50
Nn Gain Reduction = 6,2 (dB).
Suy hao tn hiu ca anten A ti bin ca cell A:
= dt = 4,930 3,440 = 1,490
Nn Gain Reduction = 0,5 (dB).
Nh vy ta thy, tn hiu nhiu do cell A gy ra cho cell B lc ny b suy
hao ng k (suy hao thm 6 dB), ng thi suy hao tn hiu trong cell A gim
ng k ngha l cht lng ph sng cell A c ci thin.
Qua th d trn ta thy, vi vic nghing gc ca anten th cht lng ph
sng ca c hai cell A v B u c ci thin. Va lm cht lng thu cell A
tng ln, va lm gim nhiu do cell A gy ra cho cell B.
Vic nghing gc anten c th dng gii quyt vn ph sng. Tuy
nhin vic p dng nghing gc anten cn c s phn tch k cng nhng yu t lin
quan c th xy ra trong vng ph sng.

4.5. Chuyn giao cuc gi (Handover)


Mt tr ngi trong vic pht trin mng thng tin di ng t bo l vn
pht sinh khi mt thu bao di ng di chuyn t cell ny sang cell khc. Cc khu
vc k nhau trong h thng t bo s dng cc knh v tuyn c tn s khc nhau,
khi thu bao di ng di chuyn t cell ny sang cell khc th cuc gi hoc b rt
hoc t ng chuyn t knh v tuyn ny sang mt knh khc thuc cell khc.

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Thit k h thng

Thay v cuc gi b rt, qu trnh Handover (ting M: Handoff) gip cho


cuc gi c lin tc. Qu trnh Handover xy ra khi h thng thng tin di ng t
ng chuyn cuc gi t knh v tuyn ny sang knh v tuyn khc khi thu bao
di ng di chuyn t cell ny sang cell khc lin k vi n. Trong qu trnh m
thoi, hai thu bao cng chim mt knh thoi. Khi mt thu bao di ng chuyn
ng ra khi vng ph sng ca cell cho trc, tn hiu u thu ca cell ny s
gim. Khi , cell ang s dng s yu cu mt Handover (chuyn giao) n h
thng. H thng s chuyn mch cuc gi n mt cell c tn s vi cng tn
hiu thu mnh hn m khng lm gin on cuc gi hay gi cnh bo n ngi
s dng. Cuc gi s c tip tc m ngi s dng khng nhn thy qu trnh
Handover din ra.

4.5.1. Phn loi Handover


H thng phn loi cc qu trnh chuyn giao cuc gi thnh nhng loi sau:
 Intra-cell Hand Over.
 Inter-cell Hand Over.
 Intra-MSC Hand Over.
 Inter-MSC Hand Over.
 Intra-cell Hand Over (Chuyn giao trong ni b t bo): Th tc chuyn
giao thc hin gia hai knh vt l ca cell ang phc v.
Intra-cell Hand Over khng c s dng khi thu bao di chuyn sang cell
khc, ngoi tr trng hp nu mc nhiu trn knh ring l cao th mt s chuyn
giao sang mt knh vt l khc phi c thc hin.

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Thit k h thng

Hnh 4-27 Intra-cell Handover


 Inter-cell Hand Over (Chuyn giao lin t bo): MS c chuyn mch
sang mt knh v tuyn mi ca mt cell khc nhng c iu khin ca cng
mt b iu khin trm gc BSC.

Hnh 4-28 Inter-cell Handover


 Intra-MSC Hand Over (Chuyn giao trong ni b MSC): Chuyn mch
knh v tuyn gia hai BSC ca cng mt tng i di ng MSC.

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Thit k h thng

Hnh 4-29 Intra-MSC Handover


 Inter-MSC Hand Over (Chuyn giao lin MSC): Chuyn mch knh v
tuyn gia hai tng i di ng MSC.

Hnh 4-30 Inter-MSC Handover


Trong trng hp ny, MSC ban u gi ton quyn iu khin cuc gi v
sp t truy nhp mng cho n khi kt thc cuc gi. Cuc gi c nh tuyn vt
l li t MSC ban u trc tip n MSC ch.

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Thit k h thng

4.5.2. Khi to th tc Handover


Th tc Handover s c khi to vo bt k lc no mi khi xut hin nhu
cu chuyn i ng v tuyn gia BSS v MS sang mt knh mi, c th l cng
BSS hay mt BSS khc. BSS s nhn thy yu cu thit lp th tc Handover
duy tr s lin tc ca cuc gi trong khi MS di chuyn.
Nu cell ch u tin nm trong cng BSC th th tc Handover s c thc
hin bi BSC. Nu khng, BSC s gi n MSC mt danh sch u tin cc cell
ch. Trong danh sch ny, MSC ch cn nhc n ba cell u tin.
Gii thut MSC (vi v d l c ba cell c cn nhc) l bc th nht s
th vi cell u tin, nu khng c th s chuyn sang th vi cell th hai ri th
ba, m khng c vic tnh n nhng kha cnh lu lng. Nu nh trong khi th
tc handover ny ang din ra m c thm mt yu cu Handover khc nhn c
t BSC, danh sch s c cp nht tnh ton n cc cell mi. Vi mi ln th,
MSC yu cu mt ti nguyn tn s thch hp ti phn h trm gc BSS ch m
theo mc nh l khng cho php vic xp hng i, hoc l cho php hng i nu
cho php nu nh c ch th tng ng trong yu cu handover nhn c t BSS
ngun.
Nu nh MS khng hon thnh vic t c mt knh mi t cell ch th
n s gi mt bn tin thng bo chuyn giao tht bi thng qua cell trc ti
mng li v MSC s hi phc li kt ni trc ca MS hoc nu MSC nhn thy
MS mt kt ni th cuc gi s c gii phng.

4.5.3. Quy trnh chuyn giao cuc gi


V c bn, th tc Handover bao gm 4 giai on:
 Giai on 1: BSC quyt nh thc hin th tc handover m bo
kt ni ca cuc gi.
 Giai on 2: Mt kt ni mi c thit lp, song song vi kt ni
gc.
 Giai on 3: MSC chuyn cuc gi sang kt ni mi.
 Giai on 4: Kt ni gc c gii phng.

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Thit k h thng

 Giai on 1:

Hnh 4-31 G 1: Trong lc kt ni, MS vn tip tc o c mc thu v cht


lng truyn dn ca cell phc v v nhng cell xung quanh.
Nhng kt qu o c c gi ti BSC v l cn c yu cu mt th tc
Handover sang mt cell khc c mt cht lng truyn dn tt hn.

