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HISTORY

BRIEF

OF

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

/fey

C.

B.
Formerly

Fellow,
Johns

BURT,

M.A.,

Fellow

and

Hopkins

Courtesy,

by

University.

BOSTON
GINN

"

COMPANY,

1889.

PUBLISHERS.

in

the

PM

ITHE

LIBRARY
CONGRESS

OF

IwASHIWGTON
"

Entered

in

the

according

Office

of

to

Presswokk

Act

of

B.

C.

by

-~

in

Ginn

the

year

1888,

BURT,

Congress

of

J. S. Cushing
by

Congress,

Librarian

the

TyroGRArHY

'

"

"""

"

"

Co.,

at

Co.,
Boston.

Washington.

Boston.

by

TO

G.

H.

B.

AND

E.

S.

McK.

PREFACE.

The

written

essays
of

others

added
from

speculation
been

that

by

were

comparatively

in

those

begin

to

and

prejudices

of

by

any

philosophical
subject

extensive,

by
the

the

of

present,

others,

which

overwhelming

this

Most

volume
the

of

larger

certain

the
treats

general

same,

are

thought

of

solutions

for

of

problems,

value
the

thought
those

from

the

not

sessed
pos-

in

beginner

works

are

was

measure

of

remoteness

particularly

thinking.
of

their

have

the

history

original

only

reason

the

account

(for they

in

"are,

Greek

problems

cardinal

world's

the

with

the

freshness

and

of

that

of

This

end.

the

of

disregarded

be

always

and

youth,

cals
periodi-

as

account

that

of

when

unacquainted

problems),

the

measure

found

suspect,

its

large

simplicity

its

to

belief

solutions

their

of
that

than

Greek

the

reason

solutions

in

are

brief

the

in

well

of

series

suggestion

valuable

as

not

beginning

prepared

philosophy
and

its

could
make

to

be

to

and

the

at

"

be

ethico-religious

these

seemed

in

beginning

the

To

counsel

were

its

of

one

possibly

"

had

country.

whose

could

has

for

the

friends

any

work

following

of

treating
learned

reader,

and

and

even

PREFACE.

VI

the

student,

wealth

of

world's

thought

work

will

merely
their
the

in

of

of

Greek

the

writer

of

obligation

in

the

Philosopy

G.

S.

Hall,

Hopkins

in
late

Dewey,

in

the

classmate

of

and

University

of

has

June,

1888.

become

Minnesota
a

not

little

task.
his

here
of

Lecturer
and

University,
in
of

the

of

versity,
Uni-

received

John

to

Philosophy
of

Elect
; and

to

Johns

Clark

also

due

sense

Philosophy

encouragement

Professor

of

categories

formerly

is

in

estimate

and

President

thanks

not

present

and

Psychology

Professor

University,

who

Arbor,

word

Assistant

now

Michigan

and

made

to

Professor

now

and

ual
intellect-

here

express

and

ent
pres-

form

just

the

the

also

the

Hopkins
of

suggestions

them.

to

Michigan,

and

is

but

to

Morris,

Professor

of

reading

Johns

University,
for

from

the

that

standpoints

liberty

S.
of

University

on

Ann

the

G.

to

convenient

give

given

been

takes

in

and

Much

have

hoped

the

and

particular

attempt

leading

superabundant

is

elucidate,

and

the

portions

An

thinking.

original study
The

noblest

the

connection,

validity of,

of

accessible

Greece.

historical

in

It

general.

expound

to

of

sense

thought

render

some

wealth

ancient

the

quantities

with

almost,

to

life-companion.

in

ophy
Philos-

college-

Introductory

Paragraph,

'

i.

p.

I.

CONTENTS.

OF

TABLE

GENERAL

NATURALISM,

1-34.

pp.

"1.
The

Hylozoists,

Hylicists,
Thales,

p.

Early

or

Anaximander,

I;

Philosophers

Anaximenes,

2;

p"

Natural

Ionic

Result,

3;

p.

p. 3.

"2.
Pythagoreans,

The

Contraries,

of

6;

p.

Theories

6-7;

pp.

Theories,

Miscellaneous

Pythagorean

Number-Theory
purely

not

Result,

p. 9;

the

and

Pythagoras

Philosophy,

Pythagorean

4-6;

p.

Society,

pp.

Doctrine

and

Pythagorean,

7-9;

pp.

9.

p.

"3The

Eleatics,
nes,

Parmenides,
of

Zeno,

Life

Result,

11;

p.

10

p.

16

Result,

Xenophanes,
Life

11;

p.

of

Result,

13-14;

pp.

p.

of

Life

15;

Zeno,

16;

General

18;

p.

p.

Xenopha-

Philosophy

12;

p.

of

Melissus,

17-18;

pp.

Parmenides,

p.

of

Philosophy

10;

p.

of

Philosophy
Result,

p.

19.

"4.
Heraclitus

Life

Doctrine,

of

p.

Heraclitus,

22;

The

and

Soul

First

20;

p.

Principle,

Reason,

p.

20-21

pp.

Result,

22;

p.

cal
Physi-

23.

"5Natural

Later
of

Nature,

Life

of

Nous,

Philosophers,
pp.

24-25

Anaxagoras,
or

and

Mind,

Theory

p.

p.

23:
of

Knowledge,

of

Empedocles,^.

Knowledge,

Theory

27;

Life

p.

of
29;

Nature,
Result,

p.
pp.
p.

26;

Result,

27-28;
29;

Theory

24;

The

p.

Theory

26;
of

Atomists,

Leucippus
of

the

and

Democritus,

Soul, etc.,

pp.

31-32;

p.

30;

Theory

Result,

pp.

of

Nature,

32-33.

pp.

30-31

Theory

GENERAL

V1H

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS.

"6.
General

Character

Philosophy,

of

First

the

Period

in

History

the

Greek

of

33-34.

pp.

II.

RATIONALISM,

34-263.

pp.

"7The

Sophists,

p. 34

Life

35-36;

of

Hippias

p. 37.

Life of

Gorgias,
and

Protagoras,

p. 35 ;
of

36; Theory

p.

Prodicus,

38;

p.

The

Theory

Gorgias,

of

Protagoras,pj
36-37; Result,

pp.

Sophists as

Class

(Result),

38-40.

pp.

"8.
Socrates

The

Sophistsand

Socrates, p.

regarding Socrates,
of

Socrates

The

of
between

p.

of

to

Philosophy

of

tion
Informa-

ity
Personal-

Socrates, pp. 42-45

Subsequent History

of

Socrates, p. 47;

The

Socratic

of

Greek

Spirit of

Method,

the

50-54;

pp.

of Socrates

losophy
(theirgeneral character),
p. 54; PhysicalPhi55; (EthicalPhilosophy of Socrates) Relations

Socrates, p.

Virtue,

and

Knowledge
of

Special Sources

the

Philosophizing,pp. 48-50;

Doctrines

Unity

Life

its Relation

and

Philosophy, pp. 45-47;


Socratic

p. 42;

41 ;

and

Knowledge

58; Temperance,

General

56;

p.

Virtue, p. 57;

Classification

Justice,p. 60; Piety, p. 61; Wisdom,

p.

of

the

of

the

Virtues,

Right Citizenshipand

58; Friendship,p. 59;

p.

Consequences

62; Beauty,

p,

63;

General

Result, pp. 63-64.


"9The

Followers

Socrates,

of

p.

65.
"

The

Lesser

Socratics,

and
Diodorus, Stilpo,

thenes,Diogenes,
"

65

p.
their

their

10.

The

{Euclid, Eubulides,

Megarians

doctrines),pp. 66-67;

The

doctrines),pp. 67-69;

tippus, Theodorus, Hegesias,Anniceris,

"

their

The

Cynics (AntisCyrenaics (Atis-

doctrines),pp. 69-71

Result, p. 71.

fix.
Plato:

Life

of

Plato, pp. 72-75;

Conception
p.

Theory

81;
of

of

Dialectic

Knowledge

Plato's

Works,

Philosophy, pp. 78-81;


as

and

Twofold

Method,

The

Science,
pp.

pp.

82-84;

75-78;

Plato's

Divisions
p. 82;

of

phy,
Philoso-

Dialectic

(Dialecticas

eral
Gen-

as

System)

and

Thought
the

The

Cosmos,

of

the

of

Forms

and
of

Virtue

Each,

The

104-107;

pp.

of Plato's

End
pp.

p. 102;
Eternal

Philosophy,

Result, pp. 111-113.

109-113;

pp.

Nature

Administration,

Form

Later

Art, p. 108;

and

Beauty

Life,p. 107;

the

State

Genesis,

their

State and

the

and

90;

(Plato'sEthics)

Ethics, p. 98;

ioi;

85-87;

pp.

88-90; (Physics,

pp.

93-97;

pp.

State

of the

Parts

Individual,p.

in the

Virtue

99-101;
False

The

State, p. 99;

Soul,
of

Method

The

Basis, p. 98;

General

Body

91-93;

pp.

and

Ideas,

Physical Speculation,p.

of

Method

The

Nature)

of

Theory

of

World,

Phenomenal,

the

IX

World

The

84-85;

pp.

Ideal, to

of the

Relation
or

Being,

CONTENTS.

OF

TABLE

GENERAL

"12.
Disciples

The

Old

The

Plato,

of

Academy,

Speusippus, p.

114:

p.

Old

of the

Members

Other

p, 113.

Academy,
"

Aristotle, p.

of

Life

Aristotle:

His

Knowledge,

p. 122;

Knowledge,

(Deductive),pp.

or

Metaphysics,p.

(dpx"0"
God,

of

Character
p. 137;

139;

Nature,

Motion,

Graduated

Science, p.

140;

Soul, p. 142-147;

Phantasy

and

p.

pp.

Scale

of

Body

and

Time,

Being

147 ; End

Virtue,pp. 150-152;

Visible

136;

Essential

Universe,

147;

Desire

Method

of Ethics, p. 149;

"

of

and

p.
a

as

Faculties,of

or

144-146;

of

Substance,

Psychology

140;

Philosophy,or

Definition

Principles

Sense-Faculties,
p.

142;

pp.

and

Philosophy of Nature,

Parts,

141 ;

Philosophy, p.

of Practical

p.

p.

Probable

Matter

First

or

The

Philosophy,

Immovable

The

Nature,

Reason,

148-149; PsychologicalBasis
of

p.

First

Nature,

of the

(General Analysis,p.
Practical

of

138;

p.

in

Soul,

p. 144;

Causes,

Method

136-137;

Space, and

Memory,

146) ;

Philosophy,p.

pp.

osophical,
Phil-

Syllogism

127-128;

p. 129;

Substance,

Philosophy

The

Ideas, p. 131;

132;

of Real

the

Physics,or

p. 135;

Plato's

and

or
Scientific,

p. 123;

of

Theory

Predicables, p. 125;

Method,

Actuality,p.
Kinds

I33-I34"

PP-

Being

130;

of Aristotle's

18-122;

122;

p.

and

Rhetorical

and

Potentialityand

Form,

Definition

pp.

Syllogism (Inductive), pp.

Dialectical

and

Character

Demonstration,

p. 122;

123-125;

Categories, p. 126;
Proof

General

116;

Knowledge,

of

Kinds

115;

p.

14.

PhilosophicalWorks,

Chief

System, and

Xenocrates,

114;

p. 116.

the

143;

motion,
Loco-

Practical

Political

Science,"

Sources

and

Virtue, p. 152;

ditions
Con-

Deliberate

GENERAL

Choice,

Control

the

Happiness,
161;

of

State

p.

The

Ethical

165;
166;

Who

Should

and

the

be

of

Rulers,

Different

Political

Polities,p. 181;
181-182;

End

of

Best

pp.
of

State,
Forms

State"P-

its Kinds,

p.

Polity, pp. 168-170;


Methods

of

Revolutions,
Sources

Most

lishing
Estab-

174-177;
Permanent

p. 181 ;

Rhetoric, pp.

Genesis

and

Substantial

of

State, pp.

The

77-1 80;

the

and

and

the
and

of

Polity

Forms

85-190;

Result, pp.

191 ;

167;

Various

Theory

pp.

Pleasure

Theories

Tne

The

Philosophy, p. 183;

Philosophy,
Aristotle,p.

p.

Revolutions,

Poietical

Self-

Polities,pp. 170-174;
the

Plato's

157-158;

159;

Certain

Citizen, p. 165;

Maintaining

of

of

Others), pp. 162-165;


of

dence
Pru-

Ethics, p. 160; Origin


Criticism

Family, p. 162;
Nature

Right Reason,

Virtues, Generally, pp.

"Practical"

160;

Characteristics

Causes

Virtues, pp. 154-157;

Opposite,p. 158; Friendship,p.

(Plato and

The

CONTENTS.

OF

Intellectual

its

and

p.

The

p. 153;
and

TABLE

of

of

Plato

Strato

of

Unity

totle's
Arisand

191-194.

"15.
The

Peripatetic
sacus,

School,

196;

p.

Theophrastus,p.

p. 194:

of Messene,

Diccearch

195;

Lamp-

196.

p.

"16.
Post-Aristotelian

Leading

Three

Schools,

196.

p.

" 17The

Stoics

Stoicism:

and

Stoic

Lives, pp. 197-199;


p. 199;

The

p. 202;

Stoic

Logic,

Truth

in

208;

Classes

Wise

Man,

of

pp.

Historical

Epicureans

Truth

in

Physics
Atoms,

and

The

216-218;

Parts

Ideas, pp.

"

pp.

Aim

The

211-212;
of

and

222-224;

"

of

of

System

202;

206;

Nature

Origin

The

the

213;

the

General

Method

losophy,
Phi-

200-201

of

Good,

Nature, pp.
Life according

"

Classes

of

pp.

209-211;

Virtue, p.
The

Popular Religion,p.

213;

Result, pp. 214-215.

Epicurus
of the

Character, p.

Properties of

"

Logical Method,

and

his

Philosophy, p. 218; (Canonics)

219-220;

of

Parts

Theory

Chief

Others

Ideas, pp.

Bomtm,

Stoics,and

Epicureanism:

and

and

Virtue, p. 207;

Summum

Stoicism, p.

of

the

Physics, or

203;

the

of

200;

Ideas, p.

Nature

Goods,

Sources

p.

its Parts, p.

and

Nature, p. 207;

to

Conception

Categories,p.

Ethics

204-206;

The

of

Criterion

The

Zeno, Cleanihes, Chrysippus, and

221;

bodies, p.

Study
First
224;

School,
Criterion

of Nature,

of

p. 220;

Principle,
p.
The

pp.

Visible

221;
Uni-

TABLE

GENERAL

verse,

Ethics
The

First

"

The

224-226;

pp.

Wise

Human

Historical

2T,y,

of

Sources

Sceptics,

p. 235

of

The

232;

the

Pleasure, p.
State,p.

230;
233;

Epicurean Doctrines,

p.

19.

Pyrrhonisms

Pyrrhonists,p. 236;

Empiricus,

The

Timon

Pyrrho,

"

Sextus

Agrippa,

vius,

of

Negativism

the

"

Pyrrhonists,p.

Arcesilaus,

240;

p.

The

Pyrrhonists

Later

Cameades,

241;

and

pp.

of

the

Earlier

"Tropes,"

p. 237;

Cause,
and

Middle

240;

of Phlius, ALneside-

Theories

236;

p.

Impossibilityof Demonstration, Sign,

The

Soul, pp. 227-229;

Kinds

Friendship,p.

230-232;

pp.

"

p.

The

p. 227;

XI

Result, pp. 234-235.

234;

The

CONTENTS.

Principle(Pleasure),p. 227;

Man,

Religion, p.

Gods,

OF

p.

Nezu

239;

Pure

Academies,

Result,

pp.

Sceptics,

pp.

241-243;

243-245.

The

Common

Ground

of

the

Stoics, Epicureans,

and

245-247.

"21.
Philosophy

The

Later

Eclecticism,

Peripatetics,

of Sidon,
"

Rome:

in

Adrastus

unknown

an

pp.

p. 247.

248-250;

Andronicus

author, Alexander

of Rhodes,

Boethus

of JEgce, Aspasius

of Aphrodisias,Aristocles,Alexander

and

of Aphrodisias.

"23The

Later

Academics,

of Ascalon,

pp.

250-251

Philo

of Larissa,

p. 250;

Antiochus

p. 250.

