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# Fourier Transform (Chapter 4)

## CS474/674 Prof. Bebis

Mathematical Background:
Complex Numbers
A complex number x is of the form:

## : real part, b: imaginary part

Multiplication:

Mathematical Background:
Complex Numbers (contd)
Magnitude-Phase (i.e., vector) representation:

Magnitude:
Phase:

Magnitude-Phase notation:

Mathematical Background:
Complex Numbers (contd)
Multiplication using magnitude-phase representation

Complex conjugate

Properties

Mathematical Background:
Complex Numbers (contd)
Eulers formula

Properties
j

Mathematical Background:
Sine and Cosine Functions
Periodic functions
General form of sine and cosine functions:
y(t)=Asin(t+b)

y(t)=Acos(t+b)

Mathematical Background:
Sine and Cosine Functions
Special case: A=1, b=0, =1

period=2

3/2

/2

/2

3/2

Mathematical Background:
Sine and Cosine Functions (contd)
Changing the phase shift b:

## Note: cosine is a shifted sine function:

cos(t ) sin(t )
2

Mathematical Background:
Sine and Cosine Functions (contd)
Changing the amplitude A:

Mathematical Background:
Sine and Cosine Functions (contd)
Changing the period T=2/||:
Asssume A=1, b=0: y=cos(t)

=4
period 2/4=/2
shorter period
higher frequency
(i.e., oscillates faster)
frequency is defined as f=1/T
Alternative notation: cos(t) or cos(2t/T) or cos(t/T) or cos(2ft) or cos(ft)

Basis Functions
Given a vector space of functions, S, then if any f(t) S can
be expressed as
f (t ) ak k (t )
k

## the set of functions k(t) are called the expansion set of S.

If the expansion is unique, the set k(t) is a basis.

Image Transforms
Many times, image processing tasks are best
performed in a domain other than the spatial domain.
Key steps
(1) Transform the image
(2) Carry the task(s) in the transformed domain.
(3) Apply inverse transform to return to the spatial domain.

Transformation Kernels
Forward Transformation
T (u , v)

M 1 N 1

f ( x, y)r ( x, y, u, v)

## forward transformation kernel

u 0,1,..., M 1, v 0,1,..., N 1

x 0 y 0

## inverse transformation kernel

Inverse Transformation
f ( x, y )

M 1 N 1

T (u, v)s( x, y, u, v)
u 0 v 0

x 0,1,..., M 1, y 0,1,..., N 1

Kernel Properties
A kernel is said to be separable if:

r ( x, y, u , v) r1 ( x, u )r2 ( y, v)
A kernel is said to be symmetric if:

r ( x, y, u , v) r1 ( x, u )r1 ( y, v)

## Fourier Series Theorem

Any periodic function f(t) can be expressed as a
weighted sum (infinite) of sine and cosine functions of
varying frequency:

1
2
3

## Continuous Fourier Transform (FT)

Transforms a signal (i.e., function) from the spatial (x)
domain to the frequency (u) domain.

where

Definitions
F(u) is a complex function:
Magnitude of FT (spectrum):
Phase of FT:
Magnitude-Phase representation:
Power of f(x): P(u)=|F(u)|2=

Why is FT Useful?
Easier to remove undesirable frequencies in the
frequency domain.
Faster to perform certain operations in the frequency
domain than in the spatial domain.

## Example: Removing undesirable frequencies

noisy signal

To remove certain
frequencies, set their
corresponding F(u)
coefficients to zero!

remove high
frequencies

frequencies

reconstructed
signal

## How do frequencies show up in an image?

Low frequencies correspond to slowly varying pixel
intensities (e.g., continuous surface).
High frequencies correspond to quickly varying pixel
intensities (e.g., edges)

Original Image

Low-passed

Input image

Band-reject
filter

Output image

## Frequency Filtering: Main Steps

1. Take the FT of f(x):
2. Remove undesired frequencies:
3. Convert back to a signal:

magnitude

rect(x) function

sinc(x)=sin(x)/x

## Example: impulse or delta function

Definition of delta function:
Properties:

## Example: impulse or delta function (contd)

FT of delta function:

x
u

## Example: spatial/frequency shifts

f ( x) F (u ), then
(1) f ( x x0 ) e
(2) f ( x)e

j 2u0 x

j 2ux0

Special Cases:

F (u )

F (u u 0 )

( x x0 ) e
e

j 2u 0 x

j 2ux0

(u u 0 )

## Example: sine and cosine functions

FT of the cosine function

cos(2u0x)

F(u)

1/2

## Example: sine and cosine functions (contd)

FT of the sine function

jF(u)

sin(2u0x)

Extending FT in 2D
Forward FT

Inverse FT

## Example: 2D rectangle function

FT of 2D rectangle function
2D sinc()
top view

## Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) (contd)

Forward DFT

Inverse DFT

1/(Nx)

Example

Extending DFT to 2D
Assume that f(x,y) is M x N.
Forward DFT

Inverse DFT:

## Extending DFT to 2D (contd)

Special case: f(x,y) is N x N.
Forward DFT
u,v = 0,1,2, , N-1

Inverse DFT
x,y = 0,1,2, , N-1

## Extending DFT to 2D (contd)

2D cos/sin functions

Interpretation:

Visualizing DFT
Typically, we visualize |F(u,v)|
The dynamic range of |F(u,v)| is typically very large
Apply streching:

original image

(c is const)
|F(u,v)|

|D(u,v)|

before stretching

after stretching

## DFT Properties: (1) Separability

The 2D DFT can be computed using 1D transforms only:

Forward DFT:

kernel is
separable:

j 2 (

ux vy
)
N

j 2 (

ux
vy
) j 2 ( )
N
N

## DFT Properties: (1) Separability (contd)

Rewrite F(u,v) as follows:

Lets set:

Then:

## DFT Properties: (1) Separability (contd)

How can we compute F(x,v)?
)

## N x DFT of rows of f(x,y)

How can we compute F(u,v)?

## DFT Properties: (2) Periodicity

The DFT and its inverse are periodic with period N

f(x,y)

F(u,v)

)
N

## DFT Properties: (4) Translation (contd)

To show a full period, we need to translate the origin
of the transform at u=N/2 (or at (N/2,N/2) in 2D)
|F(u)|

|F(u-N/2)|

)
N

)
N

## DFT Properties: (4) Translation (contd)

sinc

no translation

sinc

after translation

## DFT Properties: (5) Rotation

Rotating f(x,y) by rotates F(u,v) by

but

Average:

So:

## Magnitude and Phase of DFT

What is more important?

magnitude

phase

## Hint: use the inverse DFT to reconstruct the input

image using only magnitude or phase information

## Magnitude and Phase of DFT (contd)

Reconstructed image using
magnitude only
(i.e., magnitude determines the
strength of each component)

## Reconstructed image using

phase only
(i.e., phase determines
the phase of each component)

## Magnitude and Phase of DFT (contd)

only phase

only magnitude

phase (woman)
magnitude (rectangle)

phase (rectangle)
magnitude (woman)