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History

of World Architecture

Christian Norberg-Schulz

Baroque Architecture

Electa/t^z/o/./
"'

- t

'

Christian Norberg-Schulz

Baroque Architecture

Electa/%zzo/./
SAUSALITO PUBLIC LIBRARY

Photographs: Pepi Merisio and Bruno Balestrini

Drawings: Studio Enzo di Grazia

Layout: Arturo Anzani

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Norberg-Schulz, Christian.

Baroque architecture.
Bibliography:

p.

Includes index.
1.

Architecture, Baroque.

I.

Title.

NA590.N6 1986 724'. 19 85-30011


ISBN 0-8478-0693-6 (U.S.: pbk.)

Copyright 1979 by

Electa Editrice, Milano

Paperback edition first published


in the United States of America in 1986
by Rizzoli International Publications, Inc.
597 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10017
All rights reserved

No

part of this publication

may be reproduced

manner whatsoever without permission

in

in writing

Rizzoli International Publications, Inc.

This volume

is

the redesigned paperback

of the original Italian edition published in 1971


by Electa Editrice, Milan,

and the English translation published in 1972


by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York

Printed in Italy

any

by

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter

One

THE BAROQUE AGE

Chapter

Two

THE CITY

19

Chapter Three

THE CHURCH

62

Chapter Four

THE PALACE

144

Chapter Five

THE DIFFUSION OF BAROQUE


ARCHITECTURE

174

NOTES

205

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

213

INDEX

215

LIST

OF PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS

223

book we have treated in

In the present

plex totality of Baroque architecture.

not been possible within

its

limited

detail only certain aspects of the

com-

A full iconographical interpretation has

number

of pages.

The method employed

concentrates attention on the analysis of spatial structures, understanding space


as

one of

man

's

basic existential dimensions. In this

way

the general intentions

as well as the regional varieties of Baroque architecture are illuminated,


roots in

and its

Cinquecento architecture are explained. The book covers a period

which comprises the


of the seventeenth.

last

As

two or three decades

buildings

of the sixteenth century

and building

and most

types cannot be properly under-

stood in isolation from a more comprehensive context, the urban dimension

is

included in the exposition. In Baroque architecture, in fact, the single elements


are highly determined by the "system

The author wants

to

thank those

"

of

which they form

part.

who have offered him inspiration and help

through their writings or in direct discussion, in particular Prof.

Hans

Sedlmayr, Prof. Paolo Portoghesi, Prof. 'Werner Hager, Prof. Rudolf Witt-

kower, Prof. Staale Sinding-Larsen, Prof. Giulio Carlo Argan and Prof. Fer-

dinand Schuster.

He also

biographical

who has been in


who have collected

wants to thank Dr. Carlo Pirovano

charge of the production of the volume, as well as all those

and bibliographical information. Special thanks

are

due

to Mrs.

Marcia Berg for correcting and typing the manuscript.

Ch.N.-S.

Chapter

One

THE BAROQUE AGE

The Baroque and

Its

Buildings

"Rend Thou the veil, my Lord! Breakdown that wall/ whose thickness de/ of Thy sun, which the world sees not."
Towards the end of the sixteenth century, the attitude changed. The
case of Descartes is particularly illuminating. Having found that every-

The seventeenth century was characterized by a diversity unknown before. The unified and hierarchically ordered cosmos of the Middle Ages had
disintegrated during the Renaissance, and a new element of choice had

lays the light

been introduced into the life of man. "In the religious system of the Middle

thing can be doubted, he concludes that his

Ages
its

as

it

crystallized in scholasticism, every phase of reality

unique place; and with

value,

which

from the

it is

the rise of

to the fore,

its

There

is

no room here

doubt and

for

in

all

it

think-

the consciousness of being sheltered by this inviolable

is

order which

place goes a complete determination of

based on the greater or lesser distance which separates

First Cause.

ing there

With

is

its

was assigned

and

not the business of thought to create but only to accept."

Humanism, however, the question of man's


in Florence

free will

came

Nanni Strozzi (1428), Leonardo Bruni said: "Equal


the hope of gaining high office and of rising is the
hundred years before this, the Florentines had gone

his funeral oration for

liberty exists for

same

for all."

as far as to

all

Even

appoint their magistrates by

lot.

Middle Ages was thus replaced by an active

The

absolute system of the

political life,

which found

new basis in the studia humanitatis.


The idea of the ordered universe, however, was not relinquished by the
Renaissance. Rather it obtained a new interpretation based on geometry
and musical harmony, whereby a new scale of values was introduced, assigning everything a place according to
this

framework man had

its

degree of "perfection."* Within

freedom of choice,

his

as expressed in the

paraphrase on the Creation by Pico della Mirandola:

man

as a creature of

"He

famous

therefore took

indeterminate nature and, assigning him a place in the

middle of the world, addressed him thus: 'Neither a fixed abode nor a

form that
thee,

is

Adam,

thine alone nor any function peculiar to thyself have


to the

we given

end that according to thy longing and according

to thy

judgement thou mayest have and possess what abode, what form, and

what functions thou thyself

shalt desire...

degenerate into the lower forms of

life,

Thou

shalt

have the power to

which are brutish. Thou

shalt

could pretend that

place that
exist,

was

in,

but that

have

ing the truth of other things,

that

ly

existed..."

On

could not for

all

it

did not

thought of doubt-

followed very evidently and very certain-

the basis of this certainty he goes on con-

Descartes, and that which enables


is

was, and seeing

that, pretend that

fact that

structing a comprehensive system of "facts."

taigne and the Sceptics

had no body and that there was no world or

and that on the contrary, from the very

received a social and political foundation. In

it

that

own doubt being a thought rep-

"Examining attentively what

resents the only certainty!

him

"The

great originality of

to avoid the conclusions of

Mon-

that, instead of considering the objects of doubt,

he detaches the act of doubting from anything external to

itself

and

in that

way cuts the ground from beneath the feet of scepticism.""


The general spirit of the seventeenth century, however, rarely possessed

man

Rather

this originality.

sought security by a choice between the cur-

rent alternatives of the period.

the

less,

mean

The new

state of affairs

that the conflicts

Europe during the

part of Central

But nobody any longer believed

does not

may be

War, which paralyzed

first half

a great

of the seventeenth century.

in a re-establishment of the old order,

again started to look ahead.

tury, therefore,

this

were over, since the disintegration of the old world

actually culminated with the Thirty Years'

man

was accepted none

and the old unified world was gone forever. But

The new world

and

of the seventeenth cen-

called "pluralistic," in so far as

it

offered

man

choice between different alternatives, be they religious, philosophical,

economic or

were characterized by the aim

political. All the alternatives

we have found

in Descartes' thinking: to arrive at a

and he could find


of the schools of

it

in the tradition of the restored

Reformation which were

complete and secure

Man wanted absolute security,

system based on a priori axioms or dogmas.

all

Roman Church,

in

one

based on the belief in the ab-

the power, out of thy soul's judgement, to be reborn into the higher forms,

solute truth of the Biblical word, in the great philosophical systems of Des-

which are divine.'"

cartes,

But the Renaissance idea of freedom within


ingful universe did not last long.

harmonious and mean-

Erasmus and Luther represent doubt in


removed the

the freedom and "dignity of man," and Copernicus (1545)


-1

earth from the center of the universe.


tine civilization

The

political

foundation of Floren-

broke down, and the division of the Church

ratified the

disintegration of the unified and absolute world. During the sixteenth

century the

man

new

diversity

was experienced

as a frightening split giving

The general attitude found its artistic


phenomena which are usually brought together under

sense of doubt and alienation.

manifestation in the

the label of "Mannerism." In the tragic world of Michelangelo,


forth with singular intensity:

it

comes

Hobbes, Spinoza or Leibniz, or

ine right."

The

in the absolute

attitude was most natural; in fact,

but analogous attempts


In spite of the

new

it

at establishing a substitute for

pluralism,

we may

monarchy "by

the lost cosmos.

therefore consider the seven-

teenth century a unified epoch, the Baroque Age. In doing this

evoke

a mystic "spirit of the age,"

Rather we have in mind the basic

div-

represented different

nor refer to mere

we

neither

"stylistic similarities."

human attitude which

prevails in spite of

the differences of choice, the esprit de systeme, to use the term of D' Alembert.'

Through the freedom of choice, man immensely widened the pos-

sibilities for

structuring his

was limited by

his

own life,

immediate

at least in theory; in reality the choice

situation. In other words,

all

the alternatives

were not available everywhere, but were confined to particular geogra-

map

Paris,

from

of

town and environs

740.

whose general distribution was settled after the Thirty Years'


8
War. The seventeenth century, therefore, experienced certain migrations
of human groups, such as the expulsion of the Huguenots from France
phical areas,

(1685).

Although they were connected with particular "areas," the

tems were
tion

was

in a certain sense

and

essential,

sys-

"open." Not being single units, their propaga-

dynamic, centrifugal character became general.

Propagation, however, only becomes meaningful and effective in relation


to a center,

which represents the basic axioms and properties of the system.

The religious,

scientific,

ing forces, which, seen

The systems

political centers

had no

itself,

were

foci of radiat-

spatial limits.

of the seventeenth century, thus, had an open and

character. Departing

tended. This

economic and

from the center

new

from

dynamic

be infinitely ex-

a fixed point, they could

relation to the infinite first appears in the writings of

Giordano Bruno who

and

says: "Infinite space has infinite potentiality,

this infinite potentiality

may be

in

He

praised an infinite act of existence."

then goes on to imagine a plurality of worlds: "Thus there are innumerable


suns, with countless planets likewise circling about these suns..."
infinite world,

are

found

movement and force

philosophy of Leibniz a hundred years

in the

simpler and more rational world of Descartes


extension

is

the basic property of

In this

are of prime importance. Related ideas

we

later; also in

the

find the idea that spatial

things and that their differences are

all

based on different movements. Geometry, therefore,

is

the appropriate

Whereas the geometrically ordered unithe Renaissance was closed and static, Baroque thought makes it

tool for understanding the world.

verse of

open and dynamic.

We thus understand that the two seemingly contradictory aspects of the


Baroque phenomenon, systematism and dynamism, form
tality.

The need

for belonging to an absolute

meaningful

to-

and integrated but open and

dynamic system was the basic attitude of the Baroque Age.


This attitude was nourished by the characteristic achievements of the
period: exploratory travels (opening

up an ever

larger

and more complex

world), colonization (extending the social and cultural borders of Eu-

ropean pluralism), and scientific research (substituting empirical study

and research for the traditional idea of harmony and degrees of perfection).

This general expansion had as a necessary correlate a growing

specialization of

forced to define

human activities; every discipline, every activity was


own field. In our context it is important to point out

its

the split of that unity of art and science which had formed the basis for the

uomo

universale of the Renaissance.

The

artist

no longer dared to be

losopher or scientist, and as a consequence artistic theory lost

a phi-

of

its

we want to understand
we must infer them from the

impetus during the seventeenth century. In


the intentions of Baroque architects,

much

fact, if

treatises of the previous or following centuries."

ideal of "universal

Rather than pursue the


man," the Baroque Age therefore assigned the in-

dividual a fixed place within the social hierarchy.

To

a certain extent,

he

2.

Rome, plan

of Sixtus

(reconstruction by Giedion).
3. Versailles, aerial

could choose his preferred system, but hardly his

Baroque Age was

Socially the

no other epoch has

Virtually

form of

still

life visible

the systems to

own

place within

it.

to the

same extent aimed

making

their alternatives

Most

of

Paris

formed the center of an analogous system, comprising the whole of

"common" language and he begins his Discourse with an account of


own life to strike a note of sympathy in his reader. In fact, "the ultimaaim of Descartes was to persuade men that, in their task of reconstruct-

France.

them stem from the seventeenth century. In

And

we

if

fests a

te

vironment. This correspondence

that his

method was essentially an instrument


what can be demonstrated to science,

That

to say

Leaving

"

for action."

religion

is

became more

pendent on persuasion than ever before. This was already realized by St


natius Loyola, and motivated his "Spiritual Exercises"

which were

in

ticular

Roman Church came

Ig-

life.

first

recognize

is,

is

a geometrically

when we remember

ordered extension as

always referred to as a "center of

embodying the

a place

and the architectural en-

life

easy to understand

"dogmas" of the form of

basic

In relation to this focus, man's existence became meaningful, spatially

expressed through a system of possible movements, or "paths," which

converge on the center.


Renaissance architecture also gave great importance to centralized pat-

importance to the visual images as a means of persuasion. "And the

terns of organization, in buildings as well as in plans for "ideal cities." Re-

teries of

this: that,

by means of the Stories of the Mys-

our Redemption, portrayed by paintings or other representations,

the people are instructed and confirmed in the habit of remembering, and

continually revolving in

mind the

The

language and sacred music.'


festivals

and

make

fetes to

But even the Proby means of sermons in the common

articles of faith..."

testant churches practiced persuasion

absolute monarchies, finally, used great

the glory of the system visible.

Persuasion has participation as

its

goal.

The Baroque world,

in fact,

may

be characterized as a great theater where everybody was assigned a par-

Such

ticular role.

which

is

a participation,

however, presupposes imagination,

educated by means of

portance in the Baroque Age.

more

basic property. This extension

meaning," that

we

on similar patterns.

to give par-

Bishops shall carefully teach

ulty

its

is

was considered to have

de-

written in plain Spanish and which aim at an imitation of Christ by means


of imagination and empathy. Later the

is

correspondence between the form of

that the world

larger context,

hardly any historical epoch which more evidently mani-

In fact, there

effective.

still

use a magnifying glass on the same map,

his

was alone

that the single elements, the buildings, are organized

uses a

principle

have an infinite extension.

its

at

certainly ought to demonstrate rather than persuade, but even Descartes

ing the world, a method, his method,

ideally,

means used by all


operant. Science and philosophy

or manifest. Persuasion was the basic

make

from 1740 we find that the whole landscape has been transformed into
network of centralized systems which,

closed.

view.

Its

art.

Art, therefore, was of central im-

images were a means of communication

direct than logical demonstration,

The

a fac-

and furthermore, accessible

to the

naissance centralization, however, has a static and enclosed character.

The

systems never extend beyond clearly defined limits, and the elements

main isolated

in the landscape.

The elements

They also have

re-

pronounced individuality.

of Baroque systems, however, interact and subordinate

dominant focus. During the sixteenth century the static


harmony of Renaissance space was broken, and a strong interest in movement and contrast came to the fore, as well as a new relationship between
themselves to

interior

and exterior space.

Although many of the formal structures which are basic

Baroque

to

architecture were developed during the sixteenth century, Mannerist


architecture did not arrive at any true typology.

'

The century was

charac-

terized rather by an incessant experimentation, reflecting the general hu-

man doubt and

insecurity of the period.

of situations, real and surreal, rather than on "history" and absolute form.

Towards the end of the sixteenth century, however, a pronounced wish


for systematization became evident. It started in Rome, as a manifestation

Descartes says: "The charm of fables awakens the mind."

of the accomplished restoration of the Catholic Church. Its basis

illiterate.

was to

art of the

instigate a

became

official

way

Baroque, therefore, concentrates on vivid images

of

life in

and was institutionalized

time, however, the character of

zation" of experience, which

The

general aim

conformity with the system. Art thereby

Baroque

in the academies.

art

brought forth

made man more conscious

''

At the same
"phenomeni-

of his

own

exist-

religious,

and the aim was

focus of the Catholic world.

The basic

Peretti, Cardinal

disintegration.

fact,

The Baroque Building Tasks

To

describe the basic

attitude and the

form of

life

of the

Baroque

Age, we have used terms such as "system," "centralization," "extension"

and "movement." All these terms may just


of Baroque architecture. If

10

we

as well

take a look at a

be used for a description

map

of Paris

and environs

was thus

dominant

therefore most natural that the "turning-

ideas of the plan

must have been developed already before Felice

Montalto, rose to the Papal Chair in 1585 as Sixtus V. In

he put his chief architect, Domenico Fontana, to work

1586 the

human

as the

V introduced a grandiose plan for the urban transformation of Rome."

end therefore

its

It is

Rome

point" was marked by a work on the urbanistic level. In 1585 Pope Sixtus

ence. Baroque participation, which should have secured the system, in the
led to

to express the role of

first

great

new

street,

Via Felice (today Via

at

once, and in

Sistina),

was com-

The principal aim of the plan was to connect the main religious foci
of the city by means of wide, straight streets. Fontana writes: "Our lord,
now wishing to ease the way for those who, prompted by devotion or
pleted.

vows, are accustomed to

visit

frequently the most holy places of the City of

SCBOCE

IN

CERUSALEMME

Rome, and

in particular the

dulgences and
in

many

relics,

Thus one can by

places.

whatever place
line to the

seven churches so celebrated for their great

opened many most commodious and

in

foot,

by horse, or

Rome one may wish, and

most famous devotions."

in-

straight streets

in carriage, start

from

continue virtually in a straight

11

Sixtus

also integrated in his plan

the fragments of regular Renaissance planning carried out by his predecessors, in particular the trident of Piazza del Popolo,

where three

branch out to connect the main city-gate with different urban

streets

The new

tricts.""

streets

planned by Sixtus

abandoned areas between the medieval town and the Aurelian


general, the plan gave a

dis-

also structured the large,

new coherence to the city. The

wall. In

isolated "nodes" of

the past were united to form a network, whereby the role of the individual

element

as part of the general religious

system was expressed.

The City

The plan

of Sixtus

made Rome

roque architecture: the capital

Rome's
its

role as the center of

PIANO

Dl

PROGETTO

This

is

most natural, considering

one of the great systems of the epoch and

glorious past as the caput mundi of the ancient world.

of the capital city


PIANO ESEGUITO

the prototype of the basic unit of Ba-

city.

is

thus the

first

also

The development

concrete answer to the need for

a "visi-

embodiment of the structure of the Baroque world. The quotation


from Domenico Fontana shows that the plan employed also served as a
means of persuasion; it made a "systematic" visit of the holy places imperative and easy. The whole area of the city was thereby imbued with
ideological value; it became a real citta santa.

ble"

Whereas the
tively static

cities of the

Middle Ages and the Renaissance were

and enclosed worlds, the new

capital city

rela-

became the center of

beyond its borders. It became a point of reference for


more concrete sense than, say, Jerusalem or Rome itself
While the building types of Baroque architecture rep-

forces extending far


a

whole world,

in a

had been before.

resent the further development of existing models, the capital city


cally

is

basi-

an original conception which influences the whole system to which

belongs. Already in the seventeenth century,


capital reduced the secondary centers to

mere

it

was recognized that the

it

satellites

having no

real life

of their own.

During the sixteenth century, we find for the

work

of urban streets tends to

first

time that the net-

become integrated with the

"territorial"

roads outside. Such an integration, however, could rarely be carried

accordance with the ideal intention.

through

in

needed

wide

belt of fortifications separating

First,

most

cities still

them from the surrounding

countryside, and second, the existing inner structure hardly allowed for

the development of a consequent Baroque plan.

What we

usually find are

fragments of a Baroque system, which, however, give a clear indication of


the general intention. This

Rome

and

Paris.

is

also the case in the

The shortcomings

resulting

main

capital cities, such as

from the adaptation of the

11

"

4.

Basic types of Baroque churches.

Elongated central plan and


centralized longitudinal plan.

new

XIV

ideas to an existing urban situation led Louis

outside the old capital. Versailles, in fact,


ing lodge of Louis XIII

became the center of

new

city

Argan

a palace; the hunt-

The

to build a

more than

is

complete "ideal city" which

seems to have an infinite extension.

justly recognizes St. Peter's as the

foci of the

terms, that

is

urban

totality

as piazze or squares.

tion as the real core of the city, but while

The dynamic and "open" character of the capital city is also expressed
in its inner structure. The wide and straight streets allowed for an intensified movement of people and vehicles, in accordance with the new
need for "participation." They also made the Baroque desire for systematization manifest. Already in 1574, Pope Gregory XIII gave new
rules for the erection of buildings in Rome, thereby preparing for the great
plan of his successor. The rules stipulated that the houses should be joined
together and that the open spaces between buildings should be closed by
1

lic

and

civic nature, the

is

is

came imperative

those at which only one person has worked... So

ings of the system.

it is

that these old cities,

have become through the passage of time great

towns, and are usually so badly proportioned in comparison with those orderly towns

which an engineer designs

ned towns or even more.

on some

at will

buildings, taken separately, often display as

much

plan, although the

art as those of the plan-

dividuality and

space
tive

The

its

particular

meaning and

dome

becomes part of

element of the urban

totality.

new importance as

The plan of

spaces rather than a distribution of buildings.

extensions in relation to foci,

This means that the

a superior system.

between the buildings acquires

the real constitu-

Sixtus V, in fact,

The Baroque

among which one

is

is

plan of

plan organizes

usually dominant.

these foci represent a termination to the horizontal

should be defined by means of a vertical axis. Sixtus

plastic in-

As

movement, they

V and Domenico Fon-

transformed into

to

all

sky.""

Baroque

The

a functional

creation of

particular shape,

its

of the church behind

it,

container covered

monumental squares bethe main build-

cities, usually in relation to

structure of the Baroque city consists thus of foci (monumental

streets.

The

buildings are integrated with the pattern of

fined by the streets, so that a

achieved.
its

royale,

the sovereign.

buildings and squares) which are interconnected by straight and regular

.
.

In the Baroque city, therefore, the single building loses

is

by the natural dome of the

posed of several separate pieces and made by different masters, than in

originally only villages,

a statue of

space on both sides wanted to symbolize the "open and embracing arms"
of the Church. Because of

whose symbolic vault

perfection in works com-

part of the general

French place

The prototype was created by Henry IV in the Place Dauphine (1605).


The greatest of all "ideological" squares, however, is the Piazza S. Pietro
in Rome where Bernini by means of colonnades accompanying the oval

herent urban spaces defined by continuous building surfaces. In his Disless

become

symmetrically centered upon

the piazza thus forms a complement to the

is

it

particularly evident in the

blank walls." Evidently the aim was to unify the cityscape, forming co-

course, Descartes writes: "...often there

function usually was of a pub-

its

Baroque Age made

ideological system. This

where the space

prototype of such monuments."

may also be defined in purely spatial


The square, of course, has a long tradi-

and

its

An

movements

de-

new interaction between inside and outside is

analogous interaction

is

also established

between the

city

surroundings. Between the main streets, districts were formed

which were given

a certain uniformity so as not to interfere

with the main

properties of the system.

In fact, the buildings of a district had to submit to a program which established the general character of the design.

was created

at

When the Rue Dauphine in Paris

the beginning of the seventeenth century, the inhabitants

were ordered to "make the fronts of their houses

all

in

the same

27

tension of the city, so that the symbolism of the Church became an organic

The Baroque environment, therefore, is ordered in terms of


hierarchic centralization. The city as a whole is the focus of a territorial
network. Within the city, we find a more condensed network which is
focused on monumental buildings, which in turn are geometrically organized into still more condensed systems, until the very center is reached:
in Versailles, the bed of the sovereign! The main monumental buildings of

part of the urban system.

Baroque architecture, of course, were the church and the

tana were conscious of this basic spatial problem, and used Egyptian obelisks

found among the

Roman

ruins to

mark the nodes

21

of their system.

In other cases buildings were used for the same purpose; the

tall

domes of

the churches were particularly suited for terminating the horizontal ex-

Although these monumental buildings may have

a strong plastic value, they are never isolated

from the whole. Even the

freestanding volumes of Late Baroque residences acquire meaning as foci


of a comprehensive system.

The Baroque facade

is

thus just as

function of the urban space in front as of the building to which


In general,

we may

it

much

say that the Baroque city converges on (or radiates

monument constitutes

a focal point of the very greatest prestige

within the framework of a city and


vast area, planned so as to

12

is

ing thereby the


traditionally

two primary powers of the epoch. Let us

palace, manifestfirst

consider the

most important of the two, the church.

belongs.

from) monumental buildings which represent the basic values of the system. "The

manner..."

generally placed in the center of a

enhance the monument's aesthetic values..." 24

The Church

The

role of the

church as an urban focus was clearly recognized during the

and sixteenth centuries. Thus Alberti says: "In the whole compass of the Art of Building, there is nothing in which we ought to employ
more Thought, Care and Diligence than in the laying out and adorning of a
fifteenth

Temple; because, not to mention that

Temple

well built

and handsomely

5.

II
6.

II

Giacomo da

Vignola,

Rome,

Gesu, plan (D.A.U.).

Giacomo

della Porta,

Rome,

Gesu, facade.

adorned

is

the greatest and noblest

Ornament

And

over the Habitation of the Gods...""'*


there be

hills,

them

the highest part of

is

to

no elevated places, the floor of the temple

can have;

a City

Palladio adds:

is

it is

more-

the city

"...if in

be chosen; but in case there be


to

be raised,

much as is conwe find that

as

venient, above the rest of the city.""' During the same period,

the theorists

recommend

a centralized plan for the church, as the circle

and the regular polygons are the "perfect" forms.' But the centralized
plan was not well suited to meet liturgical demands, though

time

signified a departure

it

which had sanctioned the


plan, therefore,

at

the same

from the general tradition of the Church


1

Criticism of the "ideal" centralized

basilica.'

was raised already during the fifteenth century, and even

Alberti designed his most important church, S.

Andrea

in

Mantua, on

Latin cross plan, although a strong inclination towards centralization


evident.'" In general, centralized plans
(chapels),

and when

were accepted

in smaller buildings

function or dedication

a particular

a
is

made

it

a natural

solution.

During the sixteenth century, we encounter the


0_

20

first

attempts

at

an

in-

tegration of the central and longitudinal schemes, a problem most natu60

80
rally

solved by means of the oval, which appears in projects by Peruzzi and

Serlio.'

After the conclusion of the Council of Trent (1563), a more pronounced


negative attitude towards the centralized plan became general, although
the Council had carried through liturgical reforms which
tionally acceptable.

The reason was obviously

made

it

func-

wish to strengthen

tradi-

and to abolish the "pagan" forms of the Renaissance. Thus St. Charles
Borromeo writes: "A church should, in accordance with tradition, be of

tion

cross plan;

round plans were used

for the temples of

When

for Christian churches."'

pagan

idols

and seldom

these words were published, the Church

Gesu in Rome had already been built. In II Gesu, Vignola satisfied


the new ideal of a congregational church which allowed a great number of
people to participate in liturgical functions. The plan shows a longitudinal
disposition with a pronounced spatial integration. The facade by Della
Porta emphasizes the main axis and appears as a great gateway. The building thereby becomes part of the space outside; it participates as an active
element in the urban environment. The dome is no longer the symbol of an
of

"'

II

abstract cosmic harmony, rather

its

forms an expressive and

vertical axis

persuasive contrast to the horizontal movement.

new

active interpretation to the

two

II

Gesu thereby

gives a

traditional motifs: the path of re-

demption and the heavenly dome.

The

solution corresponded well to the needs of the Jesuits, and

scholars have maintained that the

Order used

research has demonstrated that this


the Counter-Reformatory

typology and show

many

of the basic intentions of

is

movement

it

many

model. Later

not the case, since the churches of

are based

local variants.

as a general

'

II

on

much more complex

Gesu, however, contains many

Baroque church building, and therefore requires

13

due attention.

First,

it

demonstrates

leaning towards pronounced inte-

gration of the longitudinal and centralized schemes, and second, the de-

make the church become part of a larger whole, that is, urban
The articulation of the facade as well as the interior must be interpreted as a function of these general aims. Today II Gesu has a richly decorated Baroque interior. As planned by Vignola it was simpler, but it still

enteenth century by Guarino Guarini,

who

extends his activity to

a great

part of the Catholic world.

sire to

space.

corresponded to the general wish for persuasive splendour expressed by


St.

building types dominate seventeenth-century secular architecture,

the city-palace (palazzo, hotel) and the country-house

of Baroque church architecture

The

types and principles outlined above.

is

based on the main

larger churches are usually deriv-

the garden and the landscape.


social context, the villa relates

show centralized

solutions. It

is

essential to recognize, however,

that the disposition of the large longitudinal churches as a rule consists of


a strong center,

marked by

dome

or an incorporated rotunda, while the

smaller churches usually contain a longitudinal axis. Both types are thus

adapted to the new need for participation


Regardless of

an extended spatial system.

in

and particular function, any church

size

its

dogmas

"place" where the basic


zation, therefore, differs

are demonstrated.

is

a focus or a

Baroque

from Renaissance centralization both

centrali-

in

content

and form. The two basic types of Baroque sacred architecture may be
ed: the centralized longitudinal church

We

call-

and the elongated centralized church.

must repeat that the choice between the two alternatives depended

upon the building task

came

in question.

possible to order very

By introducing

this distinction,

complex and varied material

in a

it

be-

meaningful

way.
In Baroque churches, space gains a

new

of interacting spatial elements

is

villa

In

tury.
villa

"

and transitory solutions such

due attention to

all

subdivided by the geometrically

Prospects; in

Night."

44

Town, there

re-

movement, openness, enclosure, etc. Argan


was the idea that space does not surround
9
created by it..."'

lated to properties such as


says:

"The

great innovation

architecture but

The

is

critical spatial

problems are the transitions between different

realms, such as outside and inside, or

between the

spatial

elements of

But he

"There

is

another sort of private House,

Town... Such
tired either

And

Town

villa

The

ture obtains

developed

its first

Roman

Pietro da Cortona.

14

strong

40

We therefore find that Baroque architec-

momentum

Baroque, that

is

in the sacred buildings of the fully

the works of Bernini, Borromini and

The ultimate conclusions

are

drawn

later in the sev-

of the Country-House,

would afford the pleasure of being never


and presents

a series of plans for

latter

should be
4

"

made

It is

"in spacious areas far

interesting to note that he

shows twenty-four projects for country-houses and only one


which indicates that the
sibilities

latter

was considered

a fixed type

Palladio adopts a similar point of departure in his second

about "houses within and out of the City." The


will the

more

easily preserve

its

villa

less pos-

The development

is

book and

a place

of the city-palace and the villa

city, will

is

be greatly

In this context

which we have found behind the


it

meant

a loss of

re-

related to the signifi-

cant change in political, economical and social structure which


ferred to above, and

talks

where "the

strength and health; and, finally,

where the mind, fatigued by the agitations of the

city.

city-palace,

with

of variation.

stored and comforted..."

qualitatively different spaces.

more

or Country."

Serlio repeats the Albertian typology

building task

and does not include many separate or

life

which the Dignity of

"dwellings to be built in town" and "dwellings to be built out of town" or

body

relatively simple

in

these are the Pleasure-Houses just without the

suburban

with the

Walks and fine


Luxury and

two ways of

also sees the value of joining the

complex architectural organism. In the church, the problems are particularly evident and may lead to strong and consequent solutions, as the
is

Alberti

are but few Pleasures, but those of

from the piazze among the greenery."

contains strong differences of quality

garden.

therefore they enjoy the Pleasures of Light, Air, spacious

"country-dwellings."

it

the basic types.

Town-House, and the Delights and Pleasures

of

with

as city-palaces

"The Country House and Town


House for the Rich differ in this Circumstance; that they use their Country House chiefly for a Habitation in Summer, and their Town House as a
convenient place of shelter in the Winter. In their Country House
gives

both required...

One may,

life.

may be traced back to the fifteenth cenRenaissance Tuscany, we find, besides the older city-palace, the

origin of this distinction

be understood in

way, as

should be pointed out that the

they represented two aspects of the same form of

The

his "place" in a

in the transitory cases,

did not provide different people with dwellings;

disposed architectural members. Baroque space, on the contrary, cannot


this

It

and

are

which are modelled according to the outer

uniform continuum which

to nature,

the

course, also talk about space in connection with Renaissance architecture,


as a

and the

man

city-palace gives

made up

is

We

suburbana).

to each other: the private

constitutive importance. In

and inner "forces" which form the particular building.


but

The
him

three elements are brought together.

all

city-palace

closely:

contrast to a construction of plastic "members," the building

chateau).

(villa

world of the dwelling, the public world of the city and the natural world of

ed from the traditional basilical scheme, while the smaller ones and the
chapels

(villa,

between the two types

also find interesting transitions

Three basic environments are thereby related

Charles Borromeo.

The development

The Palace

Two

we have

re-

rise of the capital

importance of the feudal

seat, the

I,

'crsailles,

perspective view.

..

'.;_

II.

Rome, Fountain

of the

Four

Rivers, detail.

7.

Ciacomo da

interior.

Vignola, II Gesii,

S.-0&

15

castle,

and the need

This development

is

for a substitute within the city, that

new type of

"capitalist" (Florence), a "prince" of the

aristocratic

member

of a centralized court (Paris).

mentary country-house

The two

tations above.

is

seat of a

Church (Rome)

The need

or an

for a comple-

stated by Alberti and his followers in the quo-

ning tended towards a synthesis, as the idea of the

Luxembourg

a city-palace.

types of building, however, from the very begin-

dicates. In the seventeenth century, the

suburbana

villa

problem found

as the Palazzo Barberini in

den palaces such

is,

whether the palace was the

basically similar,

in-

Rome and

the Palais du

was

family seat.

the double meaning of the word. Through

It

represented a "house" in

its size

and

articulation,

def-

it

ined the position of the family in a wider civic context, and gave the
city as a

whole

new and

larger scale, contrasting with the tight texture

Several smaller dwellings were often brought to-

of the medieval town.

gether in one palace, thereby integrating the


general pattern.

With

the rise of a

new bourgeois

and the nineteenth centuries, however,

and form was increased

The

less

this

well-to-do in the same

society in the eighteenth

discrepancy between content

to such an extent that the palace lost its meaning.

character of the palace was basically that of a private place.


its

vate," however, does not

mean

were rather expressed

"Between

House

in

Difference... that the

more grave than those

was

It

inner structure behind massive walls. "Pri-

an enclosed world, hiding

villa.

The

individual and subjective, qualities that

we

some

of the traditional properties of the

for a

for that in

Country, there

Town

is [the]...

ought to be much

House in the Country, where all the gayest and

most licentious Embellishments are allowable. There

is

villa,

and

It

thereby

a synthesis

as-

was

Articulation

The

spatial character of a building

is

expressed by the relationship be-

another Differ-

this relationship is

not

merely derived from the spatial properties of the two realms, but from the
articulation of their point of contact, that

Renaissance and Baroque architecture,

is,

all

the wall.

In the buildings of

elements have a characterizing

function, either because of their spatial properties or because of their con-

ventional meaning.

connection.

had

The classical

to the

classical

The

character of a given building was defined by

just as

rive at the

one can make up an

infinite

al-

number of words

by combining the orders, one can

ar-

most diverse form of architectural decoration according to

six

and conversations with 24

shall

this

1716, Leonard Christoph Sturm wrote: "The orders are the

late as

We

importance in

in fact, architecture

elements which had a generally understood meaning.

phabet of architecture:

works of

orders are of particular

end of the eighteenth century,

Vitruvian basis.

employing

As

Up

art are

letters, so,

The French

teres expressifs" (1691),"

Ornaments,

environment which

most natural.

kinds of orders..."^'

in the

civic

focus of forces which freely extended out in infinite space.

sociated

in the villa. Alberti again points out the difference:

House

between building and

find in the palaces of the Renaissance. It was recognized rather as a

Town and

palace of the sovereign obviously could not be

limited by subtle interplay

tween inside and outside, and the definition of

residences from Versailles to Schlaun's Schloss in Miinster (1767).


Basically the city-palace

pression of the

solution in gar-

its

which became the models of the great European

in Paris,

private character of the city-palace as well as with the individualistic ex-

and

theorist Daviler calls the orders "carac-

still

in

1923 Le Corbusier wrote: "All great

based on one or other of the great standards of the heart.

be able to talk "Doric" when man, in nobility of aim and com-

plete sacrifice of

all

that

is

accidental in Art, has reached the higher levels

ence between them, which is that in Town you are obliged to moderate your-

of mind: austerity... There was a breath of tenderness and Ionic was

selves in several Respects according to the Privileges of your Neighbor;

born."

whereas you have much more liberty in the Country."


tion was

still

in imperial

valid in sixteenth-

Vienna

find the heavy

and seventeenth-century

Rome and even

the beginning of the eighteenth century.

at

10

We

thus

and austere Roman city-palace being developed during the


the same time as varied and playful villas were being built

Cinquecento,

at

in the suburbs

and the Roman region.

tect

This basic distinc-

employed seemingly different

No wonder then that the same archi"styles" in his city-palaces

and

his

The wish

for a synthesis, however,

which became manifest during the

seventeenth century, also led to certain changes in the basic types.


analyze this problem in detail

The

become less

culine character of Doric and the feminine of Corinthian, whereas the

The building task, therefore, will determine a


"To Minerva, Mars and Hercules, Doric temples

Ionic represents the mean.

among

choice
will

be

the orders.

built; for to these gods,

because of their might, buildings ought to

be erected without embellishments. Temples designed

tains,

seem

to

Nymphs;

have

details suited to

for too these goddesses,

works constructed with


foliage, spirals

on account of

slighter proportions

and volutes

will

seem

in the

Corinthian

Venus, Flora, Proserpine, Fountheir gentleness,

and adorned with flowers,

to gain in a just decor.

To Juno, Diana

by the French chateaux and the

cause the determinate character of their temples will avoid the severe man-

its

surroundings, whereas

the growing centralization of absolutist power, which interfered with the

16

as concreti-

characters. In fact, Vitruvius recognizes the mas-

Central Europe. This development was related to

more varied ways with

typified, as illustrated

later Garten-palaste of

city-palace tended to

human

and Father Bacchus, and the other gods who are of the same likeness, if
Ionic temples are erected, account will be taken of their middle quality be-

closed and to interact in

became

later.

We will

may be considered

thus understand that the orders

style will

villas.

the villa

We

zations of basic

ner of the Doric and the softer manner of the Corinthian;"

Forssman has

8.

Schematic diagram of Italian


and French (right) Baroque

9.

Bartolomeo Ammanati, Rome,


by

(left)

Villa Ciulia (engraving

palaces.

Letarouilly).
10.

Rome,

Villa Giulia, plan (from

Letarouilly).

shown
/|\

that the classical characters

were transferred to the buildings of Re-

naissance and Baroque architecture, the sacred as well as the profane.


Serlio says:

\>s

"The ancients dedicated these Doric temples to Jove, Mars,


among the mighty, but after the incarnation of

Hercules, and to others

Our

Saviour,

we

Christians were obliged to follow other orders: but hav-

ing to build a church in

honour of Jesus Christ Our Redeemer,

St. Paul, St.

we have

had, whose

Peter, St. George, or similar saints... such saints as

/\

courage and strength led them to expose their


fitting to

it is

adopt this Doric manner. .."

,
'

It

lives for the faith of Christ,

was generally assumed that

the three classical orders were capable of expressing

/\

/\

ders were added as a further differentiation.

was assigned

man

to rustication.

all

basic characters, as

The Tuscan and Composite

they comprise two extremes and a mean.

Rather than being an order, expressing

content, rustication was considered to represent

something unformed and raw existing

works of man. Serlio thus

or-

particular role, however,

nature

as a dialectical

hu-

itself,

as

opposite to the

"opera di natura," while the or-

calls rustication

ders are "opera di mano."

The

character of a building, however, was not only determined by a

choice between the orders but also by the

way they were employed.

In Re-

naissance architecture the Vitruvian principle of superposition was

in-

troduced, whereby the "lighter" orders rested on the more "heavy," and
the whole system on a rusticated basement. In certain works of the
nerist period a

fundamental doubt

uzzi, for instance, in his Palazzo


tall

in this

humanist expression

Massimo (1532-36)

lets the

rusticated wall. He, so to speak, puts the world "upside

Man-

arises. Per-

order carry a

down." In Ba-

roque architecture, we again find the orders placed over a rusticated basereplaced by a giant order which inte-

ment, but

in general superposition

grates the

whole wall and gives the building one dominant character. Add-

is

ing furthermore the possibilities of plastic modelling, varying proportions

and ever new combinations of the traditional elements,

"classical" archi-

tecture offered a very flexible and expressive language indeed.

we encounter many attempts


dency

is

at

breaking away from

its

natural in Mannerist architecture and the

Michelangelo were of great importance for

later

canons.

new

And

still

The

ten-

inventions of

developments. During the

seventeenth century, Borromini continued these researches, and the


character of his works was characterized as "chimeric" by the

more

minded Bernini/' During the period of the Enlightenment,


the belief in the dogmas of Vitruvian architecture withered.

cally

classi-

finally,

Conclusion
In this general introductory chapter,

c^r

basic properties of the

form of

life

we have attempted to outline the


Age and its spatial

of the Baroque

counterpart, architecture. All forms of


fact,

any

human

and relations

life

have

spatial consequences. In

activity has spatial aspects, because

to places.

Heidegger

says:

"The

it

implies

movements

single world always reveals

17

the spatiality of the space that

proper to

is

61

it."

From childhood on, man


we may call his

constructs a spatial image of his environment, which


"existential space."

61

Certain basic properties of this existential space

necessarily have to be public, in order to allow for social participation


integration.

The

structure of existential space

"places," "paths"
ties,

may be analyzed

and "domains." The places are the

foci of

in

and

terms of

man's

activi-

the paths describe his possibilities of taking possession of the environ-

ment, and the domains are qualitatively defined areas which are more or

known. All these elements appear on different environmental

less well

Landscape is the most comprehensive level we generally have to con-

levels.

sider,

and

ment.

It

it is

determined by man's interaction with

contains the urban level, which

we should

Finally

basically

a private space within the

is

urban context.

between "inside" and "outside"


between

relation

a place

and

its

his natural environ-

mainly determined by social

in-

consider the level of the house, which

teraction.

lation

is

is

environment.

space as a concretization of existential space.

Baroque architecture presents,

as

On

all levels,

of prime importance, that

we have

the reis,

the

We may define architectural


6"

seen, a clear system of places,

paths and domains, organized to form a hierarchy focused on a dominant


center.

The

this general

whenever
grates

it

scheme. The traditionally enclosed city

possible, the church

is

is

fit

within

thus opened up

organized relative to an axis which inte-

with the urban environment, and the palace becomes a center of

radiating
nally,

building types of past periods are transformed to

movements, rather than

massive fortress. The landscape,

during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in

Europe was saturated with Baroque elements, either

as

many

fi-

parts of

extended paths of

profane gardens, or sacred "objects" such as road crucifixes, chapels and


sanctuaries.

Although authoritarian, the Baroque world was dynamic and

open, and contained elements which have been of basic importance to our
present world. Before

we

discuss the actuality of Baroque, however,

we

have to consider in further detail the structure and development of the


basic

components

of

Baroque architecture.

environment, namely the

city,

We

and afterwards

will start

treat its

with the public

main

foci,

church and the palace.

11. Philibert

de I'Orme, Chateau

d'Anet, frontispiece (Paris, Ecole


des Beaux-Arts).

18

the

Chapter

Two

THE CITY

scheme, topping them with statues of

Introduction

The

history of the Baroque city

eral intentions

is

the history of the diffusion of the gen-

and principles outlined above.

ing the seventeenth century the great

It

program

started in

Rome, and dur-

by Sixtus

initiated

ond

Europe, Paris, gained

capital city of

completely

was

new contriThe sec-

continued. As a general system was already adopted, the

butions mainly consisted in the creation of great monumental

foci.

new urban

structure

during the seventeenth century. In Paris the point of departure did not
in the

wish to link already existing

and

new

Roman

basilicas,

first

were hampered by the Civil War. After the great

1666, a real Baroque integration was planned. Madrid acquired a

new Plaza Mayor in 1 6 1 7 but


,

roque system, which

it

does not form part of a more extensive Ba-

rare in the Iberian peninsula.

is

is

found in

a smaller city, Turin, the capital of

Piedmont

(Savoy) which had reached a certain importance as an independent duchy.


In Turin the
lar

Roman and French experiences were unified

to

form

a singu-

urban synthesis, which was facilitated by the regular plan of old Turin

having a

Roman

centrum as

its

origin. In Central

Europe, urban develop-

ment was hampered by the Thirty Years' War and


ish invasion.

The more

in

Austria by the Turk-

interesting city plans of these regions therefore

belong to the eighteenth century

in France.

Charleville

to the character of

original of

all

Most

He

Late Baroque character.

We cannot

in this

context treat the whole range

of examples in detail, but wish to concentrate

Rome,

Paris

earthquake

townscape of pronounced

on the three main

cases:

Perhaps the most

initiated.

to transform the

Colosseum into

were carried out by Domenico Fontana.

new and fertile


dryness may be understood

we

should not forget that he obviously had some quite

ideas

about the handling of space. In

as

fact, his

an

aspect of his desire for systematization, a desire which his followers were

streets

on with more

artistic imagination.' In general, the

he executed for Sixtus

lation to the

a truly incredible cost,

and

in

conformity with the

prince, Sixtus has extended these streets

ed; but causing the former to be levelled


to

most gentle

roque Age was the

The plan

plains..."" In fact, the

flat

of Sixtus

active contact

latter filled, has

cross-

reduced

topographic ideal of the Ba-

land, allowing for infinite extension.

and Fontana, however, did not represent

funda-

It

between

building (or a group of buildings) and

particularly

example,

interesting

its

en-

we may mention

della Porta's transformation of Michelangelo's project for the

Capitoline Hill.' Michelangelo had planned an enclosed space


sions.

city to the

which they

stemmed from the general interest in movement


Mannerist architecture. In many cases this interest signified a

mental innovation.

more

and the

re-

"Now at

spirit of so great a

from one end of the

other, without concern for either the hills or the valleys

them

network of

appears rather hard and schematic in

topography and urban texture. Thus Fontana writes:

Giacomo

cities rebuilt after the

however, have

of the plans of Sixtus

models and the same holds true for the


latter,

V was

generally considered a dry and unimaginative architect, but

is

vironment. As

The

in

of the Empire, so that Six-

wool-spinning factory. His early death stopped the project.

typical of

1693.

fall

Baroque Rome was thus

the ideas of Sixtus

do not contain the new principles we find in Versailles (1671). The


many new towns in Scandinavia were based on conventional Renaissance
in Sicily in

rather insufficient since the

fountains (1589).

(1608) and Richelieu (1635-40) are well-known examples, although their


plans

just-

new aqueduct which brought water to twenty-seven public


The building of the fountains that contributed so much

tus built a

Many smaller cities were rebuilt or found-

ed during the seventeenth century, particularly

Peter and St. Paul. Giedion

St.

how some of these obelisks and columns have induced the de-

Rome had been

to carry

of the most interesting urban developments of the seventeenth

century, however,

points out

velopment of squares during the following centuries.' The water supply

more systematic way. In Lon-

systematization were carried out during the

at

half of the century, but

One

such as the great

structure could be developed in a

don, some attempts

fire in

foci,

lie

ly

Duperac's prints show that

all

full

of ten-

the buildings were intended to have

the same tvpe of wall treatment, thereby forming a continuous boundary

around three sides of the square. As the fourth side was narrower, giving

and Turin.

the square a trapezoid shape, an effect of contraction resulted. In contrast

Rome

We

not centered on one prin-

movement, Michelangelo inscribed an oval floor-space which seems


expand outwards from the centrally placed statue of the emperor Mars
cus Aurelius, because of its convex section and a radiating, starlike pat-

tern in the pavement. This oval probably represents the caput mundi,

to this

have already given an account of the general intentions behind the

plan of

Pope Sixtus V. The

cipal focus,

resulting

network

but connects a multitude of

foci,

is

buildings as well as piazze.

few planned connections were not carried out, such


S.

Giovanni

in

Laterano and

tant in the system

is

S.

Paolo fuori

le

as

the street between

Mura. Particularly impor-

the trident leading into the city from the Porta del

Popolo, and the starlike disposition around

S.

Maria Maggiore." The main

roads were marked by obelisks which not only introduce a vertical accent,

but serve as "axes" for the change of direction of the streets. Sixtus

incorporated the

Roman columns

of Trajan and

Marcus Aurelius

also

in his

to

thereby making the Capitol the

first

intended focus of Counter-Refor-

made

matory Rome. After Michelangelo's death

in 1564, Della Porta

nificant changes in the design. First of

he modified the facade of the

Palazzo dei Senatori, making

it

all,

appear lighter and more distant and

sig-

vis-

The central axis of the Palazzo dei Conservatori was given importance by means of a large window, so
that the uniform enclosure of the space became still smaller. Finally
ually separated

from the two

lateral palaces.

19

12. Rome, plan of Sixtus


(Rome,
Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana).
13.

Rome,

Michelangelo,

project

for the Capitoline Hill (engraving

by Duperac).

We thus understand that architecturalequivalencedoes not necessarily

he turned the statues on the balustrade to face the city rather than the en-

ence.

trance ramp. All in all, Delia Porta transformed theenclosed space of Michel-

mean physical similarity. The churches

angelo into a Baroque composition based on a longitudinal axis which

transition

joins the square to the city below.

The

final solution in several respects

resembles the "U"-shaped palaces (hotels) of the seventeenth century

where
Still

cour d'honneur forms

earlier,

ing axis

a transition

between outer and inner space.

Michelangelo himself had planned to create a connect-

between the Palazzo Farnese and the Farnesina on the other

of the Tiber (1549)," manifesting a developing desire to break

deep porticoes protruding into the urban space

already mentioned the Piazza del Popolo as a particularly im-

piazza, as they have

The columns

in front.

of

the porticoes continue along the lateral walls of the churches which are

The porticoes

joined without interruption to the block-fronts behind.


are not volumes

The churches

whole.

thus

"added" to the churches, but form an organic part of the


therefore appear as a

monumental

front to the mass

of houses behind, and in fact, to the whole city. At the same time, the por-

form

ticoes together with the three streets

the Renaissance city.

static, self-sufficient units of

We have

side

up the

of Rainaldi also create a successful

between the block of houses behind and the

ings

rhythmic succession of open-

which define the boundary of the piazza. Rainaldi thus achieved

portant pre-existent element which was incorporated in the plan of Ba-

convincing synthesis of space definition and movement in depth.

roque Rome. The Piazza del Popolo actually represents the prototype of

years before the planning of the twin churches, Bernini rebuilt the city-

one of the basic motifs of the Baroque

cities

the radiating streets, which

upon or lead away from a significant place. In the case


Popolo, the focus is the main entry of the Holy City. For
'"

either concentrate
of the Piazza del

centuries Via Flaminia led visitors towards

land between the Parioli-Pincio

where the

hills

and the

hills

Rome along the narrow strip of

and the Tiber. The

river separate to allow for the

city-gate

is

placed

extended surface of

the city- Until the time of Sixtus V, the Piazza del Popolo was simply the
starting point of the three streets, but the obelisk put

become
tury

it

a true

up

in

1589 made

it

urban node, and about the middle of the seventeenth cen-

was transformed into

Baroque piazza.

On March

foundations for Carlo Rainaldi's twin churches were

laid.

15th, 1662, the

The two

chur-

ches are symmetrically placed on the two building sites formed between

monumental entrance to
the main gate." The visitor

the three radiating streets, and thus appear as a


the city with

who enters

its

principal street, the Corso, as

the city has the

domed churches

before him, and thereby "gets

gate to

mark the

arrival of

Queen

Christina of

Sweden

few

(1655). Bernini

executed the crowning terminal of the central bay.

Today the Piazza

del Popolo appears fundamentally different. In

Giuseppe Valadier started


axis defined

a transformation

by large exedrae on both

which introduced

The

sides.

1816

a transverse

idea was to connect the

square with the slope of the Pincio on one side and the Tiber on the other.
Valadier also marked the four corners of the

new space

similar palaces. His changes reduce the effect of the

thus formed with

Baroque trident; rather

than forming a node between Via Flaminia and the three radiating roads,
the piazza has

become

a large

and somewhat unresolved organism. In

fact,

nothing could be more harmful to the urban structure than introducing a


"green" transverse axis the

moment one

is

led into the city.

viously derived from Bernini's Piazza S. Pietro


ferent meaning.

The well-known

where

veduta by Piranesi

(c.

it

The idea is ob-

has quite a dif-

1750) depicts

how

the Piazza del Popolo was experienced before the intervention of Vala-

an active interplay of mass and space, with movement in depth

introduced to the treasures hidden in the famous city," as Titi wrote in his

dier

guidebook of 1686. The inviting trident has been transformed into an

the dominant quality, and the obelisk acting as a necessary point of refer-

in-

strument of Baroque persuasion.

The churches

the Piazza del Popolo invited

Among

14

The radiating streets of


the development of a monumental symmetry

more detailed

as

ence for the whole ensemble.

of Rainaldi represent an interesting case of city-building

and therefore deserve

as

discussion.

role. Its

the Baroque squares of

Rome,

main shape was established

Navona plays

Piazza

in advance;

it

was

by the Stadium of Emperor Domitian which was used

in fact

a particular

determined

for the first time in

on the Roman ruins

dear to the Baroque Age, and what could be more appropriate to the Holy

A.D. 86. During the Middle Ages houses were

City than the erection of two churches. But

but the space remained free and became the stage for popular games. Pope

seemingly insuperable

dif-

had to be conquered: the two building sites had different widths.


Even if Rainaldi had straightened out the house-fronts on either side, the
ficulty

Sixtus

IV (1471-84) made the square a market-place for the nearby Reits complex history, Piazza Navona forms
of Baroque Rome. Pope Innocent X (1644-50), whose palace faced

naissance district. But in spite of

land between the Via di Ripetta and the Corso remained wider than that

a part

bordering the Via del Babuino. In other words, the two churches would

the square, transformed

have received domes with a different diameter and would have appeared

cause of

dissimilar rather than symmetrical. Rainaldi solved the

ment, although

genious way.

problem

in

an

in-

By making the church on the narrow lot oval, he pushed its


it became equal to the diameter of its twin. Seen from

its

it

into a characteristic focus of the period, and be-

singular spatial qualities,


it is

it

managed

to

dominate

its

environ-

not integrated in any Baroque system of streets. Dur-

Navona became the Salotto


Today the square still acts as a mag-

ing the seventeenth century, in fact, Piazza

diameter back until

dell'Urbe, the very center of civic

the city-gate the churches appear similar, in spite of their actual differ-

net,

20

built

life.

which more than any other urban space

in

Rome attracts the visitor.

S 1 -A'lW

24.

Giovanni

Battista Piranesi,

Rome, Piazza del Popolo

15. Carlo Rainaldi, Rome, Piazza


del Popolo, plan, Cod. Vat. Lat.

13442 (Rome, Biblioteca


Apostolica Vaticana).
16. Rome, Piazza del Popolo,
diagram of the trident.

21

1 7.

Giovanni Battista

Piranesi,

Rome, Piazza Navona

(engraving).

Rome,

18. Francesco Borromini,

Piazza Navona,

Agnese in

S.

Agone, drawing of prospectus.

What

then are the architectural qualities which give Piazza Navona this

importance? The space

long and relatively narrow, and

is

terized as an enlarged street. It therefore has a direction

experience

it

as a continuation of the

time, however,

than

surrounding

way

limited in such a

it is

that

it

may be

streets.

becomes

charac-

which makes us

At the same

a "place" rather

thoroughfare. This limitation results from the fact that a continuous

wall runs

all

and appear

around the space. The buildings have the same general


as surfaces rather

scale

than masses. The streets leading into the

square are thus quite narrow and irregularly placed. Wide, symmetrically

down the character of enThe continuity is enhanced by a common scale of colors, and by
the employment of related architectural details. The simpler houses as well

disposed streets would easily have broken


closure.

as the elaborate facade of S.

guage."