"24.
The

Later
p. 252;
General

255;

Stoics, pp. 251-261; Boethus,


Posidonius, p. 252; Varro, p. 253;

Conception
Physics, p.

Philosophy,
Aurelius,

p.

pp.

260;

Pancstius

p. 251;
Cicero

Life,pp. 253-254;

"

of

Philosophy, p. 255; Theory


256; Ethics, pp. 256-258; Seneca
258-260;

Musonius

Rufus,

of
"

Character

of

the

Second

Period,

pp.

Knowledge,
Life,

Epictetus,

Cynicism, p. 261.
"25.

General

of Rhodes,

261-262.

p.

p.

258;

Marcus

TABLE

GENERAL

Xll

III.

OF

CONTENTS.

(AND

SUPRA-RATIONALISM

SUPRA-NATURALISM),

pp.

263-296.

"26.
Standpoint

Schools

and

Philosophy,

Third

the

of

Latest

and

Period

Greek

of

263.

p.

"27.

Jewish-Alexandrian
General'

JudcEiis,
God,

p.

School,

Man,

267;

Attitude,

The

266;
p.

264;

p.

Logos,

267;

264:

p.

p.

Result,

of

Theory
Sensible

The

266;
p.

Aristobulns,

264;

p.

Philo-

Knowledge,
World

265;

p.

and

Matter,

p.

268.

"28.
Neo-Pythagoreanism,

269.

p.

"29.
The

Eclectic

Platonists,

p.

269.

"30Neo-Platonism

Dialectic,

or

Soul

The

p.

"

284;

as

Body,
The

of

Sources

289-291.

Porphyry

Life,

p.

292;

pp.

"

276-278;

pp.

278-280;
Soul

Matter,

pp.

the

System

of

Plotinus,

Philosophy

Others,
of

p.

Jamblichiis,

291;

Proclus,

p.

pp.

293-295;

the

World,

Virtue,
288;
p.

pp.
son,
Rea-

280-281;

of

284-286;

and

Ideas),

pp.

Soul

270;

p.

Intellect,

Soul,
and

World

and

of

(Realm

Nous

or

Life,

Plotinus

270;

Good,

Individual

281-284;

Sensible

Historical

First,

The

Emanation,

an

pp.

p.

Intellect

Reason,
The

One,

Nous,

and

Saccas,

271-274;

pp.

274-276;

Ammonius

p.

287;

Result,

pp.

291

Result,

Proclus

p.

296.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

BRIEF

the

the

"r

consulted

or

pag,

of

works

rer

o*

volv

in

the

in

in

to

of

preparation
found

be

to

are

list is here

referred

works

:incipal easily-accessible

student

the

of

convenience

the

them.

foot-notes

given

of

following

The

names

the

throughout

e.

Memorabilia

Xe^ophon's

Plato'sWorks
Ari?

:otle's

of

(Jowett's

Works

in

Owen

Class.

Bohn's

McMahan

in

Introductions).

Lib.).

Bohn's
with

Wallace,

E.

(trans, by

Psychology

and

Analyses

"

(trans, by

Metaphysics

(Fielding's trans.).

with

trans.,

(trans, by

Organon

Socrates

Class.

Introd.,

Lib.).
and

and

Notes

Text).
Nico7nachean

(trans, by

Ethics

in

Browne

Bohn's

Lib.,

Class.

and

by Peters).
(trans, by Welldon).

Politics
Rhetoric
the

of

Lives
in

Works

Books

Zeller's

Zeller's

Plotinus

and

of

from

Socrates

Class.

(trans,

Lib.).
by

Yonge

Edmonds

in

Harper's

Class.

Lib.).

trans.).
(trans, by

T.

Taylor).

(trans, by Taylor).
the

History

of

Greek

Philosophy

(trans,

by

Abbott).

Pre-Socratic

Alleyne

(trans, by

Plotinus

Outlines

Alleyne
Zeller's

of

Laertius

by Diogenes

(Lodge's
of

Works

Bohn's

Lib.).

Officiis

De

Seneca's
Select

Class.

in

(trans, by Buckley

Poetic

Philosophers,

Bohn's

Cicero's

Five

and

Philosophy,

Zeller's
and

the

Die

Geschichte

Socratic

vols,
der

Schools

(a

translation

Philosophic

der

by

S.

Griechen.

(trans, by Reichel).

F.

XIV

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

BRIEF

Zeller's

Plato

Zeller's

Stoics,

Zeller's

The

Lewes's

and

the

Older

Epicureans,
Eclectics

and

of

History

of

the

Alleyne

by

(trans,

A.

W.

Benn's

Grote's

Plato.

Grote's

Aristotle.

E.

of

History

Philosophy.
(Morris's

trans.).
Philosophy

of

History

Outlines

Wallace's

Grant's

Aristotle.

Grant's

Ethics

of

Philosophers,

Greek

The

Philosophy

Ancient

of

Aristotle,

Philosophy

the

vols.

win).
Good-

Reichel).

trans.).
Ritter's

and

Alleyne).

Philosophy

Handbook

Schwegler's

of

History

by

(trans,

Sceptics
by

(trans,

Biographical

Ueberweg's

Academy

(trans,
2

of

by

vols.

Aristotle.

Morrison).

(St

ling's

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

Greek

centu-y

As

B.C.

beginning,
origin

its

"

of

supernatural

In

this

science

and

doubt,

they

what

or

such

observation

imagination

by

in

large

and

crude

speculation,

measure

of

nite,
defi-

such, instead

as

and

in

fancy

or

in

world

basis

goddesses.

played

reflection

and

and

it was,

sensible

the

gods

as

seventh

theogony

the

regarded

was

the

precursors,

upon

"

existences,

attempt

played

part

constitution

fact,

the

explain

to

attempt

an

and

natural

from

its natural

poets,

in

beginning

its

distinguished

of the

cosmogony
its

had

Philosophy

the

the

earlier

false, though,
took

were,

the

no

place

mythology.

of

I.

NATURALISM.

"177
Phil

Hylicists,

Hylozoists,

Ionic

Early

or

Natural

sop hers.

Thales.

The

"

Thak

born

Asia

Minor,
for

earliest

at

Miletus,

about

the

political

of arithmetic,

Egyp'*an

elementary

and

year

the

Greek

city

on

640

B.C.

ethical

and

lore.

have

been

philosophers

the

western

Thales

wisdom,

and

geometry,

Eastern

geometry

of

attributed

of

coast

guished
distin-

was

for

astronomy,

Several

was

his

edge
knowl-

and

for his

propositions
to

him,

in
and

GREEK

he

reputed

was

He

the

perhaps,

been

of the

fact

held

Thales

life

is filled with
of

existence
of

ence

an

the

class

arise

"

the

"the
of

in

to

pp.

and

and

matter,
in the

the
:

exist

dualism

affirmed

he

phers.
philoso-

"first

apx*)*

of

the

conceived

to

entity,
aireipov,

principle."

who

employed

sprung

warm"

in the

and
an

centre

in
cylindrical

History

the

by

eternal

an

eternal
of which

form.

the

cold,"

"the

motion,
is the
From

of

he
and

actual

generation, first,of

"the

He

Infinite, which
as

all

that

infinite

termed

philosopher

and

works

"scientist," being
into, an

return

was

work,

immaterial, being, he supposed

"the

worlds,

35.

primal

early Greek

Out

dry," then, by

Ueberweg's
34

first

"

have

position and
1

material

B.C., whose

He

sense.

Divine

"contraries,"
and

the

not

ter.
charac-

watery

earliest of many

character, which

this

living,though
existences

61

the

was

and
(indefinite),

apyj]in

called

by

he

of, and

in

it appears,

term

born

astronomer.

out

the

that

believed

have

may

Miletus,

written

and

indeterminate

was,

He

idea

omy
econ-

historyof philosophy.

Thales,

geographer

Infinite

the

tion
observa-

in the

merely

water,

the
was
(irepl
"f)v"rea)";),

Like

the

; that

ing,
; hav-

to Thales
Next, chronologically,

also of

same

things

is not

nature

in the
"

Anaximander,

of

the

probably not in
independent, world-ordering mind

Anaximander.

Nature

have

sun.1

the

water

the

by

says,

things

soul.

or

be

to

world-soul, but

originatedlater

On

that
animate

but

mechanical,

all

of

things

hypothesisby
plays a great part

Aristotle

as

or,

all

this

to

water

nutriment

and

of

led

eclipseof

predicted an

source

that

of nature,
seeds

have

to

declared

PHILOSOPHY.

the

moist"

the

verse
uni-

earth, fixed
the

original

Vol.
of Philosophy (Morris's translation),

I.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

it is

though

only

virtual

It should

positive,conception.
are

in the

the

suggestion

stuff
of

speculationsof
actual

becomes

their

theories

be

Anaximander,

must

now

Ionic

Natural

in

to

Thales,

spoken

of

as

upon

determine

versal
uni-

the

for

of

their

as

one,

was

part

been

looked

be

what

commonly

are

this

Crude

every

must

element

They

to

there

Anaximenes

having

as

and

originalworld-

thoughts.

they sought

permanent

the

regarded

appear

philosophers,because
universe.

which

Anaximenes

and

and

things ; though

in their

secondary importance
speculations

by

concrete

must

noted, also,that

be

Anaximander

of processes

actual

negative, not

and

them
the

as

the

Early

Philosophers.

"2The

Pythagoreans.
taken

was

whom
arrive

he

Minor,

about

in

pupil

travelled

and
in

scientific

ethical

pp.

island
the

of

followers,

garding
re-

it is difficult to

306-308.

580

year

the

B.C.,

year
and

philosophical views.

He

was

Pre-Socratic

Zeller's

additions

contact

Pythagora

"

the

near

dying
510

at

Possibl)

b.c.

the

der

with

his

learned

translation

Philosophicder

ht
his

religiousand

new

the

of

store

regarded by Heraclitus,

Geschichte

Metapon

familiar

to

with

Philosophy (a

coast

Possibly,also,

receiving a

and

impulse through

Zeller's

Order.

Samos,

Anaximander,

knowledge,

portion of

of

Egypt, making

there.

of

of whom

Pythagorean

Italyabout

Lower

scientific

See

the

the

was

and

on

born

turn

theories

the

his

and

lation
specu-

clear,consistent, unquestionable views.1

at

Asia

step in Greek

next

by Pythagoras

and

Pythagoras
was

The

"

by

hood
priestphiloso-

S. F.

Alleyne

Griechen), Vol.

I.

of

pher

the

next

century,

order

he

some

of

went

in

such

an

found

did
his

This

b.c.

as

Pythagoras,if
later

cratic sort,

of

period
of

out

obedience

the

to

its

be

conjectured,

be

made

which

Habitual
the

authority of

that

rigid,aristo-'

the

with

Hegel remarks,

Greece.

particularly

societywas,

as

by

from

brought

existence, of

harmony,

spiritof

democratic

had

an

himself

of monasticism

idea

the

Such

he

and

it may

Egypt,

disciplineof

The

ntry.

visited

he

very

Italy,whither

possible to

the

not

place.

Lower

was,

was

soil,of

Grecian

native

migrated

order

embodiment
on

his

had

but

contemplated founding

or

Crotona,

countrymen

529

Grecian

in the

in

learned,

very

in

ethico-religiousorder

an

as

founded

either

He

profound.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

the

silence,implicit

fidelityto

master,

friends, abstinence, self-scrutiny,


non-proselytism,were

required

all its

of

moral,

members.

Physical,as
religious,culture was

and

Pythagorasprofessed to
("ov, lover

of

founded

he

as

conditions
x

wisdom

others

do

to

to

He

so.

Greek

the

utilitarianism

did

of

and

life

to

Pythagoras

"Wise

be found
and

his

as

upon

aimed

at.

but

0tXocro-

the

society

furnish

the

it appears,
of

inspiring
Apollo

very

by

his

as

Men"
in the

followers.

first
that

of

the
is

knowledge.

doctrine
But

was

among

wisdom

savor

and

his personal

teachings, he

the
"

By

name.

tellectu
in-

as

gift of inspiration;
his

well

was,

life and

show

as

to

He

perhaps

was

so-called

not

and

worth,
and

"

affair of character
of

life.

about

gathered

regard

intended

looked

was

philosophers who

maxims

may

character, and

stories

show

we

such

leading

dignity and
able

cro^os,wise,

organization

of

in his appearance,

fabulous

not

philosophic

capable

man

and

an

for

be,

well

of

and
the

an

The
moral
tice
prac-

ideal of

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

Pythagoras was
society,at least

The

societybecame
upon

influence

in the

the

Italy.

decided

nor

Pythagoreans

lives

affairs
political

of Lower

societies

in other

many
for

element

the

of
of

espousal

than

more

by

up

of

were,

says

mind."

and

it aroused

principlesof

been

having
in
of

population because

the

rowly
nar-

cities in Lower

century

opposition

the

the

was

merely by its
but also by its
Italy. It was

not

strong,

members,

It existed

democratic

earlier

its

of

finallybroken

part of its existence,

large,and

the

prototype

asceticism

of body
practicalefficiency

"

influence

earlier

the

of

men

of pure

in the

monastic

Grote,

that

not

the

its too

aristocratic

the

party.
The

We

Pythagorean Philosophy.

"

the

to

now

come

Pythagorean philosophy,the speculations,that is to say,


his followers.
It has
been
found
of Pythagoras and
of Pythagoras from
impossible to distinguish those
of his followers.

those

Number

The

-Theory

According

"

Aristotle,1 the

to

cultivated
especially
that
they discovered
in any
things, not
but

water,
of

in

number

the Doctrine

and

the

and

the

were

heaven

did

distinguish between

not

principlesor
of

things, and

are

things or

as

"

formal

was

laws

of

thing,

the

the

number

are

and

that
of

number

and

affirmation
the

things ;
as

that

Metaphysics,Bk. I.,ch. 5.

the

They
that

principlesor

numbers

or

principles

number."

and

harmony

the substances

cause,"

fire, earth,

as

that

asserted

affirmation

the

archetypes, of

or

principles of being,

"whole

Contraries ."

sciences, fancied

patterns,

sensible

"

Pythagoreans, having

mathematical

the

number,

of

the
laws

themselves

between
"material

number

cause,"

GREEK

of

all

odd

both

Now

things.
and

The

The
ten

is odd

number

even.

number

PHILOSOPHY.

odd

be

to

Pythagoreans, Aristotle states,


in number
ten
principleswere

of the
first

the

finite

infinite,the

and

being

one

nite.
infi-

even

perfect.

asserted

"

"

even,

is finite; the

held

was

or

Some

that

ten

pairs of

odd

and

the

the

"

traries
con-

even,

right and left,male and female, rest


plurality,
and
motion, straight and crooked, light and darkness,
at first
seems
good and bad, square and oblong. There

unity and

to

be

"categories"
link
the

connection

direct

no

between

and
them

is the

truth

the

this

crude

number-theory.

The

between

may,

union

of

however,
a

be

the

table

of

uniting

thought

that

contrarietyof elements, i.e.,

features of the
to be the main
harmony. Such seem
Pythagorean theory in its earlier form.
Theories
theories
not
purely Pythagorean. Other
have
extent
been, though to some
wrongly,1attributed
of these
the
number
to the
one
Pythagoreans. In one
represents the Deity, and, again,the principleof unity
or
continuityin things, two represents the principleof
varietyor difference,three the union of the two, four (as
the
ence,
differof two) the
"perfection" of mere
square
and
of one,
ten, "the
perfect number"
(the sum
the complete organic unity and
mony
hartwo,Jhree, and foztr),
of the world.
cribed
Again : The author of a work asto Philolaus
[a Pythagorean of the fifth century
the principles of
b.c] sees in the principlesof number
principlesare 'the limiting'and 'illimithings. These
a

"

"

tation.'

is unity in
to harmony, which
They converge
in heterogeneity. Thus
multiplicityand
agreement
they generate in succession, first,unity,then the series
1

Zeller's Prc-Socratic

Phil, Vol. I. pp. 386 and fol*

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

arithmetical

of

numbers

then

psychical forces, as
things

that
soul.

the

depends

on

lengths
or

harmony

i :

2, which

love, friendship,mind,

and

gence.
intelli-

it is

by

by like, but
into

of

the

narrow

includes

(2:3

the

The

earth, fire, air, water,


all the

encompasses
and

with

harmony

the

central

the

earth1
the
the

the

sun,

Saturn,

Supposed

with
bodies
nine

the

it.