Hnh 4-32 Quyt nh chuyn giao_Handover Decision

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Thit k h thng

Handover Margin: Thc cht ca Handover Margin l s chnh lch gia


mc thu ca cell ang phc v v cc cell ln cn. Khi mc thu ca mt cell ln cn
no vt qu mc thu ca cell ang phc v mt khong ln hn gi tr
Handover Margin nh sn th mt Handover Alarm s c gi v h thng nhm
a n quyt nh chuyn giao. Thng thng th th tc Handover s c thc
hin ngay sau .
Nu vic t gi tr Handover Margin qu thp s dn ti vic Handover qu
nhiu, nhng ngc li khi gi tr ny t qu ln c th lm cho cht lng cuc
gi b gim xung.
V vy, ty vo tnh cht ph sng ca tng vng cng nh mc nhiu
ca tng cell phc v, Handover Margin cn c iu chnh thch hp t c
cht lng tt nht. V d nh vng b nhiu nhiu c th t gi tr Handover
Margin thp MS c th nhanh chng chuyn giao sang cell khc c cht lng
tt hn.
Gi tr khuyn ngh l 4 dB, trn mng VMS_Mobifone hin ang s dng
Handover Margin l 5 dB.
BSC s thng bo cho MSC v s cn thit thc hin th tc Handover, v
khai bo thng tin vi MSC1.

Hnh 4-33 G 1: BSC khai bo thng tin vi MSC

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Thit k h thng

 Giai on 2:
MSC1 yu cu mt Handover Number (HON) t MSC2 v thng bo vi
MSC2 thng tin v cell B.

Hnh 4-34 G 2: MSC1 yu cu MSC2 cp Handover Number


M HON (Handover Number) ch quan trng trong trng hp Inter-MSC
Handover. N c dng MSC1 thit lp kt ni knh lu lng vi MSC2. Cu
trc ca m HON cng ging nh m MSRN v cng c cung cp bi VLR mi.
MSC2 yu cu VLR cung cp mt m HON, ng thi yu cu BSC cung
cp knh v tuyn. Sau , knh v tuyn v m HON c gi li cho MSC1.

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Thit k h thng

Hnh 4-35 G 2: Cp m HON v knh v tuyn cho MSC1


 Giai on 3:

Hnh 4-36 G 3: MSC1 chuyn mch kt ni cho MS trn knh lu lng


thit lp vi MSC2
Vi m HON, MSC1 c th thit lp knh lu lng kt ni vi MSC2.
MSC1 thng bo cho MS v knh v tuyn m n phi chuyn mch ti.

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Thit k h thng

 Giai on 4:
Gii phng kt ni vi BTS c.

Hnh 4-37 Kt ni vi BTS c c gii phng

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Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng

Chng V
CC CH TIU CHT LNG H THNG
5.1. Khi nim v cht lng dch v QOS
QOS (Quality of Service) c th xem nh l nhng ch tiu nh gi mng
li m bt c mt h thng thng tin di ng no u phi c. Ch tiu cht lng
mng li y phi l nhng tiu ch thc s cht lng chng hn nh ting
ni trong tro, t rt cuc gi v khng b nghn mch. nh gi c cht lng
mng chng ta phi xc nh nhng i lng c trng (key indicators), qua
cho php nhng ci nhn chnh xc v s hot ng ca mng li cng nh cht
lng ca mng.

5.2. Cc i lng c trng


5.2.1. T l thit lp cuc gi thnh cng CSSR (Call Setup Successful
Rate)
C th nh ngha CSSR nh l t l m ngi s dng (thu bao) thnh cng
trong vic bt u thc hin cuc gi xt trn c hai chiu gi i v gi n (lu l
nhng cuc gi c ni nhng b rt trong trng hp ny vn c coi l
thnh cng). Thnh cng y ta c th tm coi l khi ngi s dng quay s v
bm YES, cuc gi chc chn c ni (trng hp gi i). Trong trng hp
gi n, s khng thnh cng c th hiu n gin l mt ai thc s gi n
thu bao nhng thu bao vn khng nhn c mt tn hiu bo gi no mc d anh
ta vn bt my v nm trong vng ph sng. CSSR c th c tnh nh sau:
CSSR = Tng s ln thc hin (nhn) thnh cng cuc gi / Tng s ln thc
hin (nhn) cuc gi
Theo khuyn ngh Alcatel v ch tiu cht lng h thng th t l thit lp
cuc gi thnh cng CSSR cn t l 92%.

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Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng

5.2.2. T l rt cuc gi trung bnh (Average Drop Call Rate - AVDR)


AVDR l t l s cuc gi b rt mch trn tng s cuc gi thnh cng.
AVDR c th c tnh nh sau:
AVDR = Tng s ln rt mch / Tng s ln chim mch TCH thnh cng ngoi
tr trng hp Handover
(AVDR = Total drops/ Total TCH seizures excluding TCH seizures due to HO)
i lng ny nn s dng nh gi cht lng ton mng, ch khng
nn p dng cho tng cell ring l v rng mi cell khng ch mang nhng cuc gi
c bt u t n (trn c hai ngha gi i v gi n) m n cn phi chu trch
nhim ti nhng cuc gi c handover t nhng cell khc sang - iu c ngha
l n b chim mch nhiu hn rt nhiu ln. Hn na i vi mi cell, vic mang
mt cuc gi do handover hay bnh thng l c cng mt bn cht.