The church

serves as a

much

the totality would lose

dominates, but because


ations

Agnese are articulated by means of the same

they are different "statements" within the same "lan-

classical elements;

it

main

of

its

we imagine it were not there,


much because the church

focus. If

value, not so

makes the other buildings appear as simpler vari-

on the same basic themes, so that they obtain

meaning they would

not have alone.

The bordering wall of Piazza Navona thus has a Baroque hierarchical


structure. The facade of S. Agnese forms an organic part of this wall, and
helps the square become an "interior." The basic quality of Piazza
Navona,

in fact, lies in its

being a space in the Baroque sense of the term.

Rather than having an abstract, geometrical quality,


interaction with

its

boundary, which

is

lives in

it

continuous

particularly evident in the concave

'

facade of

S.

Agnese.

Borromini here achieved two things:

come engaged

in

first,

the church and the piazza be-

an active relationship, so that the outer space seems to

penetrate into the volume of the building; second, the convex


is

brought into contact with the square. The

large

mass taking part

brings this out with

&
'

mi*

HFrat

fe'i

in the totality,

dome of

full plastic force.

varied zones with

in the

dome above

Agnese

is

the only

and the concave facade by Borromini

An

active space-mass relationship

typical of Baroque architecture is thus created.

an important role

S.

The three fountains also play

composition. They divide the space into four

human dimensions,

at

the same time as they populate

the space and exclude the possibility of experiencing horror vacui. Bernini's large

Fountain of the Four Rivers (1648-51) constitutes the

real

focus of the piazza."" Its obelisk marks a vertical axis which limits and centralizes the horizontal
ei-"*V

~f

movement of the space, at the same time as its alnew dimension of content, symbolizing the

legorical figures introduce a

power of the Church which extends

to

all

four parts of the world, here rep-

resented by the Danube, Plate, Ganges and Nile rivers.

The fountain is also

one of the most convincing answers to the Baroque desire for a synthesis of
the two traditional opposites: opera di natura and opera di mano.
t-t~(

22

genious use of water furthermore adds to

its

The

in-

persuasive impact on the be-

///. Rome. S. Maria della Pace,


upward view.

IV.

Rome, Piazza San

Pietro.

19.
S.

Rome, Piazza Navona,

Agnese

in

Agone, plan.

20.
S.

Rome, Piazza Navona,

Agnese

in

Agone, reconstruction

of Francesco Borromini 's project

(drawing by Carlo Ranzi, from


Portogbesi, 1967).

Rome, Piazza Navona,


Agnese in Agone, facade.

21.

22. Gianlorenzo Bernini,

S.

Piazza Navona, Fountain of the

Four Rivers,

Rome,

detail.

25

Rome,

23. Pietro da Cortona,


S.

Maria della Pace, project (from

Roma

P. Portoghesi,

Barocca).

Rome,

24. Pietro da Cortona,


S.

Maria della Pace.

holder, which finds

dome

its

consummation

and crowning

in the inviting facade

The

of S. Agnese, built by Bernini's great rival.

general effect

is

somewhat weakened by the two campanili which were built much higher
than planned by Borromini.
In general, Piazza Navona represents the typical space of Roman Baroque architecture, a space that

makes us understand

eminently dynamic,

is

some degree how

to

and varied.

vital

It

planned by Bernini and

a city

in human
Domenico Fontana are

Borromini would have appeared: pulsating, expressive and rich


content.
left far

The hard and schematic movements

of

behind, just as the rational systems of French city-planning reflect

fundamentally different interpretation of the Baroque desire for

inte-

gration and unity.

Close to Piazza Navona

we

find another square

posite in regard to size. In fact, the piazza of


space.

But

it is

S.

which

is its

direct op-

Maria della Pace

a tiny

is

one of the rare examples of an urban space that has been

planned and executed by one architect, and, more important,


of the most exciting achievements of Baroque architecture.

guishing quality of this masterpiece by Pietro da Cortona

it is

The

the active in-

is

We have already pointed out similar qualities in

terplay of mass and space.

connection with the Piazza del Popolo and Piazza Navona, but here
basic

Baroque problem

1656 the

Roman

is

one

distin-

this

presented in condensed and intensified form. In

population suffered severely from the plague, and

same time there was the threat of

at

the

French invasion. Pope Alexander VII

thus decided to rebuild the church of S. Maria della Pace as an "invocation


for

mercy and peace."" The commission was given

who had

to

improve the access

bifurcation of

two narrow

ation of a small piazza.

to the old

streets.

da Cortona,

to Pietro

church which was situated

The only

possible solution

at

was the

the
cre-

A preserved drawing by Cortona shows the demoli-

tion necessary to execute the plan,

and

also

how he

intentionally gave the

piazza a delimitation which causes the church to protrude far into the
space. This solution gives. the visitor the feeling of being within the church
as

soon as he enters the piazza; the deep portico

space, at the

hind.

same time

as

it

also forms

is

in the

middle of the

an organic part of the church be-

The integration of the church and the square is furthermore strength-

ened by the wall treatment. The houses, which form


around the piazza, have two

and parapet of

stories

this attic are carried

and

low

on behind the

church, turning inwards along a concave curve.

continuous surface
attic.

The cornice

lateral

wings of the

We may speak of an inter-

penetration of elements belonging to the piazza and the church respectively,

while the projecting movement of the church is reinforced at the same

time. This interpenetration


walls

which "belong"

is

strengthened by the fact that the curved

to the houses are articulated

by

pilasters that

continuation of the members of the upper story of the church.


continuity
is

26

all

around the piazza

is

form

simpler

found on the ground-floor. The church

thus defined both as an independent projecting volume, and as part of a

25. Gianlorenzo Bernini,

Piazza

Rome,

27. Gianlorenzo Bernini,

Piazza

plan.

S. Pietro,

Rome,

project for a third

S. Pietro,

"arm " (engraving by Falda).

26. Rome, Piazza S. Pietro,


diagram of the final solution.

continuous wall around the square. The solution

is

related to Borromini's

facade for S. Agnese, but whereas Borromini bent the facade inwards to

make

the

dome

active, Pietro

da Cortona had to give plastic value to the

nave of the existing church. The result

is

church entrances. The persuasive effect

the most inviting of


is

all

Baroque

strengthened by the masterly

handling of the plastic details, as well as light and shadow." The upper
story protrudes convexly to receive the strong sunlight.

volume of the church behind, but not

It

indicates the

as a separate realm; a vertical split in

the middle and a strong double pediment transform the whole into a large

gateway. Cortona thus gave a "High Baroque" interpretation to the theme


of

II

Gesu. The solution was repeated

Andrea

al

in a simplified

form

Quirinale (1658), where the projecting porch

Pietro da Cortona actually planned a similar but

in Bernini's S.
is

also present.

much more monumental

Gesu during the pontificate of Alexander VII.' A symmecreated by means of lateral projecting porticoes behind
which a piazza appears. The church itself has been separated from the
Jesuit house on its right side by the breaking through of a new street, so
setting for

II

trical access is

that

it

acquires the significance of a real Baroque "focus."

We began by

talking about S.

Maria

Pace as an urban event, and

della

ended up analyzing particular architectural properties. This goes

how Roman Baroque architecture


tion

between the two

levels.

is

to

show

characterized by a continuous interac-

The urban spaces prepare

for the churches,

which on the other hand give meaning to their environment. Both form
part of the

same public realm.

Baroque space

S.

Maria

della

Pace also demonstrates

no general and isotropic quality given a priori In

how

fact,

it

changes continuously according to the situation; in other words, space

is

is

phenomenized.

The series of Baroque squares in Rome is crowned by Bernini's Piazza S.


The history of the square is long and complex and need not be re-

Pietro.

told in this context.

What

interests us here

is

the final solution that was

carried through under the pontificate of Alexander VII (1655-67). " In the

summer

of 1656, Bernini

made

a first project

showing

trapezoid piazza

with the sides converging on the present Piazza Rusticucci. This barely
satisfactory idea

was soon dropped and Bernini turned

After some studies on the


sented to the Pope on 17
liqua,

is

whose

site,

he settled for the

March 1657. '^ The main oval

space, the piazza ob-

linked to the church by a smaller trapezoid square, the piazza

sides diverge at the church.

The shape of the main

mined by several functional demands, such


bulatory" for processions. But
in Bernini's

own

er of nearly

all

as if stretching

them

retta,

piazza was deter-

as full visibility of the facade of

comfortable access to the Vatican Palace, and a covered "am-

St. Peter's,

firm

to a circular plan.

final oval solution, pre-

first

of

all it

has a symbolic basis as expressed

words: "...for since the church of

the others,

out

its

it

St. Peter's is the mothhad to have colonnades, which would show it

arms maternally to receive Catholics, so

in their faith, heretics, to reunite

them

as to con-

to the Church,

and

21

28. Gianlorenzo Bernini,


St. Peter's,

project for facade

with campanili (drawing).

ii

"m s~ *

29. Gianlorenzo Bernini,

Piazza
30.

Rome,

S. Pietro.

Rome, Piazza

S. Pietro.

31. Carlo

Mademo, Rome,

St. Peter's,

32.

detail of facade.

Rome, Piazza

S. Pietro,

detail

of colonnade.

infidels, to enlighten

them

in the true faith.""

kind of immensely enlarged atrium,

The space thus becomes

character which would have been

strengthened by the monumental entrance planned by Bernini to be built

between the two "arms." This

terzo braccio

the death of Alexander VII in 1667.

was never executed, owing

to

more often than Piazza

S.

'

Virtually no other square has been analyzed


Pietro, especially to

demonstrate how Bernini's solution counteracts the

excessive length of Maderno's facade.

were never

built, the

As the

originally

planned campanili

facade received rather undecided and dull propor-

opening between the piazza obliqua and


more narrow than the facade, but it is spontaneously per-

tions. In Bernini's solution, the

the piazza retta

is

ceived as being equal (the piazza retta, thus,


gular),
1

ler."'

This effect

'

is

hence the facade appears shorter than

experienced as being rectanit is

and correspondingly

piazza retta which decrease in height as they approach the church.

height of the church facade


ters

tal-

strengthened by the treatment of the lateral walls of the

is

than the similar ones

is

The

the beginning of the piazza retta.

at

The

thus "measured" in relation to smaller pilastrans-

verse oval of the piazza obliqua, finally, brings the church relatively closer
to the beholder. Bernini's final design for the front, with campanili sepa-

rated from the main facade,

The

real

"tricks" of perspective.
est squares ever

obliqua
is

would have completed the ingenious

importance of Bernini's plan, however, does not

may be

What makes

conceived are

these

the Piazza S. Pietro one of the great-

general spatial properties.

its

solution.

lie in

The piazza
The space

characterized as simultaneously closed and open.

clearly defined, but the oval

shape creates an expansion along the trans-

verse axis. Rather than being a static, finished form, an interaction with

the world beyond

is

created, which

is

also expressed

by the "transparent"

colonnade. Originally, gardens were seen through the columns, making


the piazza appear as part of an open, extended environment.
really

becomes "the meeting-place

of

all

mankind,"

at

The space

the same time as

its

message radiates to the entire world." The trapezoid piazza retta also forms
part of this general pattern.

the node where


gitudinal axis
tration
is

all

The

obelisk has an important function as

the directions are unified and connected with the lon-

which leads

to the church.

and longitudinal direction on

repeated inside the church, where the

ation in the vertical axis of the heavenly


rises

and reveals

meaning

is

itself

An

a goal

is

movement

finds

dome. Argan

above the colonnades,

clearly revealed in the allegorical

the enclosed shape of the round cupola

ideal synthesis of concen-

thereby created. The theme

is

its final

motiv-

says: "...the cupola

just as its original

symbolic

purpose of Bernini's piazza...

implicit,

symbolic sense, and visually too, in the open,

both

elliptical

in a plastic

and

curve of the co-

lonnades, whose allegorical purpose, as declared in one of Bernini's designs,

is

to constitute the

arms of an imaginary body, of which the cupola

the head: the universal embrace of the

supreme revelation...""

30

Church

is

is

thus a prologue to the

V. Paris, Place des Victoires.

VI. Paris, Place

Vendome.

VII. Turin, Piazza S. Carlo.

\'III.

33. Giovanni

Turin, Via Po.

Antonio de

Rome, Palazzo
by Speccbi).

Piazza S. Pietro
of

its

is

34. Martino

Longhi the Elder,

Carlo Rainaldi, Rome, Palazzc


Borgbese, plan.

thus a supreme example of space composition, worthy

function as the principal focus of the Catholic world.

system of "places," which


is

Rossi,

Altieri {engraving

is

related to

its

environment

shows how

It

in a particular

way,

capable of symbolizing a content that embraces the deepest problems of

human

existence.

At the same time, Bernini has succeeded in concretizing


Age with a singular simplicity, although his

the essence of the Baroque

work never ceases


example, Piazza

Better than any other

to challenge the beholder.

S. Pietro

shows that the basis of Baroque

general principles rather than in exuberant detail.


Bernini, in fact,

is

composed of one

We have discussed
ban elements. In

fact,

a geometrical kind.

found

in

The magnum opus

of

art

is

single element: the classical

column.

Rome by analyzing its most important urBaroque Rome does not form a systematic totality of
Baroque

The seven

taken as the main point of depar-

basilicas,

ture for the plan of Sixtus V, are placed in relation to historical events,

rather than topographical or urban reasons.


city wall,

Some

some within. Baroque Rome therefore

of

them

are outside the

reflects the adaptation of

singular circumstances rather than an ideal plan,

and

its

"system"

lies in

the creation of a general character, rather than a concrete ordered image.

This

is

particularly well illustrated

Baroque desire for

by some minor adaptations, where the

spatial continuity

and interaction has been realized

in

III

spite of very special conditions.

The extended and complex organism


went

a final remodelling

of the Palazzo Borghese under-

by Carlo Rainaldi

1671." Rainaldi joined

in

all

the rooms from the old facade to the Ripetta wing to form a long enfilade

by putting the doors on

The

straight line.

vista thereby created,

however, was the blank wall of the adjoining house. As

this

house also be-

longed to the Borghese, Rainaldi opened an oblique passage through the


building to extend the view to the Tiber.

opening to make the effect

still

fountain was placed in the

more convincing. In

fact,

gave the im-

it

pression that the fountain lay across the river. Another example, illustrating a very different kind of adaptation,

(1650-60). "

The long

is

furnished by the Palazzo Altieri

wall of this palace partly runs along the side of

Gesu, and partly faces the piazza in front of the church. Adapting to

II

this

difference in situation, Giovanni Antonio de Rossi designed that part of


the wall which faces the piazza as a symmetrical

In order not to allow the whole organism to

fall

risalto,

complete in

itself.

asunder, he had to create a

strong asymmetry in the remaining section, so that a symmetrical wing was

needed to bring about

means of

a total equilibrium.

De

a "pseudo-rad//o" at the right end,

Rossi solved the problem by

and above

all,

by erecting

long asymmetrical belvedere on top of the roof.

Roman Baroque architecture thus abounds in unexpected and original


Rome is therefore the most varied of all Baroque cities. Rather

inventions.

dominating system, the Baroque Age made

than enforcing

tribution to

its

eternal, but evolving structure.

ters of the

High Baroque must have been aware

a great

The patrons and

con-

the mas-

of this, as they did

20

30
I

40

c\=n

f\

K=

=%Jr

not really develop the intentions of Sixtus V, but concentrated rather on


the significant case.

Paris

The urban development

of Paris during the seventeenth century took a

Rome. Instead of starting with a system,


monumental movements, which slowly came
together to form a coherent, systematic structure. This development was
actually carried on during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. We
should, however, add that the desire for a system was present in more or
course very different from that of
Paris experienced a series of

concrete form from the very beginning. But there are also similarities

less

between the two cities:

in

both cases

"Baroque" form of life needed

to

be

means was the creation of meanRome, Henry IV did to Paris. The

concretized, and in both cases the basic


ingful "foci."

What

period of time

is

Sixtus

did to

virtually the same, with

some delay because of the French


Henry IV restored and

war. After his entry into Paris in 1594,

civil

strengthened the monarchy, and by liberal concessions,


ognition of his authority. During the last years of his

won

life,

general rec-

Henry wanted

worthy expression of the new system.


won his kingdom, and after having secured the succession, he
wanted to give his achievement eternal form. "People say that I am mean,
to transform his capital city into a

wwmm

After having

but
I

do three things that have no connection with

make love, and I build."


Whereas Sixtus V could take

avarice, for

make war,

as his point of

departure urban foci already

the seven basilicas),

(i.e.

placed in the center of a space which symbolizes the center of the world.

The

place royale as intended by

spect different

Henry IV, however,

new

time as

relationship
it

is

in

an important

re-

from the prototype, being surrounded by dwellings rather

than serving purely monumental


the

(civic)

purposes.

between the sovereign and

may be used

It

therefore concretizes

his people, at the

same

The

place

to express a certain bourgeois pride.

royale was of decisive importance for the urban development of the fol-

lowing centuries, not only in France.

The
terest
la

first

of Henry's projects, the Place Dauphine,

because of

Cite, there

its

construction of a

new bridge

islands.

and only finished


the bridge to

32

of particular in-

Henry

III

He de

had already started the

across the river at this point (1578). It

have been lined by houses on both

The construction

is

relationship to the city as a whole. In front of the

were two small

sides, following the traditional

was to
model.

of the Pont Neuf, however, was stopped by the civil war,


in

1606.

become

20

40

lm

Henry had to start afresh. He thus


created a new urban element, the place royale. The place royale is an urban
space centered on, and developed around, a statue of the sovereign. The
absolute ruler is thus the real focus. The prototype, obviously, is the Capitoline Square of Michelangelo, where the first monarch of divine right is
in existence

5 10

Henry IV eliminated the houses and allowed


more comprehensive urban scheme. Be-

part of a

35. Paris, Place Dauphine, plan.

37. Paris, Place

Dauphine

(engraving by Perelle).
36. Paris, Place Dauphine, diagram.

33

39. Paris, Place des Vosges

38. Paris, Place des Vosges, detail

(engraving by Perelle).

of a palace.

40. ]ules Hardouin-Mansart, Paris,

Place des Victoires (contemporary


engraving).

tween the bridge and the old He de

he developed a new square of

la Cite,

Where

triangular form, the Place Dauphine.

the axis of this square crosses

The bridge

the bridge, an equestrian statue of the sovereign was put up.

was connected on both


St.

sides with straight streets leading to the church of

Eustache on the northern

Paris thus received

man

scheme, which

axis of the

Dauphine, in

was the

first

fact,

makes the

axis.

the Seine

is

St.

Germain

to the south.

This transverse path crosses the

The Place

itself, at a right angle.

axis of the river architecturally manifest,

and

of a series of projects which gave the Seine an importance that

surpasses that of the rivers of


of

and Porte

side,

urban

its first

all

other capital

two long buildings with wings attached

cities.

form

to

* The place consisted


Streets run

a triangle.

along the outside, so that together with the main axis, a trident centered

on the statue
ly small

shows

formed. The buildings contain a uniform series of relative-

is

apartments with shops on the ground-floor. The articulation

emphasis on surface and volume (defined by

a rather uncertain

tall,

steep roofs), rather than an Italian use of masses and plastic members.

There

is

no monument

Henry IV was

in the square itself; the statue of

lo-

cated so as to act as a center for the whole city as well.

About the same time as the Place Dauphine was planned, Henry IV
8
more typical place royale, the present Place des Vosges.

started another,

This square

located in the Marais district and was intended as a pro-

is

memoir for the inhabitants.

It is

similar to those of the Place

Everybody had

surrounded by houses of a general character

Dauphine, with apartments

to adhere to a

defining the space was emphasized by arcades.


are indicated
effect

is

by divisions

in the roofs

and by

The

tall

single units, however,

chimneys.

created by the taller Pavilions du Roi et de

serve as the main access.


statue of Louis XIII, put

la

A certain axial

Reine, which also

The whole square is centered on an equestrian


in 1639. The articulation of the fronts shows a

up

"Gothic" interplay of vertical and horizontal


structure.

for the well-to-do.

common plan, and the continuity of the wall

The ground-floor

pilasters thus

lines, rather

than

but merely a thin string-course. The general effect, however,


a skeleton; in fact,

was imitated

in

the walls appear as a decorated surface.

many European

a classical

do not carry any entablature,


is

not that of

The place royale

cities, especially in London.'''

Further east, between the Bastille and the Temple, Henry IV planned
another great urban development (1610).

"

His Place de France

is

the

first

true starlike composition in Baroque urban design, showing eight streets


radiating

from

a base-line,

with

new

eight streets should have carried the

thereby making the scheme

city-gate serving as the center.

The

names of the main French provinces,

a spatial

expression of the

new

national sys-

tem. Whereas the city-gates to date had taken their names from particular

"geographical" circumstances, the Porte de France was a purely symbolic

name,

in

accordance with the role of Paris

as capital city.

The execution of

the project was started but could not be carried through because of the

death of the King. The Place de France was not intended

34

as a place royale.

41. Paris, Place des Victoires, plan.

42. Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Paris,

Place Vendome, plan (D.A.U.).


43. Paris, Place

(engraving by

Le

Vendome
Pautre).

0&

^ s3

->

ISiS^^T

;>'^3^

"Wil
36

38

44, 45. Paris, Place

Rather

Vcndomc.

46. Paris, schematic outline of plan.

indicated the direction towards an integrated urban structure,

it

and, in fact, a hundred years later the whole region of Paris was covered by
its

starlike pattern.

During the reign of Louis XIII (1610-43), new urban

The

created.

activity

ular city districts.

One of the first was

ation of the Pont Neuf.


fronts of their houses

ment

have

to
41

all

the

Rue Dauphine,

for several

the complete construction of the He

decades and Louis Le Vau,

The

More important than

lived

Louvre and the

was planned around two main

it

angles.

who

"

St.

Building continued

on the

was developed

district of Richelieu

old city walls, to the north of the

Louis,

reg-

built as a continu-

the end of the bridge this street forming one long

at

Louis on the basis of a systematic orthogonal layout.

tive part.

were not

Here the inhabitants were ordered to "make the


in the same manner, for it would be a fine orna-

More important was

facade."

foci

was rather concentrated on the development of

island, took

after

an

ac-

1633 outside the

Tuileries. Like the

He

St.

streets crossing each other at right

the achievements in city planning was the

general architectural development during the reign of Louis XIII. In fact,


a

more "correct" and creative

omon de

classical

language was taken into use by Sal-

Brosse and Francois Mansart,

'

who

foundation for the

laid the

great French classicism of the following period.

XIV

During the long reign of Louis


eral

changes which were to have

elopment of the

city.

Two more

(1643-1715), Paris underwent sevinfluence on the further dev-

a decisive

royal squares

were created, and the

gar-

dens of the Tuileries were taken as the point of departure for a great spatial
extension towards the west. Most important, however, was the abolish-

ment of the

fortifications

completed under Louis XIII, which were sub-

by an almost complete ring of boulevards,

stituted
spatially

open

city.

Let us

first

consider the

Between 1682 and 1687, the


tained

its

district to the

urban focus, the Place des

The square was planned by

so that Paris

became

squares.

north of the Louvre ob-

Victoircs, originally Place

Louis XIV.

the leading architect of the period, Jules Har-

douin-Mansart, and was designed


a relatively isolated space

new

such

in quite a

novel way. Instead of remaining

as the Place

des Vosges,

it

was designed

to

connect several important directions within the urban texture: the Rue
des Fosses

Montmartre (Rue d'Aboukir), determined by the old city wall


Rue Croix des Petits Champs leading straight south to-

of Charles V, the

wards the Louvre, and the Rue de


tricts

la

Feuillade leading west to the

new dis-

north of the Tuileries. The circle was the only form which could be

used for this purpose, and the Place des Victoires thus became the proto-

The
The Rue des Fosses

type for a series of great circular urban spaces throughout Europe.


Place des Victoires, however,

is

not a regular rond-point.

Montmartre which comes from the Porte

St.

Denis and links the square

with the ring of boulevards as well as the main road leading north
an axis superimposed on the circular pattern.
of the

Hotel de

la Vrilliere

It

is

used

as

ends in the cour d'honneur

(Hotel de Toulouse).

The two other

streets

39

from the "Turgot"


showing the Tuileries.

47. Paris, detail

plan,

mentioned above branch off symmetrically to


position

this axis.

centered on an equestrian statue of Louis

is

formly articulated wall surrounds the space.

The whole com-

XIV

45

consists of a rusticated

It

ground-floor and an Ionic giant order embracing two floors.


is

of Berninesque origin, but the character

related

Roman examples. The

system

is

is

A uni-

(1686).

lighter

and

The

solution

less plastic

than

in

only applied to the wall facing the

square, while the lateral walls along the streets have a simpler articulation.

The

space

is

thus the constitutive element of the composition, rather than

the surrounding buildings, an idea which goes back to Michelangelo's project for the

Capitoline Hill in Rome.

more evident in the second of the royal squares


XIV, the Place Vendome or Place Louis le
Grand, which was built as a focus for the new districts in the western part
of the city. A first project was made by Hardouin-Mansart in 1685, and
This basic fact

is still

built during the reign of Louis

parts of the facades were built without houses behind them. Originally a series

of public (or royal) buildings were planned: academies, a library, the

royal mint

and embassies, but

in

1698 the plan was abolished and the

cades were torn down. Hardouin-Mansart


sisting of a rectangular space

unequal

sides.

made a new,

fa-

smaller project con-

with cut-off corners, namely an octagon with

Again facades were put up (1699-1708) and the

plots be-

hind were sold to individual buyers. The Place Vendome, thus, somewhat
repeats the general solution of the Place des Vosges.
space, however,
regular

is

rhythm of the wall

articulation.

closure of the

At the same time the shape

stretched longitudinally in accordance with


originally linked the nearby churches of the

The

The

by the cut-off corners and by the strong and

stressed

its

is

north-south axis which

Capucines and the Feuillants.

solution represents a characteristic Baroque synthesis of centrali-

zation and ongitudinality, of closure and interaction with the environ-

ment. The wall articulation repeats the general system of the Place des Victoires,

but the bays have

richer.

The

more slender proportion and the

details are

center was marked by an equestrian bronze of Louis

XIV

as a

Roman emperor.
The four

royal squares of Paris are variations

cally they are


ings as are the

on

common theme.

Basi-

intended as spaces; they are not dependent on particular build-

Roman piazze,

'

but are conceived as "urban interiors." The

continuity of the boundary wall, therefore,


finition of a center.

The general theme

is

is

essential, as well as the de-

varied by the choice of shape and

by the relationship to the surroundings. The squares of Paris are thus


based on four simple geometrical forms: the triangle, the square, the

and the rectangle. Inevitably, they


titude of the society for

cities,

circle

and systematic

which they were made. Royal squares were

troduced in other French

Mansart created

reflect the rational

at-

also in-

such as Dijon, where Jules Hardouin-

a semicircular space in front of the Palais des Etats

de

Bourgogne (1686).

Whereas the

40

royal squares gave Paris a

new

internal structure, the ring

48.

Andre Le Notre,

Paris, Ttiileries

(engraving by Perelle).

49. Turin, plan

showing the

first

extension towards the south and

plan after the second extension


Congresso di Storia
(from Atti del

50. Turin, plan of town in the


second half of the eighteenth

century, after the third extension.

dell'Architettura, Turin, 1957).

JXJ

42

51. Ascanio Vitozzi, Turin, Piazza


Caste llo, perspective view (print of
1676).

ff

**

it

1*1

ilfjfu

43

52-54. Turin, Piazza

S.

Carlo

ft

f.:>t

/'..

Jr

TURIN
55.

Amedeo

di Castellamonte,

Turin, Piazza Vittorio Veneto with

Via To.
56.

Amedeo

57. Turin, topographic plan of town


(print by Bailheu).

and environs

rhi\a Jkuquej cCarniacriiolc on


Houvrnttnts dts Arrneej <iu
dt >I'rj Ju Due dt SavoueDn*,

IsriidtI
I

Y'if U.

i.
,

,i

itlifu

In lrnirui

'I tft ttn ,!, i

di Castellamonte,

Turin, Via To.

Rh"

/,.

Noveratt*

46
Rivasccca

Pit

ttt;

7.

58. Ascanio Vitozzi, Turin,


S.

Maria al Monte dei Cappuccini.

A system of radiating paths

cennes was also planned and in part executed.

was thereby initiated, which expresses the role of Paris as the capital city of
the whole of France. The radiating roads and avenues were linked together

bv the ring of boulevards which defines the area of the

fit

city

without closing

The boulevards of Louis XIV are thirty-six meters wide and consist of

it in.

main thoroughfare

as well as

narrower

lateral streets.

Where

they cross

the radiating roads, triumphal arches were erected, namely purely symbolic city-gates expressing the basic content of the spatial system.

During the reign of Louis XIV, the basic structure of Paris was defined.
Its

Bif'T

systematic character

W ^r^

..I.,-,-

apparent and constitutive elements are spatial

is

nodes, paths and regularly

programmed

districts.

The buildings were

plan-

ned

in relation to this

system, and therefore do not have any strong, plastic

individuality. Rather than masses, they appear as surfaces

Urn* a*

which define

the urban spaces and their continuations such as the characteristic cours

d'honneur. The dynamism of French seventeenth-century urbanism thus


lacks the dramatic quality of the

Roman

Baroque.

Its

emphasis on the

sys-

tematic aspect led to an articulation based on a regular and correct use of

We

the classical elements.

:&m
l?Lv'Vi.
r

roque," inasmuch as there


tinuity

still

employ the term "Ba-

present a strong wish for integration, con-

and "openness." Whereas

Baroque, Paris forms

may, however,
is

Rome

is

the typical "sacred city" of the

"secular" counterpart.

its

Turin

The

capital city of

and, in fact,

capital of the

was

still a

Piedmont

history

its

is

is

situated

midway between Rome and

closely related to both.

Paris,

When Turin became

the

duchy of Savoy towards the end of the sixteenth century,

small

town having the square shape

pidum. Continuing the


anuel Philibert,

of the original

political restoration started

Duke Charles Emmanuel

by

Roman

his father

it

op-

Emm-

(1562-1630, duke from 1580)

Turin into a Baroque capital city. At the


same time, however, Piedmont was under the influence of the Counterinitiated the transformation of

of boulevards and the centrifugal axes created a

new relationship to the en-

vironment. The ideas behind these innovations stem from garden architecture,

and

reflect a

new

later, the first decisive

attitude to landscape in general.

As we

will

show

Reformation.
fore,

The two main

and formed

"forces"

of

the

epoch

met,

there-

a singular synthesis, unifying the sacred

and the secu-

town was structured by an orthogonal system of

streets with a

lar aspects.

examples are found in Italy, but the French develop-

The

old

ment was mainly the work of a single man: Andre Le Notre (1613- 1700). In
1637, Le Notre was appointed gardener of the Tuileries, and during his
long and incredibly active career he had his home there. The existing gar-

municipal square in the center. Joined to the eastern side of the city-wall,

dens were planned in the typical Renaissance way, forming a succession of


"static" squares and rectangles (1563). Le Notre transformed the whole

point of departure, commissioning his architect, Ascanio Vitozzi, to

pattern thoroughly, introducing a system of axes and a variety of different-

ter," Vitozzi

shaped spaces. Above all, he opened the area towards the west, creating a
long avenue (the Champs Elysees) which ended in a large round-point (the

town. The idea was dropped, however, for a better adaptation to the ex-

A similar axis leading eastwards from the Porte St. Antoine to Vin-

south and the east was initiated. This development lasted most of the sev-

ly

Etoile).

48

there was a castle, originally a

Roman

city-gate,

transformed during the

Middle Ages. Duke Charles Emmanuel naturally took

it

the center of a regular piazza (1584).

isting

planned to surround the

this castle as his

make

To concretize its function of "cenpiazza with a new radially organized


'

orthogonal system, and on this basis a city extension towards the

IX. Turin, S.

Cappuccini.

Maria al Monte dei

59. Versailles, plan of 1714.

X. Frascati, Villa Aldobranditii.

enteenth century, but

we should

point out that

general course was de-

its

termined when Vitozzi created the Piazza Castello. This square was

\or\

11

W.I,

ii

n mi u rtJARniNSdtVERSAHl

sur-

rounded by uniform facades having an articulation based on continuous


horizontal lines and rhythms. The enclosed character was stressed by rus-

on the ground-floor. Shortly before

ticated arcades
tozzi laid out a

his

new street leading south from the piazza,

day Via Roma), which was intended to function

Nuova. The fronts of

district, the Citta

as the

death (1615), Vithe Via

main

Nuova (tonew

axis of a

were designed

this street

as a con-

tinuation of the walls of the square, introducing thereby the idea of a

homogeneous system

whole

for the

city.

He

new Ducal

also indicated a

-JOS

Palace at the starting point of the axis, with a courtyard opening on the

Piazza Castello.

The general horizontal continuity of the articulation was


new facade of the old castle which was given emphasis

^3

only broken by the

by strong

vertical pilasters.

The work
lamonte,

of Vitozzi was continued by his follower Carlo di Castel-

who was

from 1615

a ducal architect

till

his

death

in

1641.

From

1621 onwards, Carlo di Castellamonte carried out the city extension

wards the south.


troduced

He

continued the orthogonal system of

new secondary

rectangular shape

and

toin-

focus for the district: the Piazza Reale (today

Piazza San Carlo), which was integrated with the Via


in

streets,

Nuova and received a


street. The

mmrtxmm

accordance with the direction of the

square was centered on an equestrian statue, and had the character of a


51

true place royale.

Compared with

the French squares, however, there

is

one important difference: where the Via Nuova leaves the piazza, two
symmetrical churches mark the corners, a solution somewhat similar to the
twin churches of the Piazza del Popolo in Rome.
thus participates fully, just as

zo Ducale

(later,

it

"

The "sacred" element

does in the Piazza Castello. The new Palaz-

Palazzo Reale),

is

directly joined to the cathedral of

Turin, and together they form a singular focus, where the simple, urbanistically

determined surfaces of the palace contrast with the

plastic

dome

and campanile of the church." Throughout the history of Baroque Turin,


in fact,

we find sacred and

secular elements brought together to

form

a rich

and expressive counterpoint.

The son of Carlo, Amedeo


work started by Vitozzi and

di Castellamonte, faithfully carried


his father. First

he

built the

on the

new Palazzo

Ducale (1645-58), which was related to the square in front in a very


teresting way.

a screen-wall

gateway was crowned by

show the most holy

relic of

a tower-like pavilon,

was developed, and the

Po

district

pal-

which served

Turin, the SS. Sindone or Holy Shroud.

Amedeo di Castellamonte furthermore planned


to the east, towards the river

in-

piazza were continued to form

between the urban space and the cour d'honneur of the

ace. Its central

to

The rusticated arcades of the

new

54

large city extension

(1659). Also here the orthogonal system

centered on another royal square, the Piaz-

za Carlina. Its east-west axis continues westwards to join the Piazza San
Carlo.

A particular element

in the

new

city extension,

however,

is

a large

49

60. Versailles, schematic diagram.

63. Versailles, general

Louis Le Van, Versailles, Royal


Palace, garden facade.

(seventeenth-century engravin-

61.

62.

Andre Le Notre, Versailles,


main axis.

gardens, the

50

view

Mil

itti

UML5

51

52

64. Versailles, perspective

view

(engraving by Perelle).

street crossing diagonally

through the general pattern to connect the Piaz-

za Castello with the Porta di Po, a splendid city-gate by Guarini (1676)."

The construction of Via Po was


Castellamonte.

Its

initiated in

1673 after

a plan

by Amedeo di

uniform facades, with arcades on the ground-floor, de-

fine the most magnificent seventeenth-century street in existence. Towards the Po, the street terminates with an open exedra, which, seen from

the outside, appears as a kind of "urban cour d'honneur." Rather than


closing itself off, therefore, the city

same time

as

it

is

opened to the environment,

The motif was repeated

receives the visitor.

at

the

several times

during the following centuries, particularly by Juvarra at the Porta di Susa


(Quartieri Militari) and the Porta Palazzo, although the semicircular plan

was never directly imitated. The works of Juvarra arose in connection with
the last Baroque extension of Turin (after 1706), this time towards the

west and again on the same pattern, even including a royal square: the
Piazza Savoia.

We

then see

how Baroque Turin grew around

historically, politically

and

religiously

the Piazza Castello that

formed the center of the city. To the

north, however, the area was not extended.

We

find here the gardens of

the Palazzo, which are linked with the open countryside.


related to the

The

solution

contemporary layout of the gardens of the Tuileries,

whereas Paris was made an open

city,

Turin had to maintain

''

is

but

its fortifi-

cations until the Napoleonic period. Its theoretically open Baroque structure

was thus always confined within

a ring of bastions.

This structure,

more homogeneous and systematic than in any other


capital city of the seventeenth century. It is mainly due to the fortunate
circumstance of the well-preserved Roman street-pattern which was taken
as a point of departure and fully integrated in the Baroque city. We may ashowever,

sume

is

certainly

that the

Roman

layout was used intentionally to symbolize the im-

portance of the new Turin and


of the Baroque city
lo

is

its

glorious past.

The

hierarchical structure

also particularly evident in Turin.

The Piazza Castel-

functions as the primary focus, the old city has a secondary focus in the

Piazza Palazzo di Citta which obtained

1756," and the new districts are

all

its

final articulation as late as

related to a

new

were linked by main thoroughfares, most of which


tryside.

The districts

ideal of uniformity

The
solute

as

square.

The piazze

led into the coun-

such were planned and built according to the same

and continuity that we met

in Paris.

plan of Baroque Turin thus clearly expresses the ideal system of ab-

monarchy, and

its

spatial structure has the

French character of

horizontally extended network related to a main center of "content."

"The

urbanistic elements that go to

must

all

combine

to

make up

a city,

be they large or small,

become an

integral part in the single, great vision of

we

find, for example, in the parallel socio-

the city's organism; just as


political organization of the

Nation, that each individual has his place in a

definite social class or category within a unified, pyramid-structured


State,

on the summit of which stands the Monarch."'' In Turin, however,

5}

65.

Domenico Fontana, Rome,

Villa

Montalto (contemporary

print).

(ilARDINO DEL

54

rnc

ILL

CARD. MONTALT*

7*.

9V

_n>

66. D. Barriere, Frascati, Villa


Aldobrandini plan.
67.

Giacomo

-*

s>&

della Porta, Carlo

Frascati. Villa Aldobrandini.

-.-

n.
1

-*"

.......

yr

yj^-

jMi

ImMW
ansa *"i
---

."f-crti.i;

||

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'

ttfitUum fcntium

rcenj'nniu
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,.
rmfd I* Onniu /Snj
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cJid/l
.

J
,.

tnuvui

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**.., ?,

-.os

i;

'

;--r

'

^MM=*

"'

fdlJ4flim

pnvui,

jcnte.-.

Wf

a
u^

'
I

C"

55

>

.^%h, S

^^K'-V

$
-
.

\-\-

-^0

ife

68.

Giacomo

della Porta, Carlo

Maderno, Villa Aldobrandini,


bird's-eye view.

69.

Louis Le Van, Chateau de

Vaux-le- Vicomte, view from the


entrance side (engraving by Perelle).

57

70. Louis Le Vau, Andre Le Notre,


Chateau de Vaux-le-Vicomte, the

castle seen along the

main

axis.

"
-snqnasmr

this secular

churches.

system contrasts with the vertical towers and domes of the

A print

from the eighteenth century, where Turin

seen from

is

the east, gives an almost medieval impression of densely placed vertical ele-

ments. "For the world of faith the bell-tower

its

shadow one

beneath, and

its

is

the most important of

and acquires the character of

vertical structures

sound of

feels safer, the

spire, reaching

up

its bells

all

a protective element; in

spreads over the faithful

to heaven, carries with

it

the symbols of

religion." Turin thus represents a singular synthesis of the plastic-expressive

of

and the spatial-systematic properties which we have found

Rome and

This "double" character

also

is

found

He

Vitozzi contributed to both aspects.

Monte

to

be typical

Paris respectively.

dei Cappuccini

on

in the surroundings of the city.

built the

church of

S.

Maria

al

a high rock at the foot of the hills along the Po,

initiating thereby the creation of the "sacred landscape" of the

Baroque

Age, which culminated with the pilgrimage churches and convents of


eighteenth-century Central Europe/ " But he also took part in the planning
of secular residences around Turin.

tellamonte, father and son.

Both aspects were developed by Cas-

Amedeo planned

a small ideal city in

connec-

tion with the ducal country residence, the Venaria Reale (1660-78).

The main

axis of the layout

but on

its

way

placed

domed

it

is

directed on the cour d'honneur of the palace,

crosses a transverse axis determined by

churches.

The

''

two symmetrically

plan confirms the great urbanistic talent of

Castellamonte, and represents one of the most interesting ideal schemes of


the seventeenth century. Like the surroundings of Paris, those of Turin

were structured by

system of radiating roads and geometrically ordered

gardens, but the landscape was also marked by the

domes

of the sanc-

Both aspects were developed during the eighteenth century and


culminated with the great creations of Juvarra: the Basilica di Superga and
tuaries.

the Stupinigi Palace. Finally

we

should mention the beautiful Pied-

montese landscape which contributes

to

make Turin

a truly great city.

Conclusion

Our

short survey of seventeenth-century urbanism has demonstrated

how

the basic ideas of centralization, continuity and extension were concresituation,

namely the

socio-cultural system as well as the existing architectural

and topo-

tized in different

ways according to the particular

graphical circumstances.

Some

characteristic

themes have been singled

out, such as the symbolic square or "focus," the directional street or

"path" and the uniform, subordinate

district. In

most

cities of

the period,

these elements appear without real systematic integration. In a few cases,

however, ideal plans were executed on


1

and most

typical,

is

Versailles."

We

a smaller scale.

should in this context say a few words about

and

its

The most famous,

shall return to the palace later,


its

but

general urban properties

relation to the landscape.

The urban development

of Versailles started in 1661 with the extension

59

71. Andre Le Notre, Chateau de


Vaux-le-Vicomte, gardens, aerial

view.

72. Louis Le Vau, Andre Le Notre,


Chateau de Vaux-le-Vicomte, view
from the garden (engraving by
Perelle).

of the Royal Palace

by Le Vau. The gardens were planned by Le Notre who

The

supervised the works for more than thirty years.

total

scheme may be

considered the result of the simultaneous or successive contributions of Le

Vau, Le Notre and Jules Hardouin-Mansart. The palace occupies the very
center and

its

long wings divide the area into two halves: the gardens on

one side and the town on the other. The

latter

structured by three main

is

avenues radiating away from the center, the Avenue de Paris, the Avenue

de Saint-Cloud and the Avenue de Sceaux. Secondary streets and squares

on an orthogonal

are planned

tem of radiating paths and


by

grid.

infinite perspectives centered

landscape

The

layout of the gardens shows a sys-

Both halves

rond-points.

on the

are thus characterized

The

palace.

entire surrounding

taken into possession by the seemingly limitless system. The

is

modest Notre-Dame church by Hardouin-Mansart has an asymmetrical


cation,

and does not constitute any

vertical accent. Instead

Mansart planned to crown the palace with


"by divine

immense
century

right. "

"

dome

to glorify the

city." Versailles represents the very essence of the seventeenth-

city:

domination and definition, but

ture has general properties which give

contents.

who

also

dynamism and openness.

And

today, in fact, Versailles

its

struc-

it

the capacity of receiving other

is

visited

by innumerable persons

experience an enrichment of existence which was once reserved for

Louis

XIV

alone.

The gardens of Versailles represent


that started more than a hundred years
den

Monarch

"It is," says Baudelaire, "the natural solemnity of an

therefore something more than an expression of absolutism;

It is

lo-

Hardouin-

still

retained

its

the culmination of a development


earlier.

The Early Renaissance gar-

medieval character of hortus conclusus.

was,

It

however, geometrized to express the idea of an ideal nature, forming


thereby

complement

to the ideal city of the epoch.

During the sixteenth

century, this concept of static perfection was substituted by the idea of a

mysterious and fantastic world consisting of

a variety

"The

of "places."

idea of 'regular' nature was .now superseded by that of 'capricious' nature,


full

of 'inventions' and the unpredictable... the idea of a garden as a won-

derful, fantastic place, perhaps

breaking

down

den into

feelings."'

even magical and enchanted, led to the

of walls and fences, and to the transformation of the gar-

group of different places, each designed


In several

villas

in relation to

of the sixteenth century,

we

human

recognize,

however, the beginning of a definition of "basic characters" which were to

have a fundamental importance for further development: the decorative


garden consisting of flower parterres, the extension of the function of dwelling in a bosquet

made up

of hedges and other "tamed" elements of nature,

and the introduction of free nature


Villa

before he became Pope,

pronounced desire
Maria Maggiore,

60

in a selvatico ("wilderness").'

In the

Montalto in Rome, built in 1570 by Domenico Fontana for Sixtus


all

these elements were present, as well as a

for spatial integration.

a trident

From

new

the side entrance near

branched off to define the palazzetto and

S.
its

XL

Vaux-le-Vicomte, exterior view.

Rome,

XII.

S.

Andrea

73. Sebastien

della Valle,

Le

Prestre de

Neuf-Brisach, plan of

interior.

Vauban,

town

{contemporary engraving).

The main

lateral parterres.

axis continued

through the building, crossing

peated

the Villa Aldobrandini at Frascati

at

(1601-02, 1603-06), where the main axis


risalti

is

The scheme was reby Della Porta and Maderno

transverse axis and ending at a distant point-de-vue

emphasized by the

tall,

Xarh Arm Rvjwukijchen


Filpden von drnrn YmnLzaseu

l)if

KHuuiU' Fe*huy
Xf.L" Bkisach

^Hiit^ lieu

central

of the palace.'' In both villas, however, the relationship between the

meaningful "domains" mentioned above and the system of nodes and


paths

is

somewhat undecided. This

is

also

due

to the characteristic loca-

tion of the Italian garden casino in the middle of the total area, in lieu of a

transition

The

from the urban world to nature beyond.

further development of the Baroque garden

is

mainly due to Andre

Le Notre, who more than anyone else realized the Baroque idea of space on
the levels of city and landscape. "' In spite of their infinite variety, his gar-

dens are based on a few simple principles. The main element, naturally,
the longitudinal axis.
his "goal": the

experience of infinite space. All the other elements are

yard,

the

quet,

from man's "urban" world through the "open" court-

and the departure into

still

infinity defined as a gradual passage

"civilized" world of the parterres, the

phy

is

through

"tamed" nature of the bos-

and the "natural" nature of the selvatico. Transverse axes and

ing patterns are introduced to indicate the general


system.'"

To make

extension

this

transformed into series of

still

more

dynamic element

The

in the

radiat-

open extension of the

effective, the natural topogra-

flat terraces,

ing water contribute to the experience.


also introduce a

re-

which divides the path into two different

lated to this axis; the palace


halves, the arrival

is

forms the "path" which leads the beholder towards

It

and large surfaces of

reflect-

fountains, basins and canals

whole composition.

One

ex-

ban design. Usually, however, the


a ring of fortifications.

these changed considerably. Because of the


tions

The programmatic work of Le Notre is the garden of Vaux-le-Vicomte


(1656-61). The trident of the Italian villas is here turned around to con-

which created

centrate on the entrance, and after having followed the longitudinal axis

ever.

through the palace and the main part of the garden, the movement again

Sebastien Le Prestre de Vauban,

away

to

form another patte-d'oie,

a motif

Notre's trademark. In several respects the layout

which was considered Le


is

original.

The

parterres

and bosquets are not placed behind each other but next to each other,
ing the space along the

main

giv-

axis a splendid width. In Vaux-le-Vicomte,

had

to

more potent

artillery,

the bas-

be made lower and wider, and earthworks were introduced

periences an echo of the open ocean, always changing with the weather.

radiates

system had to be confined within

spatial

During the seventeenth century the character of

more gradual

transition

between the town and the

sur-

rounding landscape, although the physical separation was stronger than

The innovations were mainly due

cations as well as

new towns.

Neuf-Brisach (1698).

roque city

is

to the

French military architect,

who designed a series of ingenious fortifiThe best known is the well-preserved

We should, however, repeat that the idea of the Ba-

open extension, and that the

fortifications

no longer formed

part of the basic space conception.

the limits of the Italian gardens have dissolved. Rather than defining space

by boundaries, Le Notre used an open but regular system of "paths."

Lit-

wonder that his works were called jardins d' intelligence. In Versailles the
same basic scheme is employed, only on a much bigger scale and with more
tle

variety, particularly in the bosquets

where we find spaces having names

such as Salle verte, Salle de danse, Salle du conseil, Salle des festins.
selvatico

is still

tame, making
to another.

it

present in the

Grand Pare although

it

The

has become quite

easy for the hunting parties to get quickly from one place

The whole

area

is

structured by a great canal, indicating the

main directions of the layout.

We have

already mentioned the importance of Le Notre's ideas for ur-

61

'

74. Ciacomo della Porta, Rome,


Madonna del Monti.

Chapter Three

THE CHURCH

Introduction

simplified, but the articulation has the

We

the center of the facade,

have already discussed the basic architectural intentions that were

brought forth by the

Roman

Counter-Reformation.

Down

to the

end of

the seventeenth century most of the important innovations were due to


1

Italian architects.

that brought the

countries,

During

new

Roman forms met

typologies. In

most countries

its

development, however, we

also discern a general architectural trend

to

the desire to arrive at

Baroque

found culmination during the

which

lay in the gradual

working out of variations on the original intentions.


referred

took place

to the creation of regional

this process

eighteenth century. During the whole of

may

a diffusion

with local traditions, and a process of sym-

and synthesis began which led

biosis

however,

this period,

ideas to the entire Catholic world. In the different

unification

We

of

have already

the traditional

same purpose: the accentuation

of

the longitudinal axis of the church as a whole.

i.e.

All the details contribute to this effect: the blank lateral bays

which are de-

fined by a half pilaster towards the inside, the increase in plastic decoration towards the middle, the break in the entablature, and the interruption in the central bay of the string-course running

facade, thus,

becomes

work which has

a very subtle

Within the

and the

urban environment. As

interacts with the


ti is

a large "gate,"

under the

capitals.

The

interior space of the church

a whole, the

Madonna dei Mon-

so far been given too

little

attention.

limits of the architectural language used during the last dec-

ades of the sixteenth century,

it

represents an accomplished combination

of longitudinal and centralized plan, and a convincing relationship be-

tween interior space and exterior

plastic form.

This synthesis does not

longitudinal and centralized schemes, and the resulting formation of "cen-

bring about a weakening of the two traditional aspects so that they approach

For

each other, but strengthens them individually. The longitudinal axis

as the integration of

dominates the movement already before we enter the church, not because

tralized longitudinal plans" as well as "elongated centralized plans."


this

purpose new spatial problems were tackled, such

spatial elements.

We

have furthermore mentioned the new relationship

between the church and


pronounced

its

environment, which also brought forth

spatial interaction.

The

process was very complex;

more

we may,

however, distinguish between combinations of existing types and elements

on the one hand, and the synthetic development of new types on the other.
As the process does not follow a simple chronological path, we will treat
the basic intentions regardless of their being earlier or later in time. The
names of the same architects will therefore appear in more than one place.

More

attention

is

given to the Italian scene, and

and Guarini, who more than anyone

tributions of other countries will be treated

of this book, except for


will

also discuss

some

more briefly

particularly important

fact,

The development

Borromini

The con-

in the last

chapter

French examples.

the problem of the Protestant church.

seventeenth century, in
hesitant.

in particular to

else arrived at fertile results.

We

During the

Protestant church architecture was

still

of a particular typology belongs to the eight-

eenth century,' although some of the basic intentions


to the seventeenth century, or

may be

traced back

even before.

the building has been

composition
axis.

At the same

understand

this

The

As

trocento churches.

laborate,"

Giacomo

ther

62

is circumscribed by a continuous cornice


unbroken around the whole space. The facade represents a fur-

resulting unitary space

development of the theme introduced

in

II

Gesu. The ensemble

is

is

enhanced; to

thus consists of three strongly

by the facade, the nave and the dome. All Mannerist

at

same time

the

they are strengthened individually.

as

della Porta has created a

work which better than most others

ex-

presses the basic intentions of Early Baroque architecture: persuasive em-

phasis and formal integration.


a considerable number of churches of the
Rome. The most important with regard to size and
architectural quality is S. Andrea della Valle, initiated in 1591 by Giacomo
della Porta and completed in 1608-23 by Carlo Maderno. The facade was
added 1656-65 by Carlo Rainaldi. The plan of S. Andrea della Valle in gen-

During the following decades,

same type were built

in

'

siderably higher.

Gesu. There

II

is,

however, one important

differ-

accompanying the nave are more shallow and con-

A tendency towards increased spatial integration is pres-

open space which

The

dome

with the small domes of Quat-

ambiguities and conflicts have disappeared; the three elements "col-

one enters.
that runs

it

The Madonna dei Monti

turally concretized

ent.

typical example,

the elements of the

emphasized elements: the "gate," the "path" and the "goal," architec-

we may mention the Madonna dei


Monti in Rome by Giacomo della Porta (1580). The plan shows a conventional longitudinal disposition with dome and transept. A strong wish for
spatial integration, however, is present. The nave is wide and short (three
bays only), the transept is shallow and the dome dominates the moment
a

all

time, however, the effect of the

ence: the lateral chapels

longitudinal plan of the church of II Gesu exercised an immediate

influence.

longer, but because

one might compare

eral resembles that of

The Traditional Themes and Their Transformations

made

space as well as masses are understood as a function of the

Another innovation

is

the strong vertical integration by means of

bundles of pilasters whose movement breaks through the entire entablature

and continues

in

broad transverse

ribs.

The strong and repeated


The general ef-

horizontals, however, secure a coherent space definition.


fect

is

skeletal; the vigorous


is

primary system seems to be immersed in an

not given a priori as in Renaissance architecture, but

comes into being through the movement of the


it

allows through.

less

As an organism,

S.

plastic

system and the

light

Andrea della Valle may be considered

advanced than the Madonna dei Monti;

it still

comprises, for instance,

75. Giacomo delta Porta, Carlo


Mademo, Rome, S. Andrea della

76.

Rome,

S.

Andrea

della Valle.

Valle, plan (D.A.U.).

domes surrounding the main

four small secondary

additive Renaissance grouping. This

drea

is

a very large church.

is

plasticity.

no,

'

a great step

S.

An-

But with regard to

articulation, S.

forward towards Baroque continuity and

This also holds true for the facade originally planned by Mader-

where coupled half-columns and columns create

phasis.

remnant from

Innovations are more easily carried out in smal-

ler buildings, also for technical reasons.

Andrea represents

center, a

probably due to the fact that

A general

vertical continuity

is

dome.* The facade, built by Rainaldi,


the verticality

is

a certain rhetoric

present, which
is

is

carried

fairly faithful to the

on

em-

in the

model, but

strengthened by more breaks in the entablature

as well as

the cornice of the crowning pediment.