Ten

to

be

being

"borne

fixed

stars

all the

the

through

to

earth

perfectnumber,
the

heaven."

apparent, the Pythagoreans assumed

{b.vri%Q(jiv)"

earth,

there
There
a

must,

and

at

counter-

the

Mars,

world

moving

and

number

by

and

Olympus,' the
The

others.

the

under

'

which

spreads through

planets Mercury, Venus,

includes

which

and

earth

counter-earth, the

the

from
Hestia, i.e.,

soul of the world

dailyrevolve,the

the

"

forms

element,

is united

the

(3 : 4)

icosahedron,

fundamental

the

which

solids

is its organ,

From

prison.

of the

soul

body, which

around

fire

spheres

The

ratio

discovered

was

fifth

the

the

the

fourth

regular

octahedron,

rest.

the

its

time

same

five

and

in

particular,

on

the

fact

respectivelythe

are

"

of

[This

4:6).

or

harmony

in

depends

ratios

two

the

to

mathematical

octave,

sense,

tetrahedron, the

dodecahedron
of

relations

proportion

The

strings.

number

Musical

numerical

by Pythagoras himself.]
cube, the

harmonious

knowledge.

certain

in

fifth

the

higher

organ

musical

of

jects,
ob-

the

known

of

material

next

understanding, developed by

The

forms

and

brought

are

study, is

and

solid ;

consciousness,

life,sensuous
is

rical'
'geomet-

'magnitudes,' i.e., the

or

Like

then

numbers,

point, line, surface,

space

monadic

or

being,

Jupiter,

last

sphere,

is eternal

around
it

moon,

was

says

the

and

central

thought,

be

fire
ten

Aristotle, only

tenth,calling it Counter-Earth

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

ruled

excellence.

might

and

things

is God

is

; he

and

one

him.

He

theories

Pythagoras

and
be

of

mentioned

here

relation

bear

is said

Pythagoras
truths

in

within

Pythagoreans, if

of the

the

that

The

of

much

that

great feast.

Some

spheres

arranged

corresponding mathematicallyto

the intervals

Some

soul
hero.
be

he

Pythagoras himself, fancied

not

of the

that

had

inhabited

The

noblest

which

the

education

would

of

body

for

the

fit him

to

Euphorbus,
a

be

youth
the

he

at

of

that the

"

to

the

discovery

Pythagoreans believed
rotated
axis.
an
Pythagoras held
upon
of the transmigrationof souls,
believed

own

not.

were

octave.

earth

them

do

square

so

may

triangleinscribed

him

made

celestial

supposed

intervals
the

and

oxen

important

two

right-angledtriangle.

hundred

of

others

the

to

elated

things

discoveries

some

the

another

movable,
im-

and

Pythagoreans

sake

relatingto

: one

latter is said to have

sacrificed

the

discovered

have

semicircle, and
a

and

all

universe."

other

Certain

"

of

all

the

number-theory,

to

geometry

hypothenuseof
of the

the

ruler

from

guards

interest's

for

to

different

and

compasses

Theories.

and

supreme

eternal, enduring

and

Miscellaneous

has

it, and

to

director

The

like himself

ever

beside

is akin

who

One,

the

by

that
a

trine
dochis
jan
Tro-

thought

citizen

of

well-regulatedstate.
Result.

the

the

foregoing it

appears

that

though

cal,
Pythagorean order was
primarilyreligiousand ethithe Pythagorean philosophy was
cosmical, a philosophy

of

not

universe
the

From

"

first

and

conduct

; it appears,

Ueberweg's

God

but

of

also,that, as Aristotle

principle,the
1

of

apxv"

Hist,

"f

the

the

sensible

pointed

out,

Pythagorean theory

of Phil, (trans.)Vol. I. p. 49,

10

GREEK

is

material"

"

not

subject of
say,

the

the

not

but

things

but

of

"formal"

original world-stuff

the

order

stamped

be

that

material

or

is to

as

of

source

These

phenomena.

upon

regarded

The

primarilyso.

or

Pythagorean speculation was,

speculationsmust
those

PHILOSOPHY.

step in advance

of

Hylicists. The
Pythagorean theories, we
hereafter
subsequent specusee, largelyinfluenced
lation,
that of Plato and
the Platonists.
particularly

shall

the

"3The

Eleatics.

of

school
a
Pythagoreans was
historyof philosophy as the
from
the cityof Elea
in Lower
The

leaders

of

this

school

Life of Xenophanes.
the

town

year

570

the

coast

near

Miletus

and

of

followers, and

tery of

nature

like

with

surfer
or

an

the
shall
Greek

Eleatic
have

the

was

they taught.

who

of

native

and

Minor,

birth-placesof

He

He

Parmeni-

exile

it seems,

his

(it is

an

thought.

lis

elegiac i

nd

the

ys-

ulative
spec-

decidedly at

ethical

views, and,

radical, was

settled

at

wrote

to
a

of

which

uncertain

occasion
He

fr)m

and

whom

very

the

Elea, there

school, distinguished and


abundant

far

not

obliged to
convictions, becoming a fugitive

intellectual

He

Colophon

profound religiousand

was,

of

born

was

Thales

was

popular religiousand

of them.

because

the

named

so

Xenophanes,

were

of Asia

awakened

account

on

Italy,where

Pythagoras.

another

many

Eleatics, being

wandering rhapsodist,in

impulse.
variance

in

known

Xenophanes,

"

B.C.,

Samos,

gnomic poet,

thinkers

the

Melissus.

des, Zeno, and

about

with

Nearly contemporaneous

"

note,

didactic

two;

founding

influential,as
in

the

poem,

we

history of
On

Nature.

12

GREEK

The

phenomenal).

PHILOSOPHY.

One

as

infinite,imperishable.
and

phanes

the

affirm

to

opinion.
earth

man's

the

with

of

those

first,they

matico-idealistic

but

theistic,

"

towards
to

us,

Life of
the

of
a

Plato

and

countenance."

the
and

B.C., very

familiar

"

man,

to

with

though

rationalistic
element

an

of

Xenophanes

as

immediately

him

and

of

his

in

the
who

and

in part

was

youth

later

met

life

handsome

views

adopted

influence, it would
were

He

his
in

him

Pythagorean
were

part

impressive personality.

hair

grey

latter

little is known.

having

as

the

Parmenides,
in the

born

and

The

by him, through
friends

new

mathe-

nor

contain

life of

remembering

as

noble

intimate

the
was

Socrates

an

tised

Of

"

century

quite

were

two

present

universe

Eleatics, who

represents

old

earlier

negative.

strikingappearance

Parmenides

.the air

speculations of

attitude

the

or

Parmenides.

sixth

man

is

of the

greatest
of

mental

phenomena,

known

the

scepticism,

the

fieryclouds.

nature-philosopher; secondly,they
of

all

us,

theological and

mere

that

water

Xenophanes,

"

nature-philosopher,was

and

materialistic

not

is

said

below

Xenophanes

are

Xeno-

knowledge

are

the

i.e.,the

Many,

earth

eration
gen-

eternal,

phenomena,

space

stars

Compared

philosophers
:

that

indefinitelyin

above
indefinitely
"

visible

elements

their

as

extends

Result.

of

it is

hypothetically,he

Speaking

have

features

subject of

the

Regarding

multitude

seems

things

not

is

or
change
decay, of multiplicity

or

gods

one

as

anc

of cultuic
and

prac

appear,

Pythagoreans.

of

Like

Pythagoreans, he engaged activelyin public affairs ;


drafted for his native
is said to have
city,Elea, a
1

Parmenides,

p. 127.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

code

laws

of

which

to

period of

citizens,annually,for

the

fidelity.He

swore

years,

latter's views

the

adopted

public lectures

in

and

first,which

the

and

third,being

knoweth
the

all

an

of

conception

of the

realm

the

the

things" ;

in writing

He

wrote

second,

Being,

logicalexpositionof

entitled

who

goddess

"

On

the

Truth;

third,
of

the

Parmenides
begins
Philosophy of Parmenides.
expositionof his theory by opposing to Opinion, as

the

mythologicalrepresentationof the generation


world
of sense,
entitled
On
Opinion.1
a

"

mental

of

denominates

in

that

thought,
all

there

is

Whole

Never

J
/

One

} See

also W.
2

the

it

Jour.

Not-Being

conception

very

was

or

shall be ; but

is

cannot

of

begin

you

result,

same

only of

in

and

is:

what
be

even

it converts

ceived,
con-

it into

and

Being only,is :

moveless
the All

and

it is

ever-enduring:

simultaneouslynow

is

one."

Journal of Speculative Philosophy,Vol.

Courtney'sStudies
Spec. Phil.,Vol.

the

he

reason.

or

which
at

steps
foot-

ception,
not-Being (nothing)is a spuriouscon-

only begotten, and

continuous

L.

Being

fancy. Being,

mere

and

the

But

one.

idea of

with

not

always arrive

not-Being.

no

matters

tal
men"

(the One)

one

the

which

One,

by thought

thus

the

as

whose

upon

The

known

are

must

you

"

The

"

it

things are

for

Being.

Conviction,

"

is

Being

and

way

since

Being,

Being,

Thinking

Conviction,

Phenomena,

closely follows."

Truth

such

of

correlate

correlate

three

having

Nature, and

he

ond
merely introductoryto the secallegoryrepresenting the poet

is

being transported to

as

discussions.

and

in all
that

developed them,

entitled On

philosophicalpoem,
parts

and

siderable
con-

was,

; it is certain

a
pupil of Xenophanes
probability,

in

IV. No.

Philosophy.

IV., etc.

Courtney's Studies,

etc.

I.

(1870);

GREEK

14

It

but

not-Being;

from

sprung

generated, for, if

been

have

cannot

PHILOSOPHY.

not-Being (pure nothing)


not

from

spring
be, and

identical

is there

ought

the

being
and

One

Shalt

the

thou

same

compared

to

Of
is

which

is

menides

governeth
the

of the
1

of

seems

the

that

"

that
all

it

is

was

to be

so-called

the
Law

It

is

shall be

or

It is the

and

of Excluded

of the
in the

Middle.

of

knowledge

our

of

is like

mind

homogeneity

"goddess

mixture

cold.

be

may

given by

the

by

and

definiteness

account

of which

first enunciation

knowing

its

universe,

created

Xeno-

it self-contained

self-thought. It

perfect in

the

moreover,

and

regularityand

The

is,

necessityrenders

dark, dense, and


Love.

is thinking.

expression

Anaximander

as

it is

"

things," by
one

Being.1'

to

there

whereby

thinking,for naught

opinion," the
was

"

it receiveth

phenomenal

the

mere

other

gods

This

inner

in the

elements,

contrary

of

alway

starting-point

our

self-determined.

sphere,

continuityand

its limit.

and

itself

must

existent."

the

an

to

wherein

; self-caused

One

other

Being approacheth

thinkable.
definitely

known

of

and

indefinite,

held

had
and

and

in

Being.

return

the action

beyond

or

so-called

thought, and

existence

infinite,or

phanes

that

we

Being is, therefore,

the

been

of distinct ; for the all is self-similar

are

discover

besides

Other

not

have

or

power

with

case,

apart from

Never

no

the all is unbroken,

Wherefore

Such

; for

Being
be

so

Nor

"

could

there

have

necessityto cause
be wholly or
production. Being must
wholly must
be.1
Nor
does anything absolutelyother
itself
than

its

"

it must

so,

two

fire,

first-created

individual

history of

that

entirely

light and

The

Par-

Greek

man

phy
Philoso-

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

is such

depends

of

function
Result.
with

the

constitution

body.
Comparing

"

of

that

of

which

upon

bodily

his

in

of the

character

the

is ; and

the

organic entityas

an

and

that

is to

philosophy of

is

say,

Parmenides

first, that

observe,

we

thought

predominates

the

poeticallyenunciated

by the
logicallypropounded

former, abstractlyand

the

by

was,

individual's

mind

its members,

elements

two

the

thought theologicallyand
latter

body, with

human

"

Xenophanes,

of

Instead

developed.

the

God,

term

Parmenides
employs the
employed by Xenophanes,
sons
term
Being ; he does not dogmatically assert but reaof,and employs, a method
; he affirms the existence
We
of knowledge.
observe, secondly, that although
absolute
Parmenides
acknowledges no
not-Being, he
drawn
phanes,
not
draws
so
sharply a distinction
by Xenobetween
ative
realityand phenomena, Being and relwhat
is given by
reason,"
not-Being ; between
"

the
in

truth

of

organ

virtue

"opinion." By
the

deduce

Greek

the

first among

conviction,

and

notion

of

the

thinkers

of

fact

being,

purely philosophicalthinker

among

the

fact

the

first to

of

the

the

demonstrate
of

father
we

must

was

unity of Thought

idealism.

recognized by
not

he

that

note,
him

His

statement

incomplete,because
as

an

essential

distinctly
recognizedas
priiisof Being.
Life of
of the

Zeno.

"

Eleatics

In

some

is Zeno.

the

and

the

logically

is the

he

point

Being,
idealism

by

out

he

first

tue
virand

is the

ever,
is,how-

Thought, though
of

moment

(forus, and,

respects the
His

given

was

Greeks

and
of

is

he

that

state

to

absolute

what

and

is

lute)
in fact,abso-

most

birth may

Being,

be

ble
remarka-

placed at

GREEK

the

about

appearing

who

was

Parmenides.
held

he

Though
aloof

not

There

is

others

against

showed

of his
even

tried
of

tyrant
and

and

disdain

mark

senior.

spittingit
him

as

the

with
lie

tyrant by biting
The

brilliancy
fibre plainly,

of his moral

spiritsof

select

the

tyranny.

city, Elea,

in his face.

of

one

of

son

conspiring

native

of

of

hater

for

his

with

indeed,

was,

bitter

the genuineness
intellect,
now,

his

fine-

speculativescience,

affairs

public

patriot and
the

of

devotee

from

hatred

tongue

him

saw

twenty-fiveyears

story that, when

his

off his

Socrates

as

pupil and, perhaps, the adopted

enthusiastic

most

about

was

represents him

forty when

favorite

Plato

B.C.

of

man

Parmenides,
He

500

year

PHILOSOPHY.

cian
Gre-

antiquity.2
Zeno.

Philosophy of

is not

Not-Being
Being

as

is

conceived
of

the

The
and

as

many

One,

the

and

many

unreal, phenomenal.

are

four

then

as

of

follows

it must

for, first,it

be

Parmenides,

See

the

See

Mullach's

270;

Zeller's

64;

Pre-Socratic

If

both

he

Now
be

must

the

But

Against

notion

four

of the

arguments

Being

were

an

against the

infinite

tions
no-

ments,
argu-

latter.3

against mult'pli-

absolute
and

the

eight

advanced

infinitely
great

have

multiplicity,

small
infinitely

number

of

parts, and,

p. 127.

life of him

and

one
:

must

change

against the former,

substance

cityis

changing.

stance,
sub-

and, therefore, false.


self-contradictory,
only, is, the Many are not, i.e.,multiplicity

multiplicityand
The

is.

only Being

unchanging, not-Being

and

one

; hence

is,in

thesis

main

is

change

"

Zeno's

"

by Diogenes

Fragmenta
Outlines

Laertius

(trans,in

Philosophorum

of the

Hist,

Vol.
Philosophers,

of

I. pp.

Greek

Bohn's

Graecorum,
Philos.

608-627.

Class.

Vol.

Lib).