5.2.3. T l rt mch trn TCH (TCH Drop Rate - TCDR)


TCDR c th tm nh ngha l t l rt mch tnh trn cc knh TCH ca
tng cell ring bit.
TCDR= Tng s ln rt mch/ Tng s ln chim mch thnh cng
(TCDR= Total TCH Drops/ Total TCH Seizures)
Tng s ln chim mch y c th xut pht t bt c nguyn nhn no,
k c Handover.
C rt nhiu nguyn nhn gy nn rt mch, loi tr nguyn nhn do my di
ng gy ra ta c th a ra nhng nguyn nhn chnh sau y:
Do b nhiu qu nhiu hoc do cht lng knh truyn qu thp
Do tn hiu qu yu
Do li ca h thng chng hn nh phn cng trc trc
Do s dng cc gi tr khng chun ca cc tham s BSS
Do khng Handover c (thiu neighbour cell chng hn)
Nhm d dng hn cho cng tc k thut, TCDR c phn ra lm hai i
lng mi:
Rt mch do li h thng: TCDR-S (Drop due to System): tham s ny bao
gm tt c cc li do h thng chng hn nh software, transcoder ..c tnh theo

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Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng

t l phn trm trn tng s ln rt mch. Vi mt h thng tt, t l ny l rt nh


(thng vo khong 2-5 % tng s ln rt mch).
Rt mch do li tn s v tuyn RF : TCDR-R (Drop due to RF): tham s
ny bao gm tt c cc li nh mc tn hiu km, cht lng qu km, qu nhiu,
Handover km... cng c tnh theo t l phn trm trn tng s ln rt mch.
TCDR-R + TCDR-S = 100%

5.2.4. T l nghn mch TCH (TCH Blocking Rate - TCBR)


TCBR c nh ngha nh t l chim mch khng thnh cng do nghn
knh thoi (khng c knh TCH ri) trn tng s ln h thng yu cu cung cp
knh thoi.
TCBR = Tng s ln b nghn / Tng s ln yu cu ng thng
(TCBR = Total blocks / Total TCH attempts)
T s ny phn nh mc nghn mch trn tng cell ring l hay trn ton
h thng. Khi t s ny mt cell (hay khu vc) no tr nn qu cao iu c
ngha l rt kh thc hin c cuc gi trong cell (hay khu vc) . Tuy nhin
tham s ny khng phn nh mt cch chnh xc yu cu v lu lng trn mng v
rng khi mt ngi no mun thc hin mt cuc gi trong vng mt pht chng
hn, ngi ta s c nhiu ln c th ni c mt knh thoi v nh vy s th
c th l rt nhiu ln (c th l hng chc) c th ch thc hin mt cuc gi
duy nht ko di mt pht. iu ny lm tng t l nghn mch ln rt nhanh, vt
qu c bn cht thc t ca vn . V vy nh gi mt cch chnh xc hn,
ngi ta s dng mt i lng khc l cp phc v GoS (Grade of Service).
i khi ta khng hiu ti sao m t l TCBR li rt cao mt s cell, trong
trng hp ny cch tt nht l tham kho thm cc i lng Maxbusy v
Congestion time cho cell
Maxbusy:

S knh ln nht b chim ti cng mt thi im

Congestion time: Tng s thi gian m ton b s knh b chim ht


(Tng s thi gian nghn).

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Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng

 Lu lng v Grade of Service (GOS):


Lu lng mang bi h thng trong khong thi gian t c nh ngha nh
sau:
C = n*T/t
Trong
T l thi gian m thoi trung bnh
n s cuc gi trong khong thi gian t.
n v ca lu lng c tnh bng Erlang (E), nu nh thay t=3600, ta c
Eh (Erlang gi).
Mt cch hon ton n gin, ta c th tnh lu lng nh sau:
C = Tng thi gian chim mch/ Thi gian o
Lu lng ca h thng cng phn no y cho thy s hot ng ca mng.
Nu nh lu lng ca mt cell no y gim i mt cch bt bnh thng, iu
c ngha l hoc vng ph sng ca cell b thu hp li (do tt cng sut hay anten
hng) hoc mt nhm thu pht no y ca cell khng hot ng.
Lu lng ca h thng c mt tng quan tng i i vi t l nghn
TCH (TCBR) trnh by trn, khi lu lng tng vt mt gi tr no (tu
thuc vo dung lng ca cell) th t l TCBR cng tng ln rt nhanh theo n. Tuy
nhin trong mt s trng hp, ngay c khi c lu lng rt thp, t l TCBR vn
rt cao. Khi khng c mt cch l gii no tt hn l mt s khe thi gian
timeslot trn cell khng hot ng.
Gi bn ca h thng BH (busy hour) c tnh nh l gi m lu lung i
qua h thng l ln nht. V do khi thit k mt h thng no , nhm tho mn
yu cu v lu lng mt cch tt nht ngi ta thng s dng cc s liu thng
k cho gi bn.
Trong mt h thng vi mt s hu hn knh thoi v mi thu bao chim
mch ht mt thi gian trung bnh T no y, ta thy ngay rng khi s thu bao tng
ln hay ni cch khc khi m lu lng tng ln th xc sut b nghn mch cng
tng ln v khi lu lng tng ln n mt mc no th tnh trng nghn mch
khng th chp nhn c na. Vy lm sao c th nh gi mc nghn mch

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Chng V

Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng

ny mt cch chnh xc? Ngi ta s dng mt i lng l cp phc v GOS


thc hin iu .
GOS c th c nh ngha nh l xc sut b nghn mch cho mt thu bao
khi thc hin cuc gi trong mt khu vc c mt lu lng yu cu (offerred
traffic) xc nh no . Vn ny sinh ra l lu lng yu cu y l g? N
c th c coi nh l lu lng m h thng c th mang c trong gi bn trong
trng hp khng c nghn mch hay ni cch khc i l khi s knh thoi ca h
thng tng ln.
Ngi ta c th tnh GOS cho mt h thng vi t - knh v A - lu lng
yu cu nh sau:
GOS (t,A) = (GOS (t-1,A))

(*)

GOS (0,A) = 1.
Tuy nhin Lu lng yu cu l mt ci g c v khng thc, khng th
cn o ong m c v ngi ta ch c th o c lu lng thc mang bi
cc knh thoi m thi. V vy ngi ta tnh lu lng yu cu A nh sau:
A = C*(1+GOS)
Trong C - lu lng o c trn h thng
Nhng vn li l lm sao tnh c GOS. tnh GOS u tin ngi ta
gi s A= C, da vo cng thc (*) ta c th tnh c GOS1 no y, v khi :
C1=A/(1+GOS1)
Nu nh C1 va tnh c li nh hn C thc, ngi ta li tng A ln mt
cht chng hn A= C + 0,00001, li tnh theo cch trn v c nh th cho ti khi
Cn tnh c gn vi C thc nht. Khi gi tr tnh c GOSn chnh l gi tr ca
GOS cn tm. Khi tnh c lu lng yu cu A, ta c th d dng xc nh
s knh cn thit bng cch tra bng.