The

basic problems of the Early Baroque longitudinal church are not

exhausted, however, without mentioning the completion of

Maderno

The

(1607-12).

by

St. Peter's

centralized plan of Michelangelo had been sub-

severe criticism on functional grounds. In 1595 Mucante wrote:


"The new church of St. Peter's is really unsuited for the celebration of
Mass; it was not constructed according to ecclesiastical discipline; the
church will therefore never become apt for celebrating any sort of holy
functions decently and conveniently."
Michelangelo's project also did
ject to

'

not incorporate the necessary secondary spaces, such as chapels, sacristy,

narthex and, above

been elected Pope

benediction loggia. After Camillo Borghese had

all,

in

1605

as Paul V,

he attempted to correct these short-

comings. In 1607 a competition was held between the leading

Roman

Maderno was chosen, and on July 15, 1608, the foundation stone for his new facade was put in opera. In 1611 the Papal blessing
was given for the first time from the new benediction loggia, in 1615 the
vault of the nave was finished and in 1626 the nave was consecrated. The
nave and facade by Maderno are probably the most discussed and critiarchitects. Carlo

cized works in the history of architecture. Le Corbusier wrote:

whole design

(of

"The

Michelangelo) would have risen as a single mass, unique

The eye would have taken it in as one thing. Michelangelo comdrum of the dome. The rest fell into barbarian
hands; all was spoilt. Mankind lost one of the highest works of human intelligence... The facade is beautiful in itself, but bears no relation to the
Dome. The real aim of the building was the Dome: it has been hidden! The
dome was in a proper relation to the apses: they have been hidden. The
portico was a solid mass: it has become merely a front." This statement
well illustrates the problem Maderno had to face and the intentions of Earand

entire.

pleted the apses and the

ly

Baroque architecture. Le Corbusier evidently understands the project

of Michelangelo as
a "thing"

it

is,

rect

and immediate

holder.

made

was intended: "a

complete

that

in itself a

relation to the

single mass,

unique and entire,

symbolic rf prion form without any

di-

urban environment and to the be-

By adding the functionally determined nave and facade, Maderno


become "...the instrument of a mass cult, with a propa-

the church

gandistic purpose, but founded

64

on the ideological premise that the com-

c*.'

<\ 77.

Rome,

78. Paris, Val-de-Grdce,


(contemporary print).

central nave.

St. Peter's,

79. Frangois

Mansart, Paris,

Val-de-Grdce, plan.

faithful, or rather, the Christian

munity of the

very body of the Church, and

is

ecumene

constitutes the

not just a spectator but also minister of

its

Maderno's long nave undoubtedly destroys the dramatic unity of

rites.

Michelangelo's single, tormented mass, but

it

also extends the basilica in

terms of urban space, and thus develops the monument's urbanistic func12

We

tion..."

thus understand that the introduction of a longitudinal axis

demand of the Counter-Reformatory epoch to make the


church become an active participant in its spatial environment, thereby
expressing the role of the Church in the world. The formal unity of St.
Peter's as it stands today, therefore, only becomes manifest if we intend
was an

this

essential

meaning, rather than the ideal Renaissance concept intended

we may

statement of Le Corbusier. Paradoxically

the

in

also say that the plan of

Michelangelo facilitated the addition of a nave which would not have been
the case

the project of Bramante had been carried out with

if

all its

ondary spaces. The centralized organism planned by Bramante


acterized by an additive growth in all directions; and that

reason

why he and

his followers

is

probably the

When

Michelangelo cut away the

ondary spaces, a concentration was achieved which could be used

movement. With much

ability,

tion, repeating the interior articulation of

tem

of Michelangelo without any break.

his intention.

They

shows

as the goal

Maderno made

the addi-

Bramante and the exterior

The

aisles,

sec-

sys-

however, are entirely

are characterized as a succession of strongly plastic and

somewhat pompous

The facade

sec-

char-

never seem to have settled the question of

the functionally necessary nave.'

of a longitudinal

is

aediculae, creating a rhetoric

and persuasive

effect.

derived from Michelangelo's system, but the giant order

is

a characteristic increasing plasticity

towards the middle.

"nor-

mal" two-story basilica facade would have hidden what is still visible of
N
The planned campanili should have connected the excessive

the dome.

length

We

we

perceive today.

have so

far described the

gitudinal church. It

movement

in

depth

is

development of the Early Baroque

as well as the vertical axis of the

synthetic form.

two-story scheme

16

The facades

as-

are always faithful to the traditional

introduced by Alberti in

single parts lose their

dome. The two

do not fuse to form any

pects are well composed in the best examples, but

new

lon-

characterized by an increasing emphasis on the

independence

S.

Maria Novella, but the

in favor of a general

accentuation of

the central axis, namely the "entrance." For this purpose, an increase in
plasticity

The scheme was repeated throughout the seventeenth century, also outside Italy. As an important example, we may mention the church of Valde-Grdce in Paris by Francois Mansart (1645). " The plan shows a nave
concluding

dome surrounded by

Roman

churches discussed above, and a

four secondary chapels. These chapels,

however, are not connected to the nave and the transept as usual, but open
directly into the crossing along the diagonal axes.

68

dome

dome have been

considerably widened. As a result,

increased in size and importance, an effect furthermore

is

strengthened by the use of apses rather than transept and choir. With

tralized longitudinal churches of the Late Baroque.

became most usual


Europe.

To make

this possible,

this

Mansart took an important step towards the plans of the cen-

solution,

18

in

The facade

the

His wide

piers, in fact,

eighteenth-century churches of Central

follows the

Roman

models, but a portico with free-

standing columns and a triangular pediment introduces a certain "classical"


note.

During the

last

decades of the sixteenth century and the

seventeenth, a considerable

and

built,

oval.

The

new

number of smaller centralized

first

of the

structures were

characteristic type of plan appeared: the longitudinal

longitudinal oval represents the most obvious synthesis of lon-

gitudinality

and centralization, and therefore

satisfied the basic inten-

tions of the period, practical as well as symbolic. It

is

not, however, very

well suited for large buildings, also because of the technical problem of

constructing a

dome over

a large oval space.

Vignola was the

first to

build

Andrea in Via Flaminia (1550), a rectangular space is


covered by an oval dome, and in S. Annadei Palafrenieri (1572) the whole
space has become oval. The architect of II Gesu thus created another
oval churches; in S.

prototype which became very important for the whole Baroque develop-

ment.

The pupils of Vignola, Francesco da Volterra, Vitozzi and Mascherino,


made designs for oval churches, and the oval appeared over and over again
as a basic

form or

a constituent

eenth centuries. In

Rome

element during the seventeenth and eight-

the most important example from the early

Giacomo degli Incurabili, planned by Volterra in 1590 and finMaderno 1595-1600. Exceptionally large is the oval pilgrimage
church of Vicoforte near Mondovi in Piedmont by Vitozzi (1595-96). Bephase

is S.

ished by

ing a complete

and "special" shape, the oval offers few

possibilities of vari-

ation. In seventeenth-century architecture, therefore, the oval

was often

used as a point of departure for more complex organisms, in particular by


Borromini. The longitudinal oval
cause of

its

unification of

is

one of the basic Baroque forms,

movement and

be-

concentration, of linearity and

radiation. Its clear but irrational character

was well suited

Roman Church.
whole epoch, however, we

for serving the

expressive purpose of the

During the

also find centralized chapels

based on more conventional models such as the square, the

towards the middle became normal.

consisting of three bays like the

the piers carrying the

the

tagon.

An

evident already in the Cappella Paolina in

Ponzio (1605-11) and the Cappella

by Volterra and Maderno. In the

S.

Salviati in S.

latter, full

is

obviously

wish for

the later centralized chapels

a richer,

we may

is

Maria Maggiore by Flaminio


Gregorio

al

Celio (1600)

columns are placed

ners to receive the thrust of the pendentives.

however,

circle or the oc-

increasing desire for persuasive decoration and articulation

more

The

real

in the cor-

motivation,

plastic articulation.

Among

single out the splendid Cappella Lan-

Giovanni

cellotti in S.

in

Laterano by Giovanni Antonio de Rossi

The chapel is formed by the interpenetration


hemisphere. The dome becomes thus what is known as
1675)."

A slight
ally

axial direction

is

(c.

and

of a cylinder

"Bohemian cap."

created by a shallow recess for the

Diagon-

altar.

placed three-quarter columns, which carry a strongly projecting piece

pronounced

of entablature, give a

ending

ribs

vertical direction

in the ring of the lantern.

which continues

This structure

splendid stucco work, contrasting thus with the plain surfaces of the
ed-in" walls.

The

total

organism

is

in

accentuated by

is

"fill-

perceived as a vertically unified balda-

chin enclosed by secondary walls, a solution which was to have the greatest

importance for the ecclesiastical architecture of the eighteenth century in


Central Europe.

Few

of the medium-size structures with a normal centralized plan built

in or near

Rome during

the seventeenth century are as original as the Cap-

pella Lancellotti. Bernini's Assunta in Ariccia (1662-64)

rived from the Pantheon.

transformed into
as

The simple and

Baroque "mystery

obviously de-

is

regular interior, however,

by the

in action"

is

plastic decoration,

has been admirably demonstrated by Wittkower. "The church

is

dedi-

cated to the Virgin and, according to the legend, rejoicing angels strew
flowers on the day of her Assumption.

The

celestial

messengers are seated

under the "dome of heaven into which the ascending Virgin


ceived; the mystery

is

adumbrated

in the

behind the altar."" The exterior shows the church

Baroque urban

The great volume of the church


tico

is

pilasters

and

is

flanked

preceded by a more richly articulate por-

roque interplay of space and mass, reduced to

The church

re-

and straight entablatures.

with a triangular pediment and arches between single

ated.

be

as part of a typically

setting. It faces the Palazzo Savelli-Chigi

by symmetrical porticoes with coupled

will

Assumption painted on the wall

its

pilasters.

essentials,

in Ariccia clearly represents the simple

is

A Ba-

thereby cre-

and great manner

of the mature Bernini. His church in nearby Castel Gandolfo (1658-61)

based on

conventional Greek cross plan.

phasized verticality, which


as the articulation of the
its

setting, the

is

is S.

is

however, a strongly em-

achieved by the general proportions as well

dome where

ribs overlap a pattern of coffers. In

church introduces a vertical axis to the longitudinal urban

space of Castel Gandolfo.

however,

It has,

The most important church by

Andrea al Quirinale (1658-70).

a transverse oval, cut

through by

marked entrance and

Its

plan

is

Bernini,

indeed original:

"longitudinal" axis defined by a strongly

a correspondingly

important presbytery." Instead of

using the long axis of the oval for achieving an "easy" longitudinality, Bernini thus introduced a
at least

seemingly.

pronounced tension between the main directions,

A closer

look at the plan shows that the spatial impor-

tance of the transverse axis has been neutralized by making


solid pilasters rather

than into chapels. The movement

is

it

run against

thus blocked up,

and we experience two radiating "stars" that accompany the main move-

ment from entrance

to altar, rather than a conflict of direction.

The

analo-

69

Rome,

80. Flaminio Ponzio,


S.

Maria Maggiore, Cappella

Paolina.

gy with Piazza S. Pietro is obvious. The importance of the main axis is


stressed by the columned aedicula in front of the altar recess. "And here,
in the

concave opening of the pediment,

St.

Andrew

soars

a cloud. All the lines of the architecture culminate in,


this piece of sculpture.

holder's attention

power

gestive

The

More

to

heaven on

arrestingly than in the other churches the be-

absorbed by the dramatic event, which owes

way

to the
25

architecture."

is

up

and converge upon,

which

in

relationship

in a very original way.

dominates the severe

it

between outside and inside

A small piazza is

formed

sug-

its

lines of the

also solved

is

in front of the

church by

two quadrant walls which have the same diameter as the circles defining
26
These walls are joined to the volume of the church
the interior space.
where the

great, flat aedicula facade

is

attached.

The

aedicula, thus, ap-

pears as a gate between two spaces which are variations on a

theme. The transition

common

enriched by a semicircular portico that projects

is

from the facade into the piazza. S Andrea al Quirinale demonstrates the posBaroque transformation of a simple theme. It represents,
.

sibilities of a

however, a special solution rather than a contribution to the development


of a

new

typology. Seen together, the churches of Bernini illustrate his

preference for clearly expressed, elementary volumes.


cident that the "classical" master

among

roque has given us designs for churches based on


shapes of the epoch.

2
'

It is

hardly any ac-

the architects of the


all

Roman

Ba-

the fundamental

This general approach should come to exercise

strong influence elsewhere

in

Europe,

in sacred as well as secular architec-

ture.

Whereas the churches


the

dome and

of Bernini

show

a traditional division

between

the space below by means of a continuous entablature, Carlo

Rainaldi attempted a stronger vertical fusion in his circular church of

Maria dei Miracoli


that

is

at the

Piazza del Popolo (1661-63). Here

we

find a

treated as an ambiguous zone of transition, being penetrated by

arches in the main axis.

Among

the

more

A certain

Here

is

tall

thereby also created.

original solutions of the centralized church in Italian

Baroque architecture, we may


(1598).

longitudinality

5.

drum

a circular plan

symbolic reasons. The result

single out SS. Trinita, in

is

is

Turin by Vitozzi

divided into three sections, probably for

an evident break with the traditional,

static

character of centralized spaces. Similar symbolic plans are found in Ba-

roque churches of Central Europe, especially

in

connection with the

2h

Trinity.

The

classical properties of the circular

church were well suited

as

an ex-

pression of the basic intentions of French seventeenth century architecture.

The Church of the

Visitation in the

by Francois Mansart (1632-34)

Rue

St.

for the Filles

Antoine in Paris was


de

la

built

Visitation de Ste.

29

It shows a normally disposed centralized plan with open chapels


on the main axes and small closed ones on the diagonals. All the chapels

Marie.

have an oval shape, transverse to the


joined to the

70

main space

is

axis.

The way

the larger chapels are

quite revolutionary: instead of being "added"

"^X*0T>
g'

mm mi

'
,

<^^^f

81.

Giovanni Antonio de Rossi,


S. Giovanni in Laterano,

Rome,

Cappella Lancellotti, detail of

Gianlorenzo Bernini, Ariccia,


Maria dell 'Assunzione (engraving

82.
S.

by Falda).

vault.

83. Ariccia, S.

Maria

dell Assunzione, interior (engraving


by Falda).

Rome,

84.

interior of

Rome,

86.

Rome,

Andrea al Quirinale,

S.

Andrea al Quirinale, diagram.

Andrea al Quirinale,

S.

De

plan (from

as

87.

view of facade.

Gianlorenzo Bernini, Rome,

85.
S.

S. Andrea al Quirinale,
dome.

Logu).

complete volumes, they are interpenetrated by the circular space in such

way

become incomplete. To our knowledge

that they

example of a true Baroque interpenetration of spaces.


shows original features: the dome

dome

smaller

is

this

is

the

The church

first

also

cut off at a certain height, and another

inserted below the lantern, so that increased verticality

is

is

The facade is designed as a large arch, into which a smallinserted. The simple and unified scheme satisfies the basic

thereby achieved.
er aedicula

is

intentions of the Baroque church facade, but contrasts with the com-

Roman fronts. Only with


Roman architecture arrive at

plexity of contemporary

Bernini's S.

Quirinale (1658) does

a correspondingly syn-

The church

thetic solution.

Andrea

al

of the Visitation exercised a strong influ-

ence, but the idea of spatial interpenetration was hardly understood before

Guarini arrived in Paris in 1662. In


spaces in the

work
n

the

fact,

interpenetrations of

first

of Guarini are found in Ste. Anne-la-Royale in

Paris (1662-65).

So

far,

tempts

we have

discussed examples which do not represent any real

at the creation of

new

types. Before

we

at-

arrive at the fundamental

/K

contribution of Borromini and Guarini, however,

h>^" "^^NN """""^j

V?
\
"

h-

z^

The

certain importance for later development.

of the/e consists in

first

strengthening the longitudinal axis of a centralized organism by joining

together two domed spaces, whereby the first corresponds to the nave of the
traditional longitudinal church.
tury; as an

^>

we must discuss some


new possibilities of a

buildings containing ideas that introduce interesting

V^y^

The

where

ona by Sanmicheli (1559-61),

Greek

idea goes back to the sixteenth cen-

example we may mention the Madonna

cross plan

is

di

Campagna near Ver-

presbytery with an irregular

added to an octagonal "nave." The idea was taken up

by Lorenzo Binago when building

main church consists of

a large

S.

Alessandro in Milan (1602). Here the

five-dome group, resembling Bramante's

To the east a smaller Greek cross with saucer dome


The bay of transition between the main dome and the

plan for St. Peter's.

has been added.

dome

of the chancel

characteristic

ment

results,

is

common

to

both Greek crosses, thereby creating

Baroque interlocking of spaces.

but

at the

A strong longitudinal move-

same time the center is emphasized by an increased

diameter and by columns carrying the arches of the crossing.

few years

later

church, the small

S.

we

find the same basic idea in another Milanese

Giuseppe by Francesco Maria Ricchino (1607). The

main space here approaches an octagon,


are considerably

space

is

widened

as the piers

to receive niches

distinguished by columns.

and

The presbytery

by means of a common Composite order

on the diagonal axes

coretti.
is

Also here the main

joined to the octagon

as well as similar wall articulation.

In genaral, S. Giuseppe represents a surprisingly mature example of a type


that
tral

was

to

become very important during the eighteenth century

in

Cen-

Maria

della

Europe.

In Italy, the type culminated with Baldassare Longhena's


Salute (1631-48).

The church was erected

as

S.

an ex-voto after the plague

in

Turin, SS. Trinita, interior.

1630, and as such naturally received a centralized plan.


tagon, however,

is

added

domed

To

the main oc-

sanctuary which has apses on the trans-

verse axis and an opening screened by the altar in the middle, resembling

thus the centralized part of Palladio's Redentore.

It is to

have pointed out the architectural qualities of

to

He thus

S.

Wittkower's merit

Maria

della Salute.

indicates the Late Antique and Byzantine ancestry of the octagon

surrounded by an ambulatory, and the Early Renaissance and Palladian

models for Longhena's articulation by means of grey stone for the structural parts

and whitewash for the walls and

to Florentine procedure,
cal

system, Longhena's color scheme

tical

fillings.

"In contrast, however,

where color invariably sustains

a coherent metri-

not logical; color for him was an op-

is

device which enabled him to support or suppress elements of the com-

position, thereby directing the beholder's vision."

'

In fact, the two main

spaces of S. Maria della Salute are joined together by optical means. "In
spite of the Renaissance-like isolation of spatial entities

and

carefully calculated centralization of the octagon, there

in spite of the

is

a scenic pro-

gression along the longitudinal axis... In S. Maria della Salute, scenery appears behind scenery-like wings on the stage. Instead of inviting the

eye

as the Roman Baroque architects did to glide along the walls and

savour a spatial continuum, Longhena constantly determines the vistas


across the spaces."

"

This particular Venetian character

the exterior where two closely spaced

domes form

is

also evident in

a picturesque group.

The facade shows the adaptation of Palladio's giant order to a centralized


building. Its members (giant and small) repeat those of the interior, so that
a coherence based on similar motives is created. The large central arch also
repeats those inside, at the same time as
gitudinal axis. S.

Maria

gives emphasis to the lon-

it

della Salute thus illustrates

how

basic

Baroque

in-

tentions could be given a convincing "regional" interpretation.

Another regional interpretation of the same theme

is

offered by the

main work among French centrally-planned churches, the


valided

Dome

des In-

by Jules Hardouin-Mansart (1680-1707). As the church was built

on the main

axis of Liberal Bruant's

Hotel des Invalides (1670-77),

in

com-

munication with Bruant's chapel, a pronounced longitudinal movement

was needed. Louis XIV, however,

also

wanted

worthy monument crown-

ed by a dome. Hardouin-Mansart made a design based on the

classical

sixteenth-century scheme as developed by Michelangelo for St. Peter's.

The centralized plan


site

well fitted the building task in question, as well as the

between the two wings of the Hotel. To

douin-Mansart added

this traditional

a spacious sanctuary, of

scheme Har-

approximately oval shape,

which opens on the pre-existent chapel. The needed longitudinal


thereby

created.'''

from the plan of Michelangelo


the main

Greek

axis

was

Hardouin-Mansart's solution, however, also differs


in

other important respects.

The arms

of

cross are relatively shorter, so that the whole building ap-

pears as a square block.

The secondary domes

at

the corners are joined to

the main circular space by means of openings in the diagonals, a solution

76

msi^^&tiEGmm.

Church

89. Francois Mansart, Paris,

Church of the

90. Paris,

Church of the

91. Paris,

of the Visitation, plan (from Blunt).

interior looking

Visitation,

upward.

Visitation.

derived from F. Mansart's Val-de-Grace. As a result, an increased integrationof mass and space is achieved. This integration mainly serves a strongly

developed

verticality,

The

off domes.

up

thus, builds

which

accentuated by the employment of cut-

is

The

exterior shows a corresponding articulation.

facade,

towards the center, and the dome obtains

plastically

creased height through the introduction of an attic between the

in-

drum and

the cupola proper. Strong buttresses are placed in the diagonals (where, in
fact,

they are structurally most correct), depriving the

"static"

and "perfect" appearance. This strong

minates in

classical architecture

is

its

usual
cul-

one of the most convincing of the cen-

Baroque epoch, forming

tralized structures of the

a singular synthesis of

and Gothic verticalism defined by curved arcades

and four smaller domed structures.

was unfortunately never

Another

of

dynamism

diagonally oriented lantern crowned by a pointed fleche.

Without doubt, the Invalides

in

dome

vertical

A splendid place in front of the church,

built.

possibility for creating an elongated centralized plan consists

making the arms of

Greek

cross differ (without, naturally, arriving at a

Latin cross). This theme was taken up by Rosato Rosati in

Rome

Carlo ai Can-

S.

By shortening the transept and by adding an


extra bay and an apse, Rosati gave the Greek cross a pronounced longitudinal direction. The effect is emphasized by the oval chapels between the arms which have their main opening on the nave. At the same
time, however, the center is given primary importance by the tall dome
tinari in

which

rests

(1612-20).

'

on strongly projecting

The

flat pilasters.

piers,

while the arms are articulated by

piers are covered with similar pilasters,

whose yellow

color creates an impression of a continuous system surrounding the entire

The space thus has a unified and total character, in spite of the lonAs a whole, S. Carlo ai Catinari is a convincing example of
Early Baroque planning. The church had a certain influence on following
developments. The church of the Sorbonne in Paris by Lemercier
space.

gitudinal axis.

(1636-42)

is

evidently derived from

main

ne, the

axis

is

longer,

and the

S.

Carlo

lateral chapels

the nave, indicating rudimentary aisles.

The dome, however,

present.
lateral

is

41

Catinari.

ai

At the Sorbon-

have two openings on

certain basilical effect

is

thus

placed in the very center, making the

facade symmetrical, as necessitated by

its

forming

a wall to the

courtyard of the University.

The theme of the elongated Greek cross found


Baroque interpretation
50). '"In 1634,

in SS.

its

most convincing High

Luca e Martina by Pietro da Cortona (1635-

Cortona was elected principe of the Accademiadi San Luca,

and the following year he started the rebuilding of the church of the acade-

my. As

his point of departure,

signs of Michelangelo for S.

to rest

made

on

full

he took

a circular

plan resembling the de-

Giovanni dei Fiorentini. Allowing the dome

columns, Cortona emphasized the central space, and he

the chapels behind appear as a continuous ambulatory by

radially disposed dividing walls.

A strong wish

for plastic

and

means

of

spatial inte-

92.
S.

Lorenzo Binago, Milan,

94. Milan, S. Giuseppe, interior.

Alessandro, plan (from Baroni).

Maria Kicchino,
Giuseppe, plan.

93. Francesco

Milan,

S.

gration

is

evident. During the process of planning, Cortona obviously

tried to arrive at a truly

continuous space boundary. The result was a Greek

cross plan with slightly elongated

main

axis;

here the bays, in

fact, are

wider than those of the transept, and the apses are semicircular (those of

The differences, however, are hardly percepThe space has a singularly unified character determin-

the transept are flattened).


tible in the interior.

ed by the rich plastic modelling of the bounding wall and the lack of
coloristic differentiation.

umn, which
Full

is

The

basic element

columns appear under the dome and

Between the columns the

structure.

mediary bays, thus, are given


ing pilasters

employed

is

the Ionic col-

varied to express differences of structure and enclosure.


in the apses, indicating a

primary

The

wall protrudes or recedes.

by

a certain transverse direction

inter-

project-

which define the connection with secondary volumes behind,

while the apses are completely "open": the members appear as

a skeleton

covered on the outside by a thin secondary wall-surface. The same

"openness"

is

found

in the

semidomes above the

apses, as well as in the

main dome where

a pattern of vibrating, star-like coffers appears

the structural ribs.

A singular,

behind

meaningful interaction of mass and space

is

achieved. This also holds true for the organic relationship between interior

and exterior. The exterior


inside, the

walls, in fact, are

complementary

to the spaces

The main

famous curved facade indicating the apse behind.

order employed also repeats the members of the interior, and the columns
flanking the entrance express the openness of the apse. In

all

facades the

curved central part appears between orthogonally disposed piers which


serve as a determined frame of reference to the

ume. The building,

in fact,

seems to be

breathes, contracts and expands.

The elongation

flattened transept are not fixed forms, but


cess

dynamism

alive; like a

seem

of the
to

of the main vol-

muscular body

main

it

and the

axis

be the result of a pro-

happening here and now. SS. Luca e Martina, thus, better than any

other example expresses a Baroque transformation of

Rather than making the church

a stage for

ation (Bernini), Cortona gave "presence"

thereby realized

a truly

theme.

a traditional

persuasive naturalistic decorto the building itself,

and

Baroque architecture.

In the examples mentioned above, a centralized plan was taken as the


point of departure, and a

more or less pronounced longitudinal

axis

was in-

we begin with a longitudinal organism,


the problem of introducing a center arises. The simplest solution consists
in the establishment of a transverse axis of symmetry. The first notable attroduced by various procedures.

tempt

at creating

If

such a "biaxial" organism

In 1620 he built the interesting church of

ganism

is

a simple rectangular

by freestanding

pillars.

due

to

Girolamo Rainaldi.

The

or-

a large barrel vault. In

a shallow recess divided into three open-

The wider opening

whereas, the lateral openings have

in the

middle

a straight architrave.

continues into the central opening where

80

is

Teresa in Caprarola.

volume covered by

both ends we find the same motif:


ings

S.

it

is

arched,

This architrave

stops against the blank outer

97. Venice, S.

95. Venice, S. Maria della Salute,


axonometric projection (D.A. U.).

cornice.

Longhena, Venice,
Maria della Salute, plan (from

96. Baldassare
S.

L'Architcttura.

I,

1955).

^a

>

<V\

&

1!
" *-*

r.

..;v(r>- -

./
41
k

3P*

Maria

della Salute,

98. Liberal Bruant, Jules

Hardouin-

99. Jules

Hardouin-Mansart,

Mansart, Paris, Hotel des Invalides,

Dome

plan (from Lucart).

projection (D.A.U.).

25

84

50

Paris,

des Invalides, axonometric

100. Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Paris,

Dome

des Invalides (contemporary

engraving).

v_

-x-

.....

JSJ^SS

TJQJili-^
tfejti

'

ns

Hi

a ",^s
yOriu azur OCE lOrnr/cx

a.

it

.U'

101. Paris,
interior.

Dome

des Invalides,

02. Paris,

exterior.

Dome

des Invalides,

103.
S.

104.

105.

Rosato Rosati, Rome,

Carlo ai Catinari,

Rome,

S.

Rome,

S.

Carlo ai Catinari,

dome.

interior of

plan.

Carlo ai Catinari,

jagade.

wall,

which

is

thereby characterized as a secondary

same motif is repeated


extra bays are
sionals.

left at

Exactly the

the ends, which are conveniently used for the confes-

These bays are integrated in the system by means of the architraves

A strong centralization is therefore created, while at the

mentioned above.

same time the space


acter

"filling."

in the center of the lateral walls, as these are longer,

stressed

is

by

Girolamo Rainaldi

retains

its

general longitudinality. Its unified char-

a strong cornice circumscribing the

is

whole

interior.

generally considered a minor architect, but in S. Ter-

esa he created an original combination of longitudinal and centralized

schemes. The articulation also prefigures ideas that were to flourish during
the eighteenth century, in particular the characterization of the main axes
as

connections between interior and exterior. In

arches break

fact,

through the main architrave and frieze here, and where they meet the outer wall, blank filled-in surfaces express the "openness" of the scheme.

We

should also mention the general transparency of the inner system.

In the small church of

Maria

S.

we

nio de Rossi (1640-43),

ered by a transverse oval saucer


bi-axial type

is

in Publicolis in

Rome by Giovanni Anto-

find a bi-axial nave, but here a presbytery cov-

dome on pendentives has been added. The

thereby fused with the scheme based on a succession of two

centralized units, a very fertile idea which was of considerable importance


in future

developments. In

that have

domes added

Rome we

find, in fact,

Carlo Rainaldi (1656-65) and

S.

Giovanni Antonio de Rossi the year of

S.

Maria

in Campitelli,

which he joined

scheme

is

showing
as

fairly

his

by

architecture.

Carlo Rainaldi took

covered by a

normal but the articulation

development of ideas from

from Cortona's

in Campitelli

death (1695). Both churches

Roman Baroque

a circular presbytery

a further

Maria

Maria Maddalena, which was designed by

count among the masterpieces of

For

two important churches

to centralized naves: S.

is

a longitudinal oval to

dome with lantern. The

very interesting indeed,

Teresa as well

his father's S.

Luca. All the spatial elements are defined by an en-

S.

tablature (oval or circular) carried on columns.

At the same time, the

col-

umns flank the main axes along which the spatial elements are organized.
The elements touch each other and form an "open" system, which has
been used

to give

emphasis to the longitudinal

been added. Similar

circles are indicated

axis,

where

a full circle has

on the transverse

axis,

but here

they are reduced to lens-shaped chapels. Only on the diagonals of the main
space are solid piers introduced, which contain secondary openings and
coretti.

spatial

The

solution has fundamental properties in

common

with the

system of Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer, and may be considered one

of the most advanced conceptions of the


also interesting,

showing

Roman

a two-story screen of

Baroque.

columns

'

The facade

is

in front of the

wall, indicating thus the general spatial transparency of the project that

comes surprisingly close


church architecture
di

changed the

in

to the Zweischaligkeit of eighteenth-century

Central Europe. In the execution, however, Rainal-

project. All the essential parts of the first project are pres-

106. }acques Lemercier, Paris,

Church

of the Sorbonne, plan (from

Church of the Sorbonne,

08. Paris,

view of the

interior.

Pevsner).

107. Paris,

Church of the Sorbonne,

facade.

ent, but the oval nave has

movement

gitudinal
fact,

in

been transformed into

depth

is

The

a bi-axial hall.

lon-

thereby considerably strengthened and, in

the interior appears as a succession of monumental aediculae, and the

theme of the aedicula


change

in

also characterizes the highly rhetoric facade.

The

approach was probably determined by the particular building

task in question. S. Maria in Campitelli was erected after the pestilence as

church and particularly to house

a votive

architectural space, therefore,

column

is

is

used as a symbol of

"One must

not

than

faith, rather

an optical

talk, therefore, of

miraculous Madonna. The

on the image

directed

in the apse,

as a structural

and the

member.

illusion, or of the representa-

tion of an imaginary space... but of the visualization of content or ideo-

meanings intimately connected with the practical and devotional

logical

needs of the building. For the

first

time the Baroque concept of art

With

suasion was applied to architecture...

ceeds in producing a collective emotion...

its

If

The church

church arouses."

it

suc-

examined from the point

view of the 'movement of the affections,' we find


pitelli's

as per-

architectural forms

this

is

the pathos

of

Cam-

of Rainaldi, thus, does not rep-

resent a theoretical ideal, but concretizes an individual situation.


S.

Maria Maddalena by

De

49

Rossi

ecclesiastical architecture of the

ditional types are brought together.


a

represents a worthy conclusion to the

Roman

Seicento. In the plan

succession of two centralized organisms, and the

understood

as a bi-axial

all

tra-

first

of these

may be

nave as well as a radiating oval. The essential con-

tribution consists of the spatially unified form of the nave, which

on

the

We find the Latin cross interpreted as

continuous succession of narrow and wide bays. The

first

is

based

and the

last

are parallel to the longitudinal axis, while the three middle ones define a

transverse dilatation of the space.

secondary importance as

The "diagonal"

it

The

transverse axis, however, has only

ends in narrow bays containing confessionals.

directions are emphasized by

through the entablature. By means of

aged to give the nave spatial independence,


ganically integrated with the

domed

tall

arches which break

this wall-articulation,
at

De Rossi man-

the same time as

The

unit behind.

building

it is

or-

fulfills

the

double task of being a Congregational church and a sanctuary for


erated

a ven-

Madonna.

In the works discussed above,

we have

seen

how

the traditional lon-

gitudinal and centralized schemes were transformed during the seven-

teenth century to meet the Baroque desire for a synthesis of center and extension, integrating thereby the building in a general, ideologically found-

ed context.
architects

real systematization,

we have mentioned

however, was rarely achieved by the

so far.

With "systematization" we mainly

imply a method of spatial organization that allows for the solution of

in-

dividual tasks within the general aim of formal integration and persuasive

accentuation.

The works discussed above

represent modifications or com-

binations of traditional types and elements.

Some

of these combinations,

however, were to have a particular importance for the sacred architecture

90

-/-

109. Pietro da Cortona,


SS.

Luca

De

Logu).

110.

Rome,

diagram.

92

Rome,

e Martina, plan (from

111.

Rome,

SS.

Luca

e Martina.

12.

Rome,

SS.

Luca

e Martina,

interior,

dome.
SS.

Luca e Martina,

13.

Rome,

SS.

Luca e Martina,

view of dome and

vaults.

114.

Girolamo Rainaldi,

Caprarola,

S. Teresa,

plan.

115. Carlo Rainaldi,


S.

Maria

the

first

116.

Rome,

1 1 7.

in Campitelli, plan of

oval project.

Rome,

S.

Maria

118.
in Campitelli,

diagram of oval project.

/Nir^^^L

\Ju^=^r^
*

94

Rome,

S.

Maria

in Campitelli,

plan (from Ferraironi).

Rome,

exterior.

S.

Maria

in Campitelli,

1
jll

*
*5*2?

&

Mipp
1

F 8
1

r9^^

II

119. Rome, S. Maria in Campitelli,


view of interior towards the altar.

of the eighteenth century, such as the


introduction of a "rotunda" at the
very center of a longitudinal organism (S.
Carlo ai Catinari, etc.), the
spatial activation of the diagonal axes in a
domed crossing (Val-de-Grace),
the succession of two centralized units (S.
Giuseppe, Milan), and the centralization of a longitudinal space by means
of bi-axiality (S. Teresa, Ca-

We

prarola).
also find some attempts at developing a
more general method
of spatial organization mainly in the
interpenetrations of Francois Mansart, and the suggestion of an "open"
grouping in the first project for
Rainaldi's S. Maria in Campitelli. Of a more
general importance was the

Baroque classicism of Bernini that aimed


character, and the organic

at the definition of

dynamism and complementary

one dominant

relationship be-

tween inside and outside of Pietro da Cortona.


Towards Synthesis and Systematization
In the works of Francesco Borromini,

we encounter a fundamentally new


approach to the problem of architectural space. Until then,
space had been
understood as an abstract relationship between the plastic
members

were the

real constituent

The need

for a

that

elements of the architectural form, although


their location was determined by meaningful
types of spatial distribution.
therefore,

new

expressive intensity during the Early Baroque phase,

was mainly

satisfied by a richer instrumentation: doubling


of
columns, combination of pilaster and column, giant order,
strong and repeated breaks of entablature and pediment, etc., or by an

expressive, illusional decoration. Borromini broke with this tradition


and introduced
space as the constituent element of architecture. For
Borromini

space was
something concrete that could be shaped and directed, rather
than an abstract relationship between plastic anthropomorphic
forms. He thereby

concretized the philosophical concept of res. extensa. "He


is not content
with an empirical verification of the psychological values
of distance,
proximity, or of the interference of compositional elements;
he proclaims
the need for a method that will permit the architect to
work on space with
the same energy with which Renaissance architects dealt
with volume

and
by applying the canons of classical proportions..." 51 The
spaces of Borromini are complex totalities that are given
a priori as inlinear structures

divisible figures.

With

character, above

all

all the means at his disposal, he tried to


stress this
by the continuity of the bounding walls. The novelty
of Borromini's approach must have been felt by contemporaries,
as is testified by the long description of his church of
S. Carlo alle Quattro Fon-

tane by Juan de S. Bonaventura. Talking about the visitors


who came
every day to see the church, he says: "...and when they are in
the church,
they do nothing but look above and all around them, for
everything
therein is so disposed that one thing leads to another. " 52
By the architects
.

of his time, however, Borromini was considered a stravagante,


who created
bizarre and chimeric forms. Today it is not easy to understand
this negative

judgement. Borromini's architecture in many respects seems more

97

simple and logical than the often rhetorical works of his contemporaries,

Carlo and in later buildings, Borromini based his designs on geometric

and we

units.

and

also react positively to his sincere use of building techniques

materials. Considering the classical tradition, however, Borromini's archi-

tecture was indeed revolutionary, and opened

up new

fertile possibilities

SS.

in

work

first

Sacramento in

to display Borromini's basic intentions


S.

Paolo fuori

1629 shortly before

le

his death.

is

Mura. The chapel was

the Cappella del

by Maderno

built

His relative Borromini was

assisting,

and

we have reason to believe that Borromini had a decisive influence on the


solution. The simple rectangular space has rounded corners and a system
'

of regularly placed pilasters that continue through the entablature by


slight

skeletal "net."

breaks to form

There are no

which are carried on

flat ribs

that transform the vault into a

pilasters in the corners, the

concave shape of

in the vault to create a strong vertical continuity

and

to give a certain diagonal orientation to the space, an orientation that

concretized by diagonal vault-ribs.

The

tament.

built after 1660,

The

comes surprisingly

solution

to the system of Borromini's Cappella del

ganda Fide

Re Magi

in the

and generally considered

ter that

The

his architectural tes-

Sacramento chapel are the

essential innovations of the SS.

is

space, therefore,

is

close

Palazzo di Propa-

uniform and perfectly continuous wall articulation and the vertical


gration.

inte-

defined as an indivisible whole, a charac-

is

furthermore stressed by the "centralization" created by the dia-

gonal directions mentioned above.

S.

we
The

Carlo alle Quattro Fontane or "S. Carlino" (project 1634),

same intentions carried through with several


(1635-36)

is

circumscribed by

make

clearer the

difference of procedure, one might state, perhaps too pointedly, that in


the one case the overall plan and
to

module, and

in the other

tion into geometric sub-units.


unit,

its

divisions are evolved by adding

by dividing

a coherent

module

geometric configura-

intended

as a

which may be articulated but not decomposed into independent

ele-

ments. The spatial unit of

In other words, the space

S. Carlino,

however,

is

is

rather complex.

The

point of departure was the traditional longitudinal oval, as well as a stretch-

ed Greek cross scheme. These are fused rather than combined, creating
result a bi-axial organism. All of these

schemes are "hidden" within

as a

a con-

tinuous, undulating boundary defined by a rhythmically disposed "co-

lonnade" which

is

continued

of the cloister) and an


lature,

all

around the space

variation

on the theme

however, expresses the traditional schemes which are contained

the solution.

The bays on

in

the diagonal axes, thus, are defined as piers car-

rying the arches of the dome.

They are pierced by doors leading into secon-

dary spaces, such as the Cappella della


a

(a

unbroken entablature. The movement of the entab-

Madonna which

is

characterized as

hexagonal unit circumscribed by a continuous boundary. The piers

in the

diagonals are the structural elements within the whole, having a straight

In Borromini's first independent commission, the convent and church

of

a basic arithmetical

unit (usually the diameter of the column), Borromini renounced a central

means of

the classical principle of planning in terms of modu-

terms of the multiplication and division of

position of anthropomorphic architecture. In order to

for the future.

The

By abnegating

les, i.e. in

variations.

find the
cloister

continuous system of rhythmically placed

entablature and columns with capitals different from the others. They

have, in fact, active standing volutes, whereas the other "secondary" col-

umns have normal Composite

capitals.

We see,

thus,

how Borromini

dif-

ferentiates the function of the single elements within the unitary whole.

columns. There are no corners in the usual sense of the term, as the narrow

We could also add that the piers are joined to the flanking bays by means of

bay of the wall system

continuous mouldings over the door and under the arches of the main

is

carried on in convex curves where the corners

would have been. With the simplest possible means,


succeeded

rooms where the same intentions are

several

fectory (today the sacristy)

thus, Borromini has

"element." In the convent

in creating a unified spatial

illustrated,

where the cornice

is

cherub with outstretched wings,

Borromini to solve

this

a motif

find

such as the old

re-

concavely curved over a

normal corner. The transition between the two elements

by

we

is

taken care of

used over and over again by

type of problem. In the church (1638), the basic

themes are repeated to form

much

richer variation, illustrating Bor-

that

it

What

is

usually pointed out

metrical complexity of the plan.


thoritative analysis of Portoghesi,

do not have

S.

dome

Carlino

is

of St.

but wish to point out the basic novelty

of the design by quoting Wittkower:

It is

an ambiguous

attained, contributing further to the gen-

eral spatial integration.

Vertically, S. Carlino

shows

more conventional organization based on

arches and a ring carrying an oval dome.

The

vertical continuity

is less

strong than the accomplished coherence of the horizontal movement.

We

may, however, point out the interesting transformation which occurs

when we proceed from

the complex circumference of the main space to the

surface. Rather than dividing space according to relations such as "be-

when describing

We
5J

is

to repeat here the au-

often illustrated by saying

could be housed within one of the piers carrying the

Peter's.

98

is

also relate to the apses, so that

the geo-

no plan has been analyzed more often than that

of S. Carlino, and the smallness of the space

These bays, however,

interpenetration of wall. units

new transformation takes place, making the


become convex as if they were pressed inwards by the space
outside. The spaces of Borromini, thus, are not static units, but flexible
entities that may take part in a more comprehensive spatial interaction.
This flexibility is expressed by means of the movement of the bounding

romini's interest in giving each individual space an appropriate psychological character. Virtually

axes.

important to realize that

in S.

oval dome. In the lantern a


eight sides

fore-behind," Borromini's undulating wall makes the space expand and


contract, creating changing "outside-inside" relationships.

The Baroque

120.

Giovanni Antonio de Rossi,


S. Maria Maddalena, plan,

Rome,
121.

Rome, Santa Maria

A Unhid leu a

interior.

122. Francesco
S.

Bonomini, Rome,

Carlo alle Quattro Vontane, plan

(from Portoghesi, 1967).


123.

Rome,

S.

Carlo alle Quattro

Vontane, reconstruction of the


aspect of the convent before
Borromini's work (from Portoghesi,
1967).

124.

Rome,

S.

Carlo alle Quattro

Vontane, axonometric drawing


(from Portoghesi, 1967).

XIII.

Rome,

St. Peter's, interior.

'SETJUW

XIV. Rome, S. Carlo die Quattro


Fontane, dome.

125.

Rome,

S.

Carlo die Quattro

Fontane, plan of convent and


church (Vienna, Graphische

Sammlung

126.

Albertina).

Rome,

S.

Carlo die Quattro

Fontane, facade.
127.

Rome,

S.

Carlo die Quattro

Fontane, detail of facade.

>

m
t

*%.

f,
-

v
l

'<t

tr
f

7/V
\y

>i

128.

Rome,

S.

Carlo alle Quattro

Fontane, view from the lantern.

129.

Rome,

S.

Carlo alle Quattro

Fontane, detail of facade.


130.

Rome,

S.

Carlo alle Quattro

Fontane, interior.

104

\
'.

R otne,

dome.

S.

Ivo alia Sapienza,

XVI. Turin,

SS. Sindone,

dome.

131. Rome, S. Carlo alle Quattro


Fontane, interior, view of the

dome.

132.

Rome, Oratorio

facade.

dei Filippini,

133. Francesco Borromini, Rome,


Oratorio dei Filippini, plan

(Vienna, Graphhche
Albertina).

Sammlung

134. Francesco Borromini,

Sammlung

hi

106

Rome,

Oratorio dei Filippini, drawing for


the fagade (Vienna, Graphische
Albertina).

/
1

feYrfn
.*
)

*-r

->.