I. pp.

(trans.),
pp. 63

269
and

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

secondly,each part
magnitude. Another
that, if

grain

it strikes

when

sound

without
small, i.e.,
infinitely

of the

of

bushel

be

must

is,in substance,

arguments

when

the

shaken

produces

out

floor,each

and

grain

part of

the
is not
fact.
produce a sound, which
grain must
is the following
argument
Against change (of place)one
Motion
cannot
a
:
begin because
body in motion
a

"

arrive

cannot

at

intermediate

of

infinite number

Another

is
flyingarrow
in one
place."

as

It is

; for

in

distinct

distinct

"

nows

There

is not

to

; but

if

be

ceived
con-

we

pose
sup-

places, we

or

no

; the

say,

particlesor points

of
if there
such

argues,

is, therefore,

"

to

only

moment

spaces

is at rest.
flyingarrow
If mere
is the
Result.
multiplicity
the universe, then there is nothing but
motion

is, "The

place, Zeno
"

"

times.

motion

an

is impossible

which

"

every

one

distinct

through

suppose

it is at

always

of

"

against

perfectlycontinuous

series

movement
must

rest

passing through

places

argument

at

is

time

because

without

place

new

of

taken
multiplicity,
be

anything
of

points

that

; for the

absolute, is

nothingness,

infinite

in

ciple
prin-

satisfied

not

indivisible.

and

one

principle of

of, so
infinity

an

nothingness
as

is

first

But

number

of

though

be
constituted; continuity and
they be, nothing can
which
are
objects of reason, cannot
identity,
spring from
infinite discontinuityand
multiplicity.Multiplicityis,
As
therefore, purely phenomenal : not-Being is not.

such, i.e.,
as
the
of

"fact," it

against motion

arguments
motion

have

been

object, for

as

no

he

denied

is not

fact

simply

to

Zeno.

tantamount

presented

"answer"

by

to

Zeno

denied

us

to

by

to

motion

sense

point
as

Nor

the

denial

it would

to

are

moving

absolute.

If

motion

and

of

into

only, is ;

forever," or
the

even

as

their

point.

The

the

Par-

as

Zeno

merely

his

of

the

dialectic

the

employed by Xenophanes

Parmenides.

Zeno's

Zeno

with

indicated
holds

the

sufficient

the

same,

Parmenides

of

he

had

not,

far

so

theory, mythological or
Melissus.

than

Zeno

This

and

of

mode

overthrowing

Of

"

immediately in

by

the
the

two

fuller

as

is

arguing

should

of
the

and

method.1

this

is

Parmenides,

that

statement

of

which

in

menides
Par-

substance

consciousness
in

method

than
and

for

put forth

known,

flourished

treatise

be

given positionbut

in

little later

entitled

prose

carefully discriminated

position merely by adducing


the

had

other, of the visible universe.

Melissus, who
wrote

the

extent)

being

now

cause
be-

called

some

position

significance of

the

did

Zeno

of

Averse,

that

and

that

accuracy

side

averse

holds

itself.

with

position,compared

tion
posi-

method

of

account

no

gave

in

; and

was

same

(to

miss

absurdityof

method

it, he

or

Zeno

maintaining

inherent

in

To

is to

employed by

the

peculiar mastery
dialectics, though

of

inventor

of

termed

was

"

mean

word-puzzles

as

"formal,"

or

that

"

would

unalterable."

are

peculiar method

arguments

theology

modern

yesterday,to-day, and

same

demonstration

opposite
of

Being

enduring."

ever

argument

"fallacies," "material"

by

been

of

of nature

of

and

moveless

Zeno's

laws

arguments

above-cited

the

because,

absurd,

language
is the

He

The

"

treat

he

the

science

modern

"God,

its

is

and
only-begotten,

Translated

the

in

(absolute)change

declared, Being is

Whole

or

then

possible,which

be

menides
"

absolute,

were

would

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

which

some

tells

fact

that

against it

On

from

that

does

not

nevertheless.

of
1"

GREEK

20

held

view

be

to

reason

which,

PHILOSOPHY.

also,

had

1
illusory
;

be

to

sense

have

must

contemporaneous

among

and

trustworthy

its

consequences

later thinkers.

or

"4Heraclitus.
Heraclitus.

Life of
menides

Heraclitus

was

earlier

not

belonged

than

500

of

B.C.,

who

Ephesus,
later

nor

nobilityof

the

to

the

than

public office

up

world

the

in
of

those

Nature

also,

we

views, he

of

what

he

what

have

I have

Delian

to

treated

the

or

gives

up

Lives

the

that
work
is

here

belief

that consists

of

good

is ;

the

paradoxical
Obscure.

The

asked

and

so,

book

it." 2

of

is

Hylozoist.

to

life in

discriminate

in, the possibilityof

merely

in

Class.

did,

He

central

scepticism that denies,

knowledge

of

distrustingthe "reports

of the Philosophers(Bohn's

times
some-

affirmed

The

matter.

between

think,

requires

and
physical principle(fire)
of

On

style and,

Heraclitus

and

of

Heraclitus, replied,

only the

meaning

Hylicist

its

Socrates, when

"

presence

ing
hold-

entitled

and

sobriquet of

certain

at

of

depth

Principle.

important

scepticism
2

as

assume

universal

It is

get

First

the

understood

not

Heraclitus

; and

profoundest

the

crudity

the

understood

diver

it is true,

by

relates

of

perament
tem-

meditative

of his

work

the

its contents,

Laertius

by

suspect,

thought

What

probably

was

him,

in

was

dependen
Mostly self-taughtand instudied
and
freelycriticised

thinkers.

may

Diogenes

his

for

won

character

"

contempt.

others, and

He

b.c.

contemplative retirement,

in

early Greek

the

for

Par-

flourished

450
He

place.

aristocratic, melancholy, and


gave

with

Nearly contemporary

"

Lib.),p. 65.

of

the

real, and

the senses."
_

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

speculations,however,

his

point in

of

source

things.

Emphasizing

was

absolute

an

universal

universal

of

process

aspect of change

the

existence

that

held

the

not

was

the

things, but

material

he

21

in

Nature,
ual
contin-

process,

%""pe","all things flow," is his real first


did
of affirming, as
the
Eleatics,
principle. Instead
to
afhrm, Only notOnly Being is,he affirms or seems
or
not-Being is the object of his
Being is ; Becoming
is Becoming ? Is it mere
change ?
thought. But what
flux

of his dicta

Another

and

Being

not-Being

decay

because
of

death

of

While

souls

our

another

buried

are

restored

be

time

In

in

father

all

of

whole,

the

and
all from

Many
One

as

the

consentient
the

dissonant

one."
into
and

There

the
the

One,

is
and

ent
exist-

now

all

declared.
the
the

Strife
and

there

continual
versa.

arises

in the
is

the

dissentient, the

and

vice

merely
"

whole

conversion

not-

nant
conso-

from

one

the

of

all,
the

The

harmony of
Pythagoreans asserted

Many, which the


but did not
explain,is brought about
of Becoming,
life.
activity,
"

take

to

real, not

"Unite
and

we

the

Eleatics

things."

when

"

as

death";

but

Time

life

new

not-

and

phenomenal,

reality,continuity
Being are inseparable.

as

Being and
discontinuity,
Opposite qualitiesco-exist in

call the

our

conceived

growth

we

of

in us,

life."

to

cannot

"

what

birth

Our

live because

life and

our

of

process

Moreover,
in

are

other.

"

the

not-Being.

in the
a

ing,
Becom-

and

Being
one

is but

souls

are

not.

now

body

our

example

or

the

also is not

continually,

live.

we

death

live

we

die

and

the

life and

"Both

die

union
involved

are

live

we

die, die

actual

"

is and

bodies, for example, undergo

human

we

All

runs,

say, is the

is to

that

and

irdvra

through

the

notion

22

GREEK

Doctrine

Physical
element
realized
the

and

in

its

medium

which

is

is

"condensation"

into

air, air into water,

earth

being, though
This

"ways

This

process.

mechanical
which

there

is

The

of

and

in

the

have

they

return

ears

are

dreaming
It is

in-

of

not

as

is

the

in

process,
In

one.

vast

maintained

extinguishing of

an

of

fire.

themselves
into

individual

By
and

by participationin
Zeller's

reason

becomes
the

Pre-Socratic

who

The
man
a

universal

Philos.,Vol.

but

best

soul is

ished
nour-

the

enter

body

after death, when


of

their

have

by giving

fixed.

not

is

life."1

purer

those

to

things

soul

the

Souls

worthy

deceive

senses

"

is

By respiration

sense,

existence, and

knowledge.

of

soul

dry

reason.

organs

witnesses

to

The

obscures

the

state

human

fire.

daemons

as

The

of

organic

and

The

"

universal

proved

fixedness

source

soul
of

the

bad

souls."

Reason.

the

higher

they

the

way."

conceived,

universe

and

members

organic

as

visible

universal

action

with
from

held

in

stages
"downward

vital

as
are

the

and

the

moisture

but

air, water,

fire.

Soul

mode

earth

be

must

than

fire is transmuted

the

alternatelya kindling

elemental

the

forces

which

by

process

but

from

subtler

process

inseparable or

process,

opposite

into

process

is

process

Heraclitus, fire,which

to

is called

are

ent
omnipres-

distinguished

Anaximenes,
water

the
this

be

to

"opposites,"

"

one

of

of

of fire.

two

which

spirit. By

the

The

hardly

Now

"

in

is,according

form

purest

volution

Heraclitus.

of

or

itself

process

PHILOSOPHY.

Eyes
"

the

and

barbarous

appearance
is the

reason

ceases

waking
reason,

II. p.

privilege,

87.

to

real
be

universal.
the

koivos

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

\6yos, that

know

we

do

and

2$

which

that

is

and

true

right.
Result.

riper

had

predecessors
One

the

One

the

Heraclitean

than

and

realm

of

and

Being,

virtue

by
And

if

of

the

latest age

but

There

after-course

of

to

bring to

loftiness

does

Greek

borrow

is

and

vigor

not

Socratic

reason.1

and

tainly
cer-

capable

of

is,even

in

Pythagorean

splendor
and

found

water,

in the

in the

tic
Eleain

pregnancy

appear

the

immediately

in the

intellectual

wife
mid-

an

metaphor

its entire

thing,
be

to

There

speculation

birth

the

things

not, in

same

life,and

or

world, beauty

to, the

are

the

are

is subtlest

which

is infinite

there

Heraclitic.

"

the

certain

conception, a

Many

transformations.

of

principal.

are

fire,air, earth, and

that

manifold

most

this

be

of

of

world, however

the

motion,

source

elements"

"

it must
the

of

power

material

the
the

among

to

and

notion, merely in harmony, they

his

notion

irreconcilable

and

One

his

subordinate,

are

they

phenomenal

no

the

they

harmony of
perfectlyin

the

more

which

in

from,

separate

as

of

realized

are

theories

recognizes

shadowy,

notion

to

of

any

Eleatic

The

doctrine, in which

those

Heraclitus

Many

attained

than

nature

to.

Pythagorean

the

and

in

attained

the

the

of

conception

richer

and

Heraclitus

that

is obvious

It

"

skilful

"

enough

significance.

"5The
of

Later

Natural

Heraclitus,
1

The

the

philosophy of

logicallaw

of the

Philosophers.

The

speculations

earlier

philosophers,

"

Eleatics,
Heraclitus

identity of

has

and

been

contradictories."

called

"

the

philosophy of

the

GREEK

24

PHILOSOPHY.

certain
established, practically,
the

philosophers whose

and

who

called

be

may

views
the

absolute

change,
nihil

nihilo

becoming,
be

may

is

nature

the

that

In

place

the

and

Anaxagoras, Leucippus,and
Life of Empedocles.
in

Agrigentum

active

the

philosophers

in

and

statesman

to

personal
of

those

generation

in

certain

of

way,

account

continued

of certain

chief

Of

"?

cles,
Empedo-

are

Democritus.
native

was

and

influence

was

but

He

city.

philosopher,

Nature.

that

to

process

nature

of

an

leader

was

not

orator,

His

thaumaturgist.
are

said

to

have

been

of

the

only a
poet,

ter
characsimilar

Pythagoras.

Theory of

of

inquiries,

that

affairs,and
political

physician,a prophet,
and

shall,

lived circa 495-535


and
He
b.c.
Sicily,
interest usuallytaken
by the earlyGreek

party in his native

democratic

the
of

of

two,

reason.

process

Empedocles

"

process.

and

upon

end

the

dualism,

world

Nature-Philosophers, the

Later

took

distinct

the

ex

is

theorists,we

material

maintains

there

mechanical

earlier
less

or

character

is the

these

more

and

causes

What

of the

no

tfiirdpoint, which

practicallyturns

Speculation now
What

is

nature

monism
a

that

(imperfect)synthesis of

of

is

there

"decay"

or

was,

process.

force, of

and

point

Philosophers
that

was,

consider

to

Natural

point

for

points

next

"generation"

the

as

accordingly,find
matter

process

of the

Later

Another

fit.

regarded

was

real

no

have

we

One

Nature-Philosophers.

or

fundamental

Holding

"

and

decay

to

for

the

are

Eleatic

the

idea

impossible,he yet holds,

notion

changing

process

fast to

of

Becoming

nature

by

of combination

the

and

; and

tempts
at-

sis
hypotheseparation

(supposed) original,imperishable,unchange-

elements

able, purely material

Fire, air,and

earth.

water,

separately posited

been

Empedocles
four

the

as

and

"

this

is the

the

historyof

the

combination

elements

the

separating forces

arises

question

such

question in

What

is the

the

elements

The

and

Love

are

the

drives

centre

rise to

world

the

process

of

Variety

in the

flesh

existences.

Love

Hate

world

and

individual

of

variety in

the

united

one-half

fire, one-fourth

Animals

all-

giving
eternal

arises,of
elements

of

of

equal proportions,whereas

the
bones

one-fourth

existed

The

earliest

combinations, such

horses'

heads, bodies

monstrosities

gradually gave
present mode
thus

way
of

that

of

as

oxen

the

were

bodies

of

with

human

higher forms,

to

generation

appears,

was

result

until

heads,

like

Even

knowledge

four
are

of
the
the
to
etc..

eventually

established.

was,

of

united

men

water.

by the combination
by Love
of
out
separately,having sprung

earth.

it

thus

existences

and

one

alternatelyrule.

composed

earth,

ments
ele-

formed

are

that

in

the

outside

In the

combination
are

"

tific
scien-

the

asunder,

of individual

elements

parts

elements

blood, for example,

and

from

penetrating

the

nature,

from

course,

; Hate

the

Hate,

"

sphere

of

cause

purely material;

are

seen

losophe
phithese

mythological analogues of the modern


attraction"
and
repulsion." By Love
bound
are
together in
indistinguishably

embracing

the

of

separation of
just

earlier

ancient
"

to

the

Now

had

seen,

assumed

first who

"

have

been
"

the

was

fire, air,

"

principles by

"

as

philosophy

and

and

combining

it has

water,

first appearance

Greek

we

"roots,"

or

elements.

primal

2$

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

docles,
Empe-

Anaximander,

an

"evolutionist."

Theory of Knowledge.

"

is

explained

26

GREEK

by Empedocles
is the

in

body

the

is

there
well

as

as

from

of

the

us,

of

Restrit.

earlier

and

is almost

The

of

want

of

the

mechanical

system

both
2

"

"

"

p. 32

result

which
of

their
is

truth

and

encounter

from

of

the
rowed
bor-

produce
of

natural
of

because

affinitybetween

or

powers

But

Hate, the

and
We

the
the

of nature.

Love

what

may

ably
reason-

in the

historyof early Greek

which

such

anthropomorphic

entirelyabsent.2

are

objective

See

ness
Quick-

Conceptions
to

entirelymechanical.

speculation a system

modern

ments
ele-

character,

character

is mechanical

would

In

fire.

like

thought

explanation

system

efflux

through

its

from

combined

anthropomorphic elements,

elements

quence
conse-

Eleatics, Heraclitus,

for the

to

and

apparent.

are

posited original elements

expect

water

for

essential

and

organic conception

be

eye

elements.

those

suggested by,

purely

phenomena.

the

reflection.

speculators, are
a

sight

and

water

earth,

depends,

from

sources

or

of

The

psychologicalorgan

theory of Empedocles
from,

from

through

perception

The

The

"

known

are

them,

to

case

effluences.1

mixture

different

perception but

not

the

particlesof

also

of

result.

opposites

In

size

efflux

through
the

acuteness

mixtures

of

things

Thought

and
from

efflux

earth

"

in

external

body perceived,sight being

an

in

particlesfrom

an

"

character

the

on

is

etc.

water,

efflux,

the

tion
Sense-percep-

corresponding

intermingling of

eye

in

of

percipient.

double

elements

The

the

of mixture.

efflux

an

pores

of

the

from

of

effect

entering

result

the

as

bodies

PHILOSOPHY.

"

psychological phraseology
and

infra.

