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Fourier Transform

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Mathematical Background:

Complex Numbers

A complex number x is of the form:

Addition:

Multiplication:

Mathematical Background:

Complex Numbers (contd)

Magnitude-Phase (i.e., vector) representation:

Magnitude:

Phase:

Magnitude-Phase notation:

Mathematical Background:

Complex Numbers (contd)

Multiplication using magnitude-phase representation

Complex conjugate

Properties

Mathematical Background:

Complex Numbers (contd)

Eulers formula

Properties

j

Mathematical Background:

Sine and Cosine Functions

Periodic functions

General form of sine and cosine functions:

y(t)=Asin(t+b)

y(t)=Acos(t+b)

Mathematical Background:

Sine and Cosine Functions

Special case: A=1, b=0, =1

period=2

3/2

/2

/2

3/2

Mathematical Background:

Sine and Cosine Functions (contd)

Changing the phase shift b:

cos(t ) sin(t )

2

Mathematical Background:

Sine and Cosine Functions (contd)

Changing the amplitude A:

Mathematical Background:

Sine and Cosine Functions (contd)

Changing the period T=2/||:

Asssume A=1, b=0: y=cos(t)

=4

period 2/4=/2

shorter period

higher frequency

(i.e., oscillates faster)

frequency is defined as f=1/T

Alternative notation: cos(t) or cos(2t/T) or cos(t/T) or cos(2ft) or cos(ft)

Basis Functions

Given a vector space of functions, S, then if any f(t) S can

be expressed as

f (t ) ak k (t )

k

If the expansion is unique, the set k(t) is a basis.

Image Transforms

Many times, image processing tasks are best

performed in a domain other than the spatial domain.

Key steps

(1) Transform the image

(2) Carry the task(s) in the transformed domain.

(3) Apply inverse transform to return to the spatial domain.

Transformation Kernels

Forward Transformation

T (u , v)

M 1 N 1

f ( x, y)r ( x, y, u, v)

u 0,1,..., M 1, v 0,1,..., N 1

x 0 y 0

Inverse Transformation

f ( x, y )

M 1 N 1

T (u, v)s( x, y, u, v)

u 0 v 0

x 0,1,..., M 1, y 0,1,..., N 1

Kernel Properties

A kernel is said to be separable if:

r ( x, y, u , v) r1 ( x, u )r2 ( y, v)

A kernel is said to be symmetric if:

r ( x, y, u , v) r1 ( x, u )r1 ( y, v)

Any periodic function f(t) can be expressed as a

weighted sum (infinite) of sine and cosine functions of

varying frequency:

1

2

3

Transforms a signal (i.e., function) from the spatial (x)

domain to the frequency (u) domain.

where

Definitions

F(u) is a complex function:

Magnitude of FT (spectrum):

Phase of FT:

Magnitude-Phase representation:

Power of f(x): P(u)=|F(u)|2=

Why is FT Useful?

Easier to remove undesirable frequencies in the

frequency domain.

Faster to perform certain operations in the frequency

domain than in the spatial domain.

noisy signal

To remove certain

frequencies, set their

corresponding F(u)

coefficients to zero!

remove high

frequencies

frequencies

reconstructed

signal

Low frequencies correspond to slowly varying pixel

intensities (e.g., continuous surface).

High frequencies correspond to quickly varying pixel

intensities (e.g., edges)

Original Image

Low-passed

Input image

Band-reject

filter

Output image

1. Take the FT of f(x):

2. Remove undesired frequencies:

3. Convert back to a signal:

magnitude

rect(x) function

sinc(x)=sin(x)/x

Definition of delta function:

Properties:

FT of delta function:

x

u

f ( x) F (u ), then

(1) f ( x x0 ) e

(2) f ( x)e

j 2u0 x

j 2ux0

Special Cases:

F (u )

F (u u 0 )

( x x0 ) e

e

j 2u 0 x

j 2ux0

(u u 0 )

FT of the cosine function

cos(2u0x)

F(u)

1/2

FT of the sine function

jF(u)

sin(2u0x)

Extending FT in 2D

Forward FT

Inverse FT

FT of 2D rectangle function

2D sinc()

top view

Forward DFT

Inverse DFT

1/(Nx)

Example

Extending DFT to 2D

Assume that f(x,y) is M x N.

Forward DFT

Inverse DFT:

Special case: f(x,y) is N x N.

Forward DFT

u,v = 0,1,2, , N-1

Inverse DFT

x,y = 0,1,2, , N-1

2D cos/sin functions

Interpretation:

Visualizing DFT

Typically, we visualize |F(u,v)|

The dynamic range of |F(u,v)| is typically very large

Apply streching:

original image

(c is const)

|F(u,v)|

|D(u,v)|

before stretching

after stretching

The 2D DFT can be computed using 1D transforms only:

Forward DFT:

kernel is

separable:

j 2 (

ux vy

)

N

j 2 (

ux

vy

) j 2 ( )

N

N

Rewrite F(u,v) as follows:

Lets set:

Then:

How can we compute F(x,v)?

)

How can we compute F(u,v)?

The DFT and its inverse are periodic with period N

f(x,y)

F(u,v)

)

N

To show a full period, we need to translate the origin

of the transform at u=N/2 (or at (N/2,N/2) in 2D)

|F(u)|

|F(u-N/2)|

)

N

)

N

sinc

no translation

sinc

after translation

Rotating f(x,y) by rotates F(u,v) by

but

Average:

So:

What is more important?

magnitude

phase

image using only magnitude or phase information

Reconstructed image using

magnitude only

(i.e., magnitude determines the

strength of each component)

phase only

(i.e., phase determines

the phase of each component)

only phase

only magnitude

phase (woman)

magnitude (rectangle)

phase (rectangle)

magnitude (woman)

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