t,

,^-sec

3
-t

~~~&&sr

>j

>5s:-jVv ,.'k^-,.^
.

.*

^7 r^/V^f
-.

-*

fj

Li.
i

?>>.

H4-

:/-

108

135.

Rome, Oratorio

court.

dei Filippini,

136.

Rome, Oratorio

dei Filippini,

interior.

109

137.

Rome, Oratorio

dei Filippini,

axonometric drawing (from


Portoghesi, 1967).
138.

Rome, Oratorio

dei Filippini,

plan (from Portoghesi, 1967).

110

139. Francesco Borromini,


S.

Rome,

Maria dei Sette Dolori, plan.

140.

Rome,

S.

Maria dei Sette

Dolori, diagram.
141, 142.

Rome,

S.

Maria dei Sette

Dolori, detail of exterior


interior.

and

Rome,

143. Francesco Borromini,


S.

Ivo alia Sapienza, axonometric

drawing (from Portoghesi, 1967).

desire for spatial interaction, therefore,

and

fulfilled in a

is

new

general way,

consequence Borromini was able to do away with the particular

as a

episodes of interaction cultivated by his contemporaries. This variability


in

Borromini's form

added 1665-67.

Its

is

if we consider the facade of S. Carlino,


movement may be understood as a result of

also evident

undulating

the meeting of interior and exterior "forces": the expansive space inside

and the directed movement of the

street in front. At the same time, the


movement of the wall sections of the interior. The whole
composition, thus, may be understood as variations on a "wall theme,"

facade varies the

which

is
,<

romini.

'

a function of the basic

And

The next main work


(1637),

was

space-dynamism introduced by Bor-

the facade prepares for the basic properties of the interior.

a large

of Borromini, the Casa e Oratorio dei Filippini

commission that gave Borromini the occasion

We need

extensive group of different spaces.


plex history of the casa,

The

'

but should try to arrive

at

the basic intentions.

plan has a wonderful clarity, in spite of the problem of adapting to the

existing Chiesa
his brief,

Nuova and

its

large sacristy.

Taking functional demands

Borromini incorporated the sacristy between

dino, creating a succession of

The

to plan an

not describe here the com-

oratorio proper should

a cortile

main spaces flanked by two long

and

as

a giar-

corridors.

have concluded the succession towards the

shown

piazza in front of the church, as

in

one of Borromini's preliminary

drawings." Because of minor practical difficulties, the oratorio had to be

moved out

of the axis, introducing an irregularity in the plan. All the main

spaces are treated as integrated spatial units defined by a continuous wall


articulation

and rounded corners. The oratorio, which represents

a further

development of the ideas from the Cappella del SS. Sacramento, has
axial disposition,

determined by the

altar

on the longitudinal

planned entrance from outside on the transverse


is

unified by

ners

means of

where the

plete net of interlacing ribs,

The

and

as a

v
'

The space, however,

The

has given us the explanation:

"...

vault shows a com-

whole the system has

central part of the facade,

responded to the oratorio proper, has


self

a bi-

and the

continuous series of pilasters and by cut-off cor-

pilasters are placed diagonally.

skeletal character.

axis.

axis

pronounced

which should have

cor-

concave curvature. Borromini him-

when

designing this facade

had

in

mind the human body with arms outstretched, as if embracing all who entered there, which body with outstretched arms is divided into five parts,
6
that is, the breast in the middle, and both arms in two parts each..." The
building, thus, should receive the visitor, in other words, interact with the

urban space

in front. In addition to this general property, the exterior

shows an abundance of novel features. The pediments of the windows and


doors introduce most of the synthetic forms that were to characterize the
Late Baroque architecture of the eighteenth century, the main gable of the
facade

is

tablature

a synthesis of triangle
is

and segment, and above

the wings and the main part of the facade.

112

all,

the main en-

continuously transformed into the traditional scroll that links

The

principle of flexibility and

144.

and

S.

Ivo alia Sapienza, elevation

dome and lantern


Graphische Sammlung

section of

(Vienna,

Alhcrtina).

145. Francesco Borromini, Rome,


Palazzo della Sapienza, plan with
S. Ivo alia Sapienza and Biblioteca

Alessandrina (Vienna, Graphische

Sammlung

metamorphosis
to

is

Albertina).

thereby applied to the single forms, making them subject

change according to their position in the

totality.

The

building

also

is

adapted to the urban spaces around by means of change of articulation and


texture, although cut-off or

within

totality placed

rounded corners indicate that the building

somewhat

As the work remained unfinished, we

few essential features. Spatially


attempt

to build a smaller,

at

S.

Maria dei

S.

merely point out a

shall

Maria dei Sette Dolori represents

a first

making several spaces mutually interdependent. To date, Bor-

romini had used a rather conventional, additive procedure


spaces. In S

similar build-

convent for the oblate agostiniane with the church of

Sette dolori.

is

continuous exterior space.

was asked

In 1642 Borromini
ing, the

when grouping

Maria dei Sette Dolori the church, the vestibule and the space
concave facade determine each other reciprocally. Where

in front of the

one contracts, the other expands and a pulsating effect results that
changes space from being mere extension into an active "field" of forces."'
This principle of pulsating juxtaposition was to have a fundamental importance for the further development of Baroque architecture.

It

must be

dis-

tinguished from the principle of spatial interpenetration. Instead of pene-

expand and contract

trating into each other, the spatial elements

were made of
leads to a

elastic material.

it

The

lature

if

they

church

is

bi-axially organized. In spite of its elongated

has a fully unified character, due to the continuous colonnade de-

fining the space, as well as the encircling entablature


ners.

as

principle of pulsating juxtaposition also

complementary relationship between interior and exterior. The

interior of the

shape,

The

metamorphosis

principle of

without any break

to the situation.
ferior design

is

is

with rounded cor-

particularly evident, as the entab-

transformed into an arch or

according

a scroll

Unfortunately the vault was completed

later,

and

its in-

hardly does justice to the magnificent space below.

In 1642, Borromini also initiated

what

generally considered his prin-

is

Rome's old University, the Sapienza. The


situation here demanded a centralized structure inserted at the end of the
existing courtyard."" Borromini, however, was not satisfied with adopting
cipal opus, the

church of S. Ivo

in

one of the traditional schemes, such as the octagon or the Greek cross, and
invented instead one of the most original organisms in the entire history of
architecture. S. Ivo indeed

makes us remember

his

proud words:

"I

would

not have joined this profession with the aim of being merely an imitator.

The plan of

S.

Ivo

developed around

is

hexagon, and shows an

nation of apses and recesses with a convex fond.


sulting,

however,

is

girdling entablature.

6 ''

alter-

The complex shape

re-

unified by a continuous wall articulation and an en-

The

six corners of the

hexagon are characterized

as

being of primary structural importance, having double pilasters, while the


apses and recesses have single ones.
rise vertically to

And,

in fact,

over these corners, ribs

"carry" the ring of the lantern, while the other ribs only

form large frames around the windows of the dome. Thus, again, we en1

counter the principle of differentiation and transformation within an inte-

113

>

xs-itz

at

'!

r3

<"&

*,

*#'

rt
i

V-

-#*"*-***
i

i*

3
4

,1

l~

1
-.

f -*

.^*t

jZ

"4f

*#-

if:

u.:s-t\

*--

*V

i'
.?

-4ft!

.V

3 I

**
l

En

>**#

K
r

46.

Rome,

S.

Ivo alia Sapienza,

view from court of the Palazzo


delta Sapienza.

147.

Rome,

detail of

The

grated totality.

basic invention of S. Ivo, however,

is

S.

Ivo alia Sapienza,

dome.

the idea of at-

by carrying the complex shape of the ground

taining vertical continuity

plan without interruption into the dome.

The dome,

therefore, has lost the

seems rather to be undergoing

traditional character of static enclosure. It

constant process of expansion and contraction, a process that gradually

comes

to rest

troduced in
Ivo

is

towards the circular ring under the lantern. The inside of the

however, has convex

lantern,

S.

one of the most unified,

spite of its rich

sides,

and the

Carlino have become part of

vertical transformations in-

continuous form. Indeed,

and novel shape. The exterior

to the interior space.

The

S.

total spaces in the history of architecture, in


is

in general

six "structural" corners

complementary

drum

appear in the

as

bundles of pilasters, while the walls between them have the character of

The
dome below and
composition. More

expansive membranes, contrasting with the concave exedra below.

concave sides of the lantern form another contrast to the


the spiral that ends the incredibly dynamic, vertical

than any other work, S. Ivo must have inspired Borromini's contemporaries to consider

him

"Gothic" architect.

It is

mainly a centralized or-

ganism, but being based on the triangle and the hexagon rather than the
square or the circle,

found

it

has,

none the

less, a

dynamic character that

in traditional centralized structures

to the opposite. S. Ivo also contains a slight longitudinal direction

exedra in front of the entrance to the


orginally

wanted

to stress

is

never

where one "side" corresponds

altar, a direction

from the

which Borromini

by means of an open screen of columns behind

the altar, forming part of a circular space that interpenetrates with the

main apse. Because of


rect following,

''

its

very special solution,

and yet there

is

S.

Ivo did not find any

di-

hardly any building that more convinc-

ingly expresses the basic intentions of

Baroque architecture.

In a few other buildings and projects, Borromini had the occasion to


give further evidence of his basic intentions.

Most important

is

his last re-

search into space, the Cappella del Re Magi in the Palazzo di Propaganda
Fide. * Again we find a bi-axially organized hall, with rounded corners and
a skeletal

system of pilasters and vault

ribs.

The

walls have almost disap-

peared, and the lower part of the chapel actually opens onto recesses in

such a

The

way

that the entire transparent structure seems

giant order of pilasters

is

vault ribs creating a complete

immersed

connected with a net of diagonally disposed

"Gothic" system.

Its

dynamic character

is

expressed in the swelling bases of the pilasters, and the strong vertical continuity.

The main

ments over the


coherence

is

architrave and frieze are thus reduced to small frag-

pilasters, separated

by large windows.

And

still,

horizontal

secured by the cornice and a secondary architrave over the

openings to the lateral recesses and the small presbytery.

The Propaganda

Fide chapel represents a magnificently clear synthesis of Borromini's basic


intentions: longitudinality
tinuity,

and centralization, horizontal and

and chapels discussed above are on

est scale.

Borromini's only chance to design

when Pope Innocent

a large

Early Christian basilica of S. Giovanni in Laterano.


not give Borromini

church came

in

1646

X commissioned him for the restoration of the great

much freedom. The

The

task,

however, did

structure of the old basilica was to

be preserved, and the work had to be finished for the Holy Year in 1650.

Borromini secured the endangered structure by encasing pairs of the existing columns inside broad pillars.

The

pillars

he covered with

a giant

order

vertical con-

of pilasters, rhythmically disposed to allow for arched openings to the

mod-

gonally disposed ribs, similar to those he introduced a few years later in

uniformity of structure and spatial "openness."

All the churches

^^fc&^^StSX^JsS

in space.

aisles.

a relatively

Borromini intended to vault the nave, and to join the walls by

dia-

117

148, 149. Rome, S. Ivo alia


Sapienza, details of interior.

118

150,151. Rome,

S.

Ivo alia

Sapienza, views of dome.

v\jii-\\ifr^'

1 52.

Rome,

S.

Ivo alia Sapienza,

view from the lantern.

153.

Rome, Palazzo

di

Propaganda

Re Magi, section
Graphische Sammlung

Fide, Cappella dei

(Vienna,

Albertina).

r7".

';.

154. Francesco Borromini, Rome,


Palazzo di Propaganda Fide,
Cappella del Re Magi, longitudinal

155.

Rome, Palazzo

Fide, Cappella dei

di

Re

Propaganda

Magi, plan

(from Portogbesi, 1967).

section (from Portogbesi, 1967).

The

the Propaganda Fide chapel.

and the church


ing system

still

is

has

fragment,

most magnificent naves

shows us that

it

is

Giovanni

S.

in existence.

was intended

pronounced horizontal and


the system

costly enterprise

had

to be

in

Laterano possesses one of the

The

solution of the entrance wall

space with cut-off corners and a

as a unified

vertical continuity.

Between the main

characterized as being "open": the entablature

rupted, and large openings merge with the spaces beyond.

intended

abandoned,

coffered ceiling from 1564/" Although the exist-

its

The

pillars,

is

inter-

aisles are

namely small centralized units with

as a succession of baldachins,

concave corners that continue into the vaults. The larger vaults are

"Bohemian caps."

Giovanni gives us indications

S.

would have tackled the problem of


from

S.

Maria dei Sette Dolori,

a large

it is

church.

as to

how Borromini

Remembering

clear that he

his ideas

would have created

group of mutually interdependent spaces, employing the principle of

pul-

made the idea a reality.


The contribution of Borromini did not lie in the development of new
types. The concept of fixed types could not really satisfy the Baroque desire
sating juxtaposition. Guarini, in fact,

for

immediacy and participation

in particular contexts,

for creating extended, living organisms.

handling space.

By

He

namely the desire

invented rather

method of

means, he was able to solve the most varied

this

tasks,

creating buildings that are particular and general at the same time. Basically his

method

is

founded on the principles of continuity, interdepen-

dence and variation. His spaces, therefore, have the character of

dynamic

"field"

and the wall

is

determined by the interaction of outer and inner "forces,"

the critical zone where these forces meet.

to stress that the forces

68

It is

important

have psychological implications. The changing

in-

side-outside relationships of Borromini, in fact, represent psychic processes,

'''

just as his fusions

pomorphic forms

(i.e.

and transformations of the traditional anthro-

the classical orders)

categories of the past break

make the

down. Bernini

felt this

works of Borromini "chimeric." Borromini thereby


torical synthesis of a

new

static psychological

when he

called the

also intended a his-

kind. His wish for unity does not only concern

the spatial, but also the temporal dimension. First of

all,

Borromini made

become the concrete constituent element of architectural design.


While the space of Bernini is "a stage for a dramatic event expressed
through sculpture," to use the words of Wittkower, Borromini made space

space

itself

become

a living

event, expressing the situation of

In the works of Guarini, the general

systematically

worked out The


.

man

in the world.

method proposed by Borromini

activity of Guarini well expresses the

is

open

world of the seventeenth century. Travelling for his Order, the Theatines,
he planned or built churches in Messina, Paris, Turin, Nice, Vicenza,
Prague, and Lisbon, as well as several smaller towns in Italy. Present in

Rome from 1639

to 1647, he

must have been deeply impressed by the con-

struction of Borromini's first buildings, and he probably passed through

Rome

122

later

during his travels. Unfortunately, most of the churches of

Rome, Palazzo

156.

Fide, Cappella dei

di

Re

Propaganda

Magi,

axonometric drawing (from


Portoghesi, 1967).

Rome, Palazzo

157.

Fide, Cappella dei

Propaganda

Magi, vault.

own treatise Architettura

Guarini have disappeared. But we have his

which gives us information about

di

Re

his intentions

and solutions,

Civile

as well as

other literary and philosophical works that indicate the profound sym-

bolism and complex synthesis of Guarini's architectural creations.

own

we may

context,

word

systematization

cells

which were organized according


2

pulsating juxtaposition.'

movement the

dulating

In our

Borromini's idea of making space the constituent

element in architecture was taken over by Guarini

composed with

'

characterize the importance of Guarini with the

who

systematically

to the principle of

In fact, Guarini considered the pulsating, un-

basic property of nature, saying:

neous action of dilation and contraction

"The sponta-

not governed by any principle,

is

extension and movement, thus, are given a

The Baroque ideas of


new dynamic and vitalistic in-

terpretation. Guarini's first major work,

Maria

but

in

is

present throughout the whole living being.'"'

Lisbon (1656-59?),

makes even the


plan

is

is

S.

della Divina Provvidenza

permeated by an undulating movement, which

pilasters of the

nave quiver. In

general disposition, the

its

conventional, showing a basilical layout with transept and apse.

The longitudinal
spatial fusion,

axis

is

however,

ry of architecture.

The

defined by
is

succession of domes, but a wish for

present which

is

without precedent

in the histo-

units constituting the nave and the transept

together to form a continuous

one unit stops and the other

movement, and

The

starts.

fusion

is

achieved by making the

and by omitting

walls as well as the vault undulate,

grow

impossible to say where

it is

all

dividing lines.

It is

therefore not in context to talk about an "interpenetration" of spaces that

presupposes a clearer definition of the participating


solution of the church corresponds to

Guidoni: "Divine Providence

is

its

cells.'

The

particular

dedication, as explained by

the force that constitutes and informs the

fragments of the world from within. '"'The church in Lisbon represents an


early general

approach to the problems. In his following projects, Guarini

worked out more precise methodological


This

is

which develops the ideas from


project

is

S.

ter principle,

units of the nave,

terior.

for a

church senza nome,

shows

In fact,

and

a full
it

The

problems of

aisles are

aisle of

its cells

The

della Divina Provvidenza.

spatial interpenetration

composed according

whereas the nave, the crossing, the transept

the apse interpenetrate.

half also

Maria

a fascinating study of the

and pulsating juxtaposition. The

tools.

two solutions

particularly evident in the

to the lat-

(right half)

and

the right half interpenetrates with the

are complete, regular elements.

complementary relationship between

The

interior

right

and ex-

has a higher degree of organic coherence than the

left

More than any other project of the seventeenth century, Guarini's


church "without a name" demonstrates how a large church could be conhalf.

structed following the principles hinted at by Borromini."

Instead of employing interpenetration and pulsating juxtaposition to


solve certain "critical" transitions within the building, Guarini develops

the entire organism

on the basis of these principles.

He is therefore the ere-

158.

Rome, Palazzo

Fide, Cappella dei

di

Propaganda

159. Francesco Borroitiini,

Re Magi,

S.

BtMOiWJi

*>ri
i

it

>

Giovanni

in Laterano,

nave, Cod. Vat. Lat.

Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana).

^afcu T^
.

T iW>i

ia

him

11258 (Rome,

Jf>

.>* .i

v>

--

'

it

mm
'i

60. S.

project for the wall of the central

Cod. Vat. Lat. 11257 (Rome,

'.

it-

in Laterano, section,

Bibtioteca Apostolica Vaticana).

interior.

^awegMwww

Giovanni

it

:'.,

161.

Rome,

Laterano,

S.

Giovanni

in

interior, detail of central

nave.
162.

Rome,

S.

Giovanni

Laterano, interior,

aisle.

in

163.

Rome,

S.

Giovanni

Laterano, interior.

in

^EgpJ:
*"*%#%,

5 MA-RIA DELLA DIVINA PROVrDEN ZA PI

iUti

Guarino Guarini, Lisbon,


Maria della Divina Provvidenza,

section (from Architettura Civile,

166. Guarino Guarini, Messina,


Church of the Padri Somaschi,
section and plan (from Architettura

Plate 18).

Civile, Plate 30).

164.
S.

Guarino Guarini, Lisbon,


Maria della Divina Provvidenza,

165.
S.

plan (from Architettura Civile,


Plate 17).

ator of the first true groupings of spatial cells.

form

plastic

is

Both principles express

reduced to

a skeleton

ondary membranes, creating

which

is

covered or

by

filled in

sec-

complementary relationship between

and exterior. Guarini's further works demonstrate how

terior

a de-

continuity and "openness." In both cases, therefore, the

sire for spatial

his

in-

method

could be applied to varying situations and tasks, generating solutions

which seem to represent particular cases of an open system of

possibilities.

In Guarini's church for the Padri Somaschi in Messina (1660-62),

we en-

counter another important aspect of his architectural invention: the ver-

developed, centralized organism. The hexagonal plan shows an

tically

in-

teresting grouping of interdependent cells (notice the triangular spaces at

the corners with internally convex sides).


of

The pronounced

columns and arches, reducing the wall to

primary structure, makes the system appear as part of


giving thereby a fundamentally

To

plan.'

new

It

a general

extension,

interpretation to the centralized

this horizontal extension, a strongly

forms an expressive contrast.

skeletal effect

mere skin separated from the

emphasized

vertical axis

consists of a superposition of domical

The first is based on a system of interlacing ribs, allowing for


windows and a central opening on which a smaller, more conventional dome rests. The interlacing ribs are obviously related to Gothic
architecture as well as certain Hispano-Moresque domes.' The radically
new type of dome resulting became a major motif in Guarini's architecture. The domes, in fact, are his most evident inventions. "They seem the
structures.

large

result of a

deep-rooted urge to replace the consistent sphere of the ancient

dome, the symbol of


with

its

dome

a finite

of heaven, by the diaphanous

mysterious suggestion of infinity.

"

The domes

dome

of Guarini do not

assume the plastic continuity we have found in Borromini; they represent


rather a further

After the
tinuity,
Ste.

first

development of the principle of

attempt in Lisbon, Guarini,

making

his structures skeletal

Anne-la-Royale

in Paris

pierced by
plan

is

A drum has been inserted, which consists

freely

doubled columns and arches, and an outer wall

windows, namely

"double" wall of Gothic derivation. The

based on an elongated Greek cross. The octagonal

ticulated

form

suppressed plastic con-

and diaphanous.

(1662-65) shows a further development of

the vertical succession of spaces.


of a light inner screen of

vertical transformation.

in fact,

by diagonally oriented

a clearly

pilasters that

combine with

cells are ar-

vault-ribs to

defined skeletal system. Small walls are pierced by large

shaped windows, a solution found already

in S.

Maria

della Divina

Provvidenza, obviously to express the structurally "open" character of the

bounding surface.
This vertically developed centralized scheme was repeated in several
other projects.

Two of these were built, and

of history. After settling in

Charles

Emmanuel

II to finish

Shroud," initiated by

have survived the vicissitudes

Turin in 1666, Guarini was commissioned by

Amedeo

the chapel of the SS. Sindone, or "Holy

di Castellamonte (1657).

8
'

The chapel was

129

167.
Ste.

Guarino Guarini, Paris,


Anne-la-Roy ale, section (from

168.
Ste.

Architettura Civile, Plate

Architettura Civile, Plate 11).

u dXsxtCcJxEgS

\jffij

130

Guarino Guarini, Paris,


Anne-la-Roy ale, plan (from

PUnta

.1,11,

(r,T

9).

169.
S.

Guarino Guarini, Nizza,

Gaetano, section and plan (from

Architettura Civile, Plate 12).

attached to the east end of the cathedral in close contact with the Ducal

A circular plan was adopted,

palace.

Having

interpretation.

but Guarini gave

it

completely

new

two from the

to incorporate three entrances,

church and one from the palace, hedividedthecircle into nine sections, spanning every two bays with a large arch, and using the remaining three for

As the two ramps leading up

the entrances.
dral

to the chapel

from the cathe-

meet the periphery of the chapel on an oblique angle, he introduced cir-

main space

cular spaces of transition that interpenetrate the

time as they determine the convex shape of the

ment

thereby created between the two

is

levels.

at

More than any

cept of Guarini, these circular vestibules testify to his

problems of space, and to the possibility of solving

the same

A continuous move-

stairs.

skill in

other con-

handling the

difficult transitions

by

means of interpenetration.

The

mentioned carry three pendentives instead of

large arches already

They

the usual four.

are pierced by large

windows which

are also

found

over the entrance bays, introducing thereby a regular rhythm of six ele-

ments, which from a puzzling counterpoint to the basic division of nine

and three. The three arches carry the normal ring on which
usual

dome.

Its

"drum"

rests a

most un-

pierced by large arched openings which form

is

part of the inner shell of a "double" wall, related to the earlier solution in
Ste.

Anne-la-Royale.

The

arches of these

windows

carry a series of seg-

mental ribs that are spanned from center to center of the six arches. Over
the ribs a

new

series

procedure that

is

ribs that define six

to center of the first ones, a

hexagons, three of which are turned 30 to the other

Between the

three.

spanned from center

is

repeated six times, creating a system of thirty-six arched

ribs, small

windows

are inserted,

whole structure diaphanous. The space ends with


star, at

the center of which the

acter of the structure

is

Holy Dove appears. The

stressed

and deeply

is

S.

further
is

repeated

stirring spaces ever created.

Lorenzo.

Here he was

development of

built the

free to design a plan that

sidered his most fertile invention for the influence

ism

is

one of the most my-

Near the SS. Sindone, Guarini from 1668 onwards


church of

twelve-edged

irrational char-

by the black marble that

throughout. In fact, the chapel of SS. Sindone


sterious

which make the

a large

ecclesiastical architecture.

it

was

The

to

Theatine

may be

con-

have on the

centralized organ-

developed around an octagonal space whose sides are convexly cur-

ved towards the inside.

On

the main axis a transverse oval presbytery

is

added, according to the principle of pulsating juxtaposition, so that a longitudinal axis

is

introduced.

On

the transverse axis similar spaces could

have been added, but they have been omitted. The piers on the diagonals
carrying the pendentives are transformed into a screen defining lens-

shaped chapels. Their columns and arches correspond to those on the main
axes, creating the effect of a
space.

The plan,

continuous skeletal structure surrounding the

thus, demonstrates the application of the principle of pul-

sating juxtaposition to a centralized

grouping of

cells.

In principle, the sys-

131

Guarino Guarini, Oropa,

170.

De Bemardi

reconstruction (from

Architettura Civile, Plate 34).

Ferrero).

Guarino Guarini, Casale,

72.

Filippo Neri, scheme.

S.

tern

Guarino Guarini, plan for

171.

a nameless church in Turin (from

pilgrimage church, perspective

"open," but Guarini has only used some of the possibilities for add-

is

ing secondary spaces, thereby creating

The

centralized building."

vertical

what has been

called a "reduced

development of the space

to the solution planned for the church of the Padri

Somaschi

related

is

in Messina,

with the difference that both domes are constructed by means of interlacing ribs.

After

S.

Lorenzo, Guarini planned four other centralized churches that

were never built.


ly small

Gaetano

S.

Nizza

in

(c.

building on a pentagonal plan.

1670) should have been

The

vertical direction

a relative-

strongly

is

emphasized and

a certain desire for simplification

more complex

the solution proposed for the pilgrimage church in Oropa

(c.

1670?).

is

is

evident. Larger and

A large octagonal space with externally convex sides is surround-

ed by a ring of oval chapels that are joined to the main space by means of
transitory cells shaped like concave lenses.

thus created.

The

membranes gain

skeletal structure

in importance.
all

the large aediculae.

The Oropa church

Two

is

one of Guarini's strongest and

emphasis to horizontal radiation

Filippo in Casale (1671)

show the same

and S. Gaetano

somewhat
in

different ap-

Vicenza( 1674) do not

vertical emphasis, but represent rather a further research

into the problems of horizontal organization of

cells.

veloped over an infinitely extended grid of pulsating


square with internally convex sides.

The

spatial

Filippo

S.

cells

system

a thin outer

is

de-

circular and

is

defined by

transparent skeleton consisting of freestanding columns, which

by

as well

growth.

other centralized projects illustrate


S.

is

eight axes are characterized as "open" in view of

clearest designs, giving convincing

proach.

pulsating juxtaposition

These are pierced by large openings, and

on the ground-floor

as vertical

simplified, so that the curved wall-

is

is

closed in

membrane. In the extended grid Guarini introduces a cirdome which interpenetrates with the four sur-

cular center defined by a

rounding circular

cells.

The combination

ing pattern and an emphasized center


radical

S.

Filippo one of the most

and forward-looking of Guarini's designs.

to S. Filippo.

The circular

stituted for ovals

was achieved

on the main

cells

S.

Gaetano

axes, however, have

is

related

been sub-

and the corners are closed off by the introduction of

cles that interpenetrate

aS3Sr ^^S2Sk

of an infinitely extended pulsat-

makes

cir-

with the ovals. (A similar "closure" of the form

in S. Filippo

by the addition of small lens-shaped

recesses.)

The vertical development shows a more varied transformation than the relatively simple dome of the former project. The central square with internally

convex sides

a larger circular
shells

^fflT

wua

iK

4^

is

thus transformed into a small circular ring on which

dome

consisting of

two

shells

is

superimposed. These

should have been decorated with illusional frescoes.

contraction and expansion of space

is

vertical

thereby indicated that prefigures the

"syncopated" spaces of Cristoph Dientzenhofer. In the projects for


ippo in Casale and

S.

intended by Guarini

Gaetano
is

in

realized

S. Fil-

Vicenza the general pulsating movement

by the consequent use of "exact" methods

XVII. Turin.

S.

Lorenzo, dome.

XVIII. Turin, Immacolata

Concezione, dome.

173.
S.

Guarino Guarini, Casale,


and section

Filippo Neri, plan

(from Architettura Civile, Plate 25).

During the

of spatial articulation.

method

applied his

last

years of his activity, Guarini again

to longitudinal organisms.

The church

of the Im-

macolata Concezione in Turin (1673-97) shows a succession of three centralized units; the first

may be

and the third are

circular,

interpreted as a rectangle or a hexagon.

whereas the middle one

The

interpenetrations cre-

ate a strong spatial integration.

In general, the

scheme may be interpreted

hexagon.

as a rectangle or a

The interpenetrations create a strong spatial integration. In general, the


scheme may be characterized as bi-axial, but a marked longitudinal
rhythm of expansions and contractions is present. The facade repeats the
curvature of Borromini's S. Carlino, indicating an interaction between inand exterior. The use of the

terior

classical orders is

more conventional

than in other works of Guarini, probably because the church was finished
after his death.

In the project for


is

S.

varied and enriched.

Maria Altoetting

The

first

in

Prague (1679), the same scheme

and the third unit have become transverse

ovals that interpenetrate with a larger, irregular oval in the middle,

with lateral oval recesses.

and the

taposition. All the spatial interrelations are clearly defined,

tion as a

whole represents

solu-

mature and convincing achievement/" The

third of Guarini's late longitudinal projects.


also

and

presbytery has been joined in pulsating jux-

S.

Filippo in Turin (1679),

is

based on the succession of three large, centralized spaces. Symmet-

rically

disposed narthex and presbytery create a certain biaxiality. All the

main units are accompanied by secondary chapels. Interpenetrations or


pulsating juxtapositions
tural

members

none the

less a

do not occur but the diagonally oriented

that are repeated throughout the

strong spatial integration.

and the outer walls are perforated by

The

struc-

whole organism create

skeletal effect

large, freely-shaped

is

pronounced

windows. Those
11

of the clerestory have a casula-\ike shape

which appeared already

'',-"

in S.

Maria della Divina Provvidenza.

We

have demonstrated

plied to large

of departure

how

Guarini's general approach could be ap-

and small centralized and longitudinal churches. His points


were the conventional types of the epoch, such

cross, the circle, the

as the

octagon, the Latin cross or the sequence of

Greek

domed

>~

'/If/

i
i

units. Instead of

aiming

at a synthesis of these

schemes

as

to

all

the schemes,

whereupon he combined them

at

"new" complex spaces

achievement consists rather

in the

like

'"'-"

\i IV
\

'

\^%S':

'

cells

com-

into a coherent

whole by means of interpenetration and pulsating juxtaposition.


never arrived

attempted by

Cortona and Borromini. Guarini defined the spatial elements or

mon

He

thus

those of Borromini; his

development of "open"

spatial groups.
i

The method

of Guarini has a certain mechanical character. It

binatoria, as

envisaged by the philosophers of the Baroque Age. Like Bor-

is

an

ars

com-

romini, Guarini also aimed at a combination of previously distinct characters

and contents, of science and

tura Civile,

he says: "Though

it

art,

thought and feeling. In his Architet-

depends on Mathematics, Architecture

is

133

174.
S.

Guarino Guarini, Vicenza,

Gaetano, plan and section (from

Architettura Civile, Plate 26).

134

175.

Guarino Guarini, Turin,

177.

Guarino Guarini, Turin,

S.

Filippo Neri, section (from


Architettura Civile, Plate 16).

Cathedral, chapel of the SS.


Sindone, plan (from Architettura

176. Turin, S. Filippo Neri, plan


(from Architettura Civile, Plate 14).

Civile, Plate 2).

78. Turin, Cathedral,

SS. Sindone,

(D.A.U.).

chapel of the
axonometric drawing

79.

Guarino Guarini, Turin,

Cathedral, chapel of the SS.

Sindone, section (from Architettura


Civile, Plate 3).

>
180. Guarino Guarini, Turin
Cathedral and chapel of the
SS. Sindone, domes.

181. Turin, Cathedral, chapel of


the SS. Sindone, interior of dome.

Y lfM

182.
S.

Guarino Guarini, Turin,

Architettura Civile, Plate

183. Turin,

S.

Lorenzo, plan

(from Architettura Civile, Plate

Lorenzo, section (from


6).

4).

184. Turin,

S.

Lorenzo, dome.

185. Turin,

S.

Lorenzo, perspective

reconstruction of Guarini 's project

(from

5t

i
,:.

138

j,r:\,

''

'

c> \

De

Bernardi Ferrero).

I
186. Turin, S. Lorenzo,
axonometric drawing (D.A.U.).

JP

187. Turin, S. Lorenzo, interior of

188. Turin, S. Lorenzo, view of

dome.

domes.

nonetheless an Art aiming to please, which does not wish to disgust feeling
1-

for reason's sake..."

Conclusion

We have seen that the basic types of Baroque ecclesiastical architecture go


back to Renaissance models, significantly modified during the second half

The

of the sixteenth century.

means of

The eventual mastering


tempt in

S.

longitudinal plan, thus, was centralized by

schemes or by the introduction of

bi-axial

pronounced center.

of this problem can be observed from the

first at-

Teresa in Caprarola to the accomplished solution in Guarini's

Maria Altoetting

project for S.

in Prague.

The

centralized plan was elon-

gated by "stretching" the basic form (longitudinal oval, elongated Greek

by adding

cross),

second centralized unit, or by "reducing" the trans-

may be mentioned as an advanced example.


may have a combinatory or a synthetic character.

verse axis. Guarini's S. Lorenzo


In both cases the result

During the Early Baroque phase,


units)

simple combination of types

was normal, whereas Guarini arrived

at

much more

(i.e.

flexible

large

combi-

nations by decomposing the types into general spatial elements or "cells."

Borromini, on the other hand, aimed


ly

attained by

tical

anybody

else.

axes were emphasized; the

dominant "gateway"

at a synthetic fusion that

was

scarce-

In general, both the longitudinal and the verfirst

by transforming the facade into

sacrum of the interior, and the

to the theatrum

into another gate to the illusory space of a devotional image; the second

stretching the proportions or

by indicating

a vertical

altar

by

"growth" of superim-

posed elements, ending in another heavenly image. In both cases the


church

is

more

gitudinal axis

actively related to

makes

it

a part of

tion expresses its role as a "focus."

the planned place in front,

general spatial integration

is
is

its

environment. The "open" lon-

urban space, while the

vertical accentua-

Hardouin-Mansart's Invalides, with

a characteristic

example.

strong desire for

evident. This desire brought about the trans-

formation of the building into

transparent skeleton, while the secondary

spaces lost their independence and

became part of an open system.

Inter-

penetration, interdependence ("pulsating juxtaposition") and a comple-

mentary inside-outside relationship are characteristic means used to attain


the intended integration.

These means were invented during the High Ba-

roque phase by architects such as Francois Mansart, Pietro da Cortona and

ples, in their desire to

show

Borromini, and were systematized during the second half of the seven-

fitting for the Gods...

We can equally say

teenth century by Guarini.

The

spatial continuity

plastic continuity, particularly in the

Plastic continuity also

gether to form

new

are usually Corinthian.

cients

used

is

this

often accompanied by

works of Borromini.

Forssman has pointed out that church

He quotes

so praiseworthy

Order

Scamozzi,

and beautiful

who

says:

to-

interiors

and

which

is

due

to the

that this

Order represents

sin-

Majesty of the highest God."* Dur-

Baroque Age, the richness of the Corinthian was used

as a point of

departure for making the church a comprehensive synthesis of symbolic


forms, past and present, an imago mundi expressing the eternal and universal role

of the Church.

"

The

classical

columns and the dome represent

the

then the stability of the basic dogmas of the system, while the illusional

The anTem-

decoration and dramatic use of light create a "frozen theater," aiming at

"Indeed, of

as the Corinthian...

to decorate the facades

cerity of soul, that

ing the

grow

that previously distinct elements

synthetic wholes expressing a fusion of traditional

characters and contents.

Orders none

means

is

that only the noblest and excellent things are

all

interiors of their

persuasion and transportation. In general, sacred architecture "has the

141

189. Turin, Immacolata

191. Guarino Guarini, Prague,

Concezione,

S.

interior.

Maria Altoetting, section (from

190. Guarino Guarini, Tumi,


Immacolata Concezione, plan

Architettura Civile, Plate 21).

(from Norberg-Schulz).

plan (from Architettura Civile,

92. Prague, S.

193. Gianlorenzo Bernini,


St. Peter's,

Rome,

the Cathedra Petri.

Maria Altoetting,

Plate 19).

t,

D GinwG

liAact

task of preparing the


in a space

human soul

for a life to

without terrestrial limitations."

"

be lived in

Bernini

the Baroque theatrum sacrum. His Cathedra Petri


characteristic example.

As an apotheosis

of

'

is

dimension,

in St. Peter's furnishes a

Popedom,

"goal" for the longitudinal "path" of the main

a single

the great inventor of

it

forms the natural

monument

of the Ecclesia

Triumphans. The persuasive dynamism of Bernini's architecture


marily created by decoration, whereas Borromini and Guarini
tectural

form

itself

made

is

pri-

archi-

the carrier of the expressive content. In the Late Ba-

roque architecture of Central Europe, the two alternatives were fused into
a last,

142

exuberant synthesis.

*r*

^v^

&

St

A ."2

*.'
>j

.0?
>

Aw

-l:

Chapter Four

THE PALACE

Introduction

In the

first

we reviewed

chitectural types: the city-palace

basic seventeenth-century secular ar-

and the

villa (chateau), also

ing that they tended towards a synthesis.


as illustrated

came

and one main

tation,

chapter

The

city-palace

demonstrat-

was opened up,

by the horseshoe-shape of the French hotel, and the

typified, with the

same scheme

as its formal base. This

however, was conditioned by local factors such as climate and

and therefore took

life style,

course in different countries. In Italy the

a different

block-shaped palazzo has a tradition reaching back to Antiquity, and


well adapted to the climatic conditions since
sive character

is

also in

be-

villa

development,

it is

closes the sun out. Its mas-

it

agreement with the Italian feeling for

form

plastic

and articulation. The palazzo therefore survived into the Baroque Age,

underwent certain changes. In the North, the tradition was

though

it

ferent.

The more severe climate required more comfortable

which allowed the sun

in

al-

dif-

when

The
more flexible and more easily adaptable to the demands
of comfortable living. During the seventeenth century French architec-

situated either to the right or the

is

and coach-house. The ground-floor

relating to the stables

the main rooms are placed

though
and

main hall (salone)

mezzanine or

attic

is

are
al-

or piano nobile.

usually present.

A second floor with bedrooms

with chambers for the servants completes the

scheme. As to the use of the main rooms,

it

ing of the occasional inhabitant, rather than

tion to the urban surroundings.

was decided by the

and

stresses the centripetal character of the organism.

The outside
velope.

It

wall,

on the contrary, formed

a continuous, closed en-

was, however, differentiated vertically to express the changing

The ground-floor,

thus,

was traditionally treated


and

taken care of through

of the book.

ferentiation was achieved

decrease in the roughness of rustication from floor

and the relation between the building and

ment. Functionally, however, the palace

is

its

much more complex than

church, and the general intentions are therefore expressed in a

way.

more variable

The needs

satisfied

ace, therefore,

may be understood

also

com-

as the synthesis of the particular func-

demands and the general wish for systematization


commodious as well as representative and dominant.

to create effects of complexity

the

window

and contradiction.

In certain cases dif-

by the treatment of secondary elements, such

as

frames, rather than by the introduction of orders proper. This

idea in particular was taken up by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger,

who

Roman palazzo." The

type

developed a type that

is

generally

known

as the

zation of the Palazzo Farnese follows the general principles outlined above.

of the Baroque pal-

tional

took place, and they were used either to give dignity to the piano nobile or

culminated with Sangallo's great Palazzo Famese (1541-49). The organi-

by the palace

The form

following century, an extensive experimentation with the classical orders

the

factors than those of the church, giving the question of

functional adaptation primary importance.

During the

to floor, conserving thereby the massive unity of the block.

less direct

A real spatial integration, for instance, is hardly possible, as the single

units serve different purposes.


prise

environ-

as a rus-

solid character of the

building. In the palaces of the Quattrocento the vertical articulation was

showed a growing concern for use and commodity, and the


Italian palazzo was criticized for being "uncomfortable." It is therefore
convenient to divide our material into two sections, discussing first the
Italian palazzo and subsequently the French chateau and hotel. The contributions of other countries will be treated more briefly in the last chapter

plastic integration,

functional and spatial transition between the courtyard and the rooms

ticated base that gave emphasis to the massive

cussed in connection with the church, such as the organization of space,

in rela-

surrounding gallery or loggia forms

internal spaces.

to include several of the general problems dis-

furnish-

by shape and position

therefore find a joining together of outstretched wings and pavilions.

A study of the palace has

whereas

The rooms

first floor

general layout was

ture, in fact,

was

in general

street),

differentiation as to shape and size,

on the

much

linked together without

left

A service entrance is usually found at the back,

used for services (and perhaps for shops on the primary

dwellings,

wherever needed. Instead of closed blocks, we

staircase

entering the cortile.

of the epoch.

It is

The
cade

cortile
is

shows

a conventional superposition of orders,'

articulated

whereas the

fa-

by variations of the window frames and by groining.

The succession of characters, however, is not the usual one, as the windows of the piano nobile are framed by small Composite columns, while
the top floor is Ionic. The articulation, thus, is used to "express" the content of the building. The Palazzo Farnese represents the ideal of a complete, well-proportioned block that hardly interacts

with

its

environment.

Later, however, Michelangelo introduced a longitudinal axis which was

The

intended to pass through the building, linking

Italian Palazzo

We have already defined the palazzo as a "closed world. " Basically


block centered on the courtyard
tripetal organism,

and

is

(cortile),

which

is

it is

the real focus of the cen-

therefore characterized as a space without direct-

ions enclosed by a uniform and continuous boundary."

The

distribution

of the secondary spaces, however, shows a certain differentiation, according to their practical functions
is

usually one

144

and the surrounding urban

main entrance, allowing

for efficient control

spaces.

There

and easy orien-

Farnesina on the other side of the Tiber.

He

it

spatially

with the Villa

thus gave emphasis to the

middle of the facade by a large window over the entrance, and he planned
to

open the back wall of the courtyard by introducing transparent

loggias

(1546-49). Michelangelo thereby invented two motifs that were to be of


basic importance for the

development of the Baroque palazzo.

During the following decades, the idea of lending support


axis of the palace

was taken up by several

to the main

architects. In the Palazzo Caetani

<l

XIX. Rome, the Cathedra

Petri.

XX. Chateau de Maisons, facade


toward the gardens.

Rome, Palazzo

Farnese, project for court (engraving

1 95. Martino Longbi the Elder,


Flaminio Ponzio, Rome, Palazzo

by

Borghese, court.

194. Michelangelo,

Ferrerio).

Ciacomo

196.

della Porta,

Rome,

Palazzo Serlupi, facade (engraving

by Fa Ida).

Rome

(Mattei-Negroni) in

(1564), the back wall of the cortile has been

transformed into a one-story loggia connecting the two wings of a U-

shaped building.

Its

Tuscan order forms

continuation of the articulation

of the other sides of the cortile, so that an interesting counterpoint of en-

closure and longitudinality


ati

who had used

created.

is

a similar

The

solution

Florence (1560). The idea was taken over by


Palazzo Matte i (project 1598

ed the

on the

sides.

to

in

is

in the adjoining

generally consider-

Rome. The direttion

of the cortile in

whose

find continuous walls

articulation

tional centralized cortile has


in

depth

The

tradi-

a strong desire for

move-

evident." Because of the corner position of the palace a

is

transverse axis

been abolished and

limited to

is

the development of a few of the horizontals from the loggias.

ment

Amman-

furthermore strengthened by the absence of loggias

is

Here we

Maderno

finished 1618), which

Baroque palace

first truly

the palazzo Mattei

may be due

device in the cortile of the Palazzo Pitti in

is

introduced, directed on the splendid staircase, which

one of the most important innovations of Maderno.

It

has four flights

stead of the usual two, and the landings are emphasized by saucer

is

in-

domes

decorated with rich stuccoes. Spatially the solution points towards the
great staircases of the

Less advanced, but

Here the

ghese.

High Baroque.
more impressive,

the cortile of the Palazzo Bor-

is

three-story wings of the building are connected by an open

two-story loggia, a solution attributed to Flaminio Ponzio (1607).


continuity around the courtyard
gitudinal

movement

is

is

intact while at the

given direction by a

fairly large

examples mentioned, we cannot, however, talk about

same time the

a real interaction be-

an extension of the private domain, by spatially linking

cortile.

But we may

also talk about an

lon-

garden. In the three

tween the building and the urban environment. The longitudinal


plies

The

"opening" on an

axis im-

garden to the

illusive, ideal land-

scape.

As in the church, interaction with the urban domain takes the form of a
new articulation of the facade, with a new emphasis on the central axis.
The creator of the first Early Baroque church facades, Giacomo della Porta, also made the earliest attempts at solving the problems of the palace
facade. By simply placing the windows closer together towards the middle,
he managed to create an efficient concentration, and thereby abolished
the static self-sufficiency of the traditional Roman palazzo. The unfinished Palazzo Serlupi (Crescenzi) of 1585

however, arrive

was tackled by
All the

at

Roman

to the

architects only

much

examples mentioned above show

zation of the plan.

is

good example.

any vertical integration of the facade,

The rooms

He

did not,

problem that

later.

a surprising lack of systemati-

are linked together with

no clear relationship

main axes, and the symmetrical facades do not correspond

to the

distribution of the spaces behind them. In the Palazzo Farnese, for instance, the

we go

main salone

outside

Rome we

is

placed in the left-hand corner of the facade.

find

much more advanced

'

If

solutions. In Palladio's

r\

i>j

<,t\c.o\ia

j'OKT.t

197. Genoa, Palazzo


dell'Universita, vestibule, detail.
1

98. Francesco

Maria Ricchino,

Milan, Palazzo del Senato (Collegio


Elvetico).

and salone are regularly disposed and the whole plan

palaces, staircases

tends towards perfect axial symmetry, without, however, aiming


integration in the Baroque sense. If

Genoa, we find

palaces in
ly

we

a similar bias for regularity

mature treatment of space. The great masterpiece

Tursi (Municipio)

by Rocco Lurago (1564-66). Here

joined to the elongated cortile by


tile

here

is

means of

means

and
is

also a surprising-

the Palazzo Doria-

spacious vestibule

of a free flight of stairs.

The

is

cor-

not enclosed at the back, but connected to the garden above by

a great staircase.

longitudinal axis

The

at spatial

take a look at the late Cinquecento

salone, thus,

strong

movement

becomes the organizing factor


is

in

depth

results,

and the

for the symmetrical plan.

placed over the vestibule, and flanked by secondary

The Palazzo Doria-Tursi represents an interesting combination


and villa. Towards the street we experience a typical city-palace,

staircases.

of palace

but the great staircase, however, led to


of the palace

was

visible, creating a

determined by the sloping

new and promising.

garden where only the upper part

more intimate

The

solution

is

terrain, but the desire for spatial continuity

is

scale.

In fact, the scheme was further developed in the Palaz-

zo dell'Universita by Bartolomeo Bianco (1634-38). Here the vestibule has

been given the same width


great staircase leading

parent.

The mass
however,

as the cortile (including the loggias)

to the

of the palace

main shape of the


tinuity,

up

is

Roman

is

and the

garden has become completely trans-

therefore reduced to a U, resembling the

The

spatial con-

and the plan shows

a systematic

palaces mentioned above.

infinitely stronger,

regularity hardly found in Rome at this time. The wall articulation of the
Genoese palaces is typically Mannerist, combining simple Renaissance arcades and complex experiments with interlocking rustication and orders.
From about the same period as the University in Genoa, we also have a

few significant attempts


palace and

its

at creating a

more

active relationship

urban environment. In 1627, Ricchino

between the

built the facade of

the Collegio Elvetico in Milan, making the central part concave, at the same

time as he stressed the'general continuity of the wall by means of an unbroken, strongly projecting cornice and a regular repetition of window

The building, thus, "receives" the visitor, that is, exterior space,
way Borromini intended with his Oratorio facade ten years later.
The meeting of exterior and interior on the main axis is marked by a strongly emphasized gateway and a convex balcony. The convincing solution
frames.

in the

confirms that the as yet little-known Ricchino must be considered one of


the protagonists of Early Baroque architecture.

Maderno was commissioned to construct the new Palazzo BarRome. A preserved drawing in the Uffizi shows that he first intended to build a large, square block with an arcaded cortile. The plan of
Rome from 1625 by Paolo Maggi shows such a square block, but with projecting wings framing the facade towards the city. The executed palace, in
fact, has such a cour d'honneur, and surviving documents show that its
general shape must have been decided before January 1629 when Maderno
In 1625

berini in

146

199. Carlo Maderno, Gianlorenzo

Rome, Palazzo

Bernini,

200.

Rome, Palazzo

Barberini.

Barberini, plan

(by Letarouilly).

201.

Rome, Palazzo

Barberini,

diagram.

died and Bernini took over the direction of the construction.

"

Borromini

served as an assistant to both, and his possible influence on the general


layout cannot be denied. During the planning the cortile was abolished,

transforming the palace into an "H." This layout was quite revolutionary
project proves that Maderno
The building-site, however, was
among gardens on the periphery of the town proper, and the idea must
have arisen to change the palace into a monumental villa suburbana. The
latter had been built on many different patterns, but a particularly fertile
for a city-palace in

Rome, and the

first

originally intended to build a city-palace.

type had been realized by Peruzzi in his lovely Villa Farnesina near the

Tiber (1509- 10).

The entrance facade

of the Farnesina has a cour d'hon-

neur and an open loggia, while the garden front

The

exit in the middle.

basic

scheme of the

is

a simple flat wall

resulting horseshoe-shaped plan

villas

was

to

with an

become the

and great residences of the Late Baroque. In the

Palazzo Barberini, the theme was taken over and further developed.

entrance portico has three bays in depth whose width


to create a strong concentration along the

centration

is

expressed by

seven-bay

main

is

The

gradually reduced

axis. In the

facade this con-

consisting of three floors of

risalto

superposed arcades. The portico leads into an oval sala terrena which opens

on

a long

ramp leading

floor

we

by means of

it is

a bridge.

As

also linked to another oval

on a higher level
room on the first

room and

the main facade,

into the garden.

than the entrance court,

Between

the garden

this oval

is

find the great double-height salone of the palazzo, symmetrically

placed on the main axis.


only contains the

first

The plan

truly

bias towards systematization

Spatially

it

shows

and

more

depth, but also a strong

in general

a lon-

French palaces of the seventeenth century.

of the deep, contracting portico

though the plan

in

practical disposition of the plan.

more dynamic interpretation of movement along

gitudinal axis than any of the

The motif

of the Palazzo Barberini, therefore, not

Baroque movement

was never repeated

again,

al-

was to have the greatest importance for the de-

velopment of the Late Baroque palace outside

Italy.

In Italy, however, the

Palazzo Barberini remained a unique work, representing a synthesis of


types that did not correspond to the usual Italian building forms.
Bernini, Borromini and Pietro da

Cortona

lazzo Barberini a unique manifestation of

all

contributed to

Baroque

art

Maderno,

make

the Pa-

the latter mainly by

Gran Salone, which he decorated with a


homage to Divine Providence and the Barberini Pope,
Urban VIII (1633-39). "The whole architectural composition is in movement and the figures dart between the painted entablatures, the mock caryhis magnificent ceiling in the

great fresco paying

atids,

and the clouds. Decoration

tacle."

is

no longer

fable,

As

/N A\

but prayer and spec-

Bernini included in the palace an open four-flight staircase which

foreshadowed the great staircases of the Late Baroque palaces.

The Palazzo Barberini demonstrates how a strong longitudinal axis is


means introduced by Baroque architecture to organize the plan

the basic

of a building as well as

its

relationship to the urban environment. In his

7\

Rome,

202. Cianlorenzo Bernini,

204. Gianlorenzo Bernini,

203.

Rome, Palazzo

Rome,

Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi, fagade

Palazzo di Montecitorio (engraving).

(engraving by Specchi).

di

Montecitorio.

later secular

works, Bernini gave further proof of this general intention.

The construction
was started

had reached the

was

Forty years

first floor.

who changed

Carlo Fontana

became the