5.2.5. T l rt mch trn SDCCH (SDCCH Drop Rate - CCDR)


CCDR c nh ngha nh l t l gia tng s ln rt mch trn knh
SDCCH v tng s ln chim SDCCH thnh cng.
CCDR = Tng s ln rt trn SDCCH/ Tng s ln chim SDCCH thnh cng
(CCDR = SDCCH drops / SDCCH seizures)

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Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng

CCDR cng rt quan trng, n mt phn nh gi t l thnh cng ca cuc


gi ni chung. Ni chung trong thng tin di ng GSM v v mt kha cnh no ,
t nht l trn mt tn s v tuyn RF, CCDR v TCDR c cng bn cht, nu nh
CCDR cao th t l TCDR cng cao v ngc li.
V rng thi gian chim mch trn SDCCH l rt ngn (trung bnh khong
3s) so vi thi gian chim mch trn TCH (trung bnh khong 65 s) nn CCDR
cng nh hn TCDR rt nhiu. Tuy nhin, khi CCDR tr nn ln mt cch khng
bnh thng so snh vi TCDR, iu c ngha l c mt ci g khng n hoc
l do cc tham s ca phn BSS hoc l do knh tn s c cha SDCCH qu nhiu.

5.2.6. T l nghn mch trn SDCCH (SDCCH Blocking Rate - CCBR)


CCBR c nh ngha nh l t s gia tng s ln chim SDCCH khng
thnh cng do nghn SDCCH v tng s ln yu cu cung cp knh SDCCH.
CCBR = Tng nghn SDCCH / Tng yu cu SDCCH
(CCBR = SDCCH blocks / SDCCH Attempts)
i lng ny rt quan trng i vi mt h thng GSM v trc tip nh
hng n t l thnh cng khi mt thu bao thc hin cuc gi. Nu nh t l
nghn SDCCH qu cao th kh nng thc hin cuc gi rt kh - khi bn bm Yes
s chng c g xy ra c (!), v iu nguy him nht l thu bao khng th nhn bit
c iu ny (khc vi trng hp nghn TCH, thu bao c th c bit nh m
thanh hoc nh thng ip net fail trn mn hnh ca my di ng) v rt c th
h ngh rng my ca mnh hng ??!!
Cng tng t nh trn TCH ta cng c th tham kho thm hai i lng
khc l Maxbusy v Congestion time cho SDCCH.

5.2.7. Mt s i lng c trng khc


Nhng i lng c trng di y tuy khng phn nh mt cch trc tip
cht lng ca h thng nhng rt cn thit cho cng tc nh gi cht lng h
thng.

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Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng

5.2.7.1. S knh hot ng (Available Channels)


y l mt ch tiu rt quan trng cho nhng ngi theo di hot ng ca
mng li. Thng thng i vi mi cell trong mt h thng GSM, s knh ny
(trong trng hp bnh thng) s l 6, 7, 14, 15, 22, 23, 30 tu thuc vo cu hnh
ca cell. Tuy nhin khi theo di cc bo co v mng, i khi ta thy s knh ny l
mt s khc nhng con s trn thm ch l mt s vi du phy km theo (v d
13,2) - iu ny c ngha l trong sut thi gian m ta quan st c mt lc no y
mt s timeslots trn cell khng hot ng hoc l c ton b cell b s c.
Vic mt s timeslot khng hot ng nh hng trc tip n t l handover thnh
cng s cp n phn sau.
5.2.7.2. T l thnh cng handover n (Incoming HO Successful Rate IHOSR)
IHOSR c nh ngha nh l t l gia s ln nhn handover thnh cng
v tng s ln c yu cu chp nhn handover.
IHOSR = Tng handover vo thnh cng / Tng handover vo
(IHOSR = Incoming HO Success / Total Incoming HO request by BSS)
IHOSR ca mt cell rt quan trng, n nh hng trc tip n cht lng
ca khu vc c cha cell . Nu IHOSR l thp, n s lm tng t l rt mch
nhng cell xung quanh n v thm ch lm nh hng n cht lng thoi ca
cuc gi bi v nu mt ln handover khng thnh cng th cuc gi hoc s b rt
hoc h thng s phi thc hin mt ln handover khc v mt ln nh th lung tn
hiu thoi s b ct v lm cho ngi nghe cm gic bi t on trong m thoi.
IHOSR cn phn nh c cht lng phn cng ca cell, chng hn sleeping
TRXs trn cell.
5.2.7.3. T l thnh cng handover ra (Outgoing HO Successful Rate OHOSR)
OHOSR c nh ngha nh l t l gia s ln handover ra thnh cng v
tng s ln c yu cu handover.
OHOSR = Tng handover thnh cng / Tng s ln quyt nh handover
(OHOSR = HO Success / Total HO request by BSS )

Hong Anh Dng

92

in t 3 K47

Chng V

Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng

Da trn OHOSR, ta c th nh gi c vic nh ngha neighbour cell l


hay cha hay cn c th nh gi cht lng ca cc cell ln cn n. Mt t l
OHOSR tt s dn dn mt t l rt mch TCDR tt v mt cht lng thoi tt.
Hn na, da trn OHOSR, ta c th nh gi c vng ph sng ca cell m do
c th a ra nhng iu chnh thch hp.
C rt nhiu nguyn nhn h thng cn nhc handover, tuy nhin ta c
th k ra mt s nguyn nhn chnh sau y:
Handover do power budget: h thng tnh ton power budget cho serving
cell v cc cell ln cn cn nhc handover
y cng l mt trong nhng nguyn nhn chnh.
Do mc thu qu thp, vt qu gii hn trn serving cell (downlink hoc
uplink)
Chng hn trong mi h thng ngi ta c th set mc thu danh nh,
chng hn thp hn -90dB. Nu mc thu thp hn mc ny chng hn, h
thng s quyt inh cn nhc handover.
Do cht lng trn serving cell qu thp, vt qu gii hn (downlink hoc
uplink)
Do timing advance vt qu gii hn (downlink hoc uplink)
Do qu nhiu trn serving cell (downlink hoc uplink)
5.2.7.4. EMPD
EMPD c nh ngha nh l t s gia traffic tnh theo pht v tng s ln
rt mch.
EMPD = 60* traffic / Tng s cuc rt
EMPD biu th s tng quan gia traffic v s rt mch, n phn nh mt
cch r rng cht lng ca h thng v c th dng lm thc o chung cho cc h
thng s dng cc thit b khc nhau v hot ng nhng khu vc c c th kinh
t khc nhau.