"

subjective."

this would

mean

that

sightis

28

GREEK

he

PHILOSOPHY.

the
or
crirkpixara,

terms

however, must,

of

of

conceived

element

material

"finest

perfectly

"

The

and

since

power,
the

as

the
a

of

purest

offspring of

originalmixture,

mind,
and

produced

unlike, and

moving

centre, the

the

formed

were

homceomerice

name

later

applied by
conceived
of

centre

of

to

the

the

be

"

as

like

the

that

earth

"

as

the

sun

and

an

in

ences
Differcharacter

the

constitution.

substances, e.g., gold,

is not
immense

against

earth

one

"

for the

Plants

he
the

blessed

god,

glowing

him.

the

to

air, in

the

on

ground

is inhabited.

The

things.

Peloponnesus,

gave

brought

was

of

The

believe, but

doctrines, probably,that
atheism

ference
circum-

differentiation

their

cylinderresting

large

the

moist

(not by Anaxagoras)

seeds

universe.

multitude

stone

and

"

"

or

separation

only of seeds like themselves,


{pyjoio^ipeiailike parts) was

writers

originalelements,

original

refined.

in

by

single point

to

of

of

formed

warm

more

certain

Out

dense

differences

that

ligent
intel-

beauty

of the

at

process

predominate

and

universal

ever

from

hypothesis

blood, bones,
the

result
that

seeds
the

From

This

world.

the

in bodies

of

action

and

rare

the

was

like, seeds, the

forever, becoming

on

goes

of

union

the

to

of

as

caused

gradually extending,

"pure,"

chance.

world

the

by

to

order

which, beginning

movement

conceive

chaos, the

or

nature

independent,

necessity or

mere

the

spiritual,or

and

things," an

cannot

we

rotatory motion

of

all

unmixed"

"

in

conceive

^z/#.s7-spiritual,
principleis just the opposite in
the

as

have

must

cannot

things absolutely different.

ments,
ele-

The

things.

though different, be

organicallythe same
; i.e.,each
all others, for we
it, potentially,
union

"

seeds

"

The
and

mass

of

charge

the
of

moon

animals

is

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

communicated

spring from
earth by the

air and

pleasure and

pain.

germs

or

of all

purest

with

dependent

the

by unlike,"
with
equallywarm
The

comes

through

in the

pursuit of

in the

the

minds

theory

system

ourselves

of

articulated

is the

very

and

the

"

that
is less
of

essence

reason,

system

the

of
is

upon
that

satisfaction

is

lies

fails

here

conspicuous
the

"principles"

though

be

the

organic

an
a

of

mass

no

mind, which

upon

Anaxagoras
and

of

actually organized

not

it offers

different,are

of

if chaos

just verges

of

matter

of

conspicuous

so

beginning
For

it

because

between

also, it

is

which

and
virtuallysynthesizable,

universe.

elements,

therefore, in part
connection

that

knowledge

highest

"seeds," which,

same

The

is

organs,

impression

no

actuallydetermining, organizing

universe.

from

asserted, but

real

afford

potentiallyorgan izable, though


or

same

it and

bodily

cold:

by

Man's

world-ordering mind,
conception

the

makes

Empedocles
the

the
potentially

of

mechanicalness

the

"

material

the

Sense-perception, which

heat

not

and

wisdom.

of

is,in

finest

the
essentially

are

Empedocles

of

reason.

The

"

for there

independent of

"

that

nature

"the

"unmixed,"

structure

as

do

senses

Result.

as

by like," as

"like

us.

described

another, differingfrom

one

upon

"like

of

not

been

only in degree.

another

one

of Knowledge.

derivative

with

it,and

feel

(vovs)and

things," and

All

universe.

slimy-

or

souls,and

have

aether; they

and

perfectly "pure"

is

moist

to

Nous

has

world-mind

The

the

Mind

Theory of

29

in

element
is

mechanical,
of this

statement

mind.

being organic

the

For
and

rational, viz., Anaxagoras's conception of

another

completely
mind

was,

30

GREEK

PHILOSOPHY.

though fundamentally correct,


of

conception
in

period

the

latter

the

mind

philosophers, likened
the

among
the
as

mere

his

idea

determined

Of

Leucippus's

originator of
in

the

which

the

of

and,

of

such

as

their

end-

Thrace

about

for

in

of his

He

able

was

devote

to

the

was

most

dist,
encyclopae-

freely bestowed
upon
knowledges, Aristotle.
only fragments
instead

prose

predecessors
the

among

doctrine.

the

knowledge,

home,

return

of

the

was

extensivelyin Egypt

very

which

written

most

of

He

passion

admiration

greatlyadmired
well

styleas

as

missed

their Lives.

philosophers, an

of

preserved, were

were

in

his

works,

been

points

or

great wealth, he

travel

master

numerous

Plato

cause,

with

theory expounded
a
was
pupil of his.

who

his

greater

His

They

of

upon

the

still

the

verse,

the

Abdera

early Greek

the

worthy
by

of

extent

to

in

treated

was

as

Atomists

philosophical research.

to

learned

him

him

East,

himself

in

fullest

fault

is known.

nothing

Possessed

impelled
the

the

Democritus,

born

B.C.

gratifyto

and

of

was

460

life

nature-

nature.

essentials

the

writings

Democritus
year

found

final

later

coming

in it mind

the

Democritus,

and

Leucippus

other

(pp. 97-99), just

of

causation, in

veloped
de-

Aristotle,

man

Anaxagoras,

Phcedo

dialogue

and

with

sober

because

of matter.

grasping fairlythe

to

to

Plato

drunken, properly enough

mover

in

out

"

him

theory of Anaxagoras,
a

rudimentary.
belongs, in fact, to

historyof thought.
whom, comparing him

of

but

of

had

tic
didac-

employed.

ancients

Democritus

have

for their

lived

about

century.

Theory
dvai

"

No

of

Nature.

more

is

"

M.rj fiaWov

Thing

[Being]

to

than

Bev

7) rl

/jlt)

Sev

no-Thing [not-

Being],"

says

of

the

claims

change
to

Eleatics

material

To

With

i.e.,atoms.

(the

"

void

"

"void"

"seeds"

of

and

). Thing

of

Anaxagoras, they

collision of

and

By

the

thus

rotatory motion

The

produced.

were

to

generated

position,and

constitutingthem.
bodies

"

Soul,

of
and

human

atoms

desire.
made

motion

the

them

inhalation

external

In

of

these

the

produces thought,

by

quantitative

as

the

upon

number

figure,size,
of the

organs

effluences

sight,however,

is

of

in the

sense

from
resultant

atoms

imperishable,the

are

and

world

is the

brain

Sense-perceptions are
the

of

falling(!)

of

the
in

and

fine, round, smooth, fieryatoms.

body.

upon

world

not.

are

the

The

well

atoms

the

necessity.
heavenly bodies

the

Soul, of Knowledge,

spirit,in

or

composed
the

of

composed

Theory of

Though

and

inherent

an

qualitativeas

weight, arrangement,

nal.
phenome-

regards figure,

as

eternal

the

propertiesof things depend merely

the

and

but
qualitatively,

position.

due

space

Empedocles

produced by

atoms,

"full"

different

size, weight, order, and

the

(termed

the

not

are

"

is

(indivisibles),

all else is

reality:

elements

four

existences

Being

not-Being, empty

different,
only quantitatively,

individual

explain,

conceived

aro/jua

no-Thing,

absolute

the

Unlike

implies

to

constituted

thus

coeval

is

constitute

attempted

termed

he

Being

"full," "plenum")

respective

This

latter,he

eternal, infinitesimal,movable,

which

elements,

and

the

do

of innumerable

consist

Heraclitus.

and

accepted,

fact.

as

the

recognizing

Democritus,

Democritus

that

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

the

heart
the

of

motion

effects

of

of the

The

is
halation
ex-

life in

of

in the

such
liver

impressions

by particlesof
objects.

man,

The

source

anger,

Good.

air set

sensation

meeting

of

emana-

in
of

GREEK

32

tions

the

from

have

that

of

their

The

is

character

The
the

man's
is

method

true

known

real

atoms,

lies

being

of

is alone

the

The

living.
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knowledge.
but

in the

government.

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whole

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similar

to

divine

from

far

in the

of

edge;
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metrical
sym-

proceed
real
but

and

and

good

best

beings

are

is the

act

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in

fieryatom

of
the

the

The

degree.

formed
per-

form

citizens

are

in

higher

peace

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modera-

in the

is the

good

pleasure of

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is not

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to

his

measure

popular gods

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soul

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wise

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enjoyment

sensuous

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will.

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man

source

highest happiness
seat

character

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ness
trustworthi-

result

knowledge

unknown.
in

to

persons

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upon

is

springing

contentment

in

air

truly

totality

or

fieryatoms.1

of

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most

The

"

theory

perfect of

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theories
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natural

of the
and

possessed by
and

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degree

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to

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gives conflicting reports

deceptive. Thought,
of

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objects

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impressions.
motion

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impulses.

distorted

and

sense-perceptionsdepend

external
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enfeebled

found

minds.

our

with

eye

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are

PHILOSOPHY.

seem

of

of

of

nature

other.

any

See

See supra, p. 26.

Prc-Socratic

inner

are

the

of quantity
tions
concep-

easilygrasped,
of

necessary

Philosophy,Vol.

losophe
phi-

consistency

ruling

and

problems

it becomes

pomorphic,2
non-anthro-

conceptions

harmonious

until
all-sufficient,

doubtless

early Greek

the
an

The

necessity,which

confronted, when

is

merely mechanical,

simplicityand

theory,are

Zeller's

Atomists

the

soul
to

and

life

recognize

II. pp. 207-321.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

mind

as

The

absolute.

an

33

Atomists

natural

necessity

of mind.

that

of

is

This

Atomistic

the

of

ethical
of

is

mind.

whole,

he

be

of

Greek

from

has

he

the

largely than

anthropological
the

to

with
affinity

greater
than

any

before

noted

and

philosophy
In

merely physical nature.

period

next

truth

necessarily

more

into

phy
philoso-

the

nearer

should

entered

predecessors

distinct

respect

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one

oped
highly devel-

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in

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questions, topics belonging

man

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of

with

compared
while

case,

the

conception

early nature-philosophies,the

all the

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content

the

being

leaving Democritus
did

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poor

philosophy

philosophy

linked

and

atoms,

Anaxagoras is, on

of
the

of

motion

and

nature

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knowledge

unable

are

of

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the

phers
philoso-

very

early

philosophers.

"6.
Character

General

of

Greek

Philosophy.
finished

appear,

of Greek

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Period

We

have

now,

the

first

great

"

philosophy.

brieflysum

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has

in

external

nature,

this
"

been

and

the

man

little consideration.

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to

speculative, hypothetical,and

assumed
room

at

for

the

case,

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subject-matter,

supernatural receiving
its method, it has been
deductive

something

must

rather

rather
be

"

than

than

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cause,
beor

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this

is true,

at least.

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start, and

rough induction

we

occupied chieflywith

"

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in

to

observational, inductive, "scientific,"


in

presently
the
history

further

As

History

will

as

going

epoch

in the

epoch

its characteristics.

up

thought
but

the

of

there

is

34

GREEK

in

ment

is, doubtless

method

Eleatics

and

the

Heraclitic

again, farther
in

thought

this

know

to

with

but

whom

its

the
i.e.,
the

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lessons

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be

to

Greek

of

know

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gathered

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II.

ticism
scepwith

the

minimum,
and

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be

to

seems

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of reflection

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regarding realityas
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power

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epoch,

nature

indeed,

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on.

simple unsophisticated
mind

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for all time."

"possessions

are

PHILOSOPHY.

of

obverse

Anaxagoras,

in mind.

RATIONALISM.

"7The

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century
their

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Sophists.
B.C.

class

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persons

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in

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same

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Heraclitean

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to

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simply

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appearances.

PHILOSOPHY.

of

the

is

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the

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II. pp.

and

Gorgias

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Philosophy,Vol.

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conceptions

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prove

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since

it would

eternal, for

be

37

is

maintained, there

Eleatics

the

PHILOSOPHY.

is that

452-455.

in

so

the

38

GREEK

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truth

simple

of Ceos

cus

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and

were

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He

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;

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to

personages

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exposed

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Socrates

by

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represented

Prodicus."

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the

there

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Memorabilia

phon's

but

youth,

social

moralist,

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of

was

to

men

things contrary to nature, a saying that


towards
existing in Athens
tendency then

and

Prodi-

of Protagoras

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"

tyrant

crete.
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the

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law

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of

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Hippias

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younger

Gorgias.

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abstract

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and

Hippias

PHILOSOPHY.

tigators
inves-

than

shrewd

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pretension

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the

professional educator
supported by

Very

much

hindered,

at

of

instead

least
the
of

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

promoting,
"

have

to

seems

been

fashion

to

in

The

democracy.

distinguish himself
supposed

all

the

those
particularly
; the

matters

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customs

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1

the

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the

Sophist

his

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Thecetetus,p. 175

"

had

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later

young

ophy,"
philos-

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jects,
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and

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part in dramatic

and

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in the

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teach,

philosophy.

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genuine philosopher, did something

professor
was

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way

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schools, which

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ness
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youths

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Plato

Their

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narrow,

was

of

realization

the

39

were

to

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in-

gave

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views

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"

independent,
do

not
not

(Jowett'strans.).

in
if

forget that
above

mere

GREEK

40

trifling and

verbal
of

the

of

point

view

with

point

of

shall

discover
in

but

Nature

of

instead

attitude,

illustrated

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work,

On

appear

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Nature,

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aspect
sensationalism
of

philosophy
As

Hegel
of

For

Grote's

"

subjectivity
the
Hist,

most

the

Vols.

Philosophy,

I., II.,
Vol.

II.

scientific

of

Gorgias's
it

will

are

very
their

transcending

their

perfecting
its

In

Sophists

logical
psycho-

was

pure
the

individualism,

pure

authoritative
The

LXVIL;
and
pp.

III.,

arts,

462-469.

mental

"private right."

introduced

the

ple
princi-

philosophy.

and

extended

their

successors

the

Sophists

into

method

And

private judgment,"

of Greece, Chap.

Philology,
Socratic

it,

Not

certain

or

theme.
of

Sophists

and

further

their

of

the

title

and

ethical,

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"

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philosophy
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principle, sceptical, as

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speculation.

confidence

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com-

beginning

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the

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proceed

we

the

Greek

that

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even

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is, wholly

circumspectness,
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principal

being

we

already considered,

qitasi-dialectical);

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practise everywhere

dialectical

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to

history

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they profess

we

positive

speculation, method,

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ings
find-

philosophical

certainly peculiar.

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as

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though

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important.

new

charlatanry.1

Sophists,

view,

them

PHILOSOPHY.

accounts

Journal
by

E.

M.

of

the

of Sacred
Cope;

Sophists
and
'letter's

see

sical
ClasPre-

GREEK

PHILOSOPHY.

41

"8Socrates.1
The

and

Sophists
of

earliest

the

chief

maintained

in

of

nature.

dictum

meant

and

the

natural

the

For

he

sought

fact

to

and

but

"

universal

he

love

neither
of

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the

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sought

the

truth
and

calls
and

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Zeller's

had

simple

first of

employed

Geschichte

the

der

by

of

doctrine

their

of inherent

justice

to

and

his external

nor

"

in the

all,in its

any

methods,

all

tion
ostenta-

desire
In

spiritof
own

the

the

proper

der

the

to

word,

he

truth

he

intelligence.

Socratic

Griecheri).

Schools

reap

versality
form, uni-

as

Sophists, largelyan
and

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preserve

popular favor, nor

Socrates
Philos.

ists
Soph-

adequate

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especiallyZeller's
Die

As

to
accessibility

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any

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thinker

the

man

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skill in words,

or

also

life of his fellow-men.

discover

to

publicityor

learning

of

ethical, political
theological,

"

truth.

or

of those

Protagorean

dialectic

; and

was

ing
Sophists,he questioned exist-

the

sought
of

the

the
utility,

institutions

pecuniary reward,

Hegel

and

element,

physical

individual, but

scientific

truth

Like

and

he

the

in the

in his

false

and

substitute

happiness.
beliefs

merely

rhetoric

pleasure

them,

contemplation

universal, nature,

universal

and

external

his

to

towards

"man"

participatorin

showy

Like

exclusive

him

to
not

man

primarily in

the

unsatisfactoriness

the

almost

But

and

of

contemporary

Socrates.

attitude

least,by
the

speculations, to

cessor
philosophicalsuc-

early nature-philosophers, and

the
at

part

human

is

ones,

sceptical

speculations

The

"

Sophists, though

and

driven,

Socrates.