of the Palazzo di Montecitorio for the Pamphili family

later,

former

cortile.

rical disposition in relation to a

similar staircases.

and

16

In 1871 the palace

axis

which

is

The systematization

and closed

at

hall

symmet-

emphasized by

a great

"U"-shaped courtyard flanked by two


initiated in the Palazzo Barberini,

been developed further. The very long facade

central risalto

assembly

later a large

The plan by Bernini shows

main

gateway, a spacious vestibule and

the building

the palace was completed by

the design of the portal.

seat of the Italian Parliament

built within the

thus, has

when

1650, but work was interrupted in 1655

in

both ends by

is

dominated by

slight projections.

The

different

sections of the wall meet at obtuse angles, creating an effect of a large pro-

truding mass.

We

see, thus, that the building

is

no longer intended

well-proportioned block like the Palazzo Farnese, but

is

general urban situation.

The ground-floor

means

naturalistic rock formations at

the

of rustication

two

floors

and

above are tied together by

characterized as a base by

is

tall

as a

determined by the

pilasters

both ends, while

which

also serve to

determine the five wall-units. The central axis was to have been emphasized by a gate flanked by atlantes carrying the balcony of a large win-

dow on

the

first floor.

The simple and

strong monumentality of Bernini's

solution was to have a decisive importance for the development of the Late

Baroque palace.
In the Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi (1664-67), Bernini arrived at a further

The building had been started by Maderno,


new front, which may
be considered the Baroque palace facade par excellence Between two rusticated wings is placed a central risalto of incomparable grandeur. Again we
clarification of his intentions.

who was

the architect of the cortile. Bernini added a

find a giant order rising over a simple ground-floor, but here the pilasters

create a regular
risalto is

was

to

rhythm alternating with

richly

ornamented windows. The

accentuated by a strongly projecting cornice and a balustrade that

have carried statues. The articulation expresses

in a convincing

way

the closed character of the ground-floor, the festive openness of the piano
nobile and the intimate privacy of the top floor. In general, the facade represents a truly Baroque interpretation of Serlio's concept of the "opera di

mano"

rising self-assertingly

the facade was

made much

over the "opera di natura." Unfortunately

longer in 1745, losing thereby

its

clear organi-

zation relative to a dominant central axis.

The

palaces of Bernini

show

a strong desire for spatial systematization,

as well as plastic integration horizontally

and

vertically.

His endeavours

culminated with the projects for the Louvre in Paris (1664-65). In 1664
Colbert,

who had

just

become Surintendant des Batiments du

Roi, de-

cided to ask for advice from Italian architects as he was not satisfied with
the plans of Le Vau.

The

original intention

was

to obtain projects

from

Bernini, Cortona, Rainaldi and Borromini, but the latter refused to par-

205. Gianlorenzo Bernini, Paris,

Louvre, main prospectus,

first

project (Paris, Louvre).

206. Paris, Louvre, general layout,

second project

1,

(Paris,

Louvre).

f**-4

..i

ft

jt

149

207. Gianlorenzo Bernini, Paris,

209. Gianlorenzo Bernini, Paris,

Louvre, section with elevation of


the facade towards court, second

Louvre, facade towards the Seine,


second project (Paris, Louvre).

project (Paris, Louvre).

210. Paris, Louvre, facade towards

208. Paris, Louvre, fagade towards

the church of St-Germain, second

the Tuileries, second project (Paris,

project (Paris, Louvre).

Louvre).

The

ticipate.

French soon concentrated on Bernini, and the

interest of the

Cortona and Rainaldi were hardly considered. Before he went

projects of

to Paris in April 1665, Bernini

months' stay he worked out

was

laid

had sent

a third

in

two

projects,

and during

his six

one, for which the foundation stone

on October 17th, three days before Bernini

left

France.

'

The

fol-

lowing year, however, the interest of the King shifted to the rebuilding of
Versailles,

and the great project was abandoned. In 1667 the famous

porate the existing structures, the projects of

east

18

As he had to incorBernini show a similar dis-

facade was built on the project of Francois d'Orbay.

position around the great court of the palace. In the

first project,

he mainly

concentrated on the design of the missing eastern section, whereas the


third

shows

a considerably enlarged

scheme where the existing structures

around the courtyard are hidden behind two-story loggias and smaller
courts have been added to the east and the west. Architecturally the
project

is

first

indeed a very radical invention. The main front basically may be

interpreted as a further development of the cour d'honneur scheme from


the Palazzo Barberini.

with the central


has

become

risalto

Here the

projecting wings have been connected

by concave two-story

loggias,

a convexly protruding volume,

which gives height

to the great oval vestibule.

whose movement

plastic ondulating facade,

and the

risalto itself

emphasized by

is

'

The

result

a tall attic

is

a strongly

unified by a continuous

cornice and by a dominant giant order of semi-columns flanked by half


asters."'

ume

The concave arms and

gives an unsurpassed feeling of interaction

terior space,

grandeur.

pil-

the projecting but transparent central vol-

between exterior and

and the simple and masterly articulation creates

Two staircases are incorporated in

in-

magnificent

the corners of the courtyard,

one square and one round, echoing the disposition of the Palazzo Barberini.

MMMKM-ww
smtfttTO
*
Iff
iiiitiftjm mmttijilnnm
IJJJJlliU
ii mil
on
!!!

111,

miwimm

The

project remains one of the greatest achievements of seven-

teenth-century architecture, indeed worthy of the building task in question. In the first

Louvre

project, Bernini

teraction could be created by

demonstrated how

spatial in-

means of the juxtaposition of simple

vol-

umes, and he proved that one of the most convincing interpretations of


basic

Baroque intentions

The

east facade of the

making the central


story

lay in the clear

statement of one great theme.

second project varies the solution of the

risalto

concave.

The

loggias are abolished

added by putting the giant order over

Spatially the solution

is

less

first

by

a third

a rusticated ground-floor.

movement of the front does


volumes. The inclination to-

convincing, as the

not correspond to any clear interaction of

wards

and

a certain simplification

is

evident, a tendency that resulted in the

straight facade of the third project,

where the three-story disposition

is

re-

may be considered a monumental variation


Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi. The main risalto, thus, is

tained and the whole solution

of the theme of the


emphasized by columns that are more closely spaced towards the middle.

In general, the facade has a relatively closed character, whereas the opposite western front should have had a wide risalto with open loggias on

150

211. Pietro da Cortona, Paris,


Louvre, project for the garden

facade

Louvre).

(Paris,

212. Francesco Bonomini,

Rome,

Palazzo Carpegna, plan (Vienna,


Graphische Sammlung Albertina).

both the upper

floors.

The

solution of the courtyard

teresting aspects of the project.


side,

Bernini could

make

By

a wall of

is

one of the most

two

He

tiers only.

thereby achieved a

space of excellent proportions that certainly could have

well-lit

in-

abolishing the third floor on the inner

become

rrtf"!

one of the most splendid courtyards in existence. As we have already


mentioned,

his project

was

on

criticized

practical grounds,

reason

why

satisfy

French taste and the French way of

was never executed certainly

it

doubtful honor of having within

"Paris

life.

it

did not

was saved the

most monumental Roman

walls the

its

and the main

the fact that

lies in

palazzo ever designed. Splendid though Bernini's project was, the enor-

mous, austere

would forever have stood out

pile

as

an alien growth

in the

Rome, the cube of the Palazzo Farnese,


the ancestor of Bernini's design, may be likened to the solo in a choir. In
Paris, Bernini's overpowering Louvre would have had no resonance: it
severe atmosphere of Paris. In

would have

The

sombre

cast an almost

existing parts of the

from both

long series of rooms

lit

namely an appartement simple. Whereas Bernini added

sides,

around the courtyard,

loggias

over the gaiety of the city.""

spell

Louvre consisted of
creating

an

appartement semi-double.

east.

'

Vau which

Rainaldi and Cortona kept closer to the original plan of Le

proposed a new double wing to the

Their projects, therefore, are

mainly of interest because of the wall articulation."" Rainaldi's design for


the main facade testifies to his love for the column.

The

three

tall risalti

of

the elevation, in fact, are decorated with superposed coupled columns.

The lower
and an

walls

attic.

between the

have

risalti

The whole design has

a giant order of single pilasters

and overloaded character,

a strained

which contrasts with the simple monumentality of Bernini's projects.

One

particular feature, however,

must be mentioned: the

risalti

are

com-

pleted by tower-like structures carrying naturalistic imitations of Royal

crowns.

With

this solution "Rainaldi's intention

may have been

to give elo-

quent expression to the idea of the divine origin of the absolute monarch's authority, an origin

palace designed by
a closed

from which

Cortona

is

also

it

drew

prestige and dignity."""

dominated by

crown. Remembering the oval

a large

dome

The

resembling

attic of Bernini's first project,

one

might imagine that the program included a "crown."" Cortona also encountered difficulties in giving strength and unity to the large building;
vertically, thus, his

main facade shows

of superimposed elements.
certain extent to
Tuileries

is

The wide

a rather disproportioned addition

risalto in

the middle manages to a

keep the whole together. The opposite front towards the

more

interesting.""

trudes into the garden.

large oval

Lower wings

are

volume

in the

added on both

middle pro-

sides, joining the

volume and the long lateral galleries leading to the Tuileries by


means of interesting, ambiguous bays of transition that remind us of the

central

ingenious solution of S. Maria della Pace.

The

wall articulation illustrates

Cortona's interest in a rich play of light and shadow. In general the project

represents an interesting synthesis of the French pavilion system and

fc
-

-J

21 3. Francesco Borromini, Rome,


Palazzo Pamphili in Piazza

Rome, Palazzo Pamphili in


Piazza Navona, plan, project, Cod.

214.

Fide,

Rome,

Collegio di Propaganda

view of the facade.

11257-8 (Rome,

Navona, prospectus, project, Cod.


Vat. hat. 11257-8 (Rome,

Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana).

Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana).

215. Francesco Borromini,

Vat. Lat.

216.

Rome,

Collegio di Propaganda Fide


(engraving by Speccbi).

the Italian modelling of plastic volumes, a synthesis that prefigures cer-

works by Fischer von Erlach and Hildebrandt. About the same time

tain

Cortona designed
never

The

built.

a Chigi palace in Piazza

Colonna

in

Rome which was

solution of the front resembles the lower part of Bor-

romini's S. Agnese in Piazza Navona, as well as Bernini's

the Louvre.
floor

which incorporates

enty years

later.

design for

first

giant order, however, rises over a rusticated ground-

an idea that was realized

iijot

a diujp a o a

The

a large fountain

with figures and

how

Cortona's project demonstrates

were becoming part of

artificial rocks,

Trevi fountain by Nicola Salvi almost sev-

in the

certain basic motifs

a general "vocabulary," such as the

concave recess

with

counter-movement

in the center,

and the giant order over

a rusti-

cated base.

Borromini

also contributed significantly to the

development of the

High Baroque vocabulary. Although he never had the occasion


complete secular palace, his projects for reconstructions and

good information

astical palaces give us

as to his intentions.

Between 1635 and 1650, Borromini prepared


'.

r!

rebuilding of the Palazzo Carpegna in

schemes shows

to build a

his ecclesi-

Rome.

several projects for the

The most complete

of his

very interesting spatial composition. Along a lon-

gitudinal axis that runs through the whole palace, a series of unitary

spaces follow each other, creating a magnificent


longitudinal axis

is

bi-axial organization.

again

The

how Borromini

thereby

movement

in depth.

center

is

marked by

a large oval cortile.

the same time more united and more dy-

his contemporaries.

About the same time

Borromini made several studies for the Palazzo Pamphili

shows

built

a quasi-oval cortile

sized risalto
is

(1645-50),
in

Piazza

by Girolamo Rainaldi (1650). Borromini's scheme again


with vestibules on the minor

palace a bi-axial disposition. His facade

gration

We see

takes space as his point of departure, arriving

at solutions that are at

namic than those of

Navona,

The

crossed by a transverse axis, to give the whole palace a

which

is

crowned by

a tall,

is

axis, giving the

centered on a strongly empha-

transparent belvedere. Vertical inte-

achieved by means of a giant order comprising

more advanced than anything

In general, the design

is

that date. Borromini's

most important

large structures,

ecclesiastical palaces, the Casa dei Filippini (1637)

Propaganda Fide (1647-64).*

We

all

else

four stories.

made up

however, are

and the Collegio

have already mentioned the

to
his
di

clear and

systematic organization of the Casa dei Filippini and Borromini's attempt


at creating a

correspondence between the interior disposition and the ex-

terior articulation.

The

irregular building site of the

Propaganda Fide

pal-

ace and existing structures along two sides did not allow for the develop-

ment of

a regular plan,

but the articulation of the exterior

illustrates the

maturity reached by Borromini since the construction of the Oratorio. In


fact, the

and

block

152

Propaganda Fide palace represents

a singular
is

work within the

his ultimate achievement,

history of Baroque architecture.

The

large

characterized as one unitary volume by means of rounded cor-

217. Guarino Guarini, Turin,

219. Turin, Palazzo Carignano,

Palazzo Carignano, plan (from


Haupt).

fagade.

218. Turin, Palazzo Carignano,


diagram.

fagade.

220. Turin, Palazzo Carignano,

221. Turin, Palazzo Carignano,

223. Salomon de Brosse, Chateau

225. Salomon de Brosse, Paris,

atrium.

de Coulommiers (engraving by

Palais

222. Guarino Cuarini, Plan of a


"French Palace " (from Architettura

Marot).

(from Blunt).

224. Chateau de Coulommiers,


plan (engraving by Marot).

226. Paris, Palais du Luxembourg,


diagram.

Civile, Plate 23).

du Luxembourg, plan

Luxembourg

227. Paris, Palais du

(seventeenth-century engraving).

228. Paris, Palais du Luxembourg.

The corner between Via

ners.

di

Propaganda and Via Capo

masterpiece of plastic articulation.


face

The continuity

Case

le

stressed by stringcourses running around the corner, at the

is

time as each wall

is

defined by

is

same

Better than most examples

flat pilasters.

of the boundary sur-

it

means a simultaneous separation and joining


together. The main facade on the Via di Propaganda is an extraordinary
work. Immense pilasters unify the austere wall. In the middle and on the
illustrates that articulation

ends they are obliquely placed,

as if the

system was changing under the

pressure of slow but irresistible forces. Between the pilasters large plastic
aediculae break through.
dilatation,

The whole facade

a study in

is

compression and

and expresses better than any other work of the epoch the

of the wall as the meeting-point of outer and inner forces.

role

The window

frames are Doric, but a surrealist Doric which includes flowers, garlands

and palm branches. The

main

capitals of the

glyph as well as the Ionic Kyma, and carry


stead of the normal entablature. In spite of

pilaster

stem from the

tri-

cornice on large brackets,

its

austerity, the facade

in-

shows

a singular synthesis of characters.

A
the

similar synthetic character

culmination

is

found

in the building

seventeenth-century

of

Italian

which represents

palace

architecture:

The palace was built as


Carignano and became the seat of the first

Guarini's Palazzo Carignano in Turin (1679-85).


the residence of the prince of

Italian Parliament in 1860. Guarini's project

well-known scheme gets

new

Here we

the central part of the building.

ends in

the palace.'

On

brings together

the ground-floor, thus,

all

the

the palace, with a cut-off

-j

r-T-i

but

On

dome

this

find a great oval "rotunda" that

it

palace, as well as a trident

the piano nobile

inside the

sides of

functions as a vestibule that

movements within the

radiating into the courtyard.

ii-

based on a "U,"

drum-without-dome, and protrudes convexly on both

ume and

is

interpretation thanks to the treatment of

tall

we

find the main hall of

drum. Between the oval

vol-

the main facade curved flights of stairs connect the two levels.

The facade has

same time

forms one continuous undulating envelope. The center of

as

it

complementary relationship

to the interior spaces, at the

the convex middle sinks in to receive a convex two-story aedicula, a variation


lation
realist

on
is

theme from Borromini's Propaganda Fide

palace.

The

based on two superimposed giant orders; the lower one

Doric, the upper one an equally free Corinthian.

decoration reaches

its

The

climax on the courtyard facade which

by pilaster-bands closely

set

with

is

articua sur-

surrealist

articulated

stars.

In general the Palazzo Carignano has a true plastic monumentality, and

the interdependence of the spatial units

is

a singular

achievement in

sev-

enteenth-century palace architecture.


In another project, the so-called "Palazzo Francese," Guarini applied the
principle of pulsating juxtaposition to the palace, creating a continuous

undulating

156

r-.-

'-'r

movement around

never again applied to

the cortile. Unfortunately the idea was

a large secular building.

/-K

A
i

_i

p
'm

lifffililffilll
-e

1
10

30

/\

157

229. Salomon de Brosse, Rennes,

231. Francois Mansart, Chateau

Palais de Justice.

de Blois, Orleans Wing.

230. Frangois Mansart, Chateau

232. Francois Mansart, Chateau

de Berny (engraving by

de Maisons, view from the entrance


(engraving by Perelle).

158

Perelle).

233. Chateau de Maisons, view


from the garden (engraving by
Perelle).

159

236. Louis

towards the entrance.

Raincy, plan.

235. Chateau de Maisons, diagram.

237. Chateau de Raincy (engraving

by

l'Orme was the

The French Chateau and Hotel

Philibert de

The

in his Architecture

French dwellings of the seventeenth century have roots that are

large

quite different from those of the Italian palazzo. Rather than the
insula, the hotel

Roman

was based on medieval prototypes which consisted of

series of units distributed

around

a spacious courtyard.

We

find this pat-

Le Vau, Chateau de

234. Chateau de Maisons, facade

initiator of

he presented

Pere/le).

French

classical architecture,

many worthwhile

cation of the giant order to a house. This idea was adopted by Jean Bullant
the Chateau d'Ecouen

at

(c.

1560) and by Baptiste du Cerceau in the cour

d'honneur of the Hotel Lamoignon

in Paris (1584),

whose Mannerist arAndrouet du Cer-

tern in the country seats, as well as the larger town-houses such as the

ticulation reflects the inventions of his father Jacques

house of Jacques-Coeur in Bourges (1445-51). Certain tendencies towards

ceau. In 1665

more regular layout were present, especially the placing of the main hall
opposite the entrance which gave the courtyard a kind of axis, and at the

a "U"-plan,

may be considered

make

Different

French hotel, the cour d'honneur

private. In the

"opens" on the urban space in front, while the corps de

and private. Different ways of

The inhabitants

pressed.

and

logis

is

withdrawn

social structures are thereby ex-

of the Italian palazzo

their dwelling; they participate,


tity

life

but they

still

may

follow civic

life

from

retain the individual iden-

symbolized by the enclosed block-like structure and the centralized

cortile.

The

inhabitants of the hotel do not participate in the civic milieu,

but they are


opens, and

still

subject to the

become

dominated space on which

parts of the general "system."

century, the ground-plans tended towards a


zation,

their courtyard

During the sixteenth

more pronounced geometri-

under the influence of Renaissance concepts. This tendency

evident in

Chambord

domed

vestibule in the middle of

The man who was to unify all these ideas into what may be called a French

the Italian palace, the main part of the building faces the public world
is

a circular,

the enclosing screen-wall.

Early Baroque architecture was Salomon de Brosse. During the second

the Italian and French palaces inversions of each other. In

whereas the cortile

Cerceau the Elder designed the Chateau du Verneuil on

in the Italian palazzo. In

tation of the nobleman's castle or the feudal country house."

geneses

Du

and introduced

"the adaptation, the urban transpor-

same time created an intimate privacy unknown


general, the hotel

(1519-50) where

medieval castle has become

is

sys-

decade of the seventeenth century,

De Brosse built

three great palaces, the

Chateau de Coulommiers (1613), the Chateau de Blerancourt (1614-19)


and the Palais du Luxembourg
miers

in Paris (1615-24).

The Chateau de Coulom-

the more traditional, having a "U"-plan and a one-story screen-

is

wall with a great

domed

vestibule closing off the fourth side.

tion of half-columns
logis,

on the vestibule

which contains an oval

coupled half-columns.
join the

It

wings to the corps de

a sensitively

The courtyard

is

also articulated

logis.

The Chateau de Coulommiers,

arated, at the

Chateau de Bury (1511-24) which has

"U"-shaped plan containing the

corps de logis in the middle and lesser functions on both sides.

The "U"

is

closed by a lower wall with arcades on the inside and a gate in the middle.

The corps de

logis

opens on a garden through a central

fined longitudinal axis

To

is

exit.

A clearly de-

same time

development of the "U"-shaped plan, we may

mention the Chateau de Villandry (1532), which has

a fully

developed

cour d'honneur, and the splendid Chateau d'Anet by Philibert de l'Orme


(1547-52),

where the longitudinal

mental gateway and a


ticulated

axis

tall risalto in

is

emphasized by means of a monu-

the middle of the corps de logis, ar-

by the superposition of freestanding Doric, Ionic and Corinthian

columns. In his

own house

in Paris,

simple town dwelling.

The court was

ing a two-story facade

on the

street

De l'Orme

applied the "U"-plan to a

to be closed

by

a transverse

as they are united

while the center of the corps de logis was taken up by a chapel whose apse

160

35

is

Blerancourt has no wings, but

in a

by the continuous bounding

is

reduced to the

Its engirdling

The Chateau de
corps de logis. The plan beaxis.

kind of H, and the building as a whole interacts with exterior space

way

that

may be compared with

like the Italian palazzo,

In spite of

by

many Mannerist

traits,

the Palazzo Barberini in

orders.

Rome. Un-

Blerancourt has defined square corner pavilions

continuous but varied wall articulation, employing

three

is

varied and gives added importance to the wall

form an expressive contrast to the longitudinal

comes

The corner

pavilions

are

divided

is

achieved

superposition of

into

two bays

to

reduce their formal independence, while the tripartite central ressaut


is

accentuated by a segment pediment. As a whole, the Chateau de Bleran-

court

is

a very convincing

work combining

Baroque

feeling for space

and volume with a simple and refined articulation that was

to

become

the main characteristic of French classical architecture.

The

wing hav-

with an emphasized gate in the middle,

projected convexly into the garden.

The courtyard

with voluminous roofs and crowning lanterns. Unity, however,

thus created.

illustrate the further

walls

thus,

balanced composition where the individual volumes are sep-

system of the exterior, expressing an increased "openness."

the

by

has a bi-axial disposition and curved wall sections

close to that of the first palaces of the seventeenth century, such as the Palis

While the

as well as the ressaut of the corps de

staircase.

surface.

du Luxembourg." More revolutionary than Chambord, however,

"U" has two floors, the corners are marked by three-story tower-like
pavilions. The articulation, however, shows a pronounced desire for unity
and integration. The whole exterior is enveloped by a continuous system
of coupled rusticated pilasters. The main axis is stressed by the introduc-

tematized, creating an organism whose general layout comes surprisingly

ais

and

ideas, such as the appli-

third of

De

Brosse's chateaux, the Palais du Luxembourg in Paris,

combines the plans of Coulommiers and Blerancourt. It was built for Marie
de' Medici and became in 1642 the residence of Gaston d'Orleans ("Palais

d'Orleans")." The palace has a corps de logis with corner pavilions

161

similar to Blerancourt,

and wings and

domed

vestibule similar to Cou-

lommiers. The continuous articulation consists of coupled rusticated


asters,

pil-

but columns are only introduced to emphasize the main entrances.

The corner

on each

pavilions contain complete appartements

floor, a solu-

tion that represents an important step towards the functionally planned

apartments of the later seventeenth century.


large

room, two small rooms and

The

unit consisting of a

wardrobe became

a standard. It in-

troduced a new conception of commodity and privacy, and a more practical

ment

distribution of
simple.

The

rooms than the

enfilade,

the Baroque mind. Thus

enfilades of the old-fashioned apparte-

however, always exerted

a strong influence

Madame de Maintenon

said of her husband,

on

Louis XIV: "With him only grandeur, magnificence, symmetry matter;

worthwhile enduring

drafts

infinitely

if

only these can be arranged facing each other."

all

it

which sweep under the doors

is

The

last

palace of

De

Brosse, the Palais de Justice in Rennes (1618), was built for the Parliament
of Brittany. This simple but sophisticated

work may be

called the first

work of French classicism. A shallow cour d'honneur determines


the shape of the facade. The wings are divided into two bays, and are
thereby characterized as subordinate elements. They have a slightly more
solid character than the central part, which consists of a row of large
arched windows between coupled pilasters. The main axis is marked by
coupled columns carrying an attic with a round pediment. The order rises
over a closed rusticated base. The articulation clearly derives from Raphael's Palazzo Vidoni, but in Rennes the plastic quality of the Roman palace is gone. Instead we find a crisp and crystalline character which emphasizes surface and volume rather than plasticity and mass. The general
shape comes close to Peruzzi's Farnesina, although it evidently has diffull-grown

ferent roots.

The

first

De

Brosse were carried on and perfected by Francois

chateaux, Berny (1623), and Balleroy (1626), the dis-

more from the traditional courtyard model, spreading


At the same time,
however, the main axis is given emphasis by means of a tall, tower-like
ressaut. In Berny the wings are joined to the corps de logis by curved wall
position departs

still

a series of pavilions out along the transverse axis.

sections on the ground-floor as in Coulommiers, while Balleroy

gradual stepping forward of the wall-surface towards the middle.

shows

ing through the building into

Baroque tension,

depth creates

a typical

The simul-

taneous spreading out and coming together around

dominant

axis leadless

dramatic but more subtle than the contemporary Palazzo Barberini


in

Rome.

troduced

Wing

of the Chateau de Blois (1635-38), Mansart in-

shallow cour d'honneur where the wings again are joined to the
tripartite central ressaut

by means of curved

colonnades.''"

The

superposition of three tiers of slender coupled pilasters (Doric, Ionic and

Corinthian) and the

162

three works Mansart shows

all

The Chateau de

strained classical language of forms.

the

first truly

how

tall

windows

create an exterior of unsurpassed ele-

the basic

seventeenth century could be combined with a

re-

Blois also contains

grand staircase of the century, covered by a

series of super-

A vertical axis is thereby introduced into the extended or-

imposed spaces.

ganism of the palace.

The Chateau de Maisons is generally considered


fact, we find a synthesis of all previous
new richness of modelling and detail. The palace

Mansart's masterpiece, and here, in


ideas

was

combined with

built for

1646.

"

Rene de Longueil, President de Maisons, between 1642 and

In general, Maisons

multaneously

may be

fully articulated

and

characterized as a building that

fully integrated.

is si-

The different volumes,

having their roots in the French pavilion tradition, are clearly defined by

means of steep roofs and

ressauts.

The wings,

thus,

unified in a convincing

way by means

of

is

also

have

due

fact, there are

few build-

to the approximately bi-axial organization of the plan.


a regular bi-axial

We

scheme that has been transform-

and now interacts with exterior "forces," namely the different

spatial

domains of entrance court and garden.

wings only form

slight ressauts,

is

organism by the strong and continu-

ous Doric entablature. The transverse axis


partite ressauts with triangular pediments.

teristic

De

The main

the garden side the

a shallow cour d'hon-

deepened by added oval one-story ves-

tibules that are integrated in the total

defined and blocked.

On

whereas they create

neur on the other side. This court

ly

indepen-

more unitary character than the Chateau de Maisons. This

could interpret the plan as


ed,

a certain

logis.

most effective continuous wall articulation. In


ings that

have

They are, however,


dominant axial symmetry and a

dence, appearing as the arms of the corps de

axis

is

is marked in the exterior by biThe axis, thus, is simultaneous-

emphasized by "double"

ressauts,

rises to three-story height, repeating the charac-

Brosse theme of three superimposed orders.

It is

not easy to

point out a building where centrifugal and centripetal movements, horizontality


erties,

and

we might say "classical" and "Gothic" propmore convincing dynamic equilibrium. The tensions

verticality; or

have found

inherent in the general disposition are echoed in the pilaster rhythms that

show

continuous condensation and dilatation, giving substance to the

corners and joints, and opening to the spaces between.

however, does not have the

plastic expression of

ings. In spite of the inherent

dynamism,

its

The

modelling,

Roman Baroque

build-

character remains crisp and

and crystalline. The bi-axial vestibule repeats this genform although the articulating members show an original synthesis of

restrained, precise
eral

Doric and Ionic characters. The laterally placed staircase has

In the Orleans

dominant

spatial intentions of the

where the central part

intentions of

Mansart. In his

gance and sensitivity. In

tical

development, ending

in

cut-off

a strong ver-

dome. With the Chateau de

Maisons, Francois Mansart showed himself to be one of the most forceful


personalities of the seventeenth century.

At about the same time that Maisons was being erected, Louis Le Vau
built the

Chateau de Raincy for Jacques Bordier, Surintendant des Finan-

238. Schematic diagram showing


the layout of Italian
palaces.

and French

239. Louis he Van, Chateau

de Vaux-le-Vicomte, diagram.
240. Chateau de Vaux-le-Vicomte,
facade.

W V

163

164

24 I, 242. Chateau de Vaux-le-

243. Salomon de Brosse, Jacques

245. Paris, Hotel de

Vicomtc, exterior views.

Lemcrcier, Paris, Hotel de

plan (from Blunt).

Liancourt, plan (from Blunt).

246. Francois Mansart, Paris, Hotel


de Jars, plan (from Blunt).

244. Francois Mansart, Paris, Hotel

de

la Vrilliere

la Vrilliere,

(engraving by Marot).

165

Le Vau, Paris, Hotel


Lambert, plan (from Blunt).
247. Louis

248. Paris, Hotel Lambert, garden.


249. Paris, Hotel Lambert, detail

on the

of facade

is based on the traditional "U"-scheme, and the court


monumental gate and corner pavilions. The corps de logis,

Raincy

ces (1645).
is

closed by a

however,

is

court.

clearly defined as

one unified volume, repeating somewhat the

general bi-axial disposition of Maisons. As a forecourt has been added, the

wings do not form any

real

cour d'honneur, they only project slightly more

than on the garden side. The main novel feature

is

a quasi-oval hall

which

defines the longitudinal axis, protruding markedly on both sides of the


building.

The wings

are articulated by colossal pilasters

which give them

certain rigidity in contrast to the horizontal division of the corps de logis.

A flat,

linear rustication as well as a continuous Doric entablature over the

ground-floor
is

tie all

the parts of the palace together.

The

general character

simpler than in the works of Mansart, and the use of elementary, well-

defined volumes, as well as dominant motifs such as the giant order,


ates a certain affinity with the style of Bernini.

Twelve years

Le Vau was given the opportunity

after Raincy,

cre-

4 '1

of de-

veloping his ideas further, building the Chateau de Vaux-le-Vicomte for


Nicolas Fouquet, Surintendant des Finances (1657-61).

comte

is

45

Vaux-le-Vi-

without doubt the masterpiece of Le Vau, and one of the most im-

portant works within the history of the palace.


units: the palace proper, placed

It

consists of three main

on an "island" surrounded by

two base-courts flanking the main

axis

a moat,

and

on either side of the entrance.

movement in depth is thereby created, which continues on the other

strong

side of the building, defined

by the

infinite perspective of

Le Notre's

splendid garden. Several transverse axes are introduced, indicating a general


is

"open" extension. The palace forms the focus of

emphasized by the traditional

and by

dome

that

is

this space, a role that

(originally functional) motif of the moat,

the very center of the composition. If

we

see the

layout as a whole, the palace island forms one large ressaut which projects
into nature
is

from the human world of entrance and base-courts. This motif

repeated on

a smaller scale in

the palace proper, where the round

domed

volume forms the innermost meeting-point of the two "worlds." The palace, thus, receives the visitor in the cour d'honneur, leads him through the
symbolic center, and finally releases him into infinite space. This grand

conception

is

not a

new

invention, but rather a particularly convincing

synthesis of the basic intentions of seventeenth-century secular architecture.


is

The

palace may, like Maisons, be characterized as an organism that

simultaneously articulated and integrated.

The means employed,

however, are different. As one would expect after Raincy, Le Vau primarily

works with relationships between volumes. In Vaux-le-Vicomte the

composition has become more complex. This

is

evident

if

we

look

at the

center of the building. Instead of consisting of one uniform volume, the

two

sides facing the court

and garden respectively have become

differenti-

ated, adapting to the functions of "reception" (tri-partite gateway and vestibule),

"dwelling" (centralized grand salon) and "extension" (radiating

axes and curved ressaut).

166

The grand

salon

is

built over a transverse oval

250. Louis Le Vau, Paris, Hotel


de Lionne, facade (engraving by
Marot).

251. Paris, Hotel de Lionne, plan.

move-

that creates a necessary counterpoint to the very strong longitudinal

ment,

at the

same time

as

it

indicates an active spatial relationship with the

wings of the palace. The introduction of a closed


symbolic element

is

The wings end

the rage of the King.

however, have

lost their

itiate a series of

tripartite entrance.

On

at the

are transformed into

them concave,

The volumes,

same time

flat

fronts that in-

to give emphasis to the

form part of

thus,

continuous wall-

such by the steep roofs.

as they are defined as

the garden side the articulation

simpler, and the single units hardly

is

from the general continuity of the

free themselves

which,

in traditional corner pavilions,

planes stepping back towards the entrance. All these

planes are bipartite and the last of

movement,

an eminently

as

independence, interpenetrating the main body of

Towards the court they

the palace.

dome

courageous invention that may have contributed to

front.

As

in

Raincy, the

corner pavilions are strengthened by giant pilasters. In general, Vaux-le-

Vicomte

is

a masterpiece of spatial composition.

sart's sensitive capability for wall articulation


in

handling spatial relationships and volumes

Le Vau did not have Man-

and

detailing, but his ability

made him

the most Baroque

of French architects.

Vaux-le-Vicomte

is

important for the practical disposition of the

also

plan. Traditionally the

rooms of the palace were only

each other, forming an enfilade or appartenient simple.

accessible through

We

have seen that

the Italians used a lateral corridor for disengagement, creating thereby an

appartement semi-double. Only in the corners could the spaces be arranged


in a

more

du Luxembourg. In Vaux-le-

practical way, as in the Palais

Vicomte, however, the whole corps de

logis has

made

possible

a vestibule in front of the

salon.

"

to

have

by the introduction of

The appartement double was thus


a

been doubled,

a solution

grand

created, an innovation that was

fundamental importance for subsequent developments.

In com-

bination with secondary staircases and other degagements, the double corps

de

logis

ment

allowed for a practical disposition of the rooms, giving each apart-

its

privacy.

The

basic intention

was to attain convenience without

giving up representation. This wish was connected with the important role
of the

woman

program

for

in

French society. In

the

architect,

Mademoiselle de Scudery

fact,

with

said:

it

was often she who made up the

whom

"Indeed,

to be extremely uncomfortable! Architects


terior of things, for

which they desire

hardly give a thought as to

comfortable for the people


did not only bring about a

to

she did

it is

not

always

agree.

usual for these great houses

dream

so

much about

the ex-

be praised by foreigners, that they

how these beautiful places may be made more


who own them." The desire for convenience
more practical access to the various rooms, but
and space. The basic elements were the anti-

also a differentiation of use

chambre for waiting and eating, creating

a sort of "barrier"

between the

entrance and the private world, the chambre de parade for reception and
entertainment, usually furnished with a bed as the master and mistress of
the house often received in their bedroom, the chambre a coucher for sleep-

167

252, 253. Louis

de

Le Vau, Chateau

Versailles, courtyard.

'

168

254. Jules Hardouin-Mansart,

Chateau de

Versailles, Galerie

des Glaces.

he Van, Chateau

255. Louis

de

ing as well as reception, the cabinet for

Versailles, plan.

work and reception

of business con-

nections, and, finally, the garderobe for dressing and storage

maid or valet

slept, "for servants

where the

were no more separated from the

of

life

In addition to thecham-

the family than reception from living quarters."

bre de parade, the larger houses usually had a salon and perhaps a galerie.

The

salle

thus,

a manger also appeared as a specialized room.

became divided

might lose

many

into

in grandiosity,

it

The ground

'

plan,

What the house


charm and surprise. "Where would

relatively small units.

gained in

contemporary comedy be, without these hiding-places, screens, doors and


secret stairways?

And

the countless surprises, the subterfuge, the comic

where would they be, were

situations,

it

not for the fact that the desire for

home

comfortable living-space had divided up

even

life

in its smallest

M
details.

We have already

pointed out that the chateau and the urban hotel rep-

same basic

resent the

type. Because of the different situation, however,

the hotel developed certain particular traits. Usually the hotels were built
adjacently, having therefore only

two

became more cramped than

often

The

chateaux.

As

facades.
in

the case of the freely situated

cour d'honneur led to the development of two courts placed next to each

found

Hotel de Liancourt (Bouillon)

in the

~i

R
^

*5H "^SfxP

consequence, the plan

impossibility of having a separate base-court in front of the

other, an arrangement already

n~^'-

\A
fo- =.
il
i>=^

II

by De Brosse and Lemercier (1613-23). The main axis of the cour d'honneur therefore no longer corresponds to that of the garden, so that a certain confusion in the spatial relationships results.''

the Hotel de Liancourt

was found
case,

ended

in the left-hand

The entrance

axis of

blindly, while the access to the corps de logis

corner of the courtyard.

connected to the vestibule

at

It

opened on the

stair-

the center of the garden front.

The

courtyard had a simple, classical wall-articulation with a Doric order of

The facade looked

asters rising over a rusticated ground-floor.

front of a

monumental chateau with projecting wings and

pil-

like the

a central ressaut.

conventional articulation was based on a network of horizontal and

Its

vertical lines rather


Still

than classical members.

more old-fashioned

is

'

the articulation of the courtyard in the Hotel

The very deep and narrow


More interesting is the

de Sully built by Jean du Cerceau (1624-29).

building site determined a simple axial layout.

Hotel de Bretonvillers by the same architect.

It

was

built

1643 on the eastern corner of the newly developed He

we

find a displacement of the

ends in the

The

axis

The displacement, however,

base-court.

front.

main

lef thand

opening of the

central bay, therefore,

St. Louis.

Again

due to the addition of

a small

is

new and

very slight as the court-axis

tri-partite central ressaut of the


is

garden

closed, while the right one opens

the main salon, so that a symmetrical facade

formulated in a

between 1637 and

is

obtained.

on

The courtyard

is

interesting way, as the lateral wings have been

a o d

(j rj

ijp

9d

db

C33

separated architecturally from the corps de logis, which has two short

wings of

its

own forming

an inner cour d'honneur. The disposition

is

ob-

Dflg Ol_^

of the garden, a gallery has been added for protection from the adjacent

on the He St. Louis next to the Hotel de Bretonvillers,


The Hotel Lambert shows a most ingenious adaptation of
the standard scheme to a particular situation. As the complex is entered
from the longer side, Le Vau could not carry through a longitudinal axis.
The axis of the courtyard, thus, ends in a grand staircase where it crosses a

buildings.

transverse axis that leads out towards the landscape through an oval ves-

viously derived from the corner pavilions of the chateau, and points to-

wards the freestanding hotel of the eighteenth century."


phasis on

volume

results,

which

Baroque em-

also determines the unified character of

the facades which have unusually large windows. Along the northern side

In 1635, Francois Mansart received his

house in Paris, the Hotel de


with three wings around

court that

Bretonvillers, a base-court has


a similar

''

la Vrilliere.
is

first

The

commission for

disposition

closed by a wall.

been added on the

displacement of the main

axis.

As

left side,

is

a private

the usual one

in the

Hotel de

bringing about

We also find an analogous break in

the side walls of the courtyard which separates the corps de logis from the

The

wings.

articulation,

porary work of

by

wide

however,

Du Cerceau.

ressaut

sides, a solution

is

far

more subtle than

in the

contem-

Mansart, thus, gave emphasis to the main axis

which had

a slightly taller

roof than the wings on both

in Blois. The ressaut deThe wall-treatment shows Mansart's senproportions and detailing, which made the Hotel de la

he

also applied

on

grander scale

fined a splendid domed vestibule.


sitive feeling for

Vrilliere the classical town-palace of the first half of the century. In

Mansart began the construction of the Hotel du


tion

Jars.""

1648

Again the disposi-

shows the characteristic displacement of the main

axis.

As

a conse-

quence, Mansart eliminated the central door to the garden, creating

in-

on

a similar site.

tibule

and

a magnificent long gallery.

garden

spacious garden salon. Again the corps de logis

is

separated from

the wing, this time by an interruption of the roof, whereas the wall articulation

is

The

continuous.

first

two orders, while the garden facade has giant

position of

(1639) consisted of a two-story corps de logis with one-story wings

added.

The engraving by Marot shows

a very simple wall articulation,

which contrasts with the transparent central


are superposed

under

pediment and

Two tiers of columns

ressaut.

broken

roof,

which adds to the

fact, Le Vau seems to have been


Mansard roof, where the steep Gothic slope is
a better utilization of the volume. The broken roof be-

broken to allow for

came a characteristic feature of Late Baroque architecture, giving the build-

infinite extension represented

neau

is

all

his ideas to-

The plan shows

gether and create a truly monumental city-palace.'"

a dis-

placed axis because of the introduction of a base-court next to the main


courtyard.

The corps de

logis has

two

stories plus
is

ders plus the attic, and the main axis

ment. The two-story garden facade

is

is

an

attic,

while the wings

integrated spatially by means of


It

has two superposed

emphasized by

or-

a triangular pedi-

articulated by coupled giant pilasters

(half-columns at the central ressaut) on the corps de logis and single ones on

The plan forms an

irregular

the middle, which contains the

Balthasar
Briihl.

Neumann was
a

"H" with an appartement double in

great tri-partite staircase of the type

to use with so

The simple volumetric

Hotel de Lionne

first

much

success in Wiirzburg and

relationships and clear articulation give the

convincing architectural quality.

It

belonged without

doubt to the major works of the period.


After his success with Vaux-le Vicomte, Le
rebuild the Chateau de Versailles for Louis

XIV

Vau was commissioned


(1664).

He was

to

ordered to

preserve the old hunting-lodge built for Louis XIII in 1624, and in 1669

it

long enfilades on both sides of the old building and a large terrace between

front of the Hotel

Le Vau,

Tam-

human scale/* The plan of the Hotel Tambon-

corps de logis had a certain depth,

i.e. it

may have been

built as

an apparte-

ment double.

170

Be-

by the garden, whereas the courtyard was

The garden

not preserved, but the bird's-eye view by Marot indicates that the

The most important

,'

thus, adapted to the

59

a giant order of Ionic pilasters.

divided into stories having a

pilasters.

new building which left the original court exposed.'' The result was an immense almost square block with
two wings attached to form a very deep cour d'honneur. The plan shows

ings an almost sensual plasticity.

bonneau had

is

namely, windows that reach the floor, another ingenious invention by Le

Vau. In the Hotel de Lionne (1661), Le Vau could bring

voluminous character of the building. In


the inventor of the so-called

did

tween these, the walls are completely opened by means of "French doors,"

the wings.

important city-palace by Le Vau, the Hotel Tambonneau

site

still

concave corners and continuous entablatures.

behind

The narrow

more ingenious ground-floor, which even allowed for the


exit of carriages in the corner of the courtyard. The courtyard is centered
on the open volume of the staircase whose screen-wall is joined to the walls
by means of rounded corners. A continuous Doric entablature engirdles
the entire space. Virtually nowhere else has French architecture come so
close to the conception of Borromini. The wall articulation shows a superput over a

palace where the corps de logis

possible to have the staircase in direct contact with the vestibule,

incorporated between

not permit the development of an appartement double, but the bel etage

have two stories only. The courtyard

it

is

the gallery and the right-hand wing of the building.

stead two exits from the lateral ressauts.

made

The Hotel du Jars may be the first


has been doubled. The appartement double

bert (1640-44) built

was decided to envelop the old chateau

them. The garden facade, thus, consisted of two projecting wings and

deep recess over

is

the Hotel Lam-

attic.

An

unusual feature

solution that

is

continuous rusticated ground-floor. The bel etage was

articulated by Ionic pilasters and

an
of Le Vau's surviving city-palaces

in a

is

columns carrying

a tall

the employment of a

entablature and

flat "Italian" roof, a

generally understood to be an echo of Bernini's project

257. Jules Hardouin-Mansart,

256. Jules Hardouin-Mansart,

Chateau Je Dampierre.

Versailles,

Chateau de Clagny

(engraving by Perelle).

Le Vau's wings are

for the Louvre.

in existence but the terrace be-

still

tween them was substituted by Jules Hardouin-Mansart's Galerie des


Glaces in 1678, so that the facade received

The monotony became

a rather

monotonous

character.

more accentuated when Hardouin-Mansart


added long transverse wings, repeating the same wall system at a total
length of over four hundred meters. It would, however, be unfair to judge
still

Versailles as a well-proportioned complete volume.


is

Here extension

as such

the theme, and accordingly the building has been transformed into a

simple repetitive system.

where the

intervals

arched windows.

and represents

The system

between the

consists of a transparent skeleton

by

pilasters are entirely filled in

large,

Versailles therefore has the character of a glass house,

a link

between the transparent structures of the Gothic

period and the great iron-and-glass buildings of the nineteenth century. Its

extension

juittn*

-<

ft

>

iiiiii
r t

tr

"indeterminate," another characteristic property that pre-

is

figures certain

Si

modern conceptions. The complete block

of Le Vau, thus,

has been transformed into one large ressaut, which actively projects into
the landscape. Seen in this context, the

The

roof also becomes meaningful.

flat

interpretation of Versailles as an expression of pure extension re-

solves the contradiction that has always existed

between the fascination the

building exerts on the beholder and the negative judgements given by


architectural critics

on the

basis of "academic rules." In spite of

its

lack of

traditional architectural qualities, Versailles concretizes the basic intentions of the

Baroque Age, intentions that

in particular

were connected

with absolute monarchy and therefore ought to be expressed here more


than anywhere

else.

sovereign as

innermost focus. Versailles

its

In fact, the whole grandiose layout has the bed of the


is

symbol of the absolute

a true

but "open" system of seventeenth-century France.

Before he worked out his great scheme for Versailles in 1678, Jules

Hardouin-Mansart had

built

some smaller palaces where

his characteristic

approach was already evident. The small Chateau du Val (1674)


storv building consisting of a salon "ou

tour de

la

le

a one-

is

Roi mange ordinairement au

re-

chasse" in the middle, a small apartment on one side and four

rooms of varied shape "ou


saisons" on the other.

est representee

The

dans chacune une des quatre

elongated, narrow building

opened to the surroundings by

series of

is

completely

arched French windows. The

Chateau de Dampierre (1675) has a more conventional layout, but except


for a central ressaut, the articulation

mainly consists of the repetition of nu-

merous uniform openings. The building, thus,


tension, but

is

characteristic

(1676)."

was the Chateau de Clagny

The plan shows

built for

a series of very long,

layout which prefigures the solution of Versailles.

troduced a very efficient focus

We

may

of indeterminate ex-

is

kept together by a voluminous Mansard roof.

in the

Madame

if

more

narrow wings forming

A domed grand salon in-

outstretched repetitive organism.

say that Clagny, on a smaller scale, shows

have been

Still

de Montespan

Hardouin-Mansart had started from

how

Versailles

zero. In

would

1679 he

built

171

258. Jules Hardouin-Mansart,

259. Jules Hardouin-Mansart,

Grand Trianon

Chateau de Marly (contemporary

Versailles,

engraving).

(engraving by Perelle).

the Chateau de Marly as a place of entertainment for the King.'*

cen-

formed the focus and determined the strongly em-

tralized pavilion

phasized main axes. "Extension" was achieved by two lateral rows of small
pavilions for the courtiers,

which created

continuous rhythm of indeter-

minate duration. All the buildings were based on a similar repetitive

sys-

tem of pilasters. The ideas of Hardouin-Mansart culminated with the


Grand Trianon in the garden of Versailles (1687). Here the very long narrow one-story wings simply
columns carrying
Zxrucxr

vi Apartment tin

vetme

nenJvusU
l

effect of infinite extension.

1\ar#rr*drftiff*f Coupe**
Btu Partertf >/< /i V Brtpo
lienrtuurdf tr*Hfaot
.

j tir

lumle

Vapud*

Wis

fUtatft

i/nt on

**--'

The continuous rhythm

phasized by arched French windows, and the

/><".<

b/TVUttdB dr fUmttt en fcnlt


I

'

"<-<

consist of a uniform system of pilasters and

a straight entablature.

flat

concretized fundamental aspects of Baroque space.'"

Hardouin-Mansart had

principle,

To

classical

by

i.e.

he

members. His open organisms

from those of Guarini. They do not consist

spatial "cells," but are constituted

which

gain his end,

to reduce the elements to the essentials,

based the articulation on simple


differ

em-

We may conclude that all the secular works of

Hardouin-Mansart are based on the same formal

Jules

is

roof contributes to the

in the repetition of

uniform structural system.

He

is

often considered a classicist, although his general schemes have nothing in

common
being

with the

classical ideal of a

complete "perfect" form. Instead of

works of Hardouin Mansart come close

classical, the

to the twen-

tieth-century ideal of "open," indeterminate organisms, and they illustrate

how

the Baroque in

many ways

prefigures

modern

architecture.

Conclusion

The

"levels" of

nature.
axis

Baroque palace

essential "content" of the

along a longitudinal axis. This

human

Common

life:

movement

is

continuous movement

actively unites the three basic

the civic world, the private "place" and infinite

to Italian

and French palaces

is

an emphasis on the main

by means of symmetry and formal accentuation. The spaces of the

building and

its

environment

live in relation to this axis.

The most important design problem was the transition from one spatial
domain to the other. In Italy the Baroque palace kept its enclosed blocklike

form, and the transition from the urban environment to the "inside,"

therefore,

became

dramatic event which deprived the wall of

tional character as a separating element.


trate its subordinate components

ed

as a result of the

from the building


conceived

as

The

around the main axis, or to become inflect-

meeting of interior and exterior forces. The transition

to the

garden (landscape) was

less violent, as

an extension of the dwelling rather than

The cortile was

its tradi-

Italian wall tends to concen-

nature was

a different

domain.

therefore opened up whenever possible and a more regular

distribution of the interior spaces was attempted to satisfy the general

symmetry of the
character.

From

layout.

The French

the very beginning,

palace never had the same enclosed


it

was an "extended" organism. The

early palaces of the seventeenth century

It It II I

*
jji.,.,.1,.

still

have an "additive" character.

260-262. Versailles, Grand


Trianon.

BST

wwhi'

For about

fiftv years

'

*<^

ji

ffi

'~-x

mTTTrn

rrrrrrr

there was a process of formal concentration and unifi-

cation that ended with the uniform, repetitive structures of Jules Har-

douin-Mansart, so that a new kind of general, open extension became possible.

The French wall,

therefore, tended to

become

allowing for a fusion of exterior and interior space.

transparent skeleton

The

plastic frames

pediments used to emphasize the figural character of the opening

and

in Italian

architecture were abandoned, and replaced by a uniform system of arches


of equal height encompassing doors, windows, interior panelling, decoration and mirrors.
for the light

The French window,

in fact, is of decisive

and summery character of the French

palace.

ace was primarly the scene for the development of a


fortable living. In both countries articulation
classical orders for

importance

The French

new concept

pal-

of com-

was based on the use of the

formal differentiation and unification, as well as for

integrating the works in the great tradition of

European humanism.

6"

173

Chapter Five

THE DIFFUSION OF BAROQUE ARCHITECTURE

duced

Introduction

We have so far discussed


remains to take

the major building tasks of the Baroque Age.

more general look

the contributions of individual

at

countries and architects. In previous chapters

we emphasized

the

common

common

ment having

a stronger

emotional and persuasive impact, and to make

every single building appear as an expression of a universal system of

We

have seen, thus,

how

with their urban environment, mainly because of the introduction of a lon-

common

gitudinal axis that "opened" the traditional self-sufficient architectural

form.

main

The common

meaningful system, also needed

however, was interpreted