Hong Anh Dng

93

in t 3 K47

Chng V

Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng

5.2.7.5. Thi gian chim mch trung bnh (MHT - Mean Holding Time)
MHT c nh ngha nh l thi gian chim mch trung bnh cho mt ln
chim mch. V n c th c tnh nh sau:
MHT= Tng thi gian chim mch/ Tng s ln chim mch thnh cng.
y cng l mt i lng tt tham kho khi quan st cht lng ca mt
h thng. Trong h thng GSM ca Mobifone gi tr ny trung bnh nm trong
khong 60-70 giy. Tuy nhin gi tr ca MHT cn ph thuc vo mt ca cell
trn mng: mt cell trn mng cng cao th MHT cng nh v ngc li
Nu nh mt lc no gi tr ny tr nn rt cao (v d 200 s chng hn),
iu c ngha l mt s timeslot ca cell b treo hay ni cch khc l n
b chim lin tc mc d khng c cuc gi no ang c thc hin trn n c.
Ngc li trong mt s trng hp ta li thy MHT rt thp (15 s chng hn), khi
nht nh l ta c vn vi cell - hoc gi l cht lng qu km (do nhiu
hoc phn cng) hoc vng ph sng qu hp (do cng sut tt hay hng anten).

5.3. Cc ch tiu cht lng thc t mng VMS_MobiFone


5.3.1. S liu thng k cht lng mng hin ti
S liu thng k cht lng mng VMS_Trung tm 1 (Ngy 20.4.2007):

Hong Anh Dng

94

in t 3 K47

17
18
19
20

15
16

14

12
13

10
11

6
7
8
9

1
2

Quang
Ninh 2
Soc Son
Thuong
Dinh
Viet Tri
Ha Tinh
Nghe An
ALL
Total:

Bo Ho
Gia Lam
Giap Bat
1
Giap Bat
2
Hai
Duong
Hai
Phong 2
haiphong
hanoi4
hanoi6
HThuc
Khang
Lao Cai
Nam
Dinh
ninhbinh
Quang
Ninh

STT BSC

134,415

8,699
2,613
1,679
3,578

6,663
2,363

9,930

2,652
3,406

10,698
937

9,983
10,545
7,065
10,032

7,081

5,257

11,159

10,915
4,939

91
101
57
105

59
46

78

50
72

92
19

85
76
169
98

73

79

104

97
74

1060

1049

1465

1425
980

1052

1047

1457

1425
976

191
138
121
198

121
78

189

107
140

204
34

1268
871
919
1,460

811
484.8

1273

718
920

1374
227

1268
850.2
905
1,441

809.5
484.1

1257.7

718
910.4

1373.6
227

191 1276 1275.9


180 1222 1222
248 1539.8 1513.2
204 1355 1348.4

159

160

221

212
149

1261
955
527
879

734
560.5

1212

654
952

1236
190

1251
1060
1765
1335

1039

1137

1488

1296
1030

639 1760 3540 23,752 23,569 21,652

32
41
19
35

20
19

28

21
32

27
10

27
23
76
38

26

31

34

29
26

1,132,377
277,858
200,338
429,136

772,765
293,257

1,180,893

353,173
379,068

1,523,563
70,511

1,293,191
1,412,648
847,326
1,183,220

819,208

617,705

1,360,429

1,607,430
612,021

TCH
Request

1,104,462
273,367
199,128
423,788

727,816
280,516

1,155,450

339,868
372,353

1,486,578
62,248

1,255,218
1,374,474
818,137
1,158,903

790,794

598,318

1,330,782

1,566,461
600,001

TCH
Success

95

21,537 16,885,392 16,432,020

1261
931
511
879

732.4
560.5

1205.5

654
940.7

1235.5
190

1250.9
1060
1745.6
1328.7

1039

1134.8

1488

1296
1025.5

TCH
TCH SDCCH SDCCH
Traffic(Erl) Sites Cells TRXs Define AVAIL Define AVAIL

0.61

1.37
0.13
0.01
0

0.53
0.31

0.07

0.07
0.04

0.22
0.29

0.68
0.22
3.7
0.21

0.13

0.13

0.03

0.03
0.22

0.78

0.71
0.21
0
0.14

2.32
0.46

0.85

0.18
0.16

0.84
5.76

0.63
0.95
1.37
0.7

0.75

0.54

0.87

0.95
0.47

SDCCH TCH
CONG CONG
(%)
(%)

VMS1 Network Daily Report (20.04.2007)

0.71
0.72
0.2
0.26

0.84
0.71

0.71

0.61
0.63

0.23
0.5

1.01
0.48
1.24
0.25

0.95

1.08

0.2

0.16
0.57

SDCCH
DROP
RATE %

97.9

97.86
98.42
99.69
99.55

94.41
97.12

97.9

96.86
98.81

98.46
93.11

97.52
98.03
96.4
98.64

97.79

97.72

98.57

98.46
98.42

Call
Setup
Succ
Rate %

0.9

0.87
0.97
0.7
0.84

1.13
1.25

0.96

1.48
1.17

0.71
4.65

1.07
0.8
1.27
0.67

0.97

0.87

0.6

0.66
0.7

Call
Drop
Rate
%

95.75
96.02
96.38
94.46

92.28
91.77

95.97

95.4
92.3

96.69
75.53

94.07
95.14
94.54
96

89.27

93.89

96.3

96.41
96.32

95.84
96.12
97.05
94.17

91.95
91.89

96.14

93.99
94.44

96.48
75.53

94.14
95.19
94.05
96.5

90.43

92.34

96.31

96.32
96.28

100

100
100
100
100

100
100

100

100
100

100
100

100
100
100
100

100

100

100

100
100

HO
OUT HO INC
SUCC SUCC
%
(%)
(%) DATA

Chng V

Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng

5.3.2. Nhn xt, nh gi


Cc ch tiu cht lng mng li cn theo khuyn ngh ca GSM cn phi
t c cc yu cu ra trong bng sau:
Khuyn ngh

Thng s

Alcatel

T l rt cuc gi (Drop Call Rate)

4%

T l chuyn giao HO in

90 %

T l chuyn giao HO out

90 %

T l rt SDCCH

6%

T l nghn TCH

2%

T l nghn SDCCH

0,5 %

T l thit lp cuc gi thnh cng CSSR

92 %

Theo s liu thng k cht lng mng VMS_MobiFone Trung tm I trn,


ta thy:
Ch tiu

Thng s

VMS_Center 1

T l rt cuc gi (Drop Call Rate)

1,2 %

T l chuyn giao HO in

93 %

T l chuyn giao HO out

93 %

T l rt SDCCH

1,5 %

T l nghn TCH

1,2 %

T l nghn SDCCH

0,5 %

T l thit lp cuc gi thnh cng CSSR

96 %

Nh vy l h thng m bo tt cc ch tiu cht lng yu cu.