What
duced
intro-

empty

(trans,from

42

GREEK

form

; Socrates

PHILOSOPHY.

it

to

gave

definite,full,and

enduring

content.

Special

Sources

Socrates

wrote

"

of

known

Owing
of

his

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far

he

as

intent.

the

the

has

Socratic

the

other

Socratic

fact, and

the
with

simple

reason

reference

that

Plato's

the

of Socratic

about

the

Socrates.
year

469

as

"

whole
or

pictured
rather

Plato's

as

Socrates

B.C., his

an

truly

more

and

tendency,

who

is

than

as

of

Greek

regards Socrates,

from

Xenophon,

mature

views

course

of

other
was

the

especially

Greek

for

shaped

were

thought

containing,therefore, the

well

sentation
pre-

undoubtedly

development

derive,

Plato

preceding him, being


Life of

student

from

to

has

value

circumstances, of

and

the

doubt,

satisfaction

speculative

manhood,

though

continuity and

philosophy will, no

wrote

its full

he

method,
spirit,

the

doctrines

the

the

probably represents,

philosophizing:
in

he

ful
faithdialogues,sufficiently

earlier

the

outward

interested

more

hand,

historical

that

speculative inquirer.

Xenophontic,

the

of

tes
Socra-

so
superiority,

lacked

pattern

tations
presen-

of

evident

that

totle.
Aris-

question

view

appreciation at

as

the

external

if not

the

learned

the

arises

his

philosophizing,and

regarded

the

between

Xenophon's

he

is

Plato, and

better

to

What

been

urged, however,

for

idealization,is, in

than

the

is due

any,

necessary

on

has

Plato, there

affords

two

been

Socrates

to

of

apologist,that

an

Socrates
than

and

possesses

largelyas
of

discrepancies

philosophizing.

It

insight

the

to

of

teachings

writings of Xenophon,

Xenophon

which

to

his

and

the

Socrates.

regarding

philosophical treatise.

no

him

chieflyfrom

as

of Information

opment
devel-

earlier doctrines.
born

near

Athens,

parents being Sophroniscus,

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

44

only once, and


and
only from a

life

of

his

in

office, and

defied
law

the

his

held

affairs

with

she

neglected

for himself.
conceit

the

probe

their

search

; in

self-consciousness.

now

his friends

and

pupils.
fill the

to
to

send

wise
purpose
render

them

for

inform

them

sceptical.
to

the

away

price ;

to

ears

lovers

It

spite

was

of

this

those

with

men

not

with

became

of the

old

an

ways

to

shrivelled
the

to

life of

made

them,

enemies,

but

his

"

ready

primarily
whom

he

object of
and

him

lightened
en-

or

pose
pur-

specious wisdom,

thoughtful, critical,and,
He

men,

part of his business

no

was

of

themselves,

self-complacent and
it

to

he

he

for his

raiment

his bitter
of

being.

only

not

them

doing

to

calling that

their

expand

was

her

so

ignorance

helpers, now
in

and

awaken

to

In

frequently

"

and

short,

true

always,

foolish

and

consciences

individualities

food

was

family

own

for

his

life.

Xanthippe

occasion

prudence

It

questions,

represents

in

he

of all

women,

his

if

tradition

common

this

intellectual

and

absorbed

of

keen

them

; and

state

that

fact, so

exercise

to

family,but
to

of

declared, patriotically,

and

little about

as

the

market-place,the

men,

moral

certainlyhad

in

was,

of

bidding

pursuit

the

to

when

participationin
he

as

the

boys,

almost

scolding wife

been,

Socrates

in

close

Once

its

at

from

gymnasium,

affairs

about

as

reallythe
have

aloof

the

near

private citizen, he

violate

and

pulse

the

concerned

was

duty.

conditions, putting

and

quickening

He

of

firmly and,

in the

workshop, conversing
and

sense

merely

calling;

found

be

sorts

till

Standing

politicalaffairs,he
might

not

by refusing to

state.

to

when

again

tyranny

of

then

it

accepted

his

to

and

appear

business

or

conversed, but
if need

ridicule

times,

and

were,

and
was,

to

even

hatred

by

the

45

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

poet Aristophanes, in his comedy of The


and

Sophist

as

of

last, certain

At

whom
with

their

and

truth

of

the

light

he

had

stimulated

the

description.

worst

conservatives," exasperated

"

to

national

the

youths

favorite

institutions

Socrates

by

and

at
posed
ex-

others

by

think, formally charged him

to

discarding the
corrupting

and

the

themselves

seeing

of

charlatan

Clouds, satirized

gods, introducing
of Athens.

His

gods,

new

defense

was

(though by only a
sharply critical,and he was
prisoned
small
to be, according to law, immajority)condemned
heavilyfined, or banished ; and when he refused,
somewhat
haughtily indeed, to acknowledge any guilt,
bold

and

claimed,

and

the

on

in

entertained
benefactor

adjudged worthy

votes

and, after
as

the

it would

of

delay

habit of obedience

and

he

scornfullyrefused

he

suffered

Plato's

by

was

of

He

proffered opportunity of

Socrates

its

and

escape,

of

Socrates, which

of

completeness

and

namely,

one,

handsome

in
will
to

as

bear

the

of character

is necessary

specialrelation

to

to

notions

in every

between

three
to

his

say

the

personality

not

was

only

aspects

item

exterior

reality(for Socrates

attention

to

satisfied Greek

regards harmony

aspect),it
direct

have

symmetry

interior

and

appearances

to

seems

Relation

Of

"

appear

prison,

to

went

penalty by drinking hemlock


(399 B.C.).
from
sublimity of his last hours appears

Personality of

as

licly
pub-

City Home, as a
majority of eighty

Subsequent History of Philosophy.

here

be

dialogue Phcedo.

The

but

to

or

death.

ought

the

moral

The

he

thirtydays, during which, partly,


pride, but mostly from the spirit
to regularlyconstituted
authority,

from

seem,

that

Prytaneum,

state, he

the

to

contrary,

much

so

of

it that

doctrines, to

have

46

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

his

influenced
particularly

in its

phy

as

must

look
the

first

for

the

in

be

analytic faculty,which
condition
of

genius

those

the

to

with

his

almost

said, discovered

Aristotle,

point, certain

not

the

place,we

under
on

the

rule

of

of

and

and,

fellows

in

self-control.
one

class

of

self,the

on

the

made

the
to

will.

other

pure

external

to

conscience.
of

is evidence

vigor

it may

Plato

as

this

Lesser

and

animal

and

In

poise,
equi-

faculties

Socrates, generally and

hand, he

at

indulgence,

even

times

the

In

the

far

without

but

philosophers ; Socrates,
another.

the

ward
in-

the

hereafter.

speak

moral

his

at

so-called

was

of

ence
influ-

at
individually,

abstemious,

ideal

the

intellects

such

have

Socrates, the
of

effects

possible,or

strong emotions

convivial

we

conversations
there

; and

among

notice

superb

the

was

principle,practised self-restraint,was
;

his

balance

that

were,

It

mind

mention,

shall

we

character

of

if need

reported

two

minds

acute

whom

the

the

Socrates

to

Socratics,of
second

of

contemporaries

fact

and

philos-

understand

to

him.

all the

of it in the
be

hence

him

about

things

that

the

discoverydirected, not

in almost

appears

Socrates

enabled

inquiryand

things, but
This

of

of

course

explanation of

plainlyto view,

expose

mined
deter-

history of philosophy. In the


his critical insightand
noticed

the

may

have

to

Socrates

of

teaching

philosophizing,and

Socrates

and

thus

subsequent

of the

source

place, then,

glance

exemplificationsof

is, probably, to

the

to

as

Socratic
of

It

history.

much

quite
of

the

to

capacities)ideals

his doctrines, and

large measure

in

various

excellence, and

moral

and

portions of

various

their

(according to

his followers
of mental

contemporaries, presenting

third

the
easy

mious
absteoutdid

losing
ideal

of

master

place, and

GREEK

there
finally,

the

ever-present

the

real nature

opinion.
with

or

consciousness

Socrates

himself

conscience,

he

daemon,"

"

warning voice,

or

of the

attribute

not

importance. Nor,

or

it

viewed

have

to

seem

did

he

as

tific
scien-

other

hand,

it

to

the

on

familiar

reason

an
spirit,

to him, rather, an
personality. It was
of
oracle,which, instead of giving him a standard

inner

attendant

rule

or

life,warned

of

occasions.1
to

to

aloof

inner

an

what

of his life it

mission

only in so far as it gave


or
or
feelingof subjectivity
reality. Especially did it

the

of those

eyes

and

sacred

with

seer

much

too

philosophy,or,
no

and

seems

increased
close
hold

lation
re-

him

its

more

with

its

him

they

it rendered

teacher

held

Socratic

Bk.

personality,see
end)
and

and

Plato's

very

they

its content,

Symposium.

41.

or

trines,
doc-

IV. ch. 8.

particularly,
Xenophon's

trans.),pp. 39,
of Philosophy (Stirling's

we

result.

and

See

Socrates
"

I. ch. I.; Bk.

forcible.

Socratic

philosophizing,

its method,
spirit,

On

ion
commun-

"

general character

brief,comprehensive,

by

of God.2

the

"

the

as

religiouslife.

to the
Coming now
correctlyspeaking, since

Xenophon's Memorabilia,

(especiallyat

authoritative

man

Socrates's

was

of

matter

the

he

Socrates.

system,

notice

him

converse

and

Philosophy of

to

been

about

more

in their

felt that

framed

hitherto

had

observance, namely, piety and

external

have

particular

on

public affairs,thus contravening the whole


it helped to add
life ; and
internal cance
Greek
signifi-

to

more

him

truth

from

spiritof

In

idea

the

to
vitality

general

related

been

have

the

To

restrained

and

Of

satisfactory

identifyit with

did not

and

supernatural.

of this it is difficult to form

character
does

his

was

47

PHILOSOPHY.

Memorabilia

Schwegler's

his Handbook

of

account

the

is

History

4o

GREEK

Spirit of
spiritof

the

the

Socratic

Socratic

in the

first

in

important

an

He

PHILOSOPHY.

Philosopliizing. Regarding

philosophizing,it

place,that

it was,

the

discredited
that

ground

the
it

encouraged

astronomy,

for

example, only

the

utilitarian

most

of the
and

already stated,
degree, sceptical.

knew

It was,

indeed,

considered

by

even

than

positing of

an

we

rather,

definition

in

of

position

of

did

know,3

his

of

essences

valid

Socrates

was

and

yet

Xenophon's Memorabilia,

Ibid., Bk.

Plato's

Apology,

of

below

shall

only
ing
be-

to

philosophy.2
that

as

the

find

he

was

Sophist,

nega-

surface

for

in

the

it,not

in his affirmation

2.

p.

21.

life,in

human

assumption

things,
all

for

I. ch.

knew

of self-knowledge
all-sufficingness

practical purposes
and

he

pronounced

most

look

we

palpable

discredited,if

reason

of all existence, but

apxv

manhood,

not

if

"

wisdom

regarded,
Superficially

of the

And

"

forward

contemporaries

one

necessityand

the

apparent

positive in him,

was

the

teacher

and
served

pretension

no

Sophist.

was

stitutio
in-

even

they

as

He

stead.

say

his

of his age.

the

to

of

some

least,Socrates

what

far

so

made

He

and

geometry

discredited

its

without

not

worse

tivists

in

all,not

at

in

always putting

nothing.

teacher

of

study

himself, asserting that

so,

say

he
a

or,

remarked,

unprofitable, and

the

He

without

Sophists

may

that

true

ends.

positive doctrines

we

for

be

early physical speculation

was

He

of

been

marked

impious.1

at

is to

freelycriticised prevailing beliefs, customs,


on

or

has

as

and

sense

He

the

"

can

human

be

Bk.

felt

the

love

in

expressed

that

I. ch. I, and

he
he
Bk.

knew
had
IV.

of

essence,

intelligences.

equivocal ;
he

that

his

that
a

The
he

deeper

ch. 7.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

49

And
of his age.
realitythan any other man
in the
element
this brings us to a second
spiritof the
Socratic philosophizing,namely, the profound irony that
is not
of it. This
that
castic
pervades much
playfuland sarimmediately on the surface
irony that appears
and
method
and belongs rather to the external
manner
of pretending to be ignorant
habit
of Socrates ; that

of

sense

in

pupil

better

the

order

to

of

out

the

It was,

disputant.

or

draw

of

speech begotten

rather,

himself

of his situation,and
When

he

of view

he

spoke
he

insight than
to,
the

he

"

his hearers.

did not

proceed

well-known

could

to

be

of his

of

was

or

though, from

one

had

deeper

the

lie in

minds.

exasperating to

ance
utter-

words

to

teaching, his

This
his

irony
point

scientific

and

whim.

and

manner

the
of

the

humor

giving

men's

over

perplexing and

from

give adequate

effects
power

"

It

cality
equivo-

existence

the

truth, for he

literal

the

seemed

well-known

of

and

professed ignorance,

certain

consciousness

the

possession of superiorinsight and


gulf between

confusion

to

put

or

was

times
some-

associates,and

than

the cause
of his
anything else,perhaps, was
death.
softened
in a measure
Thirdly : This irony was
ual
by a large geniality(proceeding from bodily and spirithealth) by what, in its superficial
aspect, has been
termed
by Hegel and others after him "Attic urbanity,"1
more

"

but

be

less than love of true


nor
nothing more
selfhood, regardfor essential human
nature.
If, indeed,
the leading idea of the
is,as we
teaching of Socrates
shall see, the
prime importance of self-knowledge,a
largeelement in its spiritis self-love or the love of the
true

to

seems

self,very like what


1

in recent

years

Hegel's Geschichte der Philosophie,Vol.

has

been

II. p. 50.

termed

GREEK

50
the

of

enthusiasm

"

lovers

were

of

but

and

Greek

insightsand

his

PHILOSOPHY.

humanity."

The

admirers

of

not

philosophizingwas
in

profound

into

form

his

the

; he

term

sphere

for its

truth

Socratic

it

was

It

was

also

interests
turned

not

Method.

the

upon

merely

and

the

was

that

and

within

for

long

the

method

in

nor

search

for

of any
on

this

definition

of

was

other

hand,

"truth."

the

but

was

into

bringing

pedient,
psychological ex-

true

Such

conceptions.

necessity

was

of
of

exposition
the

"
"

compound

two

might justlyascribe
the

it

spirit

philosophizing. Logically

and

upon

the

procedure

method

the

fullyconceived

after

of

of

that

separation here

method

one

But

the

that,

chieflya

Socratic

reasoning

sense

observe

must

every

the

of

method

which

fullest

from

true
effectively,

warrants

induction

to

and

it is

case,

the

science

As

"

logicalmode
It

clearlyand

merely

the

never

conception

consciousness, by any

the

Socrates

and

inquirer.

subjective groping

pedagogical.

being

doubt,

no

was,

man;

he

existence, and

all
mere

not

rooted

existing philosophy

aside

philosophizing,we

principle of

the

ethical

love

sake.

own

grounded

not

This

philosopher in

an

was

Socratic

the

"

But,

pretty clear insight

of truth.

regard

Socratic

The

truth,

predilectionfor

of human

essential

any

the

toward

consequently,not
the

of

in

were.

spiritof

realityand

his attitude

and

nature

was,

of

of

sense

fundamental

the

qualifiedby
of

love

in the

eral,
gen-

broader

was

his fellows

sympathies than

ally,
generin

humanity

; Socrates

humanity

finally,the principalelement

Greeks,

of

garded,
re-

ple
sim-

improvements
to

Socrates

"

in
*
"

principleof analogy. Socrates,

Aristotle's Metaphysics, Bk.