basis,

in

many

life.

different ways, ac-

We

have, in fact,

al-

ready pointed out that the seventeenth century was characterized by a

The differences were due to various factors.


Theoretically we could distinguish between five kinds of environmental

great diversity.

determinants: physical, personal, social, cultural and historical. These factors obviously are interdependent,

separately.

The

but

may

to a certain extent be studied

physical factors can be described in terms of climate, to-

pography, resources,

etc.,

and determine what

is

usually called "regional

character," namely typified use of building materials, location and size of

openings, and roof shapes.

The

personal factors stem from differences in

needs and attitudes, and determine what

is

called "personal style."

The

The social
may refer to social differences or to a way of life common to the
members of a particular group. They determine the more general prop-

The inner disposition of the buildings also became a function of the


The churches, however, constituting the principal foci of the

axis.

spatial extension

works of others or

left his

The cultural

which express

in ideas

and values, and determine "meanings" which are expressed

a particular social role.

factors consist

through formal languages or "styles." All these factors obviously operate


temporal dimension and are therefore historical. With historical

vertical axis

around which

in the

works of Giacomo

often considered an architect of secfact that

he mostly finished the

own buildings to be completed by his successors.

We have, however, demonstrated that he had a real inventive power, making essential contributions to the development of the
palace."'

decisive clarification of ends and

signs of Carlo

Baroque church and

means characterizes the

Maderno (1556-1629). The reputation

of

de-

Maderno has been

somewhat damaged by the unfortunate fate of the facade of St. Peter's. In


works have a convincing strength and subtlety of de-

general, however, his

particularly evident in his facade for S.

(1597-1603), which

tinctions

is

ondary importance. This may be due to the

tail.

dis-

dominant

These general intentions are already apparent


della Porta (1533-1602). Delia Porta

factors

such as separation or togetherness, but also formal

was organized.

client as well as the architect are relevant in this connection.

erties of a "milieu,"

churches and palaces started to interact

values.

studied on different "levels" in terms of concrete spatial relationships.

cording to various circumstances and forms of

of the basic intentions had been

In general, the aim was to create an environ-

and extension, which may be

existential basis, such as centralization

many

after 1630,

a lot earlier.

We

point of departure.

have also defined general formative principles resulting from the

main works

its

manifest quite

and

basis of the various manifestations. Firstly the general esprit de systeme,

secondly the leading building tasks as a

It

This

is

is

Susanna

in

Rome

usually considered the first full-grown example of

Baroque architecture. Here the general intentions of Della Porta

are dev-

eloped towards an increased plasticity, for the purpose of strengthening


the emphasis on the central axis.
to half-column, three-quarter

Thus we

column and

find a progression from pilaster


full

column towards the middle

of the facade. In his secular works, such as the Palazzo Mattei

and the Pa-

In a politically centralized country like France, the regional variations

Maderno solved corresponding problems by means of new


ingenious spatial dispositions. "By the time Maderno died, he had directed Roman architecture into entirely new channels. He had authoritatively rejected the facile academic Mannerism which had belonged to his first
impressions in Rome, and, although not a revolutionary like Borromini, he
left behind, largely guided by Michelangelo, monumental work of such so-

were

lidity,

in the

factors in particular,

we intend

certain artistic influences, or extra-artistic

events that initiate, accelerate or retard significant changes in the

environment. During the seventeenth century

all

human

these factors con-

tributed to architectural development, according to the circumstances.

slight,

whereas

Italy presents characteristic local

sion. Regardless of country,

models of expres-

however, the cultural factors were of prime

importance.

lazzo Barberini,

seriousness and substance that

was equally respected by the great

In general, however, Early Baroque architecture was characterized by


relatively superficial
alize the

Towards the end of the sixteenth century, the development of Italian


architecture became centered on Rome. The main force behind this process was the Counter-Reformation which brought forth a centralization of
ideas and artistic potential. As a result, a vigorous Roman Baroque architecture evolved which extended its sphere of influence to the whole Catholic world, and even beyond. Although Roman Baroque architecture pro-

multiplied and

approach to the problem of architectural form. To

combined

fect often resulted.

in

complex ways, so that

typical

example

is

facade for SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio in

a certain overloaded ef-

furnished by Martino Longhi's

Rome

(1644),

where an unsur-

passed condensation towards the middle of the facade

means of

re-

intended persuasive impression, the articulating elements were

Italy

174

it

antipodes Bernini and Borromini."

triple

is

achieved by

columns and interlocking aediculae which gradually step

forward to emphasize the central

axis.

The

transition

from the "Early Ba-

263. Carlo Maderno,


S.

Rome,

Susanna, jagade, axonometric

drawing (D.A.
264.

Rome,

U.).

Susanna, facade.

S.

roque" to the "High Baroque"


problems. That
sion

were

is,

satisfied

marked by

is

through

deeper penetration into the

transformation of the basic form rather than

by applied decoration. Maderno initiated


results are to

the aims of spatial integration and persuasive expres-

be found

The new approach

is

this research,

but the decisive

works of Bernini, Borromini and Cortona.

in the

evident already in the

first

architectural

Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), the Baldacchino in

The four twisted bronze columns

work

of

St. Peter's (1624-33).

repeat the shape of the Early Christian

columns, which had served in the pergola of Old

They have,

St. Peter's.

however, grown to giant size "expressing symbolically the change from the
simplicity of the early Christians to the splendour of the counter-reforma-

tory Church, implying the victory of Christianity over the pagan world.

"'

The twisted shape also resolves an important formal problem. Straight columns would have looked like diminished versions of the immense pilasters
that constitute the

main order of the church, and would not have given the

necessary emphasis to

column represents

its

focus: the site of St. Peter's grave.

dynamic and emphatic variation on

The

twisted

"normal"

col-

umn, and the baldachin thus manages to dominate and centralize the
grand space by which it is surrounded. Above the columns, huge S-shaped
scrolls rise to

support the cross above the golden orb.

believe that the scrolls were designed by Borromini,

ved

have reason to
at

the time ser-

an assistant to Bernini. At any rate the Baldacchino may be con-

as

sidered

"il

manifesto dell'architettura barocca.""

form stems from

Its rich

and persuasive

a transformation of the basic elements, rather

decoration, and the result


plastic continuity.

is

a simple, integrated

The Baldacchino

than added

whole characterized by

represents in equal measure a point of

departure for the antipodes Bernini and Borromini.


plicity

We

who

and powerful impact of Bernini's

It

has the grand sim-

later designs,

but also the dyna-

mism and synthetic character which mark the works of Borromini.


The more important buildings of both architects have been discussed
above, but we should mention a few significant contributions. Among Bernini's

works the Scala Regia

Vatican (1663-66) has

in the

prominent

The narrow space available hardly allowed for the development of a


monumental staircase, but by ingenious tricks of perspective and illumination, Bernini corrected the real dimensions of the space. The converging
place.

walls, thus,

would have given an impression of excessive depth, had not

Bernini placed rows of columns in front which converge


walls.' Bernini's

works, in

fact,

aim

at

go beyond the measurable, "real" properties of the situation.


participate in situations that

which have
cation

is

seem

less

than the

an objectification of phenomena that

to

He makes us

be natural and self-evident, but

a significant irrational content. Architecturally the objectifi-

realized

by the employment of apparently simple volumes, and by

a regular, integrative articulation.

In the works of Francesco Borromini (1599 - 1667), on the other hand, the
irrational, "synthetic"

content

is

expressed by a correspondingly complex

175

.*

"'

ttjVF J
HBl'-i

I"

fi

"Cj

Jf

-<V

v^,f
.L3MK
.

IS

MH
I

pi

\i

.jST""*

v$M

4 afcf.s

265. Martino Longhi,

Rome,

Rome,

266. Gianlorenzo Bernini,

Vincenzo ed Anastasio, facade.

SS.

St. Peter's,

Ba/daccbino.

form. Borromini, however, overcomes complexity as such by means of

and

spatial

He

plastic continuity.

thereby unifies heterogeneous elements

new

into svnthetic wholes that represent

This

acters.

tioned so

psychic and existential char-

two works that have not been menthe unfinished campanile and dome of S. Andrea delle Fratte

is

far:

particularly evident in

(1653) and the Cappella Spada in S. Girolamo della Carita (1662). In S.

Andrea

delle Fratte,

drum

closed

Borromini transformed the traditional

into a dynamic, radiating organism.

and en-

static

The convex bays

in the

middle indicate the expansive movement of interior space that interacts


with exterior space to create a strong radiation along the diagonal axes.

adding

By

freestanding campanile, Borromini moreover realized an urban

focus that, without losing

its

identity, changes according to our position.

The dome and campanile of S. Andrea delle Fratte thus represent an eminently Baroque focus that participates in an extended "field" of spatial relations.

romini
tention

The Spada chapel illustrates better than any other work how Bormade space the protagonist of architecture. Instead of focusing atupon

a plastically

modelled

altar,

he reduced plasticity to a mini-

mum by covering the walls with continuous


decoration

and

at

the

is

same time highly

tain "objectification."

appearance

its

inlaid

marble decoration. The

not "applied" but constitutes a space that


irrational.

is

extremely simple

Borromini, thus, also aimed

While Bernini made the supernatural

in a simpler rational space,

rational supernatural space, so that

it

real,

at a cer-

through

Borromini gave structure to

ir-

became imaginable and integrated

in

man's existential space.

The

had

ideas of Borromini

certain following.

Some

architects

adopted his formal means without understanding the revolutionary content of his works.

95)

typical

who, before anyone

lation.

His masterpiece

is

example

else,

is

Giovanni Antonio de Rossi (1616-

employed Borrominian methods of

zo d' Aste-Bonaparte ( 1658-65) where the corner solution and the


,

pediments clearly derive from Borromini.

more

original

tinued Borromini's research into the creation of

new

articulation

As

a typical

however profound,

example, we

may mention

is

in-

con-

element

and decoration of Guarini are highly

sonal and the content expessed,

prehensible.

who

synthetic "char-

acters," as well as the possibility of using space as the constituent

The

window

and truly

ventive follower of Borromini was Guarino Guarini (1624-83),

architecture.

articu-

the well-balanced and formally integrated Palaz-

rarely directly

in

per-

com-

the complex detailing

of the Collegio dei Nobili in Turin (1679). This aspect of his work,
therefore,

had

little

As we have already seen, however, his


new fundamental possibilities. Basically,

following.

handling of space opened up

Guarini concretized his complex and highly irrational contents by

in-

genious but rational systems of spatial extension. Like Bernini and Borromini, thus, his basic aim was an objectification of the irrational, but

whereas Maderno, Bernini and Borromini were representatives of a

Roman Baroque

architecture, Guarini's

works do not belong

to

any par-

177

ti

Ha

rbebs
178

267. Gianlorenzo Bernini,

Rome,

Vatican, Scala Regia.

ticular place or region. In spite of his personal style,

Guarini therefore ex-

pressed the universality of the Counter-Reformatory church.

Roman Baroque
through
ter,

all

architecture always retained a characteristic identity

personal variations. As a primary property of the

we may mention

even

in Borromini's works, as his undulating walls

as abstract expressions of the

forces

It is

present

ought to be understood

dramatic interaction of interior and exterior

which constitute Roman

and dynamism. In the works of

plasticity

Carlo Rainaldi (1611-91) the same aim

evident, but in spite of his inven-

is

Baroque synthesis of mass, space

tiveness, Rainaldi does not arrive at a true

His principal means of articulation are columns that are

and surface.

Baroque manner, rather than

rhetorically "applied" in an Early

integrated.

Roman charac-

the emphasis on mass and plasticity.

plastically

A true plastic integration, however, characterizes the works of

Pietro da Cortona (1596-1669). Instead of taking spatial cells or wall

mem-

branes as his point of departure, Cortona composes with continuous series


of plastic

members, whose variations

seems eminently
la

alive.

Sacchetti (1625-30).

his later

works

is

This

is

in density constitute a space that

already evident in his

first

building, the Vil-

A complex interaction of spaces that foreshadows

constituted by groups and rows of pilasters and columns

that create a rich, vibrating play of light and shadow. In general, the Villa

Sacchetti possesses a singularly convincing equilibrium between mass and


space.
al

The same holds

true for his last masterpiece, the

Corso (1668-72). Here, the drum

columns and

dome

for S. Carlo

constituted of clusters of muscular

pilasters that carry a strongly projecting entablature

plastically articulated attic.


ive,

is

Vigorous ribs transform the

dynamic organism. Cortona,

dome

may be considered

thus,

resentative of classical, anthropomorphic architecture,

and

into an act-

Baroque rep-

making the

tradi-

tional "objective" characters take part in a process of interaction

and

transformation.
In spite of the central importance of
Italian architecture,

some

Rome

in seventeenth-century

valid regional styles also appeared.

We have al-

ready mentioned the important contributions of Francesco Maria Ricchino

(1584-1658)

who continued

the local Milanese tradition of Pellegrino

Tibaldi and Lorenzo Binago. In Turin


rich

we

find the center of a particularly

Piedmontese architecture, which was initiated by Ascanio Vitozzi

(1539-1619) and continued by Carlo (1560-1641) and


di Castellamonte.

This

unites influences from

first

Amedeo

(1610-83)

phase of Piedmontese Baroque architecture

Rome and

Paris.

Whereas the individual buildings

have an unmistakable "Italian" character, the urban environment

is

stamp-

ed by French rationalism.

pronounced

local character

is

found

in Venice,

where the

traditional

picturesque and decorative approach was given a Baroque interpretation

by Baldassare Longbena (1598-1682). His Palazzo Pesaro (1663) shows a


rich but controlled interplay of
a true

Baroque

mass and space,

plasticity, in spite of the

light

and shadow, and has

somewhat conventional composi-

179

268.

Rome,

detail of

180

S.

drum.

Andrea

delle Fratte,

XXI. Rome,
Baldaccbino.

St. Peter's,

XXII. London,
Cathedral.

St.

Paul's

269.

Rome,

S.

Andrea

delle Fratte,

270. Francesco Borromini,

campanile.

S.

Rome.

Cirolano della Carita, Cappella

Spada, interior.

271.

Rome,

S.

Girolamo della

Carita, Cappella Spada, detail

of wall decoration.

v>cs|s>o

181

272. Pietro da Cortona,

Rome,

Villa Sacchetti (contemporary

engraving).

27}. Pietro da Cortona,


S.

Rome,

Carlo al Corso, exterior, apse

and dome.

274. Baldassare Longbena, Venice,

275. Carlo Fontana,

Palazzo Pesaro.

S.

Rome,

Marcello al Corso, fagade.

276. Salomon de Brosse, Paris,


St.

Gervais, facade.

277. Francois Mansart, Paris,

Church of the Minimes (engraving


by Marot).

The Baroque

tion.

eighteenth century.

architecture of southern Italy mainly belongs to the

We should, however, mention the Neapolitan Cosimo

Fanzago (1591-1678), Baroque

but without real creative

in versatility

tal-

ent.

Towards the end of the century, Roman architecture was dominated

by

the

mediocre,

classically-minded

Fontana

Carlo

(1638-1714).

In general, Italian seventeenth-century architecture was determined by

the church as the leading building task. Except in Turin, the environment,
therefore, does not possess a systematically organized horizontal extension. It

is

dominated rather by the

vertical axes of the churches,

interaction with the urban environment,

"dynamic" and persuasive

i.e.

"society,"

is

whose

expressed by a

plastic form.

France
In France the process of centralization was stronger than in Italy.
tain regional activity existed
artistic potential

up

A cer-

Mazarin (1661), but the

until the death of

had been centered on Paris since the beginning of the

century. French seventeenth-century architecture, therefore, has an un-

equivocal character and development.


solute

monarchy by divine
1

architecture.

It

right,

The driving force was the idea of abresult was a new kind of state

and the

We have

unified the poles of reason and transcendence.

already analyzed the conception of space that concretized these intentions,

and have

how

also pointed out

regional

absorbed by the new architecture, which,


language imported from

The

Italy.

which formed the focus of an

and Gothic traditions were

in general,

employed

a formal

leading building type was the palace,

infinitely

extended space. Extension presup-

poses that the constituent elements have a certain uniformity, and, in

French seventeenth-century architecture does not present the

fact,

plastic

modelling and emphasis that characterize contemporary Italian buildings.


It is

more

therefore often regarded as less "Baroque" and

"classical."

Such

judgement, however, stems from a superficial definition of the categories

in question.

"Baroque architecture" only becomes

a useful

concept

if it

de-

notes concretizations of a certain kind of existential space, rather than


particular formal traits.

The

typical

French approach

is

evident already in the works of Salomon

de Brosse (1571-1626). His facade for

St.

Gervais

l4

in Paris (1616)

showsa

"correct" superposition of the three classical orders. Vertically as well as


horizontally, the composition

is

based on regular repetition, although the

facade as a whole gives emphasis to the longitudinal axis of the building.


similar solution

ings as well:

was used by

we may

De

Brosse and his followers in secular build-

for instance recall the central ressaut of Francois

Mansart's Chateau de Maisons.

15

The motif unifies

in a simple

formula the

basic canons of classical architecture, Gothic verticalism and Baroque

movement

in

depth, and thus became a token of French seventeenth-cen-

tury architecture.

The

secular

works of

De

Brosse

still

show Mannerist

278. Louis Le Vau, Paris, College

279. Paris, College des Quatre

dcs Quatre Nations (Institut de

Nations (Institut de France),

France).

perspective view (engraving by


Perelle).

traits,

such as interlocking rustication and orders, but the tensions and

Mannerism have been substituted by

regularly

Brosse, thus, defined the basic ends and

means of

contradictions typical of

De

extended rhythms.
the century.

Francois Mansart 1598- 1666) belongs to the generation of Bernini, Bor(

romini and Cortona, and played an analogous role in making architecture a


flexible

and subtle

makes the

tool for expressing the contents of the epoch.

by great inventive power, but

are characterized

Although

radical traits less evident.

also

by

His works

a restraint that

his articulation

highly

is

original, a "correct" use of the orders creates a general classic character.

Mansart, thus, manages to objectify the dynamism and irrational vari-

Baroque architecture by the employment of

ations inherent in

a rational,

well-known vocabulary of forms.

Few

similar equilibrium of the general

and the particular, the objective and the

architects in history have attained a

personal. In the facade for the church of the Minitnes in Paris (1657) the
ability of

Mansart

is

clearly evident.

the longitudinal axis and at the

been solved

street in front has

Agnese

in Piazza

"

The problem

in a

way

that reminds us of Borromini's S.

Navona. Within the continuous wall system, however,

Mansart gives clear definition to each volume,


his

of giving emphasis to

same time making the building part of the

he had already done in

as

Chateau de Berny (1624). Verticality and horizontal extension are thus

combined to form

a well-balanced whole.

The dome placed over

the en-

trance to the church also terminates the axis of the Place des Vosges, so
that a highly original integration of building

and urban environment

is

achieved.
In the works of Louis
similar problems.

The

Le Vau (1612-70), we find

a different

difference becomes evident

Minimes with Le Vau's College des Quatre Nations


1600. In both cases, a

dome marks

whereas outstretched wings create


ing,

approach to

when we compare
(Institut

the

de France) of

the termination of an urban axis,

lateral extensions. In

Le Vau's build-

however, the subtle tensions of Mansart have been substituted by a

Baroque rhetoric based on the contrast between convex and concave


umes, and colossal and normal orders.

by means of

A general continuity

uniform repetition of openings.

'

is

vol-

maintained

In spite of his interest in

grand relationships, Le Vau made an essential contribution to the develop-

ment of the commodious and

practical dwelling.

ability for solving functional plans

mentally well suited to the

He showed

a particular

and seems to have been "tempera-

demands

of his patrons, whereas

Mansart

threw away commissions owing to his obstinacy and arrogance."

The

problem of the Louvre, however, grew beyond the capacity of Le Vau.

The intervention
say a few

of Bernini has already been discussed but

words about the

final solution.

The

usually considered to be the culmination of

Over

a closed

typically

we ought

to

Louvre

is

east front of the

French

classical architecture.

ground-floor rises a splendid row of coupled columns.

French repetitive extension

is

The

articulated by subtle variations.

Le

280. Francois d'Orbay, Paris,

282. Antoine

Louvre, east facade.

Hotel de Beauvais, plan of

281. Paris, Louvre, east facade.

floor (from Blunt).

Pautre, Paris,
first

The wall consists of five sections which have a different characterization.


The corners are defined as solid pavilions by a unification of wall and order. The columns, thus, have become pilasters, and only the "open" center
is marked by pairs of pilaster and column. The long walls between the corners and the central ressaut are transparent colonnades that simultaneously

remind us of

Roman

temple and

Gothic "diaphanous" structure. In the

central ressaut mass and skeleton structure are


tive

combined

to create an ac-

but restrained expression of interaction between interior and exterior.

Rarely has the dialectic of order and variation been demonstrated in a

more masterly way. Who, then, was the creator of this magnificent design?
The general layout obviously goes back to a project by Le Vau from 1664,
and, in fact, the characterization of the five wall sections corresponds to
the typical disposition of his other buildings, and in his
the coupled order (Hotel de Lionne, 1662).

The simple

work we

also find

classical

grandeur

of the final solution (1667-68) has been proved to be due to his pupil and
collaborator, Francois d'Orbay (1631-97).

Whereas D'Orbay gave French architecture


Le Vau's pupil Antoine
of his work.

le

more

classical direction,

Pautre (1621-91) developed the Baroque aspects

Le Pautre did not build much, but

his

Hotel de Beauvais

in

Paris (1654-56) demonstrates a great ability to exploit a difficult building


site.

The

from the entrance to the courtyard

transition

lateral walls, articulated

by

a giant order, that

is

converge

the far end. At the same time, however, the space

is

emphasized by

at

an aedicula

at

circumscribed by a

continuous, strongly projecting cornice. Virtually no other space in French

seventeenth-century architecture has a similar plasticity and dynamism.

Most famous of Le Pautre's works

is

the project for a chateau, published in

The

his les Oeuvres dArchitecture (1652).'"

general disposition

from the Luxembourg palace with corner apartments and


tibule,

on the wings. The desire

for plastic

and

is

crowned by

among which

prime importance. Along the transverse axis one

whole complex

We may assume

rises

the main axis has

up

to the first floor

varied spaces.

bi-axial

organism

that Bernini

is

knew

the chateau project influenced his


last

cir-

The use of degagements is very progreswhole the plan has a somewhat theoretical character. The

a series of

but as a

The grand

"drum-without-dome" defines the

center of a system of radiating directions,

through

spatial systemati-

zation, however, surpassesanything conceived previously.


cular vestibule that

The

derived

and the wall articulation follows the usual scheme of Le Vau with

giant order

sive,

is

a central ves-

unified by a continuous entablature.

the publications of Le Pautre and that


first

design for the Louvre.

decades of the seventeenth century were dominated by

Hardouin-Mansart (1646-1708).

He

is

Jules

often considered a somewhat dry

and uninspired designer; we have shown, however, that

his uniformly ex-

tended structures were the result of deliberate intentions, and we have


also pointed out his ability to solve

Place des Victoires or the

Dome des

more

particular problems, such as the

Invalides.

"He

served the needs of his

283. Paris, Hotel de Beauvais, view


of the court.

time perfectly, and applied to them vast talents: an exceptional sense of


grandeur, great

ed

directing a team of craftsmen and,

skill in

when

was

it

call-

considerable mastery of the strictly practical side of the architect's

for,

His clear and assured

profession.""

style

is

particularly evident in the

The chapel had

chapel at Versailles (1689-1710).

to consist of

two

stories,

the ground-floor for the courtiers and the public, and the upper-floor for

communication with

the King, in direct

manner

solved the problem in a

his apartment.

Hardouin-Mansart

that recalls the Louvre facade, not only

on

account of the clarity of the design, but equally because of the relation bet-

ween massive base and "transparent" main


with

full

over his

self-assurance

story.

followers,

The King,

phasized by the "Gothic" proportions of the space.

cade and the chapel

at Versailles,

French

The two works

culmination point.

give a

so to say, rises

content

With

that

is

em-

the Louvre

classical architecture

fa-

reached

consummate concretization

of

the rational and transcendental esprit de systeme of seventeenth-century

France.

During the
still

had

of the century, French ecclesiastical architecture

first half

a creative

impulse, as

shown by the works

of Francois Mansart,

and space was not only experienced as an abstract extension, but, in the
way,

Italian

as a

concrete phenomenon. As state architecture came to

dominate the scene, with the palace

as the leading construction,

were thrown into the background.

Domes tended

form was

ideal

The

a neutral hall

which no longer acted

abstract properties of space

of proportion,

were emphasized,

and architecture tended

churches

to disappear,
as a

and the

primary focus."

in particular

problems

to follow the laws of nature

reason rather than imagination and individual circumstances.

and

The approach

was codified by the leader of the Academy, Francois B/oudel (1617-86),

who wanted

to establish a set of rules with absolute validity. In his Cours

d' Architecture (1675),

he

said: "...proportion

and elegance in architecture, and


principle

this

is

what determines beauty

must be made into

a constant, stable

by means of Mathematics." Fortunately the doctrine of Blondel

was never applied with

full

to architecture that has

vigour, but

been retained

it

initiated an

"academic" approach

until the twentieth centurv.

Spain

Spain experienced

under Philip

II.

turned into decline.


collapse,

peak of imperial power

its

Under

Philip III,

The country was threatened by

and the wretched Spanish world found

vantes'

Don Quixote

for the

development of

1605).

of Philip II's Escorial

duced

The

to

in the sixteenth

who ruled from 1598

military and
its

century

to 1621, greatness

economic

expression in Cer-

The conditions, therefore, were not favourable


Baroque architecture. The great intentions

a true

were abandoned and Spanish architecture was

secondary importance.'

re-

Escorial was planned by Juan Bautista de Toledo in 1562 and

was

187

284. Chateau de Versailles, chapel,

286. Paris, Porte

interior.

(engraving by Perelle).

285. Antoine

Le

St.

Denis

Pautre, project for

a chateau, axonometric drawing

{from Le Pautre).

mainly executed by Juan de Herrera (1530-97) between 1572 and 1584.


represents a great synthesis of building types, since

it

with a palace for his court, a monastery to which he could


church, and a tomb.

Spanish
as far

state.

back

The

It

was to provide Philip


retire, a great

thus symbolized the particular character of the

It

large,

symmetrical rectangle has

as Diocletian's palace in Split,

and

it

many

ancestors, going

became

model

for the

Jones (1573-1652). Jones had visited Venice between 1597 and 1603, and
in

1613-14 he again spent a year and a half in

Italy.

In the meantime

(1609), he had also visited Paris. Jones' formation, thus, took place before

the real development of

Roman and French

Baroque, and he found

his

source of inspiration in the theoretical approach and works of Palladio.

From then

on, Palladio was always present, in one

way

or another, in En-

great Fiirstabteien of the eighteenth century in Central Europe. In 1585

glish architecture. It

Herrera planned the Cathedral of Valladolid on an interesting bi-axial

create a complete architectural system without Baroque rhetoric. His combi-

movement

depth

is

significant that Palladio

was the only architect to

as well as centralization.

nation of versatility and self-restraint fitted the character of English

The concept had a certain following, as for instance in the Cathedral of


Mexico City and the interesting Pilar Church in Saragossa (1680). Herrera's successor, Juan Gomez de Mora (1580-1648), however, returned to a
more conventional scheme when he planned the Jesuit Clereci'a in Salamanca in 1617. The disposition follows II Gesu, without having the rhyth-

society and the English psyche particularly well. In seventeenth-century

layout, giving emphasis to

mical richness and spatial unity of the

in

Roman

church.

More

interesting

is

the Cathedral of Madrid, S. Isidro, built by Francisco Bautista (1594-1678)


after 1629.

motif that

new

alternation of wide and narrow bays, a

Here the nave shows an


is

repeated in the ends of the transept. The articulation has a

richness that

makes the wall increasingly become

continuous surface

ornament. The idea may be a Moresque inspiration, and

it

initiated an im-

The development
Maria Magdalena in Gra1677. Here a bi-axial nave

England,

perienced

poraneous

Roman

we may mention

churches.

dome,

contem-

a solution that is related to

Among

the centralized structures in Spain,

the Desamparados church in Valencia by Diego Martinez

Ponce de Urrana, built 1652-67.

longitudinal oval

is

inscribed in a rec-

tangle, prefiguring the double spatial delimitation typical of the eight-

eenth century. The space ends with a camarin, namely a space above the
altar for the display of the sacrament."

In general, Spanish seventeenth-

century architecture tended increasingly towards a decorative approach,

which represented

a variation

therefore natural that


in America.

Even

it

on the Baroque theme of persuasion.

reached

illiterate

climax in the buildings for the missions

people of

a foreign civilization

could "under-

stand" the language of exuberant ornament, colors, and images.


thus, a typically

It is

We find,

"Baroque" bias but the individual buildings do not rep-

resent any significant contribution to the history of architecture.

civil

tinent

its

own life.

In spite of the general cultural contact with the con-

during the reign of

isolated.

Queen

Elizabeth,

architecture remained

During the second decade of the century, the situation suddenly

changed, due to the fundamental contribution of a single architect: Inigo

other European countries. Inigo Jones

architecture possessing a neutral universality. "Jones saw certain things

more

and French contemporaries with

clearly than his Italian

immensely richer and more sophisticated backgrounds could do.

saw that antiquity offered,


specific

in the five orders

forms of spatial arrangement,

was not the

spirit of revolution,

and

in their

He

attachment

to

language of timeless validity. His

but such was the force of his example that,

sustained through two generations of eclectic experiment and Baroque adventure,

it

showed the way,

in a

new

age, to a

new enlightenment.""

work that demonstrates the approach of Jones is the Queen's


at Greenwich (1616-35). Originally the building consisted of two
wings linked by a bridge at first-floor level, together forming a square. The

The
House

first

slightly projecting center of the entrance


hall,

which runs up through both

stories.

wing indicates the great cubical

The ground-floor

is

rusticated,

and originally had smaller windows. The higher piano nobile has

a simple

Ionic character, particularly evident in the loggia on the garden side.


flat

The

roof contributes to the Italianate impression.

tall

The

windows and

the horizontally elongated proportion of the block, however, are of Nordic


origin,

and create

ticulated

until the beginning of the seventeenth century, English architecture

had lived

in the

sponding "democratic" architecture manifest. The aim was to create an

subdued play of tensions that

Chamber, employing

Up

England from

its

but his "Palladian" style makes the desire for a corre-

emphasis on the main


England

more com-

own kind. Although the country exdecapitation of its King, we may still talk of a

war and the

built for the court,

their

tall

dominant Church nor an absolute mon-

resulting pluralism, however, did not prevent

more democratic society than

of the longitudinal church culminated with S.

joined to a dominant,

The

thinker.

possessing a powerful "system" of

clearly

is

find neither a

plex totality, which also included the burgher, the merchant, and the free

portant development in Spanish Baroque architecture.

nada by Juan Luis Ortega (1628-77), built after

we

in fact,

archy. Rather, religion and aristocracy appeared as factors in a

silica.

by two

26

axis.

a giant

tiers of

is

also comprises a certain


a design for a

is

is

pilasters above,

new

Star

order over a rusticated base. The interior,

monumentalized

in the

the most important surviving

axial, two-story interior

Composite

made

half-columns, should have resembled a

The same theme

(1619-22) which

In 1617 Jones

articulated

and

is

ar-

Roman ba-

Banqueting House

work by Jones. The

bi-

by Ionic half-columns below and

circumscribed by

a cantilevered gallery.

Originally an apse gave direction to the space, which has the static propor-

287. Juan Bautista de Toledo, Juan


de Herrera, Madrid, El Escorial.
288. Juan Gomez de Mora,
Salamanca, Jesuit Clerecia and
Cathedral.

289. Francisco Bautista, Madrid,


S. Isidro, interior.

292, 293. Inigo Jones, Greenwich,

290. Juan Luis Ortega, Granada,


S.

Queen's House.

Maria Magdalena, plan.

291. Diego Martinez Ponce

294. Christopher Wren, plan

de Uirana, Valencia, Los


Desamparados, plan.

of

London.

r'Bl

20

10

^u_r

>

Q
l

>

C?

USH3M
y-

]m[flfflnf|HBBBSDP

<?zJ
5

10

as ikjnmnmDDD mEdgcsgaoBPsg
191

295. Christopher Wren, London,


St.

Paul's Cathedral,

model

of

first

296. London, St. Paul's Cathedral,


plan (Oxford, All Souls' Library).

project.

The orders

tion of a double cube.

of the interior correspond to those of the

we find a similar treatment


mark the corners, and the three middle
emphasized by columns. The harmonious articulation appears on

beautifully detailed exterior. Here, however,

of the

two

bays are

tiers.

Coupled

pilasters

Mannerist motif that has

a rusticated surface, a

House seems

In general, the Banqueting

any sense of

lost

opposites and the ideal of peaceful democratic collaboration.


character

is

found

Lindsay House

in

at

probably designed by Jones, where a colossal order

on the church of

. .

as a

Tuscan temple.

.an archaelogical essay.

. .

rusti-

the

Palace (1638), which would have been Jones'

War (1642-49). The design shows

"It

is

an ex-

prophetic of the theo-

by the Civil

over a low

rises

Garden (1631) introduced

and practise of neoclassicism..."" The great project

ry

similar

The space was unified by arcades and centered

which was built

St. Paul's

traordinary performance,

Lincoln's Inn Fields (1638-40),

cated ground-floor. Jones' plan for Covent


idea of the place in London.

conflict.

to symbolize the reconciliation of

magnum

for the Whitehall

opus,

was stopped

a large rectangle,

repeating the layout of the Escorial and more than twice


ticulation indicated in Jones' sketches does not detract

somewhat

The

its size.

ar-

from the monoto-

nous gigantism that appears as a caricature of English values. "Had Charles


I

lived to build

it,

the

new Whitehall would have been

backcloth for the bloodier revolution which

helped to precipitate."

it

topher
as

split into

by the Civil War. As Inigo Jones dominated the

Wren (1632-1723) was

the protagonist of the second.

an astronomer and mathematician, and became

Society

certainly have

English architecture of the seventeenth century was


tinct phases

grave and fitting

would most

when it was founded

in 1662.

two

Wren

member

dis-

first, Chris-

started

of the Royal

As an architect, he must be consider-

ed a learned dilettante, since his only education outside England consisted


of a trip to Paris in 1665,

where he met Bernini. In

in

the Country round.

The Louvre

less

he wrote: "I

for a while

was

my daily Object, where no

than a thousand hands are constantly employ'd in the Works... Mons.

Abbe Charles

me

a letter

surveying the most esteem'd Fabricks of Paris, and

have busied myself

introduc'd

me

to the

Acquaintance of Bernini, who shew'd

the designs of the Louvre... Bernini's design of the Louvre

have given

my skin for..."

After

would

few tentative attempts, Wren's golden

opportunity came after the Great Fire of London in September 1666. In

few days, more than thirteen thousand houses and eighty-seven churches

were destroyed by the

fire, as

well as the great Cathedral of St. Paul's.

About two hundred thousand people became homeless. Shortly afterwards


Wren presented a plan for the New City to King Charles II. The solution
shows

Baroque system of piazze and radiating

change serving
a

as the

main

focus.

prominent position between the

to the

streets leading

Tower and the Exchange. Many

tered on parish churches.

streets,

with the Royal Ex-

The new Cathedral of

St. Paul's also

from Ludgate

in the

had

west

of the secondary streets were cen-

XXIII. Stockholm, Tessin Palace,


garden.

XXIV.

Prague, Czernin Palace,

detail of fa fade.

297. London,

St.

Paul's Cathedral.

298. Christopher Wren, London,


St.

Stephen Walbrook, plan

(D.A.U.).

299. London,

Walbrook,

St.

Stephen

interior.

300. Christopher Wren, Greenwich,

Royal Naval Hospital.

M M

301. Jacob van Campen, The

Hague, Mauritshuis.
302. Diagrams of plans of Dutch
Protestant churches.

The

great plan, however, was not carried out, as

count of the ownership of land. Instead,

took too

it

little ac-

Wren was commissioned

build the Cathedral and the city churches. All in

to re-

(and even some foreigners), been equalled."


tical

Wren

works,

In addition to his ecclesias-

also designed several large public buildings.

The Royal

he built fifty-one

Hospital in Chelsea (1682-89) introduces a great U-shaped Baroque

churches, mostly designed in 1670 and shortly afterwards, but only a few

layout, but the articulation continues the simple classicism of Inigo Jones.

them were

of

really

designed in detail by

Wren

all,

himself. Usually they are

rectangular in plan, and represent reductions of traditional basilican

schemes, forming halls with or without

which should

to the steeples,
ing houses...

may be

rise "in

aisles. Particular

Ornament

of sufficient

traits into

Among

is

given

classical,

They show

Gothic, and Ba-

highly efficient urban foci. But they also demonstrate a

certain eclecticism of approach, and often

posed.

Town."

to the

Wren's great inventive power, and combine


roque

attention

good proportion above the neighbor-

seem compiled rather than com-

the city churches, St. Stephen

Walbrook (1672-87)

rep-

resents an important and highly original achievement. Into a regularly sub-

divided rectangle has been placed a

by columns. Four of these arches

dome

on eight arches carried

that rests

The

also indicate a Latin cross.

result

is

an ingeniously simple synthesis of longitudinal, central, and cross-shaped


plans, an "architectural equivalent of the Anglican

compromise between

the austerities of Calvinism and the splendors of Baroque Rome."'

When planning the new Cathedral of St.


on

synthesis, only

much

larger scale. In

The

the form of a great model.

the diagonals open onto the

enclosed,

is

main center.

Wren makes

his spatial

means of concave external


rived from St. Peter's, as
ing and the

walls.

is

is

centripetally

A domed vestibule and a classical portico

The

articulation of the exterior

is

also de-

the general relationship between the main build-

(1675)

final solution

domed

is

also

a structure

weaker than

been substituted for two


petty character result.'

it

to

remake the pro-

awkward combination of lonThe two schemes do not form any

a rather

center.

is

and

ticulation of an approximately Palladian character to a large,

does not relate

Stephen Walbrook

St.
to.

The

Greenwich (1695). After a preliminary project, Wren arrived


where the Queen's House by Inigo Jones is used to terminate
defined by a wide "avenue" between colonnades and a courtyard

Hospital

at

an axis

opening on the river Thames. The transition between the two spaces

marked by

domes over the chapel and the

tall

nificent variation of
relation

Baroque themes, and shows

between mass and space.

tain affinity to

tiers of small pilasters.

A certain monotonous and

The main facade gains because of the introduction

makes

it

topped by entirely "foreign" superstructures

The dome, on

the other hand, has a

a rather banal expression of the ideals of English

architecture. Its "external effect has never, in the opinion of

194

it

Two other

is

mag-

mature handling of the

domes which have

a cer-

was completed by Vanbrugh and Hawksmoor, but the general layout


must be considered

architects

who were

his

is

most successful work.

active during the second half of the sev-

enteenth century have to be mentioned, because they contributed decisively to the

development of secular architecture

(1620-84) had spent the years of the Civil

War in

in

England. Roger Pratt

France and imported the

appartement double and the cour d'honneur to England. In Coleshill


(1650),'''

he arranged a splendid staircase and a saloon symmetrically be-

hind each other on the main axis, and in Clarendon House in Piccadilly (1664-67)

he combined

French U-layout with

a simple "Pal-

ladian" articulation, creating a type that was imitated far and wide.

May

Hugh

(1622-84) stayed in Holland during the Commonwealth, and brought

Dutch classicism to England. His only surviving building, Eltham Lodge in


London (1663-64), repeats the "double" plan of Coleshill, but the three
central bays are framed by giant pilasters, following the example of Jacob
van Campen and Pieter Post.

The Netherlands
During the seventeenth century, the Netherlands was the most prosperous
country

in

Europe. After the foundation of the seven united provinces

1579, trade and industry flourished and the

Englishmen

cities

grew

in

find an absolute monarch, but rather military leaders


real civilian authority or cultural

who did not have any

importance. Conditions, therefore, did

not favor the development of any truly Baroque architecture.


class

in

importance and

The Netherlands had always been a country of cities with a


form of government. Even after 1579 we do not

relatively decentralized

regularity that

is

Hardouin-Mansart's Invalides. The Hospital in Greenwich

population.

"Baroque" interpenetration. Vertically, however, the design

apart, as the towers are

The design

A strong sense of unity is achieved by the

use of coupled columns throughout, even in the

means of
falls

hall.

is

articulation of the

in the great model, as its colossal order has

of a loosely Borrominian character.

or-

at a solution

of columns, and the towers are well integrated with the central part by
a

extended

ganism. His most interesting design, however, was for the Royal Naval

the solution of the diagonal

where the uniform ring of arches from

superimposed on
is

spaces on

group interact with the surroundings by

convincing whole; particularly unfortunate

exterior

clearly derived

domed

dome. Unfortunately the clergy did not find the magnificent

gitudinal basilica and

axes,

his project in

A "Baroque" desire for spatial in-

"enough of cathedral-fashion." Wren, thus, had

The

ject.

is

but smaller

present. But while Michelangelo's plan

introduce a longitudinal axis.

project

St. Peter's,

Palace,

Wren's and

Wren aimed at a similar

centralized main space

from Michelangelo's project for

tegration, thus,

Paul's,

1673 he presented

Wren made a plan somewhat similar to Versailles for Winchester


in Hampton Court (1689) he applied a simple repetitive ar-

In 1683

The burgher

favored a milder form of Calvinism, which brought about

a general

303. Pieter Noorwitz, The Hague,

Nieuwe Kerk.

simplicity of taste.

No wonder, then,

a sort of Palladian classicism,

that Dutch architecture also adopted


more Puritan in character than the related

movement in England.
By 1600 Amsterdam had become
country.

It

was

the commercial center of the

a flourishing city of fifty

thousand inhabitants, ably

di-

composed largely of merchants. Towards the end of the


sixteenth century, the Council commissioned Hendrik Staets to make a
rected by a Council

plan for the extension of the town.

He

designed the famous "plan of the

three canals" that forms concentric rings around the old urban core. Sites
for local churches

and market places were reserved. The plan was carried

who made

out by Daniel Stalpaert (1615-76)

monumental

frontages along the three

town houses

for merchants,

zoning plan allocating the

canals to large business houses and

and the building blocks formed by the

radial

canals to lower middle-class and artisan dwellings. In the areas between

the three concentric canals, the plot sizes averaged twenty-six feet front-

age and one hundred and eighty feet depth.


fifty-six

A maximum

sterdam one of the most integrated cityscapes

The

site

coverage of

percent was secured. Other prescriptions contributed to give

was grandly expressed

civic pride of the city

Am-

in existence.

new Town

in the

by Jacob van Campen (1595-1657), which was started

Hall

1648, the year of

in

when the independence of the Netherlands was


The Town Hall of Amsterdam, thus, has considerable symbolic importance and the great Hall may be understood as the
"Cathedral" of the Dutch republic. The plan of the large rectangular buildthe peace of Westphalia

officially recognized.

ing

shows

pronounced desire

for systematization

ticulated by a uniform system of pilasters

without variation in both


that unites self-assurance

stories.

The

and the facades are

and openings which

result

is

is

ar-

repeated

a rather austere building

and sobriety. More charming

is

the small Maur-

its

The Hague (1633), built by Van Campen for Prince Johan Maurvan Nassau. The simple, almost square volume is articulated by a colos-

sal

order of Ionic pilasters, which

itshuis in

to the facades.

is

used to give a different characterization

The entrance- wall,

thus, has a wider bay in the middle to

define the main axis, and the outer bays are characterized as rudimentary

wings by means of a break in the entablature. The "garden" wall, which

The lateral faThe Mauritshuis contains therefore all the

here faces the water, has a tri-partite ressaut in the middle.


cades show a uniform repetition.

usual elements of the seventeenth century palace, but they are indicated
rather than emphasized.

"Palladian";

The

it

The

controlled and subtle result

would, however, be more appropriate to

classicism of

Van Campen was continued by

laborator, Pieter Post (1608-69),

Maastricht (1659-64).

whose main work

related approach

Philip Vingboons (1614-78),

is

also

whose Trippenhuis

in

is

is

usually called

call it

his pupil

the

found

"Dutch."

and

Town

in the

col-

Hall in

works of

Amsterdam (1660-62)

monumental note to the theme of the Mauritshuis.


The development of the Protestant church is closely connected with

gives a certain

the

195

304. Nicodemus Tessin the


Younger, Stockholm, Royal Palace,
forecourt.

305. Stockholm, Tessin Palace,


plan.

Netherlands.

The new churches

Amsterdam from

of

the beginning of the

seventeenth century are rather conventional pseudo-basilicas;

mention

instance,

Zuiderkerk

the

(1606-14)

more

the

we may,

for

Westerkerk

The Norderkerk, however,

(1620-38) by Hendrik de Keyser (1565-1621).

by Staets shows

and

original approach (1620-23).

The plan

is

Greek

cross with cut-off inside corners to create a better spatial integration.

Within

this space, the seats are diagonally oriented.

nerist with

The

detailing

is

Man-

Gothic reminiscences. In 1639 Arent van s'Gravesande

1662) started building the octagonal Marekerk in Leyden.


classical in character

and

is

(d.

The church

is

covered by a dome. Another "basic" type of

Van Campen

square with an inscribed Greek cross.

Nieuwe Kerk in Haarlem (1645): a


More unusual is the Nieuwe Kerk in

The Hague

(d.

plan was used by

consists of

in the

(1649) by Pieter Noorwits

1669) and B. van Bassen, which

two squares with apses added

all

around, giving the basically

simple building quite a rich and complex character.


pilasters

ism

is

makes the wall appear

as a

continuous

A regular succession of

"shell. "

The bi-axial organ-

centralized by a steep roof which embraces both the squares of the

plan and a centrally placed steeple.

The

interior

is

also centralized, as the

we should mention

the Nieuwe
Amsterdam (1668) by Adriaen Dortsman (1625-82). Here
the plan is based on the circle. A main domed area is surrounded by an ambulatory along half of its periphery, creating a somewhat theater-like
space. The articulation shows Doric (Tuscan) columns in the interior and
pilasters outside. It is apparent then that the Dutch Protestant churches
pulpit

is

placed on the shorter axis. Finally,

Lutherse Kerk

in

tend towards centralized plans, and

it is

highly significant that the shapes

employed are the basic geometrical elements: square, octagon, Greek cross,
double square, and

circle. It is as

though the architects wanted to pre-

sent a "catalogue" of possible solutions within the limits of the

same gen-

eral type: a static, centralized space that satisfies the desire for self-evident
clarity

and

regularity.

1564 the Huguenots

Calvinist ideal

built-

is

thereby expressed; already in

three centralized "temples" in

Lyon

(Fleur-de-

lis,

Paradis, Terreaux),' which presented the characteristic traits of later

Protestant churches. Later, Calvinism became the religion of the commercial city-states

where

its

hard, clear and effective discipline well fitted the

general character of the society.

mon

defense.

The

small Calvinist centers needed com-

Calvinist International was therefore established.

Synod of Dordt (1617) was

its

The

equivalent to the Catholic Council of Trent.

In spite of

its

"anti-Baroque" character, Calvinist architecture, thus,

also united

by

Baroque

esprit

is

de systeme.

Scandinavia

Although the Scandinavian countries accepted Protestantism, they


tained

an absolute monarchy.

re-

Seventeenth-century society in Scan-

dinavia, therefore, lacked the unequivocal direction

we have found

in

306. Stockholm, Tessin Palace,


garden.

197

307. Munich,

St.

Michael, interior.

308. Hans Alherthal, Dillingen,


Jesuit Church, interior.

On

other European countries.

the one hand, a centralization existed that

brought the nobility to the capital

cities,

Copenhagen and Stockholm; on

the other hand, a development of trade and industry that, on a smaller


scale,

resembled that of the Netherlands became evident. In architecture,

thus, there
It is

was

a multitude of influences: French,

Dutch, and even

Italian.

not possible to talk about a specific Scandinavian architecture but

there are several important individual buildings that ought to be men-

tioned."

Denmark building activity flourished under King Christian IV


who wanted to transform Copenhagen into a true capital city.
From 1626, its area was doubled, and already before that, many splendid
buildings were erected in an original Mannerist style. We may mention the
In

577- 1648)

pleasure palace Rosenborg (1606-17) and the

which the King himself designed the

plans.

new town, but

square as the focus for the

it

Exchange (1619-30),

He

was not carried out,

fortunate role played by the King in the Thirty Years'

War

took place. Only in 1672 was the

first

as the un-

put a stop to

building activity, and during the reign of his successor very


terest

for

planned an octagonal

little

of in-

Baroque palace, Charlot-

tenborg, built in Copenhagen, placed between a kind of place royale, Kon-

gens Nytorv, with the statue of Christian V, and a garden.

Sweden, however, rose

to full

and experienced an age of great

power during the seventeenth century,


artistic

achievement. During the

first

three decades, architecture followed the approach of Danish Mannerism.

change

is

marked by the appointment of the Frenchman, Simon de

Vallee, as Royal architect in 1639.


lee

He educated his own son, ]eandela

and Nicodemus Tessin the Elder (1615-81), who were both

cisive

to

have

la

Vala de-

importance for the development of a Baroque architecture

in

Sweden.

Back from
in

Stockholm

Jean de

Italy in 1650,
as a

Roman

la

Vallee built the Oxienstierna Palace

palazzo. In 1656 he tackled the problem of the

The plan is an interesting


Greek cross. The same year he built the Bonde Palace, introducing the cour d'honneur to Sweden. The complex building is
unified by continuous rustication, but the single volumes are defined by
8
tall roofs.' The corps de logis and its corner pavilions are articulated by a
giant order of rusticated pilasters. The palace, thus, represents a further
Protestant church with the large St. Katarina.
synthesis of square and

development of the

style of

De Brosse.

In 1659,

De la Vallee took over the

construction of the Riddarhuset (House of Nobility), which had been

planned by the Dutch architect Justus Vingboons

in 1653.

Vingboons

is

responsible for the introduction of a "Dutch" colossal order of pilasters, a

theme that he had already employed


Louis de Geer, in 1646,
the Mauritshuis.

De

la

in the palace of the

Dutch merchant,

building that repeated the basic disposition of

Vallee wanted to give the Riddarhuset a cour

d'honneur, but the projecting wings were never executed.

Nicodemus Tessin the Elder became Royal

architect in 1649, and built

Town

309. Elias Holl, Augsburg,

310. Francesco Caratti, Prague,

Czernin Palace.

Hall.

311. Carlo Antonio Carlone,

"am Hof.

Vienna, Jesuit Church

-'11 1 WW
show

several important structures that

curious mixture of French and

His cathedral in Kalmar (1660)

Italian traits.

is

an elongated bi-axial or-

ganism with four towers to emphasize the center. The

comes close to Roman Cinquecento architecture. In the Caroline

lation

Mausoleum,

in

Stockholm (1672), Tessin approaches French

but a true Baroque integration

continue into the dome.


a place of
sin's
a

style of the articu-

honor

magnum

in

is

classicism,

achieved by means of convex corners that

solution

is

remarkable, and gives the building

Scandinavian seventeenth-century architecture. Tes-

opus, the large country palace of Drottningholm (1662), has

double corps de

ticulation

The

is

logis

with corner

ressauts

and added pavilions. The

ar-

simple and strong, showing a colossal order of pilasters over a

rusticated ground-floor. All in

all,

the building has a

somewhat conserva-

tive character.

was Tessin's son, Nicodemus Tessin the Younger (1654-1728), who

It

gave Swedish seventeenth-century architecture

major works.

its

of exceptional talent, he was educated in

tect

Rome

An

archi-

(1673-78 and

1687-88), where he frequented Bernini and Carlo Fontana. In 1678-80

and 1687 he also visited France, and studied the works of Le Notre.
first result

'

As the

of his travels was the splendid garden at Drottningholm.