Hong Anh Dng

96

in t 3 K47

Chng V

Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng

5.4. Mt s gii thch v cc thut ng thng dng


Do trong khi vn hnh v gim st mng, chng ta thng s dng mt s
thut ng bng ting Anh. Di y l mt s gii thch cho nhng thut ng
thng dng:
Attempt: Yu cu cho mt mc ch no nhng khng nht thit c
p ng.
V d TCH attempts: Tng s ln MS hoc h thng yu cu mt knh TCH,
tuy nhin c th yu cu ny khng c p ng do khng cn knh ri (do
nghn)
Seizures: Tng s ln thc hin thnh cng mt yu cu no v pha
MS.
V d TCH seizures: tng s ln m vic gn TCH cho mt MS no y
thnh cng. i khi BSS chn sn c mt knh TCH v yu cu MS s dng
n, tuy nhin v mt l do no (chng hn signalling li MS khng gii m c
thng tin). Trong trng hp ny ta khng th gi l TCH seizures m ch c th
gi l BSS seizure m thi.
Normal Attempt: Nhng Attempt ch lin quan n call setup m thi.
Normal Seizures: Nhng seizure ch lin quan n call setup m thi.
Drop: Rt mch
Block: Nghn mch (v mt s lng)
Traffic: Lu lng trn mng - c m t chi tit trn
Mean Hold Time (MHT): Thi gian chim mch trung bnh, m t
trn
Define Channel: S lng knh c cu hnh trn h thng - khng nht
thit l phi hot ng ton b.
Avail Channel: S knh ang hot ng.

Hong Anh Dng

97

in t 3 K47

Chng VI

Mt s minh ha cng tc ti u ha mng VMS_MobiFone

Chng VI
MT S MINH HA CNG TC TI U
HA MNG VMS_MOBIFONE
6.1. o kim tra Handover gia hai trm
Cng vi cc cng c khc, my TEMS c s dng thng xuyn trong
vic o v kim tra cht lng h thng.
Di y gii thiu vic s dng my TEMS T68i ca Ericsson o kim tra
handover t trm Trng nh sang trm i La.

Hnh 6-1 o kim tra Handover t trm Trng nh sang trm i La


Vi my TEMS ta c th o c mc thu ca cell phc v v cc cell ln
cn, cc thng s ca knh hin ti. Nh trn y ta thy cc thng s o c sau
khi handover nh sau:

Hong Anh Dng

98

in t 3 K47

Chng VI

Mt s minh ha cng tc ti u ha mng VMS_MobiFone

 Mc thu ca cell phc v (lc ny l cell i La) v cc cell ln cn:


Cell Name

ARFCN BSIC RxLevel (dBm)

i La

84

1-2

-53

Trng nh

103

2-3

-57

98

1-5

-73

85

-78

102

-79

104

-80

 Cc thng s ca knh hin ti:


CGI (MCC, MNC, LAC, CI) 452 01 111 10991
Bng tn

900

BCCH ARFCN

84

BSIC

1-2

Timeslot

Hnh 6-2 Kt qu o Handover gia hai trm l tt

Hong Anh Dng

99

in t 3 K47

Chng VI

Mt s minh ha cng tc ti u ha mng VMS_MobiFone

T biu ph tn hiu trn ta thy trc thi im handover mc thu ca


cell phc v gim xung thp hn so vi mc thu ca cell ln cn, ng thi t
s tn hiu trn nhiu C/ I cng gim xung ch cn 12 dB, MS yu cu thit lp th
tc Handover.
Sau khi Handover: mc thu cell phc v l -53 dBm, t s C/ I c ci
thin l 22dB.
Kt lun: Kt qu Handover gia hai trm l tt.

6.2. Phn tch kt qu o sng pht hin nhiu tn s


S dng my TEMS T68i ca Sony Ericsson o sng pht hin nhiu
tn s ti khu th mi Php Vn - H Ni. Di y l ph tn hiu thu c ti
khu th mi Php Vn:

Hnh 6-3 Kt qu o sng pht hin nhiu tn s ti khu th mi Php Vn

Hong Anh Dng

100

in t 3 K47

Chng VI

Mt s minh ha cng tc ti u ha mng VMS_MobiFone

Hnh 6-4 Pht hin nhiu tn s


Trn biu ph tn hiu thu c ta thy: mt s v tr c ch s C/ I rt
thp, c nhng lc b gim xung di 9dB (gi tr C/ I b nht m cht lng c
th chp nhn c theo khuyn ngh GSM ). Mc nhiu ng knh qu cao l
nguyn nhn dn n s lng yu cu Handover tng t bin trong khi mc thu
tn hiu vn tt (RxLevel khong -52 dBm). Nhiu tn s xut hin lm cho tn
hiu m thoi d b ngt qung, nghe khng r, nh hng n cht lng thoi.
Nu ko di s lm cuc gi b rt mch.
Kt lun: Mc nhiu ng knh nh vy l vt qu mc cho php, iu
ny c th l do khi thc hin quy hoch tn s c s khai bo nhm tn s (sau
khi kim tra d liu mng cho thy 2 trm BTS ti khu th mi Php Vn khai
bo cng tn s BCCH). Nh vy cn kim tra v tin hnh khai bo li tn s
m bo yu cu.