XIII.

ch. 4.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

52

fellow-countrymen."x

their

Euclid,

and
also

earnest

ideas

bringing

minds

the

of the

practice of

the
to

the

to

be

mind,

ideas

not

"worth

this

that

out

of

he

by

be

poured

it.2

Now,

his

Spartan fashion,

of

"birth"

of

part

their

which

trouble
has

of

former

of

what

Plato,

than

and

man

Memorabilia,

See

If Critias
was

Plato's

Bk.

hardly

I. ch.
pp.

Alcibiades
in them

ideas

sufficient

with

became
and

if well

worth

dialectic

the
"

for,

dialectic
tive.
construc-

frequently

more

result, however,

net

enduring

the

Sometimes,

destructive

perhaps,

philosopher,is

Meno,

and

and

the

something

dialogue

latter, with

the

positive

was

that it

the

it was,

whole

the

of

Socratic

The

accordingly, twofold,
On

the

them.

intimated,

been

was,

"

rearing

consequence

vigorous, and,

into

reared

be

were

"exposed"

be

must

pregnant.
and

In

feigned,

self-knowledgeon

been

saw

rather,

birth

the

to

relieved

sound

were

he

only important

been

had

ideas

for, might

cared

as

minds

the

however,

had

who

he

of

is native

truth

sometimes,

increased

being

those

the

his art

"

it,but, the

rearing,"and

in real
the

into

was

in labor.

were

that

brought

art

and

keeping

youths

assumed

he

art

art,

he

birth, for

the

to

the

fresh,

with

practise what

obstetric

or

Grecian

to

not

"

drawn

the

maieutic

derful
won-

fresh, active, and

not

to

conceptions

or

training

Socrates'

made

conferences

some

delighted

call his

to

and

"

Socrates

"

pleased
that

minds

active

earnest,

which

in these

Now,

of dialectic.

king

Plato

as

catch, if possible, that

and

conceptions

of

mastery

them,

intellectual

for

doubt,

no

understand

to

"

came,

of

Some

as

to

the

one

prove.3

fact,
And

2.

81-83.
turned
to do

out

badly

we

otherwise, whoever

are

had

obliged
been

to

assume

their master.

if

look

we

closelyinto

more

find

dialectic,we

Socratic

53

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

the

the

that

and

nature

of

effect

majority of

the

those

who

willinglyor unwillingly to themselves, subjected to


in the beginning, unripe for the perceptionof the
it were,

were,

truth

naked

and

pure

They

were

some

of

brought

filled

and

for

truth

who

in their

they

them

that

justicewas,

and

lost confidence

know

to

within
himself

and

what

understanding
Such
the

by being

sort

opposite

process,

right opinion

new

truth

Memorabilia,

Socratic

Plato.

Bk.

the

was

IV.

by

dialectic,destructive

2.

and

tite
appeform
perman

what

of

ideas

himself

eral
sev-

simply desired
capable

labored

to

statement

In

with

the

derstand.
un-

to

was

admitted

an

In

the

truth

in

the

or

defini-

happiest example

constructive,is given

the

confirmed,

light; induction,

Perhaps

of

tic
dialec-

dialectic,some

learner

of

overthrown

was

particular facts.

brought
ch.

his

and

its effect.

and

constructive

held

be

must

understood

long

inconsistent

well-known

or

their

reported by Xenophon,1

general
be

of

young

himself

make

in vain

dialectic

to

truth

had

The

he

be

could

contradict
; and

to

case,

false

shown

general

some

to

breaths

he

is

himself

the

positive

keen

Socrates

well.

in

how

of destructive

use

of this

or

few

of

They
their

just,and

was

justice,after being compelled


times

conceit.
and

of

could

they

relieved

be

services

he

opinions ;

learning

Before

right opinions

thoroughly

confident

was

the

must

and

These

and

appreciation

and

perception

knowledge.

for

with

fact.

understand

sentiments

stuffed

ignorance, false sentiment,


encouraged

they

full of conceit.

were

constructive

and

could

false

with

were

the

to

tions,
appreciate logical distinc-

not

simple, nor

them

Sophists

could

they

of

Meno

the
of

54

GREEK

tion, and

reasoning by analogy constitutingthe

elements

of the

who

love
and

of

the

truth

character

whole, the

habit

differences

in

the

of

spiritof

tion,
circumspecintelligent

integrityof

or

what, in short, may

ble
valua-

most

things, an

of wholeness

logical

begetting,in

of

conferences,
the

and

the

was

modesty,

"

the

the

dialectic

part in the

himself,
sense

of

Socratic

took

Socrates

On

process.

of the

result
those

PHILOSOPHY.

be

termed

mind

the

osophic
phil-

spirit.
Doctrines

The
The

doctrines

Socrates

of
of

chieflyethical

have

been
have

we
a

like
a

of the

that

leader

soul

of

adopted

of

the

him
in

an
a

that

be

to

truth
is at

native

mind

reality. To

earliest
of
the

with

and

Plato's

do

should

Man

the

good.
mind

the

to

soul

or

did

investigation,nor

or

which

the

he

wholly

knowledge

judge

doubtless

from
one

dialogues, Socrates

possibilityof

given by

know

he

human

did

not

of

absolute

part

Charmides,

"

assumed
edge
knowl-

make

subject of
in

(and

himself

that

or

the
of

his

of

ethical

Though

and

such

as

Socrates

thyself,"was

self-knowledge, he

bottom

knowledge

and

good

was

of the

nature

maxim

leading thought

"Know

sense) :

narrow

wards
after-

was

being (ontology),

practical,or
application principally

rather

in order

the

to

suggest

schools, a science

of ultimate

popular

teaching, yvco6caeavrov,

to

may

in what

"

Euclid, who

Socratic

expression of

the

as

of

or

the

old and

there

much

was

"

intimated,

Whatever

conferences,

Plato,

one

Character.

alreadybeen

there

(psychology),or

fact is that

the

of

General

content.

Socratic

the

termed

mind

in

doubtless

and

"

it has

Socrates,

were

their

the

scientific

identifyselfintelligence
one

of

the

Socratic

the

most

was

scepticalin regard

constructing

purely

science

of

to

absolute

GREEK

knowledge
in

or

being, it being impossible for

him

from

the

the

thought

form

of

abstain

entirelyfrom

human.

not

of the

For

he

dialogues of

the

relatingto
of

him,

had

final causes,

to

mechanical

beautiful
the

that

and

wise
of

care

accounts)

for
of

of the

side

by

man's

benefit

his

of

which

blended

power

Socratic

The
not

than

holds

See

the

See

especiallyMemorabilia,

pp.

a
as

pretation
inter-

conception

wise
a

held

exists

the
to

be

telemated
ani-

contrivance,

for

livingself-realizing

superior place

because

synthetizing

97, 98, 99.


Bk.

the

to

nature

assimilatingand

Phado,

as

the

philosophical

though

nature,

of

ing
show-

in

prevails over,
practically

man

is the

in nature,

are

mechanistic

the

rather
chiefly,

superior

view

family.

soul, is conceived

organism,2in
of

but

of

pages

Socrates

order

is, however,

organic:

with

perfectly

the

turn

we

be

providence (forpolytheistic

or

human

side with, and

by

as

faction.
satis-

complete

does, indeed, subordinate

Good,

ological and

found

theme

points

the

It

idea

gods

nature

deduction.

he

adaptation and

the

tions
ques-

constituents

and

representation

favorite

monotheistic

and

of the

tory
completely satisfacget beyond mechanical

alone

find,

we

his

In

not

to

Plato's

not,

or

Xenophon,

and
reality,

nature.

causes

him

in which

Whether

authentic

threshold

the

on

of

theory

helped

did

phy,
early nature-philoso-

the

impious

things. Anaxagoras, though


to

content.

according to a representation in one


with
Plato,1always agitating himself

he was,

youth

rate
sepa-

Socrates

intelligenceand

without

not

was

hesitated

he

though

futile and

as

But

"

to

speculation concerning things

of ultimate

science

aside

cast

knowledge

Socrates.

Physical Philosophy of
not

55

PHILOSOPHY.

I. ch. 4, and

Bk.

IV.

ch. 3.

56

GREEK

the

"

elements

"

nature

shall

we

is the

Ethical

Socratic

find
is

the

whole

definition.

who

the

exact

the

state.

Socrates

and

world

vice

is

the

this

any

ing
accord-

means,

well

the

as

everywhere, (not

Aristotle's

See

Xenophon's Memorabilia,

Metaphysics,

Bk.

Nicomachean

he

his relations
scientific

rect
cor-

who

forms
per-

the

or

force
and

virtue.
that

self

to

and
is

knowledge
condition

sole

of virtue.

merit

by

opinion

"

He

virtue
of

in

did
the

character

not

coming
over-

or

will.

follows, necessarily

there
Now

not

were

the

rest

is

knowledge

of

the

principle

I. ch. 6.

Ethics, Bk.
Bk.

state,

elements

as

Aristotle's

be

to

choice, consequently,

immediately,
of

Coming

simply ignorance: to do
do
to
right ignorantly.3

than

better

was

of

knowledge, thought he,

are

here

is not

virtue, but

of evil inclinations

and

is

half-reflectively
consciously realizes in act,
that

to

Socrates
there

the

of each

deliberate

and

that

and

meant

wittingly is

what

"

Aristotle,2as

of

of virtue

self

to

possesses,

regarded by

Given

of

important

discussions

man

only a condition
and, conversely,that

admit

ical,
philosoph-

practicalinsight,but) science,

or

conception

Character

than

Virtue.

Knowledge

Socratic

not

wrong

is theological

cratic,1
Socharacteristically

most

testimony

The

duties

and

most

are

knowledge.

"prudence"

he

which

we

Socrates.

first and

of the

-his

when

of

Theology.

that

the

express

tenor

mere

theory,

Knowledge

doctrines

virtue
to

Natural

between

we

conception

examine

to

largest sense) rather

Philosophy of

the

to

latter

beginning, historicallyspeaking,

Relations

but

The

termed

commonly

All

occasion

the

(in not

reality. This

have

Aristotle.

reach

now

of

PHILOSOPHY,

III. ch.

III. ch. 9 ; Bk.

8;

IV.

Bk.

ch. 6.

VI.

ch.

n.

of

not

strength

is that

of

or

man

which

knowledge

of

rule, or
have

may

pleasure,or pain, or love, or

if

knowledge
is

knowledge
be

noble

the

strength

From

"

follows

that

also.

They

are

of the

face"

but

One

they

another
will

in

case

that

wisdom

rest

be

knacks,

or

instinct

as

of

virtue

not

do

will

and

in

not

the

as

the

they

giving

relation

one

parts.

relation
a

the

virtues

Sophists thought,
the

are

rise

one

nature

Plato's

Protagoras,pp.

the

of

is temperate,

so

caught

as

many
and

the
.

edge,
knowl-

be

can

taught.
lar
particupractised

p. 352

349,

importance, constantly

comprehending

of what

Protagoras,

to

tific
offspring of conception, scien-

Hence

emphasized by Socrates,

be

can

tween
be-

common

holy, or courageous,
the unity of virtue and

that

one

like

are

they are

necessary

of

it

"parts

just,or
From

and

knowledge

of which

power

little arts, that

exact

have

merely, but

many,

other,

is

there

apprehension.
the

not
can-

Unity of Knowledge

whole

who,

man

not,

that

only
anything

parts of gold,"which

like the

follows, also,

are

the

each

the

"as

require.

may

They

but

to

possess

another

it

by

the

about

if he

man,

through knowledge.2 Possessing

them
essence,

evil,to

are

related

implies the

just as

thing, which

and

unity

virtues

another, and

one

anger,

think

you

the

him?"1

the

the

do

Or

allow

not

Consequencesof

General

Virtue.

help

to

by

dragged

good

knowledge,

to

contrary

be

might

commanding

of

difference

that

yet

"

view?

will

notion

perhaps favor,

and

and

and

overcome,

knows

slave

Now, is that your

anyhow.

and

mastered

be

may

or

; their

command

knowledge,

him

is in

were

57

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

360.

is

required

in
to

every
be

(Jowett'stranslation).

stance
in-

done,

58

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

of

and

the forming of
to
right training of the mind
scientific education.
conceptions, i.e.,
what
virtues
But, now,
of the Virtues.
Classification
there ? and
of what
are
are
they the knowledge ? To
these
scientific answer.
questions Socrates
gives no
is for him
Virtue
the
knowledge of the Good, and the
a

"

Good

is not

the

realization

of

the

true

end, but

objects or
Upon

being

universal

conceptions

The

acts.

of

in

Good,

asked

by

of

ends

or

absolute
individual

words, is the

other
of

one

and

his

disciplesif

knew

replied,"Do
anything good, Socrates
you
Aristippus,if I know
anything good for a fever?"1
Socratic
and

unscientific,and, in consequence,

eudaemonistic.

radical

and

is

ethics

knowledge

principle,nearly on

level of

the

principalvirtues

The

Temperance.
the

crowning) virtue,
in

consider

it," says

the

"

To

subjection

be

to

and

root

temperance,

of

sum

its

est
high-

them

argument
continue

of the

the
This

for
master
senses

"as

divine
be

of

keeping

of

all

of
;

the

bodily

perfection

by

the

Memorabilia,

construed, however,

in the midst

unruffled

Bk.

the

wants

asceticism, but for self-control


of himself

"I

he, therefore,

who

nature

(though
mind.

the

mark

nothing

want

must

fundamental

desires

the

to

they

nearest

things."

is the

Socrates,

that

gods

approaches

an

is

ity.
util-

and

custom

mere

the

Temperance,

"

impulses

as

abstract

wisdom.

being

fewest

"

assumed

are

form, is)justice,
piety; the

in

The

All virtue

principle

(which, in
rightcitizenship,

friendship,courage,

not

ask,

remains, for lack of development of that

it

"

its first

he

tarian
utili-

the

Notwithstanding

of

character

ful.
use-

III. ch. 8.

merely.

of the

dignityof

not

ments
allure-

his

own

60

GREEK

PHILOSOPHY.

Socrates

Right Citizenshipand Justice.


"

to

him

escape

those

whom

in

the

to

discourage

active

ambitious.

sought
seek

received
others

making

any
to

one

education

duty,
he

offer

then

as

subjects for

the

wisest, of

yet

doubtless,
all the

those

Bk.

state,

III. ch. 7.

most

the

connected

well-ordered
intelligent,

Memorabilia,

of

he

to

never

never

solicit

ment
experi-

to

of

may

him

had

him

so.

as

world

the

most

has

man

citizenship

state

ever

commanding

individual

with
"

structi
in-

apostles of political

highest privilege,the
function

ever

do

to

should

one

intelligentcitizenshipthe

noblest

never

likens

and

themselves
was,

in

give

to

that

announce

medicine

of

did

nor

advice

such

Socrates

study

any

skilled

seeming

even

complacently
a

of

avoided
persistently

it, and

of

declared,

but

vice
ser-

following

competent

contrary, I have

me."

the

were

them

those

to

lose

to

practicalaffairs,I

with

myself

urged

anything, O men
as
saying,"from

persons

of

conduct

over-

country's

in

checked,

certain

his

in

and

the

in

courage
en-

other,

and

powers

learned

that

Socrates

The

seen.

he

instruction

offer

upon.

ardent,

to

should

of

thought

competent,

own

he

propose

occur

who

man

and

them

instruction

only seeking
to

his

on

to

engage

incompetent
was

among

the

Nevertheless,

who

never

associate

instructor

happen

in the

and

to

an

were

with

and,

state,

feigns Euthydemus

On
not

"

hearing

speaking

the

exerting

he

On

one.

the

Euthydemus

manner

Athens,"

to

who

himself
for

but

satiric

those

hand,

one

thought competent,

of

Charmides,

occasion

no

he

service

acquaint

to

the

opportunity, on

any

allowed

never

in which

Ibid.,Bk.

IV.

ch.

are,

in
"

2.

an

not

possessionof

the

affairs

the

in

rule."1

to

he

rulers, and

to

encourage

everywhere,

he

rendered

the

he

governors,

Socrates
of

the

he

was

term.

just
in

And,

in

man

the

that

relation

the
to

of the

fidelity.
whole-

and
to

preserve

"ought"
sense

to

be;

of

the

view, justice,in which

is the

crowning virtue,the
with

independence

individual

himself

to

of

one

as

practice,one

larger, Greek

Greek

individual

harmonizes

what

and

judgment

and

able

are

is and

the

citizenshipculminates,

firmness

who

what

between

balance

in

to

subject,

theory and
completely sane

men

"

could

of

in

short, both

and

existing institutions

perfect

men,

among

As

independence

comparatively few

minded
the

in

was,

he

strict obedience

was

the

saw

ambition

what

prevail.

criticise

fit to

saw

he

ignorant

virtue

and

conspicuous part

by steadfastlydoing

knowledge

though

checking

of

because

was

lot, nor

confers

alone,
seek

not

state,2 that

of

demagoguism
make

did

of the

fortune

knowledge

If he

need

imperative

the

nor

power

popular election, but


claim

6l

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

with

right
virtue

friendship,
his relation

others.
The

Piety.
"

were,

days of Socrates, if ever

"bound

were

each

to

"

each

piety" in exactly the Wordsworth


piety as pure, deep, and simple,
and
human.
more
distinctively
"

ZelleSs

Memorabilia,

Bk.