Royal architect of the young and dynamic Charles XII, Tessin got

many

commissions, culminating with the rebuilding of the Royal Palace in

Stockholm, which was started soon after his return to Sweden in 1688. Because of his interest in religion, the King

chapel (1689), but in

690 he

also

first

shows

rocks" and rustication.

The derivation from

is

lier

a large

wanted

new

palace

Bernini's Montecitorio Pal-

evident. In 1697 the old palace burned

new grandiose

Tessin had the plans for a

all

Roman palazzo on a base of "natural

north. Tessin's project

ace

of

decided to build a new wing towards the

down, and soon afterwards

building ready.

(1694) he had designed a project for a

new Royal

few years

ear-

Palace in Copen-

hagen, employing a U-plan with a large cour d'honneur.

Its character,

however, was to be entirely Roman, reflecting inspiration from Bernini's

The young King Charles XII of Sweden wanted

Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi.
a

still

more magnificent building, and Tessin developed

a large

square

courtyard-palace incorporating the northern wing that he had designed


several years before.

block,

The appearance

the west, however, Tessin

and to the east he defined


wings.
types.

of the building

which makes us think of Bernini's

The
The

added low curved


a

that of a unified

Louvre.

To

stables forming an avant-cour,

spacious garden-terrace by means of projecting

solution, thus, represents a


large courtyard

is

final project for the

combination of Italian and French

was intended

as a place royale,

where Tessin

proposed to erect an equestrian statue of Charles XI. The palace would


thereby have received a focus that

Roman
tension.

in character,

is

lacking today.

The wall-articulation is

but the general proportions create an effect of ex-

The facade on the cour d'honneur has

a certain affinity to the Pa-

lazzo Barberini, whereas the centers of the other elevations are

em-

mill

itr~ '-:

ill

iiiiiittffiiii

312. Agostino Barelli, Munich,

Theatine Church.

phasized by colossal pilasters or columns. The Royal Palace in Stockholm

without doubt

the most unified of the great palaces of the European

is

side wall

is

therefore reduced to a structurally neutral surface.

niscence of classical articulation

Seicento, and represents a worthy conclusion to an epoch in architectural

which forms

history.

of space and structure

In connection with the Royal Palace, Tessin planned a grandiose

monu-

Roman

a gallery

transverse axis of the palace, as well as other public buildings (1704-13).

Hans Alberthal

The monumental

the Jesuits:

and do not exhibit any true Baroque

In his

own

city house, the Tessin Palace,

free experimentation (1692-1700).

Royal Palace on

by

projects of Tessin are distinguished

larity,

narrow, irregular

street in the Italian

classical regu-

plasticity or spatial

however, he took the liberty of a

The house is situated in front of


site. The corps de logis overlooks

manner, and the facade has

Roman

character.

projecting walls, however, indicate a kind of cour d'honneur.

we

corps de logis,
sides

find a

dynamism.

splendid garden which

is

position ends with a

Two

movement

the seventeenth century,

and

truly

it

Baroque space. In

Baroque

accompanied on both

It is

Alps.
ter.

thus,

combines intimacy and

depth. In the entire secular architecture of

would be

more

fascinating

unifies

Roman and

difficult to find a

a highly original

manner,

it

French ideas, and gives testimony to the great talent of


Tessin, Scandinavian architecture reached a

European

its

creator.

level,

With

perhaps for

Years'

Alberthal, however, and

fifty years later,

War

it

was

and had decisive im-

hardly possible to talk about a secular Baroque architecture in Ger-

It

was

The

the Thirty Years'

built

by

building

Elias

is

War. German writers often praise the


as the first Baroque building north of the

Ho// (1573- 1646) for

a curious

this

combination of

important trading cen-

tall,

medieval burgher's

house and an Italian palazzo, built in a style that shows a mixture of

Roman and

Palladian elements. In spite of the

the general effect

is

awkward

articulation,

quite impressive, and the building functions well as

a Stadtkrone.

Bohemia the war had already ended in 1620 with the Catholic victory
White Mountain. In 162 1 Wallenstein started the construction of a
large city-palace in Prague, with the Italian Andrea Spezza as his architect.
In

at

the

The most

the only time in history.

Hans

Town hall in Augsburg (1614-20)

creates an efficient

to a trick of foreshortening, ap-

The Thirty

spatial integration results.

Europe.

in Central

many before

and the whole com-

The garden,
in

most impressive

portance for the development of the great sacred architecture of the Late

The exedra

due

(1617-20) and Innsbruck

Eichstatt

In these buildings, the horizontal gallery has been omitted, so

continued by the Vorarlberg builders

parts of the garden,

niche, which,

tall

pears like a deep colonnade.

seemingly infinite

two

built three wall-pillar churches for

the

here two freestanding architectural elements are placed which define a

spatial interpenetration of the

Michael was further developed by

who

interrupted the original initiative of

Behind the

an integration

initiated in St.

1575-1657),

(c.

Dillingen (1610-17),

41

(1619-21).
that a

wall-pillars. In general,

achieved, which surpasses the possibilities of the

the

by shallow diverging wings. At about half-way the space narrows and

semicircular exedra containing a fountain.

is

remi-

basilica.

The new approach

mental center for Stockholm, with a new cathedral across the river on the

between the

present in the continuous architrave

is

interesting feature of the building

large Hall,

where the entablature

is

is

the wall articulation of the

interrupted to

make

the vertical

mem-

bers appear as separate units, forming together with the vault a large
Central Europe

baldachin. Another Italian, Carlo Lurago (1618-84), played an important

The Thirty Years' War (1618-48) indicates the confused situation of the
Germanic countries during the seventeenth century. Before the war start-

role in

ed, however,

we

tion with the

movements

find a multitude of building initiatives, mainly in connecof

Reformation and Counter-Reformation. Dur-

ing the last decades of the century building slowly

mentum, but the


eenth century.

fully

developed

German Baroque

resumed

its

monu-

belongs to the eight-

44

Bohemia around the middle

College) in Prague

is still

of the century. His

Mannerist

in the splendid

nave of the Cathedral

a significant

way by adaptation

to the local tradi-

tion of Wandpjeiler construction. "Wall-pillars" are Late Gothic buttres-

placed inside rather than on the exterior of the building. In the Church

of St. Michael a large barrel-vault, spanning twenty meters, rests directly

200

pillars.

is

con-

domes on pendentives, and

Prague, the construction of palaces was continued by Francesco Caratti

create an effect of Baroque rhetoric.

on such

Passau (1668). The space

has a sumptuous stucco decoration by Giovanni Battista Carlone. In

system

ses,

in

ceived as a succession of transverse oval saucer

sal

transformed in

(Jesuit

but towards

the end of his career he realized a full-grown Baroque architecture, above


all

The architecture of the Counter-Reformation was introduced in Germany with the Jesuit church of St. Michael in Munich, built after 1583 by
an unknown master. The wide nave is clearly related to II Gesu, but the
is

Klementium

in character (1654-58),

Between them

tall

niches penetrate into the vault.

The out-

1679),

who probably

designed the Nostitz palace with the

first

(d.

true colos-

order in the city (1660). Later Caratti built the immense Czernin palace

(1669-89) where a Palladian type of giant order


,

With

is

repeated ad infinitum to

the arrival in Prague of the

French architect, Jean-Baptiste Mathey (1630-95), Bohemian architecture


achieved a more refined character.

His Troja garden palace (1679-97)

'

employs the French pavilion system, and


of colossal pilasters.

The main work

of

is

unified by a continuous order

Mathey

is

the St. Francis Church

"

313.

Domenico

Martinelli, Vienna,

314. Andreas Schliiter, Berlin,

Royal Palace and square

Liechtenstein Palace.

(contemporary engraving).
315. Andreas Schliiter, Berlin,

Kamecke House.

(Kreuzherren Kirche), built 1679-88. The plan

Greek

gitudinal oval and elongated


sensitive articulation.

The

combination of lon-

Roman

(such as the giant

dome) but the refined surface

detailing re-

classicism.

In Vienna, building activity started

momentum

is

and the exterior shows a very

basic elements are

aedicula of the facade and the

minds one of French

cross,

somewhat

and only received

later,

The first work of


any importance is the new facade for the Jesuit church "am Hof" built in
1662 by Carlo Antonio Carlone (d. 1708). By means of projecting wings,
real

the church

after the defeat of the

Turks

integrated with the adjoining palaces and interacts spatially

is

with the square in front. The solution

is

Minimes church. About the same time,


Leopold range of the Hofburg, employing
ticulation (1661-68).

related to Francois Mansart's


Filiberto Lucchese built the
a restrained

Mannerist wall

ar-

A true Baroque approach is introduced by Domenico

Martinelli (1650-1718),

tant

in 1683.

who

settled in

Vienna

in 1690.

His most impor-

works are the two Liechtenstein palaces, the city-palace

1692 and the garden palace from 1696. The city-palace

grown Baroque building

in

Vienna.

It

is

initiated in

the

first full-

appears as a monumentalized ver-

sion of Bernini's Chigi-Odelscalchi palace, and gives testimony to a con-

siderable architectural talent.


that runs through the entire
staircases

add

to the spatially

follows the best

Roman

The garden

palace has a splendid vestibule

depth of the building. Symmetrically disposed

advanced solution. The exterior articulation

tradition with a giant order of pilasters over a rus-

ticated groundfloor. Martinelli's talent

was confirmed by

Austerlitz (Slavkov), built shortly after 1700,

his palace at

where he introduced the

cour d'honneur/' Italian architects also dominated building activity in

southern Germany. The most important personality


(1627-99),
ing S.

the

who

Andrea

facade,

designed the large Theatine church

is

Agostino Barelli

Munich

(1663), us-

Twin towers were added


an impressive ensemble.
The interior has

della Valle in

creating

Rome

in

as a model.

'

somewhat "classical" character, due


columns. At any rate, the space is less

to an articulation

by fluted

to
a

half-

interesting than the contemporary

nave in Passau. Barelli also initiated the palace of Nymphenburg (1664),

which was continued by Enrico Zuccalli (1642-1724),


the large palace at Schleissheim (1692). Almost

all

51

who

also designed

the works mentioned

who dominated the scene in Central


War. Most of them were secondary figures
from northern Italy (or the Italian part of Switzerland), and their works
rarely attain any true, creative originality. They contributed, however, in
a decisive way to the general diffusion of the ideas of the epoch, and toabove are due to

Europe

Italian architects,

after the Thirty Years'

gether with a crowd of Italian masons and stucco workers laid the foundation for the great Late

Before
tect

who

we

conclude,

Baroque architecture of the eighteenth century.

we

should, however, mention one

spiritually belongs to the

German

seventeenth century: Andreas

archi-

Schliiter

(1664-1714). Originally a sculptor, he was commissioned to design the

202

Royal Palace of Berlin in 1698.

The

palace was intended as part of a

ger urban scheme, with a cathedral defining the


the transverse one.

The conservative courtyard

the old Schloss, and the general character

is

main

axis,

lar-

and the palace

layout was determined by

clearly influenced

heavenly bodies, to an infinite, unbroken continuity; each part contains


the law governing the whole, in each the same power, the same spirit

work."

and

The palace was pulmemory of the begin-

on

all

environmental

ticular

down after the Second World War,


nings of German absolutism.

landscape

to erase the

levels.

According to the system

emphasis may be given to one or more of the

varied motifs, creating a pronounced rhetorical effect.


led

became the

real protagonist of

principal level,

in question, par-

levels.

In France, thus,

and we may consider Le Notre the

French seventeenth-century architecture. The

flected the influence of landscape design,

and thereby received

city re-

new

mension. In Italy the building remained the constituent environmental

ment, and

Conclusion

The Baroque
"styles" of

is

traditionally considered the last of the great universal

European

This seems very natural when

art.

we remember

the

strong desire of the epoch to conceive the world in terms of an integrated

we have also seen

at

Baroque architecture concretizes the existential structure of the epoch

by Bernini's

project for the Louvre. Schliiter added, however, plastic accents

is

in particular the

was

spatial articulation

di-

ele-

church. In both cases, however, the problem of

essential.

French architects developed

a rational

system of spatial organization based on rond-points and places and connect,h

ing, straight paths.

Italian architects (especially

Borromini and Guarini)

that the seventeenth century offered a multi-

treated space as a kind of "negative" building, as a plastic "body" that can

tude of different systems, of a religious, philosophical, or political kind.

be modelled and that interacts with the surrounding spaces. Italian Ba-

How,

roque architecture, therefore, has

system. But

fact,

then,

many

is it

possible to maintain a unitary concept of "Baroque"? In

scholars stress the diversity of seventeenth-century art,

though some point out the evident and strong


In our exposition

epoch.

we have

common

al-

of the

traits

show that all the Baroque syscommon. These properties do not

tried to

tems, in fact, have basic properties in

primarily derive from particular contents, but from


cepts.

To

spatial.

describe these,

more general conwe have used two types of concepts: psychic and

All the

Baroque systems, thus, operated through psychic

suasion, participation,

and

transportation,

spatial centralization, integration,

and

and were concretized

terms of

extension. Regardless of the various

concrete types of participation resulting from the different

Baroque existence, therefore, had

in

per-

common

initial

basic structure, and

choice,

we may

with justification talk about an existential space that distinguishes the


epoch, just as

we may

philosophical systems.

point out fundamental analogies between

cepts which were assimilated by

all

the ideas of infinity and movement.


full

great

the existential systems, in particular

"The whole of the

art of the

Baroque is

of the echo of the infinite spaces and the interrelatedness of

all

The work of art in its totality becomes the symbol of the universe,
form organism alive in all its parts. Each of these parts points,

204

its

We should also remember the new scientific con-

being.

as a unilike the

"intelligent"

more

direct sensual impact than the

French layouts. In France the

the Italian foci are plastic "things.

"

foci are usually spaces, while

Furthermore the particular dynamism

of Italian architecture stems from the interaction of space and mass, while

French architecture

better characterized as pure spatial extension.

is

have already interpreted these basic

traits as

systems of the two countries. In other European countries the idea of

tem was

less strongly

developed, so that

architectural systems. This

is

We

expressions of the existential

we do

sys-

not find fully integrated

particularly evident in the Netherlands

which maintained an outdated regional self-government.


Essentially,

Baroque architecture was

authoritarian systems. In spite of this fact,


of Baroque architecture.

As

a concretization of centralized

we may

a set of particular

talk

about the actuality

phenomena, the Baroque

certainly belongs to the past. In addition to the history of events, however,


it is

necessary to introduce a history of ideas or existential

this history

Baroque architecture occupies an important

possibilities.

In

place, as a system

of forms that significantly extends the existential space of man, offering

him an "open" world

related to centers of meaning.^ This general model

may receive ever new and particular contents, and may


make a new pluralistic world operant.

therefore help us to

NOTES

CHAPTER ONE

"Descartes, op.

'The
E. Cassirer, The Philosophy of the Enlightement (1932), Boston, 1955,

thus says: "It

-'Alberti

2.

Do-

problem, and on 10 September 1586, the large

difficult technical

monolith was

in opera.

-<G. C. Aigsrn,

LEuropa delk

p. 138).

Man

on the Dignity of

'Pico della Mirandola, Oration

Discourse

menico Fontana solved the

manifest that nature delights principally in round Figures..." (Ten

is

Books on Architecture, VH/iv, London, 1755,

cit..

obelisk was erected to define the primary place of the city, the Piazza S. Pietro.

first

p. 39.

Livermore Forbes in The Renaissance Philosophy of

Capitali 1600-1700,

Geneva, 1964,

45.

p.

(1486). English translation by Elizabeth

Man

'The word "monument"

is

used here

in its original sense, that is,

something which makes us

re-

E. Cassirer, P.O. Kristeller,

(ed.

member.
J.H. Randell Jr.),
4

Chicago, 1948.
-"Argan, op.

Goethe

cit., p.

the heliocentric world of Copernicus "die grosste, erhabenste, folgenreichste Ent-

calls

deckung, die

Mensch gemacht

der

je

ganze Bibel" (Letter to von Miiller

hat, wichtiger als die

-"P.
:

1832).

57.

Lavedan, French Architecture, Harmondsworth, 1956,

*L.B. Alberti, Ten

p.

239.

Books on Architecture, English edition, London, 1755. Reprint, London,

p. 136.

'Rene Descartes, Discourse on Method. English translation by F.E. Sutcliffe. Harmondsworth,

1955,

1968, p. 54.

-"A. Palladio. \quattro libri dellArchitettura, Venice, 1570. English edition

T.E.

Sutcliffe. Introduction to Descartes: Discourse

on Method,

by Isaac Ware, Lon-

don, 1738.

p. 19.

See D'Alembert's "Discours preliminaire" to the French Encyclopedic (17'511 where he distin-

"'An exception

is

Pietro Cataneo

who maintains

that the principal church in a city should

be cru-

own

guished the interest in the system as such from the esprit systematiquc of his

"Today pluralism has entered

new

phase, thanks to the

new means

"Giordano Bruno, De Vinfinito universo e mondi Dialoghi


,

I,

ciform, because the cross

century.

"See
in

Thus Galileo

says:

"Non sono

forma nobilissima, quale e

avendo mai

men

Iette le

nobili, piu

men

che voglia che

la sferica

croniche e

il

ma

perfetta,

Cielo

come corpo

ma

nobilissimo, abbia ancora

l'istesso Aristostele...

nobilta particolari delle figure,

le

perfette;

meglio, che quanto a loro

io

ed

credo che tutte siano antiche e nobili

non sieno ne

io

non so quale
a

quanto

"There are

may

l:

un modo, o per

dir

nobili e perfette, ne ignobili ed imperfette," in Operc,

notice that these authors were not professionals in the ordinary sense of the word.

F.E Sutcliffe, op.

1450-1600, Oxford, 1956,

p.

108.

"Albert Schweitzer has in fact demonstrated

how

in Italy

turalistic"

XXV, Tit. 2, quoted from A.

Blunt, Artistic

the works of Bach are based on the use of "na-

and "literary" images, whereby they possess the two basic Baroque characteristics

].S.

of Painting and Sculpture was founded in 1648. and the

Academv

attitude

"With

is

tectural system."

who

certainly created a very clear

We will later return to his

achievement and

its

and comprehensive "archi-

relation to the architecture of

the seventeenth century.

"A good
Rome,"
also:

account
in Space.

is

given by S. Giedion, "Sixtus

Time and Architecture,

briche

dal

cit., p.

(1585-90) and the planning of the Baroque

fifth edition,

Rinascimento

Roma, volume XXII, Rome,

"Giedion, op.

al

Cambridge, Mass., 1667, pp. 75

1870,"

in Topografia e Urbanistica di

ff.

See

Roma

93, translated from Delia Trasportazione dell' Obelisco Vaticano et delle Fa-

Di Nostro Signore Papa

Sisto V, fatto dal Cav.

"Sinding-Larsen, op.

W.

Domenico Fontana,

Architetto di Sua Sanita

the ancient Via Lata, whereas the one to the right, Via di

was carried through under Pope Leo


cit., p.

407.

di Alberti," in

Oslo-Rome, 1962, pp. 131

cit., p.

Acta ad archaeologicam

et

artium

ff.

240.

Lotz, "Die ovalen Kirchenraume des Cinquecento," Romisches Jahrbuch fur KunstgeBk.

7.

"C. Borromeo, Instructiones Fabricac


cit., p.

et Supellectilis Ecclesiasticae

(1577). Translation by Sin-

205.

"The church was begun

1568 by Vignola and finished

in

model of the contemporary church, saying: "Mai


molto

alle Basiliche..." (op. cit

"SeeC. Galassi

1Y.

in

1576 by Giacomo Delia Porta who

noi...

edifichiamo

li

Templj che

si

assimigliano

5)

Paluzzi, Storia segreta dello

non prescrivevano nessuna

stile dei

legge, ne

Gcsuiti

Rome, 1951. "Erastatocoslpostoin

prevedevano regolamenti

decorazione pittorica o scultorea"

la

"Argan, op.

cit., p.

'"Basilically the

(1513-20), and Pope Paul III (1534-49).

circa lo stile architettonico, o le

(p. 39).

ff.

106.

church

is

an extension of the public space of the

"Its roots, of course, are found in

Roman

city,

although with a particular

God."

Antiquary. The

villa,

therefore, represents a con-

scious attempt at a "Renaissance." Alberti quotes Martial:

You

tell

in

me. Friend, you much desire to know,

my

Villa

can find to do?

eat, drink, sing, play, bathe, sleep, eat again,

Or

read, or

Alberti, op.

-'"The central street, the Corso, follows

"Giovannoni, op.

1,

What

1958).

(Rome, 1590).

Ripetta,

"Le Ultime Intenzioni

sacred qualification, as the private "house of

G. Giovannoni, "Roma

(Storia di

'-'SeeC. Norberg-Schulz,

"A. Blunt, op. cit, pp. 127

already evident in the works of Bramante's pupils Raphael and Peruzzi.

the exception of Palladio,

II,

ff.

historiam pertinentia, vol.

piante, o

of Architecture in 1671.

"The

203

luce che le costituzioni dell'Ordine in merito alia costruzione di chiese, collegi, convitti ecc,

Bach, Leipzig, 1908.

"The Royal French Academy

functional and iconographical aspects of the centralized church

designed the facade and the dome. About the same time Palladio recognized the basilica as the

systematic structure based on an "axiomatic" theme, and persuasive expression. See A. Schweitzer,

pp.

ding-Larsen, op.

cit., p. 14.

''Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent. Session

Theory

Rome, 1965,

and Guarini,

as the treatises of Blondel, Perrault

"Some

Sinding-Larsen,

the Italian Renaissance," in Acta ad archaeologicam et artium historiam pertinentia, vol.

"See

few important exceptions, such

Quattro Primi Libri di Ar-

me, non

di esse sieno piu o

Florence, 1842-56, vol. IV, p. 293.

but we

S.

Venice, 1554.

chitettura,

of communication.

III (1584).

the symbol of redemption. P. Cataneo,

is

cit.

wanton
IX,

in the

Muses Train.

ii.

'-The examples are legion.

We just wish to recall Giuliano da Sangallo's Poggio a Caiano for Lo-

Magnifico (1480).

renzo

il

"I.e.,

Palazzo Pitti in Florence by Brunelleschi

(?), c.

1455, and Palazzo Piccolomini in Pienza

205

by Bernardo Rossellino

(c.

1460).

The

real villa

suburbana was developed during the sixteenth

century.

vona

"Alberti, op.

cit.,

V,

"Alberti, op.

cit.,

IX,

Roma"

fontanedi

(lateral

already before the pontificate of Sixtus V: Piazza Colonna (1574), Piazza Na-

fountains 1574-76), Piazza della Rotonda (1575), Piazza Mattei (1581-84), Piazza

Madonna dei Monti

xviii.

(1588-89), Piazza Campitelli (1589), Piazza d'Aracoeli (1589), Piazza della

Chiesa Nuova (1590), Via del Progresso (1591), Piazza del Quirinale (1593). See C. D'Onofrio,

ii.

Roma Rome,

,6

S. Serlio, Tutte I'Opere d'Architettura, IV.

Le Fontane

4;

A. Palladio, op.

Tontana's Palazzo del Laterano (1586), for instance,

cit.,

11/12.

"This contrast in scale and texture

is

well illustrated in Ferrara,

extended by Biagio Rossetti after 1492. Rossetti introduced


ces.
4

See B. Zevi, Biagio

"Alberti, op.

cit.,

"The Viennese

IX,

where the medieval town was

system of regularly spaced pala-

typologically a derivation of the Italian palazzo rather than

the French hotel, which represents a different relation between the building and

its

environ-

ment.
5

52

study Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture,

Augsburg, 1716, ch.

M Le Corbusier,

New

generally characterized as a "dull"

found

in

any other

Roman

cit.

"At the time of

in his

fundamen-

London, 1961.

its

many

erection (1539)

believed the statue to represent Constantine, the

"See C. de Tolnay, "Michelangelo architetto," in

York, 1966.

"The

first

Cinquecento Florence, 1955.


,

pp. 76

cit., II,

G. Rainaldi

in 1654.

ff.

Vers une Architecture, Paris, 1923, English edition,

London, 1927, pp. 126,

made by Hans Rose who

'The

distinction

lian"

and the opposite figure

as

defines the trident leading away from a point as "Ita-

"French," stems from

naturally can be "read" both ways, although

it

may

misunderstanding. Baroque radiation

be used for concentration or

in certain cases

radiation alone. See Spdtbarock, Munich, 1922, p. 79.

De Architectura,

"Vitruvius,

I, ii, 5.

English edition, London, 1931,

p. 29.

"P. Portoghesi points out that this effect

See E. Forssman, Dorisch, Ionisch. Korintisch. Sludien liberden Gebrauch der Saulenordnungen

in der Architektur des 16.-18. Jahrkunderts

"Serlio, op.

cit.,

Stockholm, 1961.

'The

M M. Heidegger, Sein undZeit


"SeeC. Norberg-Schulz,

(1927), 11th ed.

Existence, Space

"See C. Norberg-Schulz, op.

cit.

Tubingen 1967,

1855 (20 October 1665.)

p. 104.

human

beings;

secting actions, a continuous functional pattern...

The

it is

Langer who

says:

a system of interlocking

architect creates

New York,

1953,

ni

project

who

XIX, No.

2,

Barocca,

Rome, 1966,

p.

277.

Roman Architecture of the

Full Baroque,"

The Art

June 1937.

by Rainaldi shows a portico crowned by an

attic,

joined in as supervisor in 1674. See Portoghesi, op.

which was

later

omitted by Berni-

277.

cit., p.

gateways because of the increased

lateral

traffic.

its

"A

culture

and

inter-

image; a physically

that expresses the characteristic rhythmic functional patterns

which constitute a culture." (Feelingand Form,

strengthened by the fact that the axes of the chur-

"In 1878, Porta del Popolo was extended with two

and Architecture, London, 1970.

We may also refer to Susanne K.

factually of the activities of

human environment

Paris,

is

Roma

See R. Wittkower, "Carlo Rainaldi and the

Bulletin, Vol.

Serlio, op. cit., IV.

made up

ches converge towards the piazza. See


14

IV, preface.

W M. deChantelou: Journal du voyage du Cav. Bemin en France,

present

II

third palace, imitating the Palazzo dei Conservatori, was finished by

"See Ackerman, op.

ordres de Vignole, Paris, 1691. Preface.

188, 191.

is

is

a systematic disposition hardly

2.

"A.C. Daviler, Cours d 'Architecture qui comprend les

58

however, shows

See H. Siebenhuner, Das Kapitolin Rom, Munich, 1954. Also, J. S. Ackerman, The Architecture

of Michelangelo,

L.C. Sturm, Vollstdndige Anweisung alle Arten von regularen Prachtgebduden nach gewissen Re-

geln zu Erfinden,

56

plan,

Christian emperor.

This problem has been brought forth with great emphasis by Robert Venturi

tal

1957.

palace of the period.

'Fontana, op.

Rossetti. Turin, 1960.

is

The

building.

ii.

city-palace, thus,

di

p. 96.)

"The commission goes back


l8

to

1794 and the

For the history of Piazza Navona, see

nell'arte,

"The

P.

final plan

was ready

Romano and

in

1812.

P. Partini, Piazza

Navona

nella storia e

Rome, 1944.

history of S.

Agnese

in

Agone goes back

to

123

gin saint. In 1652, Carlo Rainaldi was asked to build a

when

church was dedicated to the

new church on

the spot.

When

vir-

the foun-

dations had been laid, Borromini took over (1653) and changed the project considerably. First
of

CHAPTER TWO

all,

he gave the centralized structure

putting the
'For a comprehensive survey, see E.A. Gutkind, International History of City Development,

New

The villa of the Pope,

20

Villa

Montalto, was integrated

in this "star,"

having

its

main entrance on

the piazza in front of the apse of S. Maria Maggiore, from which a trident led through to the
It

was

built

was destroyed
Lorenzo

added

For
It
4

a fourth

nineteenth century.

S. Trinita dei

member

1570 while Sixtus

V was still a Cardinal. The villa

The connection between

S.

Maria Maggiore and

Monti

to the Piazza del

Popolo was never

railway station.

built. It

S.

would have

to the radiating streets of the piazza.

instance, the busy Piazza

was

in

Mura has also disappeared because of the construction of the

from

laid out already at the

A considerable

206

by Domenico Fontana

in the

fuori le

street leading

new concave facade and he

also

heightened the cupola,

high drum. But Borromini was put aside before the church was finished,

group of collaborating architects took over (1657). G.M. Baratta designed the

bell

towers

and Carlo Rainaldi the lantern. See E. Hempel, Francesco Borromini, Vienna, 1924, pp. 138

York, 1964.

garden.

and

dome on

number were

time of Sixtus V. See


built

by Giacomo

S.

Giedion, op.

della Porta

cit., p.

99.

who had become

"Architetto delle

cit.,

pp. 201

-''Portoghesi, op. cit., p. 229.

ghesi, "S.

Maria

For

ff.;

also R.

Wittkower, Bernini, London, 1955, pp. 34

comprehensive study on

della Pace, di Pietro

S.

Maria

ff.

ff.

della Pace, see P. Porto-

da Cortona," L'architettura, VII, pp. 840

ff.

"S. Maria della Pace also shows several characteristic details which were to be absorbed by

Late Baroque architecture such as the soft swelling triglyphs of the parapet on both sides of the
church.
2

Colonna which breaks the longitudinal movement of the Corso.

See D'Onofrio, op.

The project

24

For

is

known

to us

from a drawing published by Portoghesi (Roma Barocca,

p. 193).

complete history of the project see H. Brauer and R. Wittkower, Die Zeichnungen des

Gianlorenzo Bernini, Vienna, 1931. Also C. Thoenes, "Studien zur Geschichte des Petersplatzes," Zeitschrift fur Kunstgeschichte, 1963.

;,

The

oval

based on two intersecting

is

already found in Serlio, op.


2

*Codice Chigiana H.

2:

See R. Wittkower,

1949, pp. 129

cit.. I, p.

circles

14.

running through each other's centers,

Measure

solution

196x 142 m.

inside:

"The general effect

"II

terzo braccio del Bernini in Piazza San Pietro," in Bollettino d'Arte,

''Tn the case of the

of the piazza retta was suggested by the existing Vatican palace. Bernini,
a

given condition,

Michelangelo had done

just as

hundred years

earlier

the Capitoline Square.

connection mention the interesting interpretation of the colonnade

11

sisting of a series of

honorary columns: the world

is

"filtered" into the square through

See Maurizio and Marcello Fagiolo dell'Arco, Bernini, Rome, 1967,


cit., p.

as con-

rows of

Two of

An

,LI

Roman

pp. 75

to slightly

Copenhagen, 1950,

Belvedere,

Rome

ought to mention that the population of

is

its

XIV.
in

Salzburg about the same time, and later in

carried out from 1605 onwards.

to those

who

built behind,

The arcades were paid

who were

for

by the Duke him-

obliged to follow the established scheme.

ff.

p. 44.

Forma Urbana ed Architettura

20,000 inhabitants

during the seventeenth century only

s,

erection, the statue of

Marcus Aurelius was

in

Amedeo

son

"The Roman

di

nella Torino Barocca, Turin, 1968.

1620 and 40,000

The square was planned

more than 100,000 persons.

already mentioned that at the time of

preserved, the Porte St. Denis by Francois Blondel (1672) and the

still

analogous phenomenon was experienced

and given

lo's

"We have

say that the space

For the urbanistic history of Turin see the magnificent three-volume opus by A. Cavallari-Mu-

Rome, 1962,

of the Palazzo Borghcse.

"See C. Elling, Function and Form oj the

these gates are

The piazza was

self,

rat,

"We

we should

Vienna.

153.

p.

45.

"See H. Hibbard, The Architecture

amounted

Piazza del Popolo and the Piazza Navona,

streets to the north

Porte St. Martin by Pierre Bullet (1679). Both are decorated with reliefs representing the victories of Louis

when he planned

*Argan, op.

put up by Napoleon in 1810

and by the new

related to buildings.

"We may
saints.

Vendome column

and south. The square measures 124X140 meters.

advantage of

in this

tall

22.

ff.

The trapezoid shape

thus, took

today disturbed by the

II,

48
:<

is

after the destruction of the statue during the Revolution,

in

1637 and construction started

in

Castellamonte (1610-83).

solution, however,

is

We may add that Turin had

1700.

It

in

1644 under the direction of Car-

measures 170x76.7 meters.

posterior to the churches of Carlo di Castellamonte.

believed to represent Constantine. Pierre Lavedan forgets the Capitoline Square and explains
1

the place royale as a unification of the Italian Renaissance square (e.g. Vigevano)

The

Grand Duke Ferdinando of Tuscany

in

was heightened by Juvarra

statue

in 1720.

The group

in

1668, while the cam-

also comprises Guarini's

placed where the

is

left

Church of

S.

Lo-

wing of the Royal Palace meets the Piazza Castello.

128.

p.

"The
"The

Sindone Chapel, designed by Guarini

Leghorn). See P. Lave-

renzo which
dan, Les Villes Francaises, Paris, 1960,

to the SS.

and the statue


panile

of a ruler (e.g. the statue of the

dome belongs

tall

was commissioned by Henry's wife, Maria de'Medici,

in

1604 and

finally put

up

solution, in general, stems

from French prototypes,

in particular the Palais

du Luxem-

in

bourg in Paris by Salomon de Brosse (1615). The tower which was

built of

wood and plaster was

1614 after the death of the King.


destroyed by

"The development
tions (1662)

islands

of the

He

St. Louis,

and the Louvre, and the different projects for symmetrical squares

from the eighteenth century (published by Patte

in 1765)

"The
in

of Turin.
in this con-

"The gardens were planned by Le Notre


,;

,T

The base

,B

The Place Royale was

of the triangle was torn

name was changed

"The

1811, and the screen has since been demolished.

Porta di Po was demolished during the Napoleonic period together with the fortifications

and along the

may be mentioned

nection.

'"Covent

fire in

the transverse axis between the College des Quatre Na-

down

after the

between 1605 and 1612.

It

forms

square of 140x140 meters.

The

French Revolution.
is

clearly derived

from the Place Royale

Metezeau and Baptiste du Cerceau served


however, that the King himself was the

as architects to the King. It

real planner, just as Sixtus

is

A. Blunt, Art and Architecture in France 1500-1700, Harmondsworth, 1957,

"P. Lavedan, French Architecture, Harmondsworth, 1956,

p.

generally assumed,

had been

in

M Cavallari-Murat,

"The church was

in Paris.

was made by Claude Chastillon and Jacques Alleaume, who together with Louis

"See Lavedan, Lei

Rome. See

op.

cit., p.

p. 94.

""See
lo

fields the

period

is

1282.

1036.

Turin

in 1584. In

1596 he made

Mondovi.

Castellamonte, La Venaria Rea/epalazzo di piacere e di caccia ideato dall'altezza reale Car-

Emanuele

11,

de Louis

siecle

'-'Bourget

Villes Fancaises, p. 120.

cit., p.

cit., p.

initiated soon after the arrival of Vitozzi in

Turin, 1674.

"'The literature on Versailles

239.

1050; op.

decisive contribution to the planning of the great pilgrimage church of Vicoforte near

XIV

',

is

very rich. For

general introduction see B. Teyssedre, L'Artau

Paris, 1967.

and Cattaui, op.

"G.C. Argan, "Giardino


"Also in other

in 1697-98.

In spite of this late date, the architect B. Alfieri kept surprisingly close to the spirit of Vitozzi

and Castellamonte. See Cavallari-Murat. op.


built

Garden by Inigo Jones (1631-35)

project

1874 and the houses have been much altered.

in

cit.,

pp. 113

ff.

Parco," Enciclopedia Universale

dell' Arte,

VI. Florence, 1958, p.

characterized by rich and varied activities; in religion, St.


159.

Francois de Sales, St. Vincent de Paul, Cornells Jansen; in philosophy, Descartes, and in litera"4

ture, Corneille.

"Man

sucht also dreierlei: das Schmikkende, das Wohnliche und das Natiirliche, eine Trilogie

der Bedurfnisse..." H. Rose: Spdtbarock,

"The word

boulevard, in fact, originally meant the

flat

'''See

"As

the

exact.

scheme had

They have

since disappeared,

tectural coherence.
little

to be adapted to the concrete urban circumstances, the

Four groups of Tuscan columns were placed

at the street

high.

of the Place des Victoires

The

relation thus

Under the statue of Louis XIV there were four

is

1:5, in

Mansart, Paris, 1956, p. 99

ff

is

P.

is

not

Fagiolo dell'Arco, "Villa Aldobrandina Tuscolana," Quaderni dell'lstituto di Storia del-

f Architettura, XI/62-66, Rome, 1964.


'"'See

its

E. de Ganay: Andre

Le

Notre, Paris, 1962.

H.M.

Fox: Andre Le Notre, Garden Architect to

archi-

78 meters, while the facades are a

accordance with the rule of Alberti.

figures in chains:

and Holland. For the general history of the project see

douw

symmetry

M.

corners to illuminate the square.

and other alterations have deprived the space of much of

The diameter

more than 15 meters

p. 36.

top of a rampart.

Germany, Piedmont, Spain

Bourget and G. Cattaui, Jules Har-

Kings.

London, 1962. For the phenomenology of the Baroque garden

see the excellent presenta-

tion in Rose, Spdtbarock.

Thus we

find the old motif of the "cardinal points" integrated in the scheme, symbolizing the

"cosmic" character of the composition.

"See R. Blomfield, Sebastien

le Prestre

de Vauban, London, 1938.

207

CHAPTER THREE

'The commission was taken over by Lemercier

1646 when the building had reached the main

in

entablature. See A. Braham, "Mansart Studies

'The activity naturally gravitated towards Rome.

however, were born there, a

Few

of the leading architects active in

Rome,

fact that illustrates the general "super-personal" character of the

Baroque movement.
2

With

only introduce an expedient subdivision that makes

complex process.

ture a

'An important book

We do not

possible to struc-

it

intend historical entities of any kind.


Kir-

chen wohl anzugeben Augsburg, 1718.

Whereas the architrave and the

broken over each

frieze are

Under the pendentives, however,

it

pilaster, the cornice runs through.

has a cut to eliminate the strongly projecting corners, and to

achieve a certain vertical continuity between the crossing and the dome.
chitrave and frieze indicate the beginning of a tendency towards a

Another peculiarity of the church

tion.

was

idea that

al

is

The breaks

more general

in the ar-

vertical integra-

the introduction of a transverse axis in the nave, an

to have considerable importance during the seventeenth century.

'Of particular interest are


Carlo

Corso (1612),

Maria

S.

A project

in Valicella

("Chiesa Nuova") (1575) for the Oratorians, S.

Borromeo and

initiated after the canonization of St. Charles

The

ples.

for the church

was made

1689 by the Theatine,

in

S.

Ignazio

Two bays of the nave were built before

derno was faithful to Della Porta's project. Only the

dome

Francesco Grimaldi, from Na-

1600.

289

The

later

Giacomo

della

execution by Ma-

clearly bears the personal

Maderno. See H. Hibbard, "The Early History of Sant'Andrea


Vol. XLIII, pp.

made an

oval project for

Andrea

21

large oval

dome was executed by Francesco Gallo

In general the solution

(c.

1560).

The

1964, pp. 101

stamp of

della Valle," Art Bulletin, 1961,

Maderno repeated

the general system of

but repeats the motif of the coupled columns, which also

in 1723,

influence of Michelangelo's

dome

Lotz, Die Ovalen Kircben-

ff., is

after 1728.

derived from Michelangelo's Cappella Sforza in

incorrect.

The

by G. Spagnesi

in

S.

Maria Maggiore

Giovanni Antonio De Rossi, Rome,

preexisting chapel of Volterra and

Maderno had

a different

plan.
-'-'R.

Wittkower, Art and Architecture

2J

La Chiesa

di S.

kind of precedent exists

1600-1 750, Harmondsworth, 1958,

in Italy

p. 119.

Andrea al Quinnale, Rome, 1966.

Annunziata

in SS.

in

Parma by Fornovo (1566)

that

transverse pseudo-oval, namely a rectangle plus two semicircles. See Lotz, op.

that he

had used the transverse oval already

demolished
2,

c.

pp. 55

ff.

we should mention

chapel of the Propaganda Fide palace (1634,

1654 by Borromini).

Wittkower, Art and Architecture in

-'"The walls

in the

based on

is

cit.,

Italy,

1600-1750,

have been shortened recently to allow for

p. 120.

widening of the

street in front.

"The longitudinal oval appears in the chapel attached to the Louvre in his third project.

mention the Trinity church

in

Kappel near Waldsassen by Georg Dient-

zenhofer (1685-9).

re-

'"In

'"Sinding-Larsen, op.

cit., p.

Argan, op.

cit., p.

ff.

"The

"According to Forster, Bramante did include

nave

As he cannot point

in his final plan.

OH.

si

intelligenza critica..."

il

St.

Antoine,"

Blois,

where the oval

idea of using a simple aedicula for the facade of smaller centralized churches

may be

traced

Maria

in

ScalaCoeli (1582), and Ricchino introduced

solu-

giant order in his facade for S.

any
''The church was finished only in 1747 and demolished in 1823.
"It has

120.

been pointed out that even

tery has
alia

been added

to the

main

in

some

space.

The

of the works of Brunelleschi a small

necessita di
dinal axis, however, stems

domed

intention of using such spaces to introduce

A domed presbytery,

from the sixteenth century.

presby-

a longitu-

was added

to

Fagnani,

5.

two primary domed spaces

is

thus,

ottico alia cupola: percio e bassa e larga, percio nell'ordine unico

sovrappone un alto ottico, che raccorda

a correggere Michelangiolo,

to

Forster, Bramante,

"'La facciata maderniana (1612) sacrifica ogni regola o tradizione proporzionale

non formare un impedimento

Rue

Pietro alia Rete in Milan (demolished 1623).


a

documentary evidence, the question must remain open. See

delle colonne

1635 Mansart planned a smaller circular chapel for the Chateau de

tion in S.

ff., fig.

of the Visitation in the

ff

back to the "temple-front" of Alberti. Giacomo della Porta attempted an Early Baroque

ff.

45.

Vienna, 1956, pp. 240

The Church

III:

202

presbytery would have been joined to the main space in a similar way.

205.

"LeCorbusier, op. cit, pp. 158

"Mansart Studies

Burlington Magazine, 1964, pp.

for St. Peter's.

"See R. Wittkower, Carlo Rainaldi, pp. 258

definitive

is

history of the chapel given

'"See P. Smith,

12

W.

della Valle.

"The dome was designed


flect the

Gesii (before 1658). See

ff.

In the smaller church of S. Maria della Vittoria (1606)

S.

II

raume des Cinquecento

-'"We may, for instance,


7

chapel in Anet (1549-52).

"Peruzzi already experimented with oval spaces, and Serlio published the plan for an oval church.

Bernini's solution was probably suggested by the shallow building-site, but


P.

plan that was used, however, probably stems from the intervention of

Porta in the same year.

'

''See F. Borsi,

(1626) for the Jesuits. All three are architecturally mediocre.


6

ideas of Mansart, however, did not lead to any creative development in France, although

ff.

may stem from De l'Orme's

'The

Burlington Magazine,

'The

Vignola also

by Leonard Christoph Sturm, Vollstdndige Anweisungaller Arten von

is

The Valde-Grace,"

I:

p.

they

we

these terms

351

1963,

Maderno

G.C. Argan, L

'

Io fa

alia

cupola

il

piano frontale... Costretto

con discrezione ammirevole,

ma anche con

the octagonal church of S. Maria di

Maria

di

Canepanova

Canepanova, Pavia, 1961. The

earliest

in Pavia (1499) after 1561.

attempt

at joining

See

F.

acuta
to our

architettura barocca in Italia. Milan, 1960, p. 13.

knowledge Antonio da Sangallo's project for

S.

Maria

di

Monte Moro near Montefias-

cone(1526).
"Bernini's proposal to separate the campanili from the facade proper by means of deep recesses

would have been an ingenious


Nicholas in Prague

freedom

"The

in plastic

Stare

"Particularly in the
solution. (The idea, in fact,

Mesto

in 1732.)

When Maderno planned

his front,

however, such

modelling was inconceivable.

Baroque basilica-facades

terized as very unfortunate indeed).

was normal.

giant order

is

usually

Even during
found

in

Corso

in

Rome must

be charac-

the eighteenth century, the two-story type

connection with smaller centralized organisms.

solution of St. Peter's with one main order plus an attic, however, had a certain following.

208

"See Sinding-Larsen, op.


"'R.

(the giant order of S. Carlo al

work

of Johann Michael Fischer.

in St.

Palladian solution introducing a giant order to express the nave hardly influenced the de-

sign of

The

was used by K.I. Dientzenhofer

cit.

Wittkower, "S. Maria

della Salute:

Scenographic Architecture and the Venetian baroque,"

journal of the Society of Architectural Historians,

1600-1750, pp. 191

"Wittkower, Art and Architecture


"Wittkower, op.
1

XVI

(1957). Also Art

and Architecture

in Italy

11

cit., p.

in Italy

1600-1750, op.

cit., p.

192.

194.

In general the handling of the spaces

is

additive.

Behind the main

altar,

however, where the

church

is

added to the chapel of Liberal Bruant, an "incomplete"

cates a spatial interpenetration. It

is

important to notice that

define the longitudinal axis which

is

common

Rome from 1607

^'Lemercier stayed in

burg (1694-1707)

and the

is

indi-

used to

hotel.

is

from

also derived

Carlo

XXV,

chitettura,

ai

von Erlach's Kollegienkirche

in Salz-

Catinari.

among

1962. P. Portoghesi, "SS. Luca e Martina di Pietro da Cortona," L'ar-

general rather than exact. Until the nineteen-thirties, the church was

The

houses.

visible parts,

however, were made according to the principles here

related, although less mature,

approach
is

is

found

in S.

bi-axial organization

del Sudario,

<8

Teresa had

by Torriani (1624-30) and

The scheme was

47

back to Giovanni Magenta's

Lucia in the same city in 1623, that

bi-axial organization of S.

di Paola

is

di

Loreto

way

in

Milan bv Ricchino

that the nave

becomes

nar-

a longitudinal oval.

also

Rome

is,

Salvatore in Bologna (1605-23). G. Rainal-

S.

after the planning of S. Teresa.

Ivo

found

is

a certain following.

Campo by

S. Salvatore in

taken over by Carlo Rainaldi

We may mention S.

Peparelli (1639), both in

Monteporzio

in

Francesco

(c.

Rome.

1670) and in the Chiesa

G.C. Argan, "S. Maria

in Campitelli a

Roma,"

L'architettura, VI, 1960.

not proceed

beyond the

apse. In 1695,

De

present plan. After the death of

in 1668.

The

'"Portoghesi {Borromini, p. 159) has

''"The following

worked out

G.A. De Rossi took over and and gave the church

its

G.C. Quadrio, completed the construction.

Rossi, his pupil,

Lomec

Bohemia,

in

a different vertical

built after 1660.

built shortly
al Valli-

development.

We will return

make

change

architecture. Since the inside

to the

ed

fits

Borromini's project

a transparent clerestory.

the works of Borromini particularly well:

from the inside out, creates necessary tensions, which


different from the outside, the wall

is

at

the point of

the meeting of interior and ex-

and space. These interior and environmental forces are both general and par-

and circumstantial." R. Venturi, Complexity and Contradiction

York, 1966,

Borromini,
''"See

well as

on

becomes an architectural event. Architecture occurs

terior forces of use

New

in, as

a fine reconstruction of

ribs resting

statement of Venturi therefore

"Designing from the outside

7l

construction, however, did

however,

it,

commission goes back to 1647, but the chapel was

p.

88

The concept

ff.

in Architecture,

of "field" (campo) has been introduced by Portoghesi in

384.

p.

C. Norberg-Schulz, Existence, Space and Architecture.

The

Maria Maddalena was initiated by Carlo Fontana

cit.,

palace in the next chapter.

(1687-89).
ff.

in the chapel in

notto, Vittone repeated the plan of S. Ivo, giving

ticular, generic

See C. Norberg-Schulz. Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofcr e il Barocco Bocmo, Rome, 1968, pp. 164

'"S.

A vertical continuity similar to S.

help

L'Opera di Hieronimo e Carlo Rainaldi, Rome, 1960. Wittkower has traced the

F. Fasolo,

di built S.

Maria

stretched in such a

rower and the transept wider. The dome, therefore,

*The

basis of the plan see Portoghesi, Borromini nella Cultura Europea, op.

I.

showing an elegant system of interlacing

(demolished 1616), where a Greek cross

"See

G, H,

in 1660.

cit., p. 5.

before 1700, possibly by Giovanni Santini Aichel. In the Santuario della Visitazione

'"'The
is

outlined.

"A

Plates
"S

IX, 1963.

The correspondence

built in

Borromini, op.

"For the geometrical

to 1614. Fischer

S.

while Della Porta carried out most of the construction between 1577 and 1602. Borromini's

church was consecrated


'"'F.

See E. Hubala, "Entwiirfe Pietro da Cortonas fur SS. Martina e Luca in Rom," Zeitschrift fur

Kunstgeschichte,

Jl

bay of transition

facade was added 1635-38 by G.B. Soria.

"The

J2

to the church

circular

this particular solution

illustrations

ecclesiastica.

were published separately

in

1686 under the

complete edition appeared

in

1737, edited by B. Vittone.

title

Disegni d'architettura civile

See E. Guidoni, "Modelli Guariniani," Guarino Guarini e I'intemazionalita del Barocco, Acca-

demia

delle Scienze di Torino, 1970.

"Guidoni points out

that the concept of cells

crographia (London, 1665). Guidoni, op.

was introduced

in science

by R. Hooke

in his

Mi-

39.

cit., p.

The church was inaugurated on July 22, 1698. The facade was added 1734-35 by Giuseppe
;,

G. Guarini,

7J

The church

Quoted

Placita Philosophica, Paris, 1665, p. 755.

after

Guidoni, op.

cit.

Sardi.

'"See

G. Spagnesi, Giovanni Antonio De

Row, Rome,

1964, pp. 204

is

usually dated 1680.

Roma

Barocca,

Rome, 1966,

P. Portoghesi, Borromini,

Rome, 1967,

p.

375.

Rome, 1964,

p. 32.

1600-1730, op.

"This interpretation was given by Hans Sedlmayr,


front of the
minis,
5:

main

altar

is

anschneiden. Aber anders

pp. 132

who showed

Raumeinheiten nicht

ff.

that even the balustrade in

determined by the same structural principle. See Die Architektur Bono-

Munich, 1930.

See Portoghesi, Borromini, op.

'Portoghesi, op.

'The

cit.,

cit.,

frontally placed

Plate

cit.,

pp. 50

due

to a later intervention

"Any

space, of course,

fact "visible."

mini, op.

may be understood

pienza in

Rom," Miscellanea

H. Thelen, "Der Palazzo

Bibliothecae Hertzianac, Munich, 1961.

De

Maria

della divina pro-

Beispiel: S.

vervollkommt denkt, sich gegenseitig

Raumdurchdringung

treffen die einzelnen

Gewolbe wie auch

die senkrechten Hiillen der einen Raumein-

cit., p. 7.

We have found
See D.

Beispiel der

sie

is

quite conventional.

an analogous "openness" in some of the churches of Borromini, hardly, how-

and "skin."
"

Bernardi Ferrero, "1 Disegni d'Architettura Civile e Ecclesiastica di Guarino Guarini

e I'Arte del Maestro, Turin, 1966.

384.
della Sapienza, see

wenn man

the Raumversch-

weicher Kurve iiber."

Tvpologically, however, the building

M R. Wittkower, Art and Architecture in


s,

"For the complex history of the Palazzo

in 1755.

who characterizes

this

See C. Norberg-Schulz, Existence, Space and Architecture. Also Portoghesi, Borro-

cit., p.

in

ever, a similar separation of structure

by Arcucci.

however, makes

dem

Guidoni, op.

p. 11.

as a field of forces. Borromini,

als in

7,

"F. Borromini, Opus Architectonicum Rome, 1725,

anderen

108,

einem klaren Schnitt aufeinander, sondern dort, wo die Zellen einan-

7s

7s

altar wall are

in

cit., p.

Form der Raumdurchdringung.

der treffen, fiessen sowohl die


heit in die der

ff.

XXXII.

columns on the

as "eine gesteigerte

videnza. Diese grossen Ovalzellen wiirden,

"Portoghesi, Borromini nella Cultura Europea, Plates B, C, D, E.


Italy

The church was destroyed by an earthquake

This distinction goes back to H. Sedlmayr, op.

melzung
"P. Portoghesi, Borromini nella Cultura Europea,

"Wittkower, Art an d Architecture in

by Guarini to Lisbon before 1660 gives us

visit

p. 155.
7,

"Quoted by

probable

ff

reason to anticipate the date given.


"P. Portoghesi,

della Sa-

The courtyard system goes

back to Guidetto Guidetti (1562), the exedra was introduced by his successor Pirro Ligorio,

ra,
82

Italy

1600-1750,

See M. Passanti, "La Cappella della SS. Sindone

in

p.

274.

Torino

di

Guarino Guarini,"

L'architettu-

VI, 1961.

For an interpretation of

demia

its

symbolism see M. Fagiolo dell'Arco, La Geosofia del Guarini, Acca-

delle Scienze di Torino, 1970.

209

'The building was completed in 1680, except for the facade. See G. Brotto, V. Todesco, "S.

Lorenzo

Torino," L'arckitettura, VII, 1961. AlsoG. Torretta, Unanalisi della cappella diS. Lo-

i4

The breaking through

of the

main

axis

no probably planned a small giardino

was done

segreto

in

1670, perhaps by the same Bernini. Mader-

behind the oval room, while the original structure

renzo, Turin, 1968.

by Bernini did not have any opening from the portico

M The term has been introduced by Heinrich Gerhard Franz.

Borromini, Vienna, 1924,

"Only today the

"Argan, L'Europa

full

implications are understood and exploited, particularly in the architectural

"SeeF.

works of Paolo Portoghesi.


''Unfortunately the project was never carried out.
built in

1691-1717 on

more conventional

The

plan.

was

existing Theatine church in Prague

The facade was added by Johann

Santini

Aichel.

'The

Borsi,

11

literature

G. Guarini, Architettura

S8

Forssman, op.

cit.

Civile,

on the Louvre project

more comprehensive Composite

still

'"The design

may

the

CHAPTER FOUR

Drum-Without-Dome,"

in

'Colbert spoke thus of Bernini's project for the Louvre:

immense rooms. But

not done anything." Chantelou, op.

cit.

for the personal well-being of the

King he has

(Colbert's answer to Chantelou's petition of 15 June

In a few cases the courtyard was

made

circular to stress this basic character:

Montorio, Vignola's palace

Bramante's project

Caprarola and Machuca's palace for Charles

at

in

Granada.

first

important example

was

is

zi,

Giulio

'The

first

'P.

the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi by Michelozzo

interesting experiments of the

important example

is

in

Cinquecento are found

Romano, Sanmicheli, Sansovino and

"See Portoghesi,

op.

cit., p.

(c.

in the

struction took place

1444-64).

the Palazzo Rucellai

(c.

1450).

works of Raphael, Peruz-

-'"The

open

The

the Palazzo Baldassini (1512).

solution was given a fine in-

"The

solution

tion

Hibbard, The Architecture

of the Palazzo Borghese,

is

on

In

some

of his projects, however, Sangallo attempted a

grandiose scheme for the Palazzo de' Medici in


of the Late Baroque.

Rome

more

for

regular distribution, such as the

(1513), which prefigures certain concepts

SeeG. Giovannoni, Antonio da Sangallo

The Roman disregard

il

Giovane, Rome, 1959,

correspondence between interior and exterior

is still

found

mini's final solution for the Casa dei Filippini and his S. Maria dei Sette Dolori.

wever, shows a

"The back

new kind

of correspondence

which we have

of the palace has been closed after

it

called

p.

The

fig.

239.

in Borrolatter,

ho-

"complementary."

was taken over by the comune

Vagnetti and others, Genova, Strada Nuova, Genoa, 1967,

in

1850. See L.

(c.

XXV,

1966/3.

visually to the "massive" lateral wings.

p. 125.

Institutes,

XXI,

Louvre," Saggi diStoria dell Architettura

il

p.

In fact,

"The

Mansart

F.

c.

was

also

have

"drum-without-dome"

cit.

1644. See Portoghesi, Borromini,

cit.,

after 1654,

pp.

277

p.

172.

and the con-

ff.

later closed.

by Bernini's

first

project for the Louvre; Guarini's treatment

more

free

and he arrives

is

is

to be

it

found

at a

more advanced

in K.I. Dientzenhofer's project for the

interrela-

Customs-house

Barocco Boemo, Ro-

p. 194.

became very popular

castle in

to

on the corners,

hang covered wooden balconies on the outside of the Roman


to allow for a

good view

Chambord was probably designed by

perposed

betraying an Italian hand.

classical orders

lian architects usually

of the street scene.

the Italian,

Domenico da Cortona. The

entirely French, with only the prudent articulation by

is

The example

is

means of

su-

characteristic: travelling Ita-

brought with them means of articulation rather than fixed building-types.

See A. Blunt, Philibertde I'Orme, London, 1958, pp. 28

"Only

il

p. 92.

building-type, however,

in onore

246.

1726). See C. Norberg-Schulz, Kilian Ignaz Dientzcnhofer e

cit.,

pp. 80

ff.

ff.

small fragments of the chateau remain standing.

Marot, Recueil des Plans,

1958.

The

project of

De

Profils et Elevations (after 1654), reprint 1969.

Brosse

is

shown

The extensive

in J.

use of

rustication obviously goes back to Italian models, such as the courtyard of the Palazzo Pitti in

Florence.
a similar disposition

is

used in most of the

villas of Palladio.

For the Farnesina see

C.L. Frommel, Die Farnesina und Peruzzis Architektonisches Fruhwerk, Berlin, 1961.

210

Prague

"See A. Blunt, op.

215.

'See A. Blunt, "The Palazzo Barberini," journal of the Warburg and Courtauld

'Tn general

1600-1750,

as in in-

Le Pautre and the Motif of

not preserved.

Vau and

to a garden,

clearly inspired

palaces, especially

Rome, 1962.
,0

" Antoine

between the elements.

me, 1968,

,2
.

them

probably goes back to

"Lavedan, French Architecture,

present.

the complex history of this palace see

for an ideal chateau

254.

of the spatial relationships, however,

Palladio.

the ground-floor, however, a slight echo of the engirdling horizontal continuity from the

''For

Berger,

between 1660 and 1664. See Portoghesi, op.

side, giving

'"The most extensive use

is still

credit for the

little

was interpreted by Colbert

Propaganda Fide palace was probably made

final project for the

in

On

is

Rome, 1961,

preliminary designs by Le

fact,

'The treatment of the top floor was changed by Michelangelo.