Hong Anh Dng

101

in t 3 K47

Chng VI

Mt s minh ha cng tc ti u ha mng VMS_MobiFone

6.3. Thc hin m rng TRX nng cao ch tiu cht lng
Di y trnh by kt qu vic thc hin m rng TRX ti trm Hng Lc
nng cao ch tiu cht lng.
Thi gian gim st v theo di cht lng t ngy 08/03/2007 n ngy
08/04/2007:

Hnh 6-5 Cc ch tiu cht lng h thng trc v sau khi m rng TRX ti
Hng Lc (Cell A_Bng tn 1800)
T biu s liu thng k trn ta nhn thy trc ngy 22/03/07 cc ch
tiu cht lng h thng ti cell Hng Lc A l khng c m bo:
T l thit lp cuc gi thnh cng thp.
T l nghn TCH rt cao.
T l nghn TCH cao dn n s ln chim mch TCH thnh cng thp.
C th ta xem xt s liu thng k cho tng ngy thy r tnh trng ca h
thng trc v sau khi m rng TRX:

Hong Anh Dng

102

in t 3 K47

Chng VI

Mt s minh ha cng tc ti u ha mng VMS_MobiFone

Trc khi m rng TRX:


Date(mm-dd)

TCH
AVAIL

Traffic

AVG TCH
SEIZED

TCH
Seizures

HO Call (%)

03-08
Thursday

12.4

156.58

65.64

16941

57.64

89.62

0.29

10.18

0.13

03-09
Friday

13

176.79

68.25

19384

58.99

89.07

0.26

10.72

0.11

03-10
Saturday

13

170.61

66.33

19813

61.55

90.55

0.18

9.28

03-11
Sunday

13

168.64

66.17

20082

62.64

92.26

0.28

7.39

0.14

03-12
Monday

13

177.3

67.63

19458

58.6

89.2

0.16

10.5

03-13
Tuesday

13

174.24

65.54

19700

58.84

89.92

0.2

9.84

0.15

03-14
Wednesday

13

181.37

69.54

20218

59.38

89.13

0.31

10.59

0.1

03-15
Thursday

13

176.47

67.58

20408

57.73

89.28

0.26

10.4

03-16
Friday

13

176.18

68.08

21039

57.8

90.28

0.22

9.53

03-17
Saturday

13

172.31

66.54

20988

63.77

91.73

0.25

7.98

03-18
Sunday

13

174.18

67.46

21107

65.71

92.72

0.26

6.88

03-19
Monday

13

175.29

67.08

20092

61.71

90.34

0.32

9.26

03-20
Tuesday

12.4

208.32

61.39

23485

66.79

85.78

0.3

14.01

0.12

03-21
Wednesday

15.3

279.63

63.08

32857

74.25

89.33

0.61

10.36

0.89

CALL SETUP
Call Drop TCH congn
SUCC

SDCCH
Congn

Sau khi m rng TRX:


Date(mm-dd)

TCH
AVAIL

Traffic

AVG TCH
SEIZED

TCH
Seizures

HO Call

03-22
Thursday

21

315.2

70.75

36357

74.1

99.17

0.18

0.61

03-23
Friday

21

301.72

71.55

35083

74.41

99.23

0.21

0.65

03-25
Sunday

21

275.64

70.64

34422

73.53

99.33

0.24

0.47

03-26
Monday

21

328.9

71.25

39574

74.08

98.14

0.21

1.64

03-27
Tuesday

21

319.46

69.79

37689

74.67

99.44

0.34

0.45

03-28
Wednesday

21

270.26

102.26

31115

69.59

95.58

0.23

4.31

0.02

03-29
Thursday

21

278.95

102.58

32630

71.05

96.88

0.21

2.97

0.07

03-30
Friday

21

272.18

100.58

31494

68.78

95.6

0.22

4.18

03-31
Saturday

21

298.05

104.33

37004

72.06

98.38

0.22

1.45

04-01
Sunday

21

279.59

104.54

35008

72.27

98.68

0.31

1.16

04-02
Monday

21

275.2

103.46

31861

70.68

96.44

0.27

3.32

0.04

04-03
Tuesday

21

271.4

99.54

31341

72.05

96.76

0.19

3.03

0.08

04-04
Wednesday

21

282.34

100.71

32035

71.92

97.05

0.26

2.82

04-05
Thursday

21

268.45

100.88

30497

71.06

96.6

0.22

3.17

Hong Anh Dng

103

CALL SETUP
Call Drop TCH congn
SUCC

SDCCH
Congn

in t 3 K47

Chng VI

Mt s minh ha cng tc ti u ha mng VMS_MobiFone

Theo s liu thng k trn ta thy:


Trc khi m rng TRX: S knh TCH hot ng l 13 knh.
T l thit lp cuc gi thnh cng thp: trung bnh khong 89%. Thp
nht l ngy 20-3 ch t 85,78%)
T l nghn TCH rt cao: trung bnh khong 10% (cao hn rt nhiu so
vi khuyn ngh GSM l nh hn 2%). Ngy 20-3, t l nghn TCH ln
ti 14,01%
T l nghn SDCCH cao (gi tr theo khuyn ngh l di 0,5%)
S ln chim mch TCH thnh cng (TCH_Seizures) thp.
Sau khi m rng TRX (ngy 22-3): S knh TCH hot ng by gi l 21
knh. Cc ch tiu cht lng trn c ci thin r rt, m bo yu cu cht
lng h thng:
T l thit lp cuc gi thnh cng cao (~97%).
T l nghn TCH gim (~2%).
T l nghn SDCCH gim (~0,02%)
TCH_Seizures tng.
Kt lun: Sau khi m rng TRX, cc ch tiu cht lng c ci thin v
t yu cu v ch tiu cht lng theo khuyn ngh GSM.

Hong Anh Dng

104

in t 3 K47

Ti u ha mng di ng GSM

KT LUN
***
n tt nghip trnh by nhng nt c bn nht v mng thng tin di
ng GSM, cng vi mt s cng tc ti u ha h thng c thc hin ti mng
VMS_MobiFone. Ti u ho l mt cng vic kh khn v i hi ngi thc hin
phi nm vng h thng, ngoi ra cng cn phi c nhng kinh nghim thc t v
s tr gip ca nhiu phng tin hin i c th gim st v kim tra ri t
mi a ra cc cng vic thc hin ti u ho.
Do thi gian thc tp c hn v nhng hn ch khng trnh khi ca vic
hiu bit cc vn da trn l thuyt l chnh nn bo co tt nghip ca em chc
chn khng trnh khi nhng thiu st. Em rt mong c c nhng kin nh
gi, gp ca cc thy v cc bn n thm hon thin.
Qua thi gian thc tp em thy ti u ho l mt mng ti rng v lun
cn thit cho cc mng vin thng hin ti ni chung v mng thng tin di ng ni
ring. Kh nng ng dng ca ti l gip ch cho nhng ngi lm cng tc ti
u ho mng, l c s l thuyt phn tch v tin hnh, t hon ton c th
tm ra gii php ti u khoa hc nht. V phn mnh, em tin tng rng trong tng
lai nu c lm vic trong lnh vc ny, em s tip tc c s nghin cu mt cch
su sc hn na v ti ny.
Mt ln na, em xin chn thnh cm n Trng phng V Anh_Phng
Cng ngh v Pht trin mng, Trng phng Nguyn Xun Ngha_Phng K thut
Khai thc to iu kin gip em trong t thc tp tt nghip.
ng thi, em xin gi li cm n chn thnh ti thy Nguyn Tin Quyt
cng vi t trng t ti u ha anh Trung Minh v cc cn b phng K
thut_Khai thc thuc cng ty thng tin di ng VMS_MobiFone khu vc I trc
tip hng dn v gip em hon thnh n tt nghip ny.
H Ni, Ngy