Ibid.,Bk.

ch. 4.

See,

for

Socrates

IV.

and

the Socratic

IV.

ch.

My
A

heart

rainbow

leaps

up

in the

; if not

ian
as

by

of any

when

sky."

man

"natural

sense,4 yet by a
as
natural,
that,
"

Though

he

discarded

Schools,ch. 7.

I.

example, Wordsworth's
"

those

stanza
I behold

beginning

"

62

GREEK

PHILOSOPHY.

barren

physicalspeculation as
that

the

of

of the

order

moral

world

that

knowledge

conduces

of the

an

He

enjoined piety for

image

the

to

and

of

some

into

the

divine

by

the

unaided

things

the

that

Supreme

Being

mind

body.1

Wisdom.

as

was,

the

and

often

particularvirtues

by

seen,

substance
that

say

This

was

have

we

is

all the

justiceand

Greek

the

part of the

limitations

and
have

as

already seen,

those

with

whom

nature

of

things

Memorabilia,

Bk.

well

and

give

and

him

teaching

as

"

he

of

his

them

8.

root

would

is wisdom."2

dictum,

his

own

ception,
con-

powers

As

nature.

"examine

to

Ibid.,Bk.

we

cause

into

properly,"i.e.yto
2

All

undoubtedly

clear,correct

divine

to

ethics,

the

as

constantlystrove

conversed

I. chs. 4 and

of

Socrates

by knowledge

meant

the

as

enumerated

virtue

individual, of

class

world

the

Socrates
he

the

heart,

pure

would

by

he

"

on

Socrates

other

self-knowledge especially,

meant

of

teachers

virtues.

every

And

knowledge.

penetrated

sometimes

regarded by

is, indeed, just what

virtue

of

of the

enjoined

the

over

which

Wisdom,

"

the

among

the

men,

invisible,all-wise,all-powerful,

was

dominion

over

He

his belief

In

good.

order

be

not

man.

due

communicated

are

may

was

was

for

care

in the

merely as symbols
simply that the gods

were

it

the

world.

the

that

(His)

alone

of

ruled

reason

that

all-good, exercising
does

welfare,

their

pious

mind

was

human

apparent

secrets

sacrifices

his prayer

those

the

to

of

customary
and

wisdom

the

that

world, and

of

power

wisdom,

that

double

because

gods (God)

because

wisdom

the

the

human

to

most

divine

but

that

believed

he

impious,

cognizable by

was

held

He

insight.

and

the
form

III. ch. 9.

of

framing

be of the

highest

habit

the
to

themselves.

of

did

Socrates
the way

is

scientific

is

gods

inherent

and

Beauty.

than

sculptor
beautiful

for

name

the

artist

elements

thought

General

laws

is

and

by

to

that

make

of

the

ought

men

virtue

the

have

Good

is
an

may

The

"

true

medley

of

connection

no

of

general
be

IV.
3

the

ch. 6.

Ibid., Bk.

as

task

III. ch.

10.

that

it

painter or

individually
each

of

follows:

deliberate
of

7^

ception
con-

other

conception.3

character

by

temperament,

given

with

stated

its

made

so

of the

work
a

realizes
if

embodiment

circumstances

Bk.

stitute
con-

is not

having

natural

Memorabilia,

to

good.

men

doctrine

that

serve

other

every

beautiful

The

"

; it is the

Result.

by

to

sort

philosophizingmay
was

and

ought

intended, i.e.,whatever

purpose.2

"

the

power

dung-cart

its

answers

knows

held

his doctrine
of
corollary,
with
tes
Socrabeauty is scarcelymore
for what
is also called goodness.
for
is adapted to the
purpose

term

was
a

he

some

is whatever

it

which

in

as

another

Beautiful

how

pointed

sufficient

was

ence
sci-

science.

know,

we

knows

Socratic

the

To

"

as

self

necessary

The

Beauty.

who

moral

conceptions rightlyapprehended

appended,

be

he

true

who

it

of this science

or

of

just:1 "justice

is

"

wisdom

he

the

science, but

Further, Socrates,

pious ;

observe

to

such

knowledge

virtue

the end

ethical

simply

held

Socrates

to

was

since

construct

not

it.

to

then,

he

they should apply the


getting of a knowledge

the

to

; and

nature

virtue, wisdom

the

that

moment

Wisdom,

of human
is

conceptions, and

correct

framing conceptions

of

art

63

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

the

cratic
So-

tes
Socra-

choice,

introducing the

Bk.

III. ch. 8.

64

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

of

problem

in

result

should

which

early Greek

and

"All

nature.

unsophisticated
of

like that

of

necessity,the
into

auguries

In

world's

thought.
of

science

of

in

nature

the

what,
must

auspices
them.

from

that

time

Socrates

stituted
in-

And
holds

it

his

of

in
be

the
is

abstract
cessity
ne-

philosophy
and

personal

agreement

with

impersonal

abstract.

"

Socrates

"

(art.by

W.

T.

Harris

in

is

place,

conclusion, the

account

with

subject,

from

dividual
in-

the

date

world's

the

relatively,that

much,

connection
of

any

he

in

rights

by institutingin

so

that

repeat

may

decision

manhood.

history of

presenting, in
so

did

true

'

without

growth

; he

man

moral

mankind

from

"

history."1

world's

the

we

of

with

undertaken

personal force
in

one,

Hence,

Socrates,

concrete

the

the

ing
ever-widen-

principle

personal

consciousness

high

very

of

civilizations ;

is the

without

their

of

region

consciousness

from

and

of

largelyas

very

impulse

Socrates, and

progress
the

the

Oriental

ante-Socratic

nothing being

"

of

epoch

is the

the

tions
concepreason

gradual discipline of

the

conscience

Individual
the

the

independent responsible wills, endowed


takes

or

and

long

in

the

Sophists,

universal

interest

individual

prescriptive ethics,

or

other

or

(to
for

fruitful

lies

wont,

chief

the

conscience.'

of

and

use

side, the

influence

him

beyond

and

of the

and

"

the

speculations of

nature,

later, about

Chinese

the

hither

the

on

definite

and,

man,

for

humanism

and

least

at

about

about

philosophers

or

"

a tendency
instituting

unfruitful

and

superficialsubjectivism
scientific

of

substitution

the

large extent) unscientific


the

and

self-knowledge

Johnson's Cyclopaedia).

and

65

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

"9Followers

The

that

expect

than

more

influence

the

under

Socrates.

of

of

It would

"

few

very

disciples and
into

three

classes
with

reproduced
doctrines
and

but

method

several

little

or

those

second,

special importance
Socrates's

teaching

rather, that
of

doctrines
other
of

thinkers,

Socrates,

Socratic

with

Socrates
and

form

the

so-called

namely

"

spirit
their

to

feature

one

and

of

third, those,

principles

principles and

first to
like

basis, something

and

Socratic

or,

and

doctrines

of

interpreting freely the

the

was

the

tributed
predilections,at-

the

combining

divided

Socratic

some

personality;

or

who,

one

to

thought

be

according

and

personal temperaments

ex-

(like Xenophon)

the

who,

came

immediate

may

modification

no

only incompletely

the

fact, the

who

first, those

who

to

understand

interpret
in

much

too

those

Socrates

of

successors

of
could

Socrates

perientiallyhis personality or
it ; and,
that
lay underneath

be

give

to

completeness

Of

Plato.

personality
philosophy, on a

the

have

we

content

class

second

Socratics, whom

Lesser

of

were

next

to

consider.

"
The

three

were

or

The

derived

der

the

Megarics,

from

in the

the

Socrates

three

very

there

distinct

philosophizing: the MegaCynics, and the Cyrenaics.

is in matters
and

of

the Socratic

detail based
Schools.

Hegel's interpretation
(which is

Vol. II.
Philosophic,

Socratics

Socratic

followingaccount

ler's account

Of the Lesser

"

schools, representing
in

tendencies
rians

Socratics}

Lesser

10.

the

largelyupon

Assistance

best) in

his

has

Zelbeen

Geschichte

66

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

The

Megarians,

their

the

place Megara

in which

the

school

children

"

46)

p.

of

ethical

in

the

and

only

the

that

of

Being

of

the

that

but

Being

Eleatic

rejected

is

of

the

the

like

been

the

From

positions

(e.g.A

consistent
Plato

Plato

"eristic";
to

the

with

rather

to

into

one

point

of

corrupt

Diodorus,

all.

are

to

"

the

identical

valid

words1

; but

of

we

name

seems

prop-

Stilpo
shall

synthesis.
of

applied by

general, "disputatious,

controversial, pugnacious, combative," and

Sophist,p.

logical

disagreeable phase
use

in

and,

method

into

under

principle

most

Sophist

The

identityis, as

no

the

became,

principal Megarians

only

man)

of

means

view, indeed, it

Stilpo,that
is

unlike

Cynics, Stilpo,said

disrepute

simple, abstract

it

by

degenerated

fell

not

them

of them

appears,

man

Being,

pure

of others

The

the

brilliant

it

was

of

Eubulides,

demonstrating,

This, however,
the

as

similar

was

means

explain

to

were

did

affirm, as
"

find

not

firming
reasoning by analogy,af-

superfluous.

most

Megarics,

to

and

Euclid

belongs

eristic."

was

ceived
con-

ontologicalentity,

method

Socratic

is

them

hair-splittingand
idle

and

Good,

logical counterpart

impossible

he

have

(see

Good, they declared,

explain things by

to

besides

to

Socrates

so

he

unless

Their

thinkers

tenaciouslydid Euclid, the founder


at
least, to the prinschool, cling,theoretically
ciple
and

Zeno,

that

"

is.

the
identity,

things

The

sense.

Good

These

the

purely abstract

of

them

termed

took

far from

very

dialectics

with

they

as

(not

subtlety of

themselves

reality,which

Megarians

flourished.

intellectual

the

occupied

"

The

"

from

name

Athens),

Megarics.

or

226.

if it served

68

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

affected

preference

of

(philosophy
the

adopted

view

of

individual

the

took

then

self.

of
The
a

Socratic

the

this

The

In

and
doctrine
of

manner

of

the

"He
beard

to

all diet
and

asceticism

the

in his

gestures."1

Lewes's

virtue)and

strained

conception

realization, to
of

the

the

their

to

up

of

the

The

fullest
vidual
indi-

abstract

Cynics

shabbiness

entious
consci-

were

of

not

"

dress, indecency

citizenship

"

and

of

carried

of

except

simplest ;
language

and

[was]

; careless

cynical and

stern,

Biographical History of Philosophy,

Laertius, Life of Antisthenes.

p.

virtue

his

renounced

reproachful,

indecent

famous

of

but

allowed

staff ;

and

"

Cynic

cloak

wallet

the

; but

Antisthe-

"positivism."

exemplar

all

religion. This,

supernaturalism

abstract

true

most

"

this

ideal,

abandonment

complete

garment
;

grow

but

bitter

no

wore

is

asceticism, unlovely,unhuman

pure

himself

was

nes

cally
techni-

or

therefore, in
practically,

family, state,

to

naturalism,"

"

is

live

superiorityto appetite.

for

"

to

almost

relation

naked

and

merely

as

life, mendicancy, vagrant

world,"

the

conception

conduct,

and

was

the

for its result

obviously,was

virtue

is the

attempted

had

concrete

it

Good

; and

dictum, All virtue

knowledge

of virtue

of

possible extent,
self.

of

entirely

valueless

inverted,

He

Socrates'

self-control

doctrine

Cynic

word

ideal

the

as

be

merely such,

it All

(making

knowledge

physics

ethics, the view, namely,

as

speaking, converted,

and

to

be

to

He

was.

logic

over

physics

isolated, empty
particular,

is

he

nature), holding logic

narrowest

treats

ethics

to

ethics, and

subsidiary to
that

such

Superficiallyspeaking,

Socratic.

of

178;

in his

the

also

Cyn-

Diogenes

ics, however,

scurrilous,witty,
of

Socrates,

the

palm

Sinope,

in

the

who

half

than

more

sleeping

"

scantilyclad, living on
from

of

Diogenes

was

69

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

wise,

ceited,
con-

ture
carica-

porticos, coarsely and


fare, drinking

rudest

hand, violatingall rules

of his

was

water

of

decency,
he whimsicallyconand
whomever
ceived
railingat whatever
dislike
deed
ina
admired, privileged"Dog"
to, an
!x
At
their best, however, the
Cynics undertook
teach and enforce by moral
benefactors
to be moral
: to
of simplicityin living,sincerity
suasion
the doctrines
and

life.

But

passed
to

in

candor

they

into

and

and

extremists,

were

rise

gave

value

paramount

those

to

of the

their

inner

doctrines

opposed
diametrically

them.

Cyrenaics.

The
but

"

step

form

to

the

characterizes

Cyrenaic

pleasure.
tippus

of that

considered

be

particular,individual

From

individual
particular,

to

which
in

speech, the

The

founder

the

of the

good

next

is found

happiness, or

as

Cyrenaic

the

it is

of abstraction

Socratics

Lesser

of

doctrine

pleasure,and

peculiar mode

the

will

school

Aris-

was

of

Cyrene (born 435 B.C.),who, notwithstanding


his appetite for luxury in living,
and
the abundance
of
his means
for gratifyingit (for he was
wealthy), was
his teachings, and
and
by Socrates
strongly attracted
became

Socrates's
of

midst
appears

disciple of

attractiveness

greatest

form

enthusiastic

an

of free
to

as

of easy

but

follows

The

in its

been
:

The

point

mastership
doctrine

origin and

happiness
1

Dioor

and

Lrxert.

of

doubtless,

was,

theory of self-control,not

indulgence.

have

Aristippus

to

practiceand

self-denial

his.

in the

of self in the

of the

Cyrenaics

development
virtue,or

the

stantially
sub-

good,

GREEK

JO
Whatever

coincide.
of

end

are

which
feelings,

individual

therefore,

knows

constitute

only feelings of

The

(logicand
The

in

with

is necessary

pains

of

pleasures. Again,

to

be

by

thought

pleasures

are

arrived

it

at

inferior

theory

of

those

from

beginning

weakness

that

namely,

of essential

Cyrenaics,
doctrines.

of true

in the

the
the

it appears,

nobilityof

idea

pleasures

of

the

that

least

be

that
The

and

times
some-

value

pleasures,

accompanied
bodily

mere

Cyrenaics

thus

shall

see,

as

we

Aristotle,

value

for

There

theories

of

want

synthesisand

more

the

of

which

than
mind

of the

had

that

is radically

the

other

even

wholeness.

was

life that

of

The

Socrates

lives

fairlywell
brilliant

; he

tJiat he

with

hence

of the
their

pleasure-seeker,

understood
had

same

Lesser

thought-basis,and

conformed

"

is here

philosophizing

Aristippus
was

that

thought-basis,only as regards basis,

appears
in

difference

balancing

kind.

Plato

lows
fol-

must

at

by thought.

Socratics, and
himself

view

Pleasures

hence

consequently as regards
determined

is

kind, and

happiness which,

of

from

This

there

discovered

and

The

primarily

and

determination

in

actions.

as
substantially

that

and

was

wisdom,

or

differed

he

is

fullydesirable, must

most

the

to

his

individual.

purchased by pain, and

be

of action.

pleasurablefeelings.

is untenable.

suck

pleasure as

degree

of

"

made

physics

only objects

pleasure,

the,

sole

feelings,which,

own

are

which

discoverywas

pleasures

among

but

of

development

"

end

is the

good,
"

underwent

sole
worth

bodily pleasure,

the

his

that, the

to

the sole end

are

only
the

absolute

virtue, the

Hence

and

conduce

not

existence, is worthless

human

knowledge