Palazzo Caetani

Le Pautre's project

attic

crowning oval vestibules. For a discussion of the problem, see Berger, op.

terpretation in Raphael's unfinished Palazzo Pandolfini in Florence (1520).

in Italy

Portoghesi, "Gli Architetti Italiani per

del professor Vincenzo Fasolo,

"The

called appartement-semi-double

Alberti had already introduced the superposition of orders

The most

The

W.

pillars, joining

of Cortona's project

-'"The project discussed here

'In later literature the solution

The

The ground-plan

-Tn

1668).

Claude Perrault can be given

that

"The Cavaliere has planned banqueting


:

for S. Pietro in

M. de Chantelou,

Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians,

'Wittkower, Art and Architecture

::

the rest with

is

Vau but mainly executed by D'Orbay. See A. Lapra-

possibly have been influenced by A.

"Notice how the arcades end with

shown

correct rendering of the French crown. See R.

'"Argan, L'Europa delle Capital: 1600-1700, p. 106.

filled

source

(1665), Paris, 1885.

published in his Dessins de plusieurs palais (1652).

order.

and

The most important

vast.

Bemin en France

Journal du voyage du cav.

de, Francois d'Orbay, Paris, 1960.

p. 91.

"Borromini and Guarini often preferred the perhaps

halls

Rome, 1967.

is

design, which was commissioned from Le

I, iii.

See E. Hempel, Francesco

delle Capitali 1600-1 700, p. 18.

Palazzo di Montecitorio,

'"The researches of A. Laprade have

87

to the garden.

26.

p.

,7

See A. Roussy, Le Palais du Luxembourg, Paris, 1962. After the Revolution the palace became

the seat of the Senat conservateur, and in 1837, A.

De

Gisors started the construction of a large

assembly

hall

on the main

"The

was covered with

axis. It

De

copy of the original facade of

new garden

facade, which in general

is

ne them as "towers" that surround the voluminous corps de

Chambord we

in

find separate corner apart-

le

w The Orleans Wing

op.

cit., p.

facades seen from a distance were to have a giant order. See

Coun

d' Architecture

III, Paris,

1772.

198.

only a fragment of a

is

Le Vau, thus, used the orders

logis.

the traditional rules.

Blondel confirms that small orders should be used on walls that are seen from nearby, whi-

"J.F.

ments.

"Quoted from Lavedan,

much understanding, although he broke

with

however, had precedents. Already

idea,

Brosse.

much

larger plan

which would have made Blois

"'Blunt characterizes

Le Vau's use of the orders

as "incorrect"

and "showing

a lack of feeling for

the plastic unity of the whole"... (Art and Architecture in France, p. 134).

grander and more monumental version of the Palais du Luxembourg. See A. Blunt, Francois

Le Vau's works demonstrates that

Mansart, London, 1941.

his articulation

structural analysis of

determined by the whole and that he was

is

one of the great innovators among the architects of the seventeenth century.
highly probable that the

"'It is

works of Mansart might have been one of the sources of

tion for the vertically organized spaces of


4

-'SeeJ. Stern,

The palace was destroyed

Le Chateau de Maisons,

"In 1645 Bernini had not

^The

there the King, the

ce,

Queen, Mile de

were offered

Vatel, they
liere,

new

well

is

la

his

mature

cit

ment of the

known. "On 17 August 1661, Fouquet entertained

Valliere,

and wrote
later

and the whole court. After

supper prepared by

comedy-ballet, Lei Fdcheux, composed for the occasion by

which ended with

a description of the evening,

Fouquet was arrested

embezzlement:

for

enemy and destroyer, Colbert, took over

his artists to

all

Mo-

in the audien-

a splendid firework display.

his property

work

Three

was confiscated; and

his

for the King." A. Blunt, Art and Ar-

chitecture in France 1500-1700, p. 137.


"6

A double corps de logis

Tn

"J

had already been introduced by Francois Mansart

still

more.

He

obtained

rhythm of repeated

in the

Hotel du Jars

to increase the glazed

units rather than one continuous horizon-

tal line.

'"The palace was destroyed during the Revolution.


""The palace was destroyed during the Revolution
"

In his few city-palaces, Hardouin-Mansart obviously could not realize the same ideal of exten-

sion.

The

basic intentions, however, are clearly present, as he tries to transform the building in-

Bourget/Cattaui: op.

L 'architecture francaise, VI,

"Thus Daviler

Paris, 1725-56.

les

"Quoted from H. Rose,

op.

cit., p.

cit., p.

late project for a

"Maison

a batir" (see

152) shows a well-disposed plan with a double corps de logis and a

says that the orders are so praiseworthy because they are based "sur les raisons

plus vraysemblables de

197.

cit., p.

la

nature, sur

la

doctrine de Vitruve,

&

sur les

exemples des plus ex-

175.
cellens Edifices

w For

also

displaced main axis.

general, seeJ.F. Blondel,

"Lavedan, op.

garden facade. See A. Laprade, Francois

Le Vau used straight windows, but Hardouin-Mansart evidently wanted

area

to a "transparent" skeleton (Hotel de Lorge, 1670).

in Paris (1648).
4

project, particularly in the design of the

d'Orbay, Paris, 1960.

style.

with decor by Lebrun and music by Lully. La Fontaine, Fouquet's poet, was

weeks

136.

cit., p.

"The project for the enveloppe stems from 1667 and was integrated in a larger scheme in 1669.
Le Vau died in 1670, and Francois d'Orbay probably played an important part in the develop-

Paris, 1934.

however, reached

history of Vaux-le-Vicomte

'-The building was demolished in 1827. See Pillemont, op.

Guanni

during the Revoution. See J. Marot, op.

yet,

inspira-

zi,

a detailed description of the uses see

A.C. Daviler, Coun d Architecture,

Paris, 1691,

de l'Antiquite." A.C. Daviler, Les cinq ordres d' Architecture de Vincent Scamoz-

Paris, 1685, Preface.

new

edition 1720.

"H.Rose,
"In

his

op.

Coun

cit., p.

ying ..."j'ay prefere

exemple,

s'il

178

la

CHAPTER FIVE

ff.

d' Architecture

Daviler therefore integrates the stables

symetrie et

y avoit sur

la

magnificence

the main courtyard, sa-

une distribution plus menagee comme par

meme etendue de place une

la

in

Basse-cour separee pour

les

Ecuries

& Re-

"It seems reasonable to

cier

when he enlarged

Form and

Culture,

A monograph on Delia Porta

mises..." (p. 172).

de Bouillon (1613) by

For a genera] theory of "environments," see T. Parsons, Societies,

poport, House

assume that the system of the courtyard stems from the original Hotel

De

Brosse, whereas the garden facade must have been designed by Lemer-

questo campo

New

is still

lacking. Already in

dirsi la figura centrale del

1912 Giovannoni wrote;

da rendere poi agevole

nuovi concetti e

il

hotel

was pulled down

in the

56

was adopted by Daviler

in his

The hotel has been extensively

"standard" hotel in the

rebuilt. It

is

also

Coun d' Architecture.

known under the name Hotel de Toulouse and

today forms part of the Banque de France.

still

hotel was demolished in 1844.

shows

122).

a decorative old-fashioned

(see

G. Pillement,

Le Vau may have designed the Hotel d'Aumont during the

in 1649. Stylistically

it

built

by Le Vau

after 1634,

Paris disparu, Paris, 1966, p.

thirties; the

house was finished

represents a step towards the grand simplicity of the Hotel

Tambon-

neau.

"We

To our knowledge

Italy

in

le

nuove forme

in

XV-XVI,

1912-13).

1600-1 750, p. 73.

the motif of the triple columns was never repeated again. In the abbey chur-

ch of Zwiefalten by Johann Michael Fischer (1740-65), the entrance

The Hotel Bautru, probably


approach

Wittkower, Art and Architecture in

sting of

"Nothing remains of the house.

"The

puo

nineteenth century.
>R.

"It

"...egli

lavoro di continuazione" (G. Gio-

vannoni, "Chiese della seconda meta del '500 in Roma," L'Arte,

"The

1966. Also A. Ra-

periodo di transizione che va dall'architettura del '500 a

quella del '600... nella sua fecondita straordinaria traduce


cosi molteplici applicazioni pratiche

the building in 1623.

New York,

York, 1969.

one

Wittkower. op.

'Portoghesi,
;

pilaster

cit.. p.

Roma

is

flanked by triplets consi-

and two columns.


115.

Barocca,

p.

86.

See E. Panofsky, "Die Scala Regia im Vatikan und die Kunstanschauungen Bernini's," Jahr-

huch der preussischen Kunstsammlungen 1919.


,

"The general motif was repeated by Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer

in St.

Nicholas/Mala Strana in

Prague (1739).
find the

lions of

broken roof

at

Hotel d'Aumont, Raincy and Vaux-le-Vicomte. The corner pavi-

Vaux-le-Vicomte, however, have steep roofs, which (together with the giant order) defi-

'A convincing simplification and integration

is

found

in his late

church Gesii e Maria

al

Corso

(1670-80).

211

"The

was

villa

in ruins already at the

end of the seventeenth century, but

is

known from

"For

"A monograph on Cortona with

"A

a satisfactory analysis of his architecture

intentions are found behind the art of the

'-'Similar

XIV

Louis

Roman

imitates ancient

similar process

Roman and

the Medieval

Bay System,"

in

"The motif

is

"See A. Braham and

P.

Magazine, 1965, pp. 12

W. Horn, "The

16

journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, XVII/2.

Only

a small

cit.)

Rome

Hardouin Mansart. D'Orbay


which

is

in

500- 1 700, p.

R.W.

Berger, Antoine Le Pautre,

-'Even the

cit., p.

its real

dimension, that

is,

know-

nothing.

1659-60, and obviously played a decisive role during the


F.

Mansart and Le Vau to the new approach of


in Paris (1668)

New York,

1969.

The idea

ciso
"J.

Tome

circular space,

typical for Spain

Bank

for the Royal

(1668), however,

is

monograph by

see the magnificent

Roman

a giant

Kubler and M. Soria, Art and Architecture

R. Josephson, Tessin, 2 vol.,

statt

was

cour d'honneur by adding wings to D'Orbay's facade.

exist any more.

of Fischer

von Erlach, Hildebrandt, the Dientzenhofers, and the Vorarlberg

be treated

in the next

Di/linger Baumeister

and culminated with the Transparente

in

Harmondsworth, 1966,

p. 139.

To compare

this

approach with the

Wittkower, Architectural Principles

in the

Age of Hu-

manism, London, 1949.

Hans Alberthal, Dillingen, 1949. The church

later,

when

the

Italy.

also

brought about an importation of more conventional types of

As an example, we may mention

the Cathedral of Salzburg by Santino So-

Mathey studied

in

Rome

with Carlo Fontana and arrived

until shortly before his

*Martinelli

is

by

far the

in

Prague

1675, where he remai-

in

death in 1695.

most qualified of the

Italian architects

He

working

in

Central Europe

studied with Carlo Fontana in

Rome

The

is

wings were later extended by Josef Emanuel Fischer von Erlach.

A U-shaped disposition

Bohemia (1652-84),

possibly by Francesco

already present in the palace at Roudnice in

Caratti.

towers, as well as the dome, were completed by Enrico Zuccalli, whereas the facade was

finished by Francois de Cuvillies in 1765-68.

grandiose scheme of Wren.

).

Summerson,

op.

cit., p.

89.

M The palace was continued by Zuccalli after 1674, and later by Viscardi and Effner.

Summerson,

op.

cit., p.

134.

"Towards

188

Murray,

after P.

History of English Architecture, Part

pp.

cit., p.

cit., p.

193

new plane

articulate an

Summerson

St. Paul's elevations is, in fact, a

hundred years

(op. cit., p. 132) says:

Wren, made the same

Summerson,

op.

cit., p.

is

entire

in 1952.

"SeeG.L. Burke, The Makingof Dutch Towns, London, 1956.

Antonio da Sangallo had

Rome, when he

not one of detailing, but one of

133.

The mansion was burned down

212

error

earlier in his project for St. Peter's in

of St. Paul's, thus,

"The

"working up" of the Banqueting House to

immense building by adding up members borrowed from buildings

The weakness

says:

"Das Leben

of a

scale.

tried to

much

smal-

sensitive,

in

"Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz

all

jener Zeit

von einem

historische Gesamtbild

"This structure

created centralized

(i.e.,

be-

dogmatic), integrated and exten-

rational, the

one of Spinoza the more

is

also

of Art, Vol. II,

found on the "lower"

London, 1962,
levels.

p. 167.

The development

of the diagonal axes in

Francois Mansart's churches, thus,

may be compared

S7

expressed in painting rather than architecture.

In

kiinst-

davon

and the one of Leibniz the more dynamic.

"A. Hauser, The Social History

Dutch

"The

in

p. 5).

ded ("open") systems; the one of Descartes being the more


static,

Borrominian garden palace

Europa erscheint uns zu

und durchwirkt, dass das

stimmt wird." (Barockarchitektur, Baden-Baden, 1968,

197.

of monumentality." Actually,

made more than

more

(1711-12).

lerischen Impuls so durchdrungen

ff.

"Praising the "rich and brilliant detailing," John

conception of the

ler size.

the end of his career, Schliiter built a

Von Kamecke

Berlin for

"Thus Werner Hager

"P. Murray, op.

>J

Harmondsworth, 1962,

ff

'"Quoted after Murray, op.

"J.

II,

to-

(1678) and

taught at the Accademia di S. Luca.

-"J.

"Quoted

in Eich-

town was sacked by

(1614-28).

"The

-"Thus the building could become a natural part of the

buil-

this history.

Swedish troops.

Spain and Portugal

Toledo Cathedral by Nar-

volume of

rebuilt according to the original plan after a fire in 1634,

"The Counter-Reformation

in

and making

do not

grandiose project for the Louvre, transforming the courtyard into a

wards the end of the seventeenth century.

principles of Palladio's architecture, see R.

27

order of Le

in character.

148.

cit., I, fig.

"See D. Kessler, Der

Inigo Jones,

walls

The works

ned

State rather than the Church.

(1721-32).

Summerson,

ders, therefore, will

);

Dome of the Invalides represents the

is

Stockholm 1662) thus, he introduced the cour d'honneur and

Josephson, op.

lari

1500-1800, Harmondsworth, 1959.


24

41

churches from

216.

A general survey is given in G.

re-

while the secular works are based on French and Dutch models. In the

Vau extraction. The palace


m For Tessin the Younger,

44

30.

probably also the author of the Observatoire

is

Hodiema, new edition Stockholm, 1924.

France, and Holland in 1651-3. His ecclesiastical architecture mainly

Italy,

flects Italian infuence,

"These

usually attributed to Perrault.

A Blunt, op.

2>

essential contributions to the de-

cit.

"High Baroque" of

years of transition from the

J,

who made

has reduced his contribution to

Francois d'Orbay studied in

"Tessin visited

"In 1704 Tessin designed

generally attributed to the amateur Claude Perrault, because of his "archeological

ledge." A. Laprade (op.

For the original appearance of the Bonde palace and other Swedish buildings of the period, see

Ba'at Palace in

Brosse.

fragment of the facade remains.

church. See A. Laprade, op.

BIunt Art and Architecture in France

London,

Stockholm, 1930-31.

building was executed by Francois d'Orbay

"It is

-'"See

De

(1550).

Origins of

Smith, "Mansart-Studies V: The Church of the Minimes," Burlington

3 ft.

,s

Medi-

"classical"

already indicated by Lescot in the courtyard of the Louvre (1546) and fully deve-

Del'Ormein Anet

tailing of the

fact,

E. Dahlberg, Svecia Antiqua et

had already taken place during the Middle Ages, when the

already in 1567.

a general introduction to the subject, see T. Paulsson, Scandinavian Architecture,

1958.

lacking.

Byzantine empires. In

H The facade was built by Clement Metezeau, probably on the design of

loped by

is still

symbolism.

terranean basilica fused with local "nordic" types of structure. See

"The

'The churches were destroyed

several

prints.

art, therefore, infinity is

to the

urban rond-point.

recognition of Baroque architecture being one of the "constituent facts" of

tecture

is

modern

archi-

due to Siegfried Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture, Cambridge, Mass., 1941.

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H.,

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and

INDEX

Hans,

Alberthal,

Church

200;

of the Jesuits, Dillingen, 200,

Church of the Jesuits,


200; Church of the

Plate 308;
Eichsta'tt,

Jesuits,

Innsbruck

Baudelaire, Charles, 60

teca

Bautista, Francisco: S. Isidro, 188,

della Sapienza), Plate 145;

Plate

Leon

Battista, 12, 13, 14,

Andrea,
Novella, 68
16;

13;

S.

Alembert, Jean Le

Dond

Maria

S.

187

Ammanati, Bartolomeo, 145;

cor-

of the Palazzo Pitti,

tile

Palazzo

Caetani

145;
(Mattei-Ne-

groni), 145; Villa Giulia, Plates


9,

10

Kerk, 196; Norderkerk, 195; Westerkerk, 195;


Zuiderkerk, 195; Trippenhuis,
195
Lutherse

Andrew,

St.,

69

S.

Maria dell'Assunzione, 69,

Augsburg:

Town

309
Austerlitz

(Slavkov),

Villa

of

Count Kovnic, 202

enzo
Baillieu (printmaker), Plate

57

Barberini, Palazzo (Rome), 16, 147,

Louvre, 148; Palazzo Barberini,

Castel Gandolfo, 69; Cathedra

174,

Petri

205; (second project), Plate 206;


(third
project),
199;
148,
Palazzo Barberini, 16, 147, 148,

azzo Carpegna, 152, Plate 212;


Palazzo Pamphili, 152, Plates
213, 214; Palazzo della Sapienza, 113-117, see S. Ivo; Plates
143-152; Palazzo di Propaganda

150,

Fide,

162,

148,

Plate

199,

Palazzo

Plates

Chigi-Ode-

150,

34

Plate

18-21;

Carlino),

Pietro,

Plates 122-131; S.

18,

20, 27,

70,

Plates

29-32; project for the


facade of St. Peter's, Plate 28; S.

Andrea

al

Quirinale, 27, 69, 74,

Maria dell'As-

sunzione, 69, Plates 82-83; Scala


Regia, 175, Plate 267

Bianco, Bartolomeo: Palazzo del-

Binago, Lorenzo, 179;


dro, 74, Plate 123

S.

197
Alessan-

Chateau de, 162, 170, Plate

Blondel, Francois, 187; Course! 'Ar-

Borghese,

187

Palazzo

S.

Andrea

delle

Fratte, 177, Plates 268, 269; S.


alle

Quattro Fontane
97,

117,

98,

(S.

133,

Giovanni

in

Laterano, 19, 117, Plates 159163; S. Ivo alia Sapienza, 113,


117, Plates 143-152; S. Maria
deiSetteDolori, 113, 122, Plates
139-142

Bourges,
house
Cceur, 156

of

Jacques-

Hall,

Campidoglio, see Capitoline Hill


Capitoline

(Campidoglio,

Hill

Bramante, Donato, 68; plan for


Peter's, 74

31,

St. Charles, 13

Borromini, Francesco, 14, 17, 62,

19, 20, 32, 40, Plate 13

117, Plates 153-158

Cappella del SS. Sacramento (S.


Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome), 98,
112
Cappella della
alle

Madonna

(S.

St.

Carlo

Quattro Fontane, Rome),

98
Cappella della SS. Sindone (Turin), 49, 129, 131, Plates 177-181
Cappella Lancellotti (S. Giovanni
in Laterano, Rome), 68, Plate 81
(S. Maria MagRome), 68, Plate 80

Cappella Paolina
giore,

Cappella Salviati
Celio,

(S.

Gregorio

al

Rome), 68
(S. Girolamo della
Rome), 177, Plates 270,

Cappella Spada
Carita,

271
Caprarola, S. Teresa, 80, 88, 97,
141, Plate 114
(Paris),

40
Caratti,

Francesco,

Czernin

pal-

ace, 200, Plate 310; Nostitz pal-

Salomon de, 160, 162,


de
BleranChateau
198;
court, 160; Chateau de Coulom-

Carlina, Piazza (Turin), 49

miers, 160, 162, Plates 223, 224;

Carlone, Carlo Antonio: Church

Hotel de Liancourt, 169, Plate


243; Palais de Justice, 162, Plate

St.

(Rome),

Rome),

Capucines, Church of the

229; Palais du Luxembourg, 16,


160, 167, 186, Plates 225-228;

145, Plates 34, 195

Borromeo,

162,

Brosse,

231

chitecture,

160,

117, 156; S. Agnese in


Piazza Navona, 22-26, 27, 152,

Carlo

Borghese family, 31

Nieuwe

150,

148, 199, Plates 202, 203;


Piazza del Popolo, 20; Piazza S.

Agostino: Nymphenburg
Palace, 202; Theatine Church,
202, Plate 312

Kerk (The Hague), 196,


303

148,

199, Plates 200-201; Pal-

Plates

Borghese, Camillo, see Paul

Bassen, Bartholomeus van:

147,

16,

202,
Plate 204; Palazzo di Montecito199,

Bordier, Jacques, 162

Bastille (Paris),

Plate

(first project),

160,

199-201;

142,

Peter's),

(St.

148, 150, 160, 162, 174, 199,

Barriere (printmaker), Plate 66

Fide, 152, 156, Plates 215, 216;

185, 186, 194, 199; Baldacchino


(St. Peter's),
175, Plate 266;

Plates 199-201
Barelli,

Town

Propaganda Fide, Rome), 98,

Blois,

Banqueting House (London), 188

Carlino), 98;

(S.

196;

195

Cappella dei Re Magi (Palazzo di

l'LIniversita, 146, Plate

Baldacchino, see Bernini, Gianlor-

Madonna

Nieuwe Kerk,

133-138; Collegio di Propaganda

Plates 84-87; S.

Hall, 200, Plate

Sacramento, 98, 112; Cappella

194, 195;
Mauritshuis, 195, 198, Plate 301;

pini, 112, 113, 146, 152, Plates

25-27,

Plates 82, 83

Assunta, see S. Maria dell'Assunzione

117,

Campen, Jacob van,

314
Bernini, Gianlorenzo, 14, 17, 69,
70, 80, 97, 122, 166, 174, 177,

rio,

Ariccia: Palazzo Savelli-Chigi, 69;

98,

Cap-

Cappella Spada, 177, Plates 270,


271; Casa e Oratorio dei Filip-

scalchi,

Argan, Giulio Carlo, 12, 14, 30

Re Magi,

Palazzo

Kamecke House, Plate 315;


Roval Palace, 202, 204, Plate

Berlin:

193, Louvre

Amsterdam, 194; churches: Nieuwe

(in

Plates 153-158; Cappella del SS.

della

d', 7

Alexander VII (Pope), 26, 27, 30

dei

pella

289

Bautista de Toledo, Juan: El Escorial,

Alberti,

Alessandrina

Gervais, 184

Bruant Liberal, Hotel des Invalides, 76, Plates 98, 100


Briihl,

170

Bruni, Leonardo, 7

74, 97, 98, 112, 113, 117, 122,

Bruno, Giordano, 12

129, 133, 142, 152, 156, 170,


174, 175, 177, 185, 204; Biblio-

Bullant, Jean:

160

Chateau d'Ecouen,

ace,

200

"amHof',202,

Plate 311

Carlone, Giovanni Battista, Passau Cathedral decoration, 200,

202
Caroline Mausoleum (Stockholm),

199

Casa

Oratorio dei Filippini


e
(Rome), 112, 113, 146, 152,
Plates 133-138; Loggia dei Cardinali, Plate 135

Casale, S. Filippo Neri, 132, Plates


172, 173

215

Castellamonte, Amedeo di, 49,


59, 179; Palazzo Ducale (Reale),
49; Piazza Carlina, 49; SS. Sindone (Chapel of the Holy

Shroud), 49, 129, 131, Plates


177, 181; Venaria Reale, 59; Via
Po, 53, Plates 55, 56

Gian-

Petri, see Bernini,

Don

Cervantes, Miguel de, 187;


Quixote, 187

Chambord, Chateau
I

166,

Chateau de Vaux-le-Vicomte, 166,


167, 170, Plates 69-72, 239-242;
gardens, 61, 166, Plate 70, 71

Chateau de

Chateau de Villandry, 160


Chateau de Vincennes, 48

Chelsea, Royal Hospital (London),

de, 160

198

(King of England), 192

Christian

statue of,

Christina (Queen of Sweden), 20

Charles XII (King of Sweden), 199

Church of II Gesu (Rome), 13, 27,


31,62,68, 188, 200, Plates 5-7
Church of the Capucines (Paris),

Charles

Emmanuel

I,

Charles

Emmanuel

II,

48
129

Plate 311

(Palazzo

del

Senato, Milan), 146, Plate 198

Church of the

Charlottenborg (Copenhagen), 198

Chateau d'Anet, 160, Plate

11

of

Jesuits

Charlotten-

196;

Chateau de Berny, 162, 185, Plate


230

Church
200

of the Jesuits (Innsbruck),

Church

of the

Chateau de

Blois, 162, 170, Plate

Chateau de Bury, 160

borg, 198; Exchange, 198;

gens Nytorv,

Kon-

198; Rosenborg,

Royal Palace,
Plate 304

200,

199,

Clagny
171, Plate 257
de

de

Church

Madonna

di

Cam-

Coulommiers,

160,

the

Padri

(Paris),

Somaschi

of the Sorbonne (Paris),

Church of the Visitation

(Paris),

70, Plates 90, 91

Chateau

Coleshill

Lafitte),

232-235,

162,

166,

(Maisons184, Plates

XX

Chateau de Marly, 172, Plate 258

Colbert, Jean-Baptiste, 148

House (London), 194

College des Quatre Nations (Institut de France, Paris), 185, Plates


278,

Maria

della Pace, 26, 27, 151,

Plates 23, 24; SS.

Luca

Mar272

279

Invalides (Paris), 76, 78,


141, 186, 194, Plates 99-102

Drottningholm Palace, 199;


den, 199

Du

gar-

Cerceau, Baptiste: Hotel La-

moignon, 160

Du

Cerceau, Jacques

160; Chateau

Androuet,

du Verneuil, 160

Du

Cerceau, Jean, 169; Hotel de


169, 170; Hotel
de Sully, 169
Bretonvillers,

Duperac, Etienne, 19, Plate 13

Czernin palace (Prague), 200, Plate

Church of the

Eichstatt,

Elizabeth

Jesuits,

De

Brosse, Salomon, see Brosse,

De

Giovanni Antonio, 31,


Cappella Lancellotti (S.
Giovanni in Laterano), 68, Plate
81; Palazzo Altieri, 31, Plate 33;
Palazzo d'Aste-Bonaparte, 177;

Maria Maddalena, 88, 90,


Plate 120; S. Maria in Publicolis, 88

Giacomo,

13,

74;

dei Monti, 62, Plate

Palazzo

Serlupi

(Cre-

scenzi), 145, Plate 196; Palazzo

dei

Emmanuel

Philibert

(Duke

of

Conservatori,

19;

Erasmus, Desiderius, 7
Erlach, Johann Bernhard Fischer
von, see Fischer von Erlach,

Johann Bernhard
Escorial,

El (near Madrid),

187,

188, Plate 187

Exchange (Copenhagen), 198

145,

174; Capitoline Hill, 19, 20;


facade of II Gesu, 13, Plates 5, 7;

Madonna

(Queen of England),

Carignano), 48

Rossi,

Della Porta,

188

S.

Clarendon House (London), 194

Maisons

S.

177;

Chateau de Dampierre, 171, Plate


256
de

Chigi palace, 152; Louvre, 148,


152, Plate 211; Palazzo Barberini, 147, 148, Plates 199-201; S.
Carlo al Corso, 179, Plate 273;

Salomon de

78, Plates 106-108

162, Plates 223, 224

Dome des

200

(Messina), 129, 132, Plate 166

(Versail-

Diocletian's palace (Split), 188

erse Kerk, 196,

Cortona, Pietro da, 14, 26, 27, 97,

310

Church of the Minimes


185, 202, Plate 277
of

Jesuits,

Dortsman, Adriaen: Nieuwe Luth-

Daviler, Augustin-Charles, 16

Church

Chateau de Chambord, 160


Chateau

Jesuits (Eichstatt),

pagna (Verona), 74

231

Church of the

200, Plate 308

Covent Garden (London), 192

Chateau de Balleroy, 162

Chateau de Blerancourt, 160

gogne, 40
Dillingen,

(Dillin-

308

Church of the
200

Chateau d'Ecouen, 160

18

Dijon, Palais des Etats de Bour-

Villa Sacchetti, 179, Plate

the

7, 8, 10,

Dientzenhofer, Cristoph, 132


Dientzenhofer, Kilian Ignaz, 88

Feuillants (Paris), 40

gen), 200, Plate

Descartes, Rene,

Convent of S. Carlo alle Quattro


Fontane (S. Carlino, Rome), 98,

Council of Trent, 13, 196

Church

Aldobrandini, 61, Plates

66-68

Colosseum (Rome), 19

tina, 78, 80, 88, Plates 109-113;

40

Charleville, 19

216

Elvetico

Collegio

133, 141, 151, 175, 179, 185;

(King of France), 34

della

Villa

Copernicus, Nicolaus, 7

(King of Denmark),
198

Andrea

di
Propaganda Fide
(Rome), 156, Plates 215, 216

Collegio

198;

Christian IV (King of Denmark),

dei Senatori, 19; S.

Valle, 62, 64, 202, Plates 75, 76;

Copenhagen,

Church "am Hof" (Vienna), 202,

Chateau

(Accademia

Nobili

dei

delle Scienze, Turin), 177

Plate 123

Chateau du Val, 171

Charles XI (King of Sweden),


equestrian statue of, 199

les),

Collegio

Versailles, see Versail-

194

Charles II (King of England), 192


Charles

162,

Chateau du Verneuil, 160

lorenzo

Charles

Raincy,

237

Plates 236,

les

Castellamonte, Carlo di, 49, 59,


179; Piazza Reale (Piazza San
Carlo), 49, Plates 52-54

Cathedra

Chateau du

Palazzo

Falda,
27,

Giovanni Battista,
196

Plates

Fanzago, Cosimo, 184


Farnese, Palazzo (Rome), 20, 144,
145, 148, Plate, 194

Farnesina, Villa (Rome), 20, 144,

147
Ferrerio, Pietro, Plate 194

Fischer von Erlach, Johann Bern-

(Casale), 132, Plates 172, 173; S.

hard, 152

Filippo Neri (Turin), 133, Plates

Fleur-de-lis (Lyon),

196

Fontana, Carlo, 184, 199; Palazzo


di Montecitorio,
148, Plates
202, 203; S. Marcello al Corso,

132,

Fontana, Domenico, 10, 12, 19,


26; Villa Montalto, 60, Plate 65

Forssman, E., 16, 141

169;

Plate

(Vicenza),

132,

Lorenzo,

131,

182-188;

(Nizza),

Gaetano

S.

Plate

174;

141,

Plates

Maria

S.

S.

Altoet-

ting, 133, 141, Plates 191, 192;

Maria

S.

275

Gaetano

176; S.

175,

Florence, 16; Palazzo Pitti, 145; S.


Maria Novella, 68; Uffizi, 146

Plate

Porta di Po, 53; project for a


nameless church in Turin, 123,
Plate 171; Pilgrimage Church,
132, Plate 170; S. Filippo Neri

denza,

Divina Provvi-

della

123,

129,

Plates

133,

165; SS. Sindone (Chapel

164,

of the

Holy Shroud), 129, 131,

177-181; Ste. Anne-laRoyale, 74, 129, Plates 167, 168


Plates

Fountain of the Four Rivers


(Rome), 22, Plates 22, II

Genoa: Palazzo Doria-Tursi, 146;


146,

dell'Universita,

Plate 197

II

Giedion Siegfried,
Granada,

S.

188, Plate

Maria Magdalena,
290

Grand Trianon
Plates

19, Plate 2

(Versailles),

172,

259-262

The:

Mauritshuis,

Hampton Court

Greenwich: Queen's House, 188,


Plates 292, 293; Royal
194,
Naval Hospital, 194, Plate 300

Gregory XIII (Pope), 12


Guarini, Guarino, 14, 62, 74, 122,
123-131, 132, 133; Architettura
Civile, 123, 133; Church of the
Padri Somaschi, 129, Plate 166;

Collegio dei Nobili, 177;

Imma-

colata Concezione,

133, Plates

Palazzo

Carignano,

189,

190;

195,

Nieuwe Kerk,

198, Plate 301;


196, Plate 303

(Windsor), 194
Jules,

39, 40,

Clagny, 171, Plate 257; Chateau


de Dampierre 171, Plate 256;
Chateau de Marly, 172, Plate
258; Chateau du Val, 171;
Dome des Invalides, 76, 78,
141,

186,

194,

Plates

99-102;

Galerie des Glaces (Versailles),


171, Plate 254;

s'Gravesande, Arent van: Marekerk, 196

(Quartieri Militari), 53

Hall, 200, Plate

309

Kalmar, Cathedral, 199

Hotel Lambert
247-249

(Paris), 170, Plates

Hotel Lamoignon

(Paris),

Hotel Tambonneau

160

(Paris),

Hotel de Beauvais
Plates 281-283

170

(Paris),

Kevser, Hendrik de: Westerkerk,


196; Zuiderkerk, 196

Klementium
Prague), 200

Hotel de Bretonvillers
170

(Paris), 169,

Liancourt

(Bouillon,

de

Grand Trianon

(Versailles), 172, Plates 259-262;

Hotel des Invalides, 76, Plates


98,
les),

100;

60,

Notre-Dame

(Versail-

187, Plate 284; Place

Vendome,

40,

42-45;

Plates

Place des Victoires,


Plates 40, 41

39,

La

Vallee, Jean de,

Palace,

III

(King of France), 32

Henrv IV (King

156, Plates 217-221; plan of a

34

"French Palace," 156, Plate 222;

Herrera,

Juan

of France), 12, 32,

de,

188;

Cathe-

198;

Riddarhuset (House

La

Vallee,

Simon

Le Corbusier,

169

de, 198

16, 64,

68

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 7, 8

Hotel des Invalides


Plates 98, 100
Hotel de

la

Vrilliere

(Paris),

Hotel du Jars

(Paris),

76,

(Toulouse,

Paris), 39, 170, Plates 244,

245

170, Plate

246

House

Lemercier, Jacques, Church of the


Sorbonne, 78, Plates 106-108;

Hotel de Liancourt, 169, Plate


242

Le Notre, Andre, 48, 61, 199, 204;


Tuileries, Plate 48; Vaux-le-Vi-

of Jacques-Cceur (Bourges),

160

comte gardens, 61, 166,


70,

71,

Plates

72; Versailles gardens,

55,60,61,62
Immacolata Concezione (Turin),
1}}, Plates 189, 190
Innocent

(Pope), 20, 17

Le Pautre, Antoine, 186, Plates 43,


284; Hotel de Beauvais, 186,
Plates 281, 283; CEuvres d' Architecture,

Innsbruck, Church of the Jesuits,

200

186; project for a cha-

teau, 186, Plate

285

Le Prestre de Vauban, Sebastien;

Invalides, see Hardouin-Mansart,


Jules

Neuf-Brisach, 61, Plate 73


Letarouilly, Paul-Marie (printmaker), Plate 9

Jerusalem, 11

Plates 288,

Heidegger, Martin, 17

Bonde

198

Jesuit Clerecia (Salamanca),

Hospital, 194

Henry

(Paris),

198;

198; Oxienstierna Pal-

of Nobility), 198; St. Katarina,

243

186,

Hawksmoor, Nicholas, Royal Naval

Hotel de Sully

College,

(Jesuit

186,

Haarlem, Nieuwe Kerk, 196

60, 171, 172, 173, Chateau de

(Rome), 13, 27, 31, 62,


68, 188, 200, Plates 5-7

Gesu,

Town

Bonaventura, 97

Stupinigi, 59; Piazza Savoia, 53;


Porta Palazzo, 53; Porta di Susa

Hofburg (Vienna), 202


Holl, Elias:

S.

Juvarra, Filippo, 49, 53, 59; Basilica di Superga, 59; Palazzo di

Hobbes, Thomas, 7

Hotel de Lionne (Paris), 170, 186,


Plates 250, 251

Hardouin-Mansart,
17

Juan de

ace,

Hague,

St.,

Hildebrandt, Johann Lukas von,


152

Hotel

61,

Plates 66-68

George,

187, 188, Plate 187

Paris), 169, Plate

Villa Aldobrandini,

Palazzo

rial,

Guidoni, E., 123

Fouquet, Nicolas, 166


Frascati,

dral of Valladolid, 188; El Esco-

188,

XXII

Jones, Inigo, 188, 194; Banqueting

House, 188, 192; Covent Garden, 192; Lindsay House, 192;


Queen's House, 188, 194, Plates
292, 293; Whitehall Palace, 192

Le Vau, Louis, 39, 60, 185, 186;


Chateau du Raincy, 162, 166,
Plates 236, 237; Chateau de
Vaux-le-Vicomte, 166, 167, 170,
Plates 69-72, 239-242; Chateau
de Versailles, 60, 170, 171,
Plates 63, 252, 253, 255; College
des Quatre Nations (Institut de
France, Paris), 185, Plates 278,

217

Lambert,
170,
Hotel Tambonneau, 170; Hotel de Lionne,
170, 186, Plates 250, 251; Louvre plans, 148, 186
Hotel

279;

Plates 247-249;

Leyden, Marekerk, 196


Liechtenstein

Palace,

202,

Plate

Louis

XIV

Louvre

(Paris), 39, 192; Bernini's

148, 150, 151, 170,


185, 186, 192, 204, Plate 205;
Bernini's second project, 150,
151, 152, 171, 185, 192, 204,
third

Liechtenstein Villa, 202

House

Lindsay
Fields,

(Lincoln's

Inn

London), 192

Lisbon, 122, 129; S. Maria della


Divina Provvidenza, 123, 129,
133, Plates 164, 165

207-210; Bernini's

206,

project,

Le
186; Or-

148,

199;

Vau's project, 148,


bay's project, 150, Plates, 280,
281; Pietro da Cortona's project,

150, 151, 152; Rainaldi's

project, 150, 151

Loyola, St. Ignatius, 10

Loggia dei Cardinali (Casa e Ora-

Lucchese, Filiberto: Hofburg, 202

Rome), Plate

Lurago, Carlo, 200; Klementium


Passau
(Jesuit College), 200;
Cathedral, 200, 202

torio dei Filippini,

135

London,

churches:

34;

19,

Cathedral,

Paul's

194, Plates
Paul's Church,

295-297;

St.

192;

Stephen

St.

194,

St.

298,

Plates

Garden,

Lindsay House

192;

Inn

(Lincoln's

Walbrook,
Covent

299;

Fields),

192;

Ludgate, 192; palaces: Banqueting House, 188, 192; Clarendon

House,

194;

Coleshill

House,

Eltham
Lodge,
194;
194;
Whitehall Palace, 192; Royal
Exchange, 192; Royal Hospital
(Chelsea), 194; Tower of London, 192
Longhena,

Baldassare,

74,

76;

Palazzo Pesaro, 179, Plate 274;


S.

Maria

della Salute,

74, 76,

Plates 95-97

Longhi, Martino (the Younger),


Palazzo Borghese, Plate 195; SS.
Vincenzo ed Anastasio, 174,
Plate

265

Lurago,

Rocco:
Tursi, 146

Palazzo

Doria-

Luther, Martin, 7

Luxembourg,

du

Palais

(Paris), 16,

Huguenot

temples

of:

Terreaux, 196

Town

(Maisons184, Plates

232-235
Maisons-Lafitte, see Maisons, Chateau de

Church of the
Plates 90, 91;

Visitation,

70,

Hotel du Jars, 170,

Plate 246; Val-de-Grace, 68, 78,

97, Plates 78, 79

Mansart, Jules Hardouin, see Hardouin-Mansart, Jules

Marcus Aurelius (Emperor):

Sacramento,

98;

Palazzo

Barberini, 147, 148, Plates 199-

col-

Marot, Jean, 170, Plates 223, 224,

Domenico, 202; Liech-

Liechtenstein Villa, 202;


of

Villa

Count Kovnic, 202

Giacomo

76;

S.

degli Incurabili, 68; S.

Susanna, 174, Plates 263, 264;

cis'

Fran-

St.

(Kreuzherren Kirche), 200;

Troja garden palace, 200

Maurits

van

Nassau,

Johan

Rene

de, 162

L'Orme, Philibert de: Architecture,


160; Chateau d'Anet, 160, Plate
11;

house

of,

160

Los Desamparados (Valencia), 188,


Plate

291

Louis XIII (King of France), 12,


34, 39, 170; equestrian statue
of,

218

34

77;

Villa

Aldobrandini,

61,

Plates 66-68

Madonna

dei

Monti (Rome), 62,

di

Campagna

(near

(The
198, Plate 301

Mauritshuis

Hague),

195,

May, Hugh, 194; Eltham Lodge,

19; El Escorial, 187, 188,

Plate 287; Plaza


Isidro, 188, Plate

Mazarin Jules (Cardinal), 184


Medici, Marie de', 160

Verona), 74

Madrid,

Madame de, 171


Mora, Juan Gomez de, 188; Jesuit
Montespan,

Clerecfa, 188, Plate

Munich:

288

Michael's, 200, Plate

St.

Theatine

Church,

202,

Miinster, Schloss, 16

Neumann,

Balthasar, 170

Nieuwe Kerk (The Hague),


Plate

196,

303

Nieuwe Lutherse Kerk (AmsterNizza, 122;

S.

Gaetano, 132, Plate

169
Noorwits, Pieter: Nieuwe Kerk,
196, Plate 196

Norderkerk (Amsterdam), 196


Nostitz palace (Prague), 200
(chapel,

Chateau de
284

Versailles), 60, 187, Plate

Nvmphenburg

Palace

(Munich),

202

194

Plate 74

Madonna

Montaigne, Michel de, 7


Montalto, Cardinal, see Sixtus

Notre-Dame

(Prince), 195

St. Peter's, 27, 64, 68, Plates 31,

Longueil,

93, 94

di Vicoforte,

see

Mathey, Jean-Baptiste:

62, 64, 202, Plates 75,

Giuseppe, 74, 97, Plates

Mondovi, Santuario
68

dam), 196

Urrana,
Diego Martinez Ponce de
Diego,

Martinez,

Mascherino, Ottavio, 68

della Valle,

Milan: Collegio Elvetico (Palazzo


del Senato), 146, Plate 198; S.

Nieuwe Kerk (Haarlem), 196

148, Plate 204; Palazzo Mattei,

Andrea

68, 76, 194; Villa Far-

nesina, 20, 144, 147

Marekerk (Leyden), 196

201; Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi,


145, 174; S.

194;

19

of, 19; statue of,

pella Salviati, 68; Cappella del

SS.

Plate

145,

Plate 312

tenstein Palace, 202, Plate 313;

Maderno, Carlo, 175, 177, Cap-

144,

Palazzo dei Conservatori, 19;


Palazzo dei Senatori, 19; S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini, 78; St. Pe-

307;

Andrea, 13

S.

244, 250

Hall, 195

32, 40, Plate 13; Palazzo Farnese,

ter's, 64,

Mansart, Francois, 39, 97, 141,


162, 166, 167; Chateau de Balleroy, 162; Chateau de Berny,
162, 185, Plate 230; Chateau de
Blois, 162, 170, Plate 231; Chateau de Maisons, 162, 166, 184,
Plates 232-235; Church of the
Minimes, 185, 202, Plate 277;

Martinelli

Maastricht,

Michelangelo, 7, 19, 20, 40, 64,


68, 174; Capitoline Hill, 19, 20,

de, 162

166,

162,

Lafitte),

umn

Fleur-de-lis, 196; Paradis, 196;

Madame

Chateau de

Maisons,

Mantua,

160, 167, 186, Plates 225-228

Lyon,

Maggi, Paolo, 146

Maintenon,

first project,

Plates

313

(King of France), 12,

39, 48, 60, 76, 162, 170

Mayor,
289

19; S.

Old

St. Peter's

Oratorio

dei

(Rome), 175
Filippini

(Rome),

Messina, 122; Church of the Padri


Somaschi, 129, 132, Plate 166

112, 113, 146, 152, Plates 133138; Loggia dei Cardinali, Plate

Mexico

135

City, Cathedral, 188

Orbav, Francois

d',

186; Louvre,

148, Plates 280, 281

Orleans, Gaston

152,

170; des Invalides, 76, Plates 98,


100; du Jars, 170, Plate 246;

Pilgrimage Church (Oropa), 132,


Plate 1 70

Palazzo Pesaro (Venice), 179, Plate

Lambert, 170, Plates 247-249;


Lamoignon, 160; de Liancourt
(Bouillon), 169, Plate 243; de
Lionne, 170, 186, Plates 250,
251; Tambonneau, 170; de la
Vrilliere (Hotel de Toulouse),
39, 170, Plates 244, 245; de
Sully, 169; He de la Cite, 32; lie

Piranesi,

Pamphili
214

Palazzo

d\ 160

Oropa, Santuario, 132, Plate 170


Ortega, Juan Luis, S. Maria Magdalena, 188, Plate 290

Oxienstierna Palace (Stockholm),


198

274
Palazzo

de Justice (Rennes),

Plate

Palazzo
di
Propaganda
Fide
(Rome), 156; Cappella dei Re
Magi, 98, 117, Plates 153-158

(Dijon),

Etats

de

Bourgogne

Sapienza

(Rome),

St. Louis, 36, 169, 170;

sandrina, Plate 145; S. Ivo

34;

alia

152
Palazzo Savelli-Chigi (Ariccia), 69

40

Palais des Tuileries

gardens

della

113, Plate 145; Biblioteca Ales-

Sapienza, 113-117, Plates 143-

229
des

Palais

162,

145

Pitti (Florence),

Palazzo
Palais

(Rome),

Plates 213,

(Paris),

151;

of, 39, 48, 53, Plates 47,

48

Palazzo del Senato (Collegio Elvetico, Milan), 146, Plate 198


Palazzo dei Senatori (Rome), 19

du Luxembourg

Palazzo Altieri (Rome), 31, Plate

Palazzo di Stupinigi (near Turin),

59

33

280, 281;

Marais,
148,

39,

Luxembourg,

16, 160,

167, 186, Plates 225-228; Tuileries, 39, 48, 53, 151, Plates 47,
Plates

Palazzo Serlupi (Crescenzi, Rome),


145, Plate 196

(Paris), 16,

Louvre,

150, 151, 152, 170, 185, 186,


192, 199, 202; Plates 207-211,

48; places:

160, 167, 186, Plates 225-228

Palais

palaces:

Dauphine,

35-37;

Etoile,

48;

Vendome

France, 34, 39;


le

12, 32, 34,

de

(Louis

Grand), 40, Plates 42-45, VI

des Victoires, 39, 186, Plates 40


41, V; des Vosges, 34, 39, 185

Palazzo Barberini (Rome), 16, 147,


148, 150, 160, 174, 199, Plates
199-201

Palazzo Vidoni (Rome), 162

Palazzo Borghese (Rome), 31, 145,

Pamphili family, 148

Pont Neuf, 32, 39


portes: de France, 34; St. Denis
39, Plate 286; St. Antoine, 48
St. Germain, 34; Richelieu, 19
39; streets: Champs Elysees, 48
Croix des Petits Champs, 39
Dauphine, 12, 39; de la Feuil-

Pantheon (Rome), 69

lade, 39; des Fosses

Paradis (Lyon), 196

(Rue d'Aboukir), 39;


toine, 70

Palazzo d'Aste-Bonaparte (Rome),

deH'Universita

(Genoa),

146, Plate 197

177

Plates 34,

Palazzo

195

Palazzo Caetani (Mattei-Negroni,


Rome), 145

Palladio, Andrea, 13, 14, 145, 188;

Redentore, 76

Paris, 10, 11, 16, 19, 32, 34, 39,

Palazzo Carignano (Turin),


Plates 217-221

156,

Carpegna (Rome),
Plate 212

152,

Palazzo

40, 48, 53, 122, 184, 188, Plates


1,

Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi (Rome),


148, 150, 199, 202, Plate 204

Palazzo dei Conservatori (Rome),


19
Palazzo Doria-Tursi (Genoa), 146

Palazzo Ducale (Reale, Turin), 49,


131; gardens of, 53
Palazzo Farnese (Rome), 20, 144,
145, 148, Plate 194
Palazzo Massimo (Rome), 17

46;

Church
Church
Church

34;

churches

of the Capucines, 40
of the Feuillants,
of the Minimes,

40
185,

202, Plate 211; Church of the


Sorbonne, 78, Plates 106-108;
Church of the Visitation, 70,
Plates 90, 91; Dome des Invalides,

78,

76,

141,

186,

194,

Plates 99-102; St. Eustache, 34;


St. Gervais, 184, Plate 276; Ste.
Anne-la-Royale, 74, 129, Plates
167, 168; Val-de-Grace, 68, 78,

97, Plates

Quatre

Palazzo Mattei (Rome), 145, 174

France),

Palazzo di Montecitorio (Rome),

hotels:

148, 199, Plates 202, 203

Bastille,

78,

79;

Nations

Plates 38, 39;

de

185, Plates 278, 279;

de Beauvais, 186, Plates


281-283; de Bretonvillers, 169,

1 7;

Ponce, Diego Martinez de, see


Urrana, Diego Martinez Ponce
de
Ponzio,

Flaminio:

Acqua Paola

fountain, Cappella Paolina, 68,


Plate 80; Palazzo Borghese, 145,
Plate 195

Porta,

Giacomo della,
Giacomo

Della

see

Porta,

Portoghesi, Paolo, 98
Post, Pieter, 194;

Town

Hall, 195

Prague, 122; churches: St. Francis

(Kreuzherren Kirche), 200;

Maria

Altoetting,
College),

(Jesuit

Klementium

192;

191,

Plates

S.

141,

133,

200;

palaces:

Czernin, 200, Plate 310, XXIV;


Nostitz, 200; Troja, 200; Wall-

200

enstein,

Roger,

Pratt,

House,
194

194;

194;

Clarendon
House,

Coleshill

Queen's House (Greenwich), 188,


194, Plates 292, 293; Star

Cham-

ber, 188

(Pope), 64

Paul, St., 17
Perelle (engraver),

Plates 37,

39,

48, 64, 72, 230, 232, 233, 237,

257, 259, 279,

286

Peretti, Felice, see Sixtus

Peruzzi, Baldassare,

13,

V
17;

Rainaldi, Carlo, 20, 31, 179; Lou-

Pal-

azzo Massimo, 17; Villa Farnesina, 144, 147, 162


Peter, St., 17, 175
Philip II (King of Spain), 188
Philip III (King of Spain), 187

15;

Palazzo

Bor-

S.

Agnese, 21;

S.

Andrea

76; S.

Maria dei Miracoli, 70;

Maria

in Campitelli, 88, 90, 97,

S.

Plates 115-119

Rainaldi, Girolamo: Palazzo Pamphili, 152; S. Agnese, Plate 21;

Teresa, 80, 88, 97, 141, Plate

S.

Pietro da Cortona, see Cortona,

114
Raphael, Palazzo Vidoni, 162

Pietro da

Church

151;

della Valle (facade), 62, 64, Plate

Pico della Mirandola, 7

Pilar

148,

vre,

ghese, 31, Plate 34; Piazza del


Popolo, 11, 20, 26, 49, 70, Plate

College des
(Institut

20, 26, 152,


Piazza del Popolo,
11,20,26, 49, 70, Plate 14

185, Plate

Montmartre
St. An-

Passau, Cathedral, 200, 202

Paul

Giovanni Battista, 20;

Piazza Navona,

(Saragossa), 188

Redentore (Venice), 76

219

Senato), 146, Plate 198; S. Giu-

ganda Fide, 152, Plates 215,


216; Convent of S. Carlo alle
Quattro Fontane, 97, Plate 123;
fountains: Acqua Paola: Fountain of the Four Rivers, 22,

seppe, 74, 97, Plates 93, 94

Plates 22,

Rennes,
Plate

de Justice,

Palais

162,

229

Ricchino, Francesco Maria, 179;


Collegio Elvetico (Palazzo del

Riddarhuset (House of Nobility,


Stockholm), 198

Rome,

179,

48,

19,

16,

Casa e Oratorio dei

Filippini,

112,

146, 152,

113,

Gesu,

Plates 133-138; churches:

13,27,31,62,68, 188,200,

Plates 5-7;

Madonna

dei Monti,

62, Plate 74; S. Agnese, 22, 26,


27, 152, 185, Plates 18-21; S.

Andrea

al

Quirinale, 27, 69, 74,

84-87;

Plates

Andrea

S.

della

Valle, 62, 64, 202, Plates 75, 76,

XII; S.

Andrea

delle Fratte, 177,

Plates 268, 269; S.

Flaminia, 68; S.

Andrea

Anna

Via

in

dei Pala-

Carlo ai Catinari,
78, 97, Plates 103-105; S. Carlo
al Corso,
179, Plate 273; S.
Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (S.
frenieri, 68; S.

Carlino), 97, 98, 112, 117, 133,

Giacomodegli
Incurabili, 68; S. Giovanni dei
Fiorentini, 78; S. Giovanni in
Plates 122-131; S.

Laterano,
159-163;

117,

19,

Plates

177,

Gregorio

al

al

Maria Mad-

Corso, Plate 275;

S.

dalena,

Plate

120;

S.

Maria Maggiore, 19,


Maria dei Miracoli, 70;

60;

S.

Sette

90,

Dolori,

Plates 139-142;

S.

Mura,

SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio, 174,


Plate 265; Collegio di Propa-

(Stockholm),

200,

185, Plates 18-21

Andrea

Propaganda

196;

Pantheon,

162;

hills, 20; squares:


Capitoline Hill, 19, 20, 32, 40,
Plate 13; Colonna, 152; Navona,

20,

26,

152,

Plate

185,

Maria
23, 24,

III;

Babuino,
del, 20; Capo le Case, 156
Corso, 30; Felice (Sistina), 10
Flaminia, 20, 68; Propaganda
Fide, 152, 156; Ripetta, 20
Vatican: Baldacchino (St. Pet
er's),

S.

175,
12,

Cathedra

266,

XXI

159,

160,

Petri

(St.

213, 214

S.

Andrea

della Valle (Rome), 62,

S.

Andrea

delle

Fratte

(Rome),

S.

Andrea

S.

S.

Anna

S.

S.

131,

141,

Carlo
Carlo

Catinari (Rome), 78,

ai

S.

S.

Quattro Fontane (S.


Rome), 97-98, 112,
117, 133, Plates 122-131; Capalle

Madonna, 98,

S.

Maria Magdalena (Granada),

al

Monte

dei Cappuccini

58

Maria dei Miracoli (Rome), 70


Maria dei Sette Dolori (Rome),

Maria dell'Assunzione (Assun-

S.

Maria

della

69, Plates 82-83

Divina Provvidenza

(Lisbon), 123, 129, 133, Plates


164, 165

Neri
Plates 172, 173
Filippo

(Casale),

132,

S.

Maria

della

Pace (Rome), 26, 27,

151, Plates 23, 24, III

Filippo Neri (Turin), 133, Plates

Gaetano

Maria

ta, Ariccia),

Plate

S.

Maria

della Salute (Venice), 74,

76, Plates 95-97


(Nizza), 132, Plate 169

Gaetano (Vicenza), 132,

Giacomo

degli

S.

Plate

174

S.

141,

113, 122, Plates 139-142

175, 176

S.

131,

Maria Maddalena (Rome), 88,

(Turin), 59, Plate


S.

Corso (Rome), 179,

al

pella della

S.

Maria Altoetting,

Maria Novella (Florence), 68

XIV
S.

Corso (Rome), Plate

al

S.

273

Carlo

Marcello

dei Palafrenieri (Rome),

Carlino,

Farnesina, 20,
10;

XV

(Turin),

Maria Maggiore (Rome), 19, 60;


Cappella Paolina, 68, Plate 80

S.

Plate

194, Plates 28-30, 77; Scala


Regia, 175, Plate 267; Vatican

9,

Lorenzo

S.

97, Plates 103-105

142, 174

144, 147; Giulia, Plates

Sapienza (Rome), 113,

Via Flaminia (Rome),

in

68

S.

villas:

alia

188, Plate 290

18,

64, 68, 74, 76, 98,

Ivo

90, Plate 120

68

Peter's)

20, 27, 70, Plates 25-27


29-32, IV; St. Peter's, 12, 27

68

Plates 191, 192

142, Plate 193; Piazza S. Pietro

Palace, 27;

S.

streets:

Plate

Celio (Rome), Cap-

117, Plates 143-152,

177 Plate 268, 269

17;

Pincio, 20; Porta del

al

275

Quirinale (Rome), 27,

al

della Pace, 26, 27, Plates

Popolo, 19, 20;

Gregorio

(Madrid Cathedral), 188,


Plate 289

64, 202, Plates 75, 76, XII

69;

Parioli-Pincio

Plates

94

S. Isidro

70, 74, Plates 84-87

Fide,

Plate

146,

S.

S.

S.

(Crescenzi),

93,

Plates 182-188

117, 156; Sapienza, 113, Plates


143-152; Senatori, 19; Serlupi

Vidoni,

Giuseppe (Milan), 74, 97,

S.

S.

214;

S.

Agnese (Rome), 22, 26, 27, 152,

Andrea (Mantua), 13

213,

Girolamo della Carita (Rome),


Cappella Spada, 177, Plates 270,
271

S.

Alessandro (Milan), 74, Plate 92

Montecitorio, 148, 199, Plates


202, 203; Pamphili, 152, Plates

Laterano (Rome),
159-163; Cap-

pella Lancellotti, 68, Plate 81

304

S.

Plates

tina, 78, 80, 88, Plates 109-113;

Palace

Plate

in

Plates

pella Salviati,

S.

174;

145,

della

Mar-

Royal

117,

S.

314

Mattei,

17;

Maria

Royal Palace (Berlin), 202, 204,

Conservatori, 19; Farnese, 20,


144, 145, 148, Plate 194; Mas-

Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

174,

103-105

Royal Hospital (Greenwich), 194

Plate

Giovanni
19,

Royal Exchange (London), 192

S.

simo,

S.

Rosenborg (Copenhagen), 198

148, 150, 199, 202, Plate 204;

122,

Luca

Sac-

65;

272

nari, 78, 97, Plates

Negroni), 145; Carpegna, 152,


Chigi-Odescalchi,
212;

113,

Paolo fuori

Plate

Rosati, Rosato: S. Carlo ai Cati-

Plate

Maria

19; S. Susanna,

Plates 263, 264; SS.

148, 150, 160, 162, 174, Plates


199-201; Borghese, 31, 145,
Plates 34, 195; Caetani (Mattei-

S.

Pace, 26, 27, 151, Plates 23, 24,


III; S. Maria in Campitelli, 88,
90, 97, Plates 115-119; S. Maria
in Publicolis, 88; S.

Aste-Bona-

60,

chetti, 179, Plate

parte, 177; Barberini, 16, 147,

Plates 14-16; Rusticucci, 27; S.

143-152; S. Marcello
88,

palaces:

della

Celio (Cappella Salviati), 68, S.


Ivo alia Sapienza, 113-117,

220

132-138;

Plates

Popolo, del, 11,20,26, 49, 70,

Spada),

Plates 270, 271; S.

le

152,

Plates

Girolamo

S.

Carita (Cappella

dei

Trevi, 152; Orato-

Altieri, 31, Plate 33;

11,

10,

Plate 12;

II,

II;

rio dei Filippini, 112, 113, 146,

Montalto,

Incurabili

(Rome), 68

Giovanni dei Fiorentini (Rome),


78

Maria in Campitelli (Rome), 88,


90,97, Plates 115-119
(Rome), 88

S.

Maria

S.

Paolo fuori le Mura (Rome), 19;


Cappella del SS. Sacramento,
98, 112

in Publicolis

S. Pietro, see St. Peter's

Susanna (Rome),

S.

174,

Plates

Saragossa, Pilar Church, 188


Scala Regia (Rome), 175, Plate 267

Teresa (Caprarola), 80, 88, 97,

Scamozzi, Vincenzo, 141

S.

141, Plate 114

Martina (Rome), 78,


80, 88, Plates 109-113

Luca

SS.

SS. Trinita (Turin), 70, Plate 88

Vincenzo

SS.

(Rome), 174, Plate 265

Eustache

St.

34

(Paris),

Schleissheim Palace, 202

Serlio, Sebastiano, 13, 14, 17,

276

Gervais

St.

Katarina (Stockholm), 198

Sixtus

St.

Michael's (Munich), 200, Plate

SixtusV(Pope),

(Paris), 184, Plate

Cathedral (new, Lon-

Paul's

don), 192, 194, Plates 295-297,

XXII
Cathedral

(old,

London),

20

St. Paul's

Church (London), 192

10, 12,

19,20,31,

Specchi, Alessandro, Plates 33, 204,

ace,

chino,

Plate

175,

XXI;

266,

200

Bernini's project for the facade,


Plate 28; Bramante's plans, 74;

Cathedra Petri, 142, Plate 193;


Maderno's work on, 64, 68,
174, Plates 31, 77; Michelangelo's work on, 76, 194

Stephen Walbrook (London),


194, Plate

299

Anne-la-Royale (Paris),
129, Plates 167, 168

Ste.

Saint-Germain-en-Lave,
duVal, 171

74,

Hendrik: Norderkerk, 195

Plate

Chamber (Queen's Chamber,


Greenwich), 188

Star

Stockholm, 196; Caroline Mausoleum,


Bonde,
palaces:
199;
198; Oxienstierna, 198; Riddarhuset (House of Nobility),
198; Roval Palace, 200, Plate
304; Tessin, 200, Plates 305,
306; St. Katarina, 198

Tibaldi, Pellegrino, 179

Trevi fountain, 152

Torino, see Turin

Town
Town
Town

Hall (Amsterdam), 195

59

Madonna

di

Valladolid, Cathedral: 188

Trent, Council of, 13, 196

Vanbrugh, John: Royal Naval Hospital, 194

Trevi fountain (Rome), 152

Trippenhuis (Amsterdam), 195


Tuileries, Palais des (Paris),

151;

of, 39, 48, 53, Plates 47,

48
Turin,

(the

Elder),

129, 179, Plates 49, 50, 57; churBasilica di Superga, 59;

Cathedral (Chapel of SS. Sin129, 131, Plates


49,
177-181, XVI; Immacolata Con-

done),

133, Plates

cezione,

XVIII;

Filippo

S.

189,

190,

Neri,

133,

Lorenzo, 131,
XVII; S.
Monte dei Cappuccini,
182-188,

Plates
al

156,

Car217-221;

palaces:

177;

Plates

Stupinigi,

59;
Venaria Reale, 59; squares: CarUna, 49; Castello, 48, 49, 54,
53;

Santuario (Oropa), 132, Plate 170

198, 200; Caroline Mausoleum,

(Mon-

199; Drottningholm, 199; Kal-

Plate 51; Palazzo di Citta (delle


Erbe), 53; Reale (S. Carlo), 49,

mar Cathedral, 198

Plates 52-54,

Santuario
dovi),

68

di

Vicoforte

Rome

Vaux-le-Vicomte, Chateau de, 166,


167, 170, Plates 69-72, 239-242;
garden, 61, 166, Plates 70, 71,

122,

ches:

gardens,

Nicodemus

Vatican, see

XI
48, 49, 53, 59,

19,

Ducale (Palazzo Reale), 49, 131;

Tessin,

del

Trajan (Emperor), column of, 19

ignano,

Campagna, 74

Piazza

Scienze),

Terreaux (Lyon), 196

78, 97,

Valencia Los Desamparados, 188,


Plate 291

Hall (Maastricht), 195

gio dei Nobili (Accademia delle

Antonio (the Younger):


Palazzo Farnese, 144, 145

Giuseppe:
Popolo, 20

Valadier,

Hall (Augsburg), 200, Plate

59, Plate 58, IX; SS. Trinita, 70,


Plate 88; Citta Nuova, 49; Colle-

di,

(Paris), 68,

Plates 78, 79

Maria

Synod of Dordt, 196

Los Desamparados, 188, Plate


291

Val-de-Grace

London, 192

of

Sturm, Leonard Christoph, 16

Sangallo,

Sanmicheli, Michele:

(guidebook writer),

Filippo

Stupinigi Palace (Turin), 59

Superga, Basilica

(Pope), 147

20

141,

188,

Urban VIII

Urrana, Diego, Martinez Ponce de:

Plates 175, 176; S.

288

Salvi, Nicola:

312

gardens

Stalpaert, Daniel, 195

Strozzi, Nanni, 7

Chateau

Salamanca: Jesuit Clereci'a,

188

Stadium of Emperor Domitian, 20


Staets,

Uffizi (Florence), 146

309

215

Split, Diocletian's palace,

(Rome), 12, 27, 64, 68,


174, Plate XXIII; Baldac-

St. Peter's

49; Via Po, Plates 55, 56, VIII

306, XXIII

Tower

Spinoza, Baruch, 7

194

Plate

(Pope),

Spezza, Andrea: Wallenstein Pal-

St. Paul's

St.

IV

32, 60, Plate 12

307

Pal-

Theatine Church (Munich), 202,

148

s'Gravesande, Arent van: Marekerk, 196

St.

98,

Kamecke

Andreas:

House, Plate 315; Roval Palace


of Berlin, 202, 204, Plate 314

Titi,

200

St.

200, Plate 304; Tessin


ace 200, Plates 305, 306

55; gates: Palazzo, 53; di Po, 53;


di Susa (Quartieri Militari), 53;
streets: Via Nuova (Via Roma),

Tessin Palace (Stockholm), 200,


Plates 305, 306; garden, Plates

Scudery, Mademoiselle de, 167

(Kreuzherren Kirche),

St. Francis'

von:

Veneto, Plate

ina), 53; Vittorio

Schloss, 16

Schliiter,

Anastasio

ed

199;

er),

den,

Conrad

Johann

Schlaun,

(the YoungDrottningholm gar199; Royal Palace, 199,

Nicodemus

Tessin,

263, 264

VII;

Savoia (Sus-

Venaria Reale (Turin), 59


Venice, 179, 188; churches: II
Redentore, 76; S. Maria della
Salute,

74,

95-97;

Plates

76,

Palazzo Pesaro, 179, Plate 274

Verona Madonna
Versailles:

59,

150,

60,

Campagna, 74

di

Chateau

de, 12, 16, 19,

170,

171,

194,

Plates 3, 59-64, 252, 253, 254,

255; Chapel (Notre-Dame), 60,


187, Plates 284; Galerie des Glaces, 171, Plate 254; gardens, 55,
60, 61, Plate 62;

Grand

Tria-

non, 172, Plates 259-262; Chateau de Clagny, 171, Plate 257;

Avenue de Paris, 60;


Avenue de St. Cloud, 60; Ave-

streets:

nue de Sceaux, 60, Plate

Via Po, 53, Plates 55, 56


Vicenza,
Plate

122;

S.

Gaetano, 132,

74

221

Vienna,
202,

Church "am Hof",

16;

321; Graphische
Plates
Albertina,

Plate,

Sammlung

134,

133,

125,

144,

145,

212;

Hofburg, 202; Liech-

palaces:

tenstein Palace, 202, Plate 313;

Liechtenstein Villa, 202


Vignola,

Giacomo

68; S.
Villa

da,

13, 68;

II

Andrea,
Anna dei Palafrenieri, 68

Gesu, 13, Plates

5, 7; S.

Wren, Christopher,
ton Court,

194;

194, Hampplan for the

New City, 194, Plate 294; Royal


Exchange, 194, Plate 300; St.
Paul's Cathedral (new), 194,
Plates 295-297, XXII; St. Stephen Walbrook, 194, Plates 298,
299; Winchester Palace, 194
Wiirzburg, 170

Aldobrandini (Frascati), 61,

Plates 66-68,

Villa Farnesina

Zucalli,

(Rome), 20, 144,

Nymphenburg,

Zuiderkerk (Amsterdam), 196

147
Villa Giulia
Villa of

Enrico:

202; Schleissheim, 202

(Rome)

Plates

Count Kovnic

9,

10

(Austerlitz),

202
Villa

Montalto (Rome) 60, Plate 65

(Rome) 179, Plate

Villa Sacchetti

272
Vincennes, Chateau de, 48

Vingboons, Justus: Palace of Louis


de Geer,
Riddarhuset
198;
(House of Nobility), 198
Vingboons,
195

Philip:

Trippenhuis,

Vitozzi, Ascanio, 48, 49, 59, 68,

179, Piazza Castello, 53, Plate


51; Santuario di Vicoforte, 68;

Monte

dei Cappuc-

cini, 59, Plate 58;

SS. Trinita,

S.

Maria

al

70, Plate 88

Vitruvius (Marcus Vitruvius Pollio),

16, 17

Volterra, Francesco da, 68; CapS.

Giacomo

Albrecht
Eusebius von, 200

Wenzel

pella Salviati, 68;

degli incurabili,

68

Vorarlberg, 200

Wallenstein,

Wallenstein Palace (Prague), 200

Westerkerk (Amsterdam), 195


Whitehall Palace (London), 194

Winchester Palace (Winchester),


194
Wittkower, Rudolph, 69, 76,
122

8,

222
i

LIST

OF PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS

Note: Photographs by Pepi Merisio and Bruno

Balestrini.

All those supplied by other sources are gratefully acknowledged below.

The numbers

listed refer to the plates.

Florence:

Alinari,

80,

195, 203,

266, 275
Anelli, S., Electa Editrice, Milan:
13, 14, 17, 27, 57, 59, 65, 66,

82,83, 194, 196,202,204,215,

237
Archivio

fotografico

Gallerie

Musei Vaticani, Rome: 12


Biblioteca
Ambrosiana, Milan:

223,224,250
Apostolica

Biblioteca

Rome:

15, 159,

Bighini, Otello, Madrid: 287,

289

D., Mestre: 97, 274

Bruno, G., Mestre: 52, 53, 54, 55,


56, 58, 88, 180, 184, 186, 187,

189,219,220,221

naux: 205, 211

Nationalmuseum, Stockholm: 305


Norberg-Schulz,

J.

Guillot,

XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII,


XX, XXII, XXIII, XXIV
Photographie Giraudon,
229, 276, 280

Richard,

J., Paris: 3

Monumentenzorg,
The Hague: 301, 303

Rijksdienst v.d.

Rome: 127,

Schmidt-Glassner,

147, 163,

Bavaria Verlag, Gaut-

Germany): 307
Bavaria Verlag, Gaut-

Germany): 312

Lennart af Petersens, Stockholm:

H., Stuttgart:

231
Sheridan, R., London: 292, 293,
297, 299

Museen,

Kunstbiblio-

thek, Berlin: 315

Foto Mas, Barcelona: 288

306

Paris:

Photo Meyer, Vienna: 311

Staatliche

18,

V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, XI, XII,

278

Editions Vincent-Freal, Paris: 102

Keetman, J.,
ing (West
Keetman, P.
ing (West

Oslo:

270,271

Cassa di Risparmio delle Province


Lombarde, Archivio fotografico: 94
Paris: 90,

Ch.,

33,74,81,300,304,313,1,111,

Savio, O.,

Bulloz, Paris: 11

Connaissance des Arts,

Musee du Louvre, Cabinet des


Dessins, Paris, Musees Natio-

Vaticana,

160,213,214

Biblioteca Reale, Turin: 51

Birelli,

Mairani, G., Milan: IV

Staatliche SchJosser
Berlin:

und Garten,

314

University Press, Oxford: 296

VerroustJ., Neuilly: 281


Windstosser, L., Bavaria Verlag,

Gauting (West Germany): 309

223

11

History of World Architecture

Baroque Architecture

Ancient Architecture

Hans Wolfgang

AM
4

Miiller

&

Seton Lloyd

if
Baroque Architecture
Christian Norberg-Schulz

Byzantine Architecture
Cyril

Mango

Gothic Architecture
Louis Grodecki

Greek Architecture
Roland Martin
Islamic Architecture

John D. Hoag
Late Baroque and Rococo Architecture
Christian Norberg-Schulz

Modern

Architecture/

Modern

&

Francesco Dal

Co

Architecture/2
Francesco Dal

Co

Manfredo Tafuri

Manfredo Tafuri

&

Neoclassical and 19th Century Architecture/

The Enlightenment in France


and in England
Robin Middleton & David Watkin
Neoclassical and 19th Century Architecture/2

The Diffusion and Development


and the Gothic Revival
Robin Middleton & David Watkin

of Classicism

The Baroque Age was


exuberant

new

bom

in

Rome

toward the end of the sixteenth century and ushered

would dominate

and

in

an

Taking
impetus from the triumphant Counter-Reformation launched by the papacy in Rome, it spread
throughout Italy to France and major European capitals. Bernini and Borromini in Italy, he Notre and
Mansart in France, Wren and Jones in England provide magnificent examples of an architecture marked
artistic style that

the seventeenth

early eighteenth centuries.

Mario Bussagli

pomp and

ornamentation, boldness of design, and preference for the curved over the straight line.
The chapters in this volume focus on the growth of urban centers and the evolution of churches and

by

Oriental Architecture/
India, Indonesia, Indochina

palaces,

and include notes and an ample bibliography.

Oriental Architecture/2
China, Korea, Japan

Mario Bussagli
Pre-Columbian Architecture of Mesoamerica
Paul

Gendrop

&

Doris

Heyden

Primitive Architecture

Enrico Guidoni

Renaissance Architecture
Peter Murray

Roman

Architecture

John Ward-Perkins

Romanesque Architecture
Hans Erich Kubach

ISBN: 0-S478-0693-6