thng

nm 2007

Sinh vin thc hin


Hong Anh Dng

Hong Anh Dng

105

in t 3 K47

Ti u ha mng di ng GSM

TI LIU THAM KHO


***
[1] PTS.Nguyn Phm Anh Dng, Thng tin di ng GSM, Nh xut bn bu in,
H Ni 1999.
[2] V c Th, Tnh ton mng thng tin di ng s CELLULAR, Nh xut bn
gio dc, H Ni 1999.
[3] J. Dahlin, Ericssons Multiple Reuse Pattern For DCS 1800, in Mobile
Communications International, Nov., 1996.
[4] Asha K. Mehrotra, GSM System Engineering, Artech House, Inc Boston London
1996.
[5] GSM Association, http://www.gsmworld.com, Truy cp cui cng ngy
10/05/2007.
[6] http://www.wikipedia.org, Truy cp cui cng ngy 10/05/2007.
[7] http://www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn, Truy cp cui cng ngy 10/05/2007.

Hong Anh Dng

106

in t 3 K47

Ti u ha mng di ng GSM

PH LC
***
BNG ERLANG B
TCH

1%

2%

GoS (Grade of Service)


3%
5%
10 %
20 %

40 %

TCH

1
2
3
4
5

.01010
.15259
.45549
.86942
1.3608

.02041
.22347
.60221
1.0923
1.6571

.03093
.28155
.71513
1.2589
1.8752

.05263
.38132
.89940
1.5246
2.2185

.11111
.59543
1.2708
2.0454
2.8811

.25000
1.0000
1.9299
2.9452
4.0104

.66667
2.0000
3.4798
5.0210
6.5955

1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10

1.9090
2.5009
3.1276
3.7825
4.4612

2.2759
2.9354
3.6271
4.3447
5.0840

2.5431
3.2497
3.9865
4.7479
5.5294

2.9603
3.7378
4.5430
5.3702
6.2157

3.7548
4.6662
5.5971
6.5464
7.5106

5.1086
6.2302
7.3692
8.5217
9.6850

8.1907
9.7998
11.419
13.045
14.677

6
7
8
9
10

11
12
13
14
15

5.1599
5.8760
6.6072
7.3517
8.1080

5.8415
6.6147
7.4015
8.2003
9.0096

6.3280
7.1410
7.9967
8.8035
9.6500

7.0764
7.9501
8.8349
9.7295
10.633

8.4871
9.4740
10.470
11.473
12.484

10.857
12.036
13.222
14.413
15.608

16.314
17.954
19.589
21.243
22.891

11
12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19
20

8.8750
9.6516
10.437
11.230
12.031

9.8284
10.656
11.491
12.333
13.182

10.505
11.368
12.238
13.115
13.997

11.544
12.461
13.385
14.315
15.249

13.500
14.522
15.548
16.579
17.613

16.807
18.010
19.216
20.424
21.635

24.541
26.192
27.844
29.498
31.152

16
17
18
19
20

21
22
23
24
25

12.838
13.651
14.470
15.295
16.125

14.036
14.896
15.761
16.631
17.505

14.885
15.778
16.675
17.577
18.483

16.189
17.132
18.080
19.031
19.985

18.651
19.692
20.737
21.784
22.833

22.848
24.046
25.281
26.499
27.720

32.808
34.464
36.121
37.779
39.437

21
22
23
24
25

26

16.959

18.383

19.392

20.943

23.885

28.941

41.096

26

Hong Anh Dng

107

in t 3 K47

Ti u ha mng di ng GSM
27
28
29
30

17.797
18.640
19.487
20.337

19.265
20.150
21.039
21.932

20.305
21.221
22.140
23.062

21.904
22.867
23.833
24.802

24.939
25.995
27.053
28.113

30.164
31.388
32.614
33.840

42.755
44.414
46.074
47.735

27
28
29
30

31
32
33
34
35

21.191
22.048
22.909
23.772
24.638

22.827
23.725
24.626
25.529
26.455

23.987
24.914
25.844
26.776
27.711

25.773
26.746
27.721
28.698
29.677

29.174
30.237
31.301
32.367
33.434

35.067
36.295
37.524
38.754
39.985

49.395
51.056
52.718
54.379
56.041

31
32
33
34
35

36
37
38
39
40

25.507
26.378
27.252
28.129
29.007

27.343
28.254
29.166
30.081
30.997

28.647
29.585
30.526
31.468
32.412

30.657
31.640
32.624
33.609
34.596

34.503
35.572
36.643
37.715
38.787

41.216
42.448
43.680
44.913
46.147

57.703
59.365
61.028
62.690
64.353

36
37
38
39
40

41
42
43
44
45

29.888
30.771
31.656
32.543
33.432

31.916
32.836
33.758
34.682
35.607

33.357
34.305
35.253
36.203
37.155

35.584
36.574
37.565
38.557
39.550

39.864
40.936
42.011
43.088
44.165

47.381
48.616
49.851
51.086
52.322

66.016
67.679
69.342
71.066
72.669

41
42
43
44
45

46
47
48
49
50

34.322

36.534

38.108

40.545

45.243

53.559

74.333

35.215
36.109
37.004
37.901

37.462
38.392
39.323
40.255

39.062
40.018
40.975
41.933

41.540
42.537
43.534
44.533

46.322
47.404
48.481
49.562

54.796
56.033
57.270
58.508

75.997
77.660
79.324
80.988

46
47
48
49
50

51
52

38.800
39.

41.189

42.892

45.533

50.644

59.746

82.652

51
52

1%

2%

3%

5%

10 %

20 %

40 %

TCH

TCH

Hong Anh Dng

108

in t 3 K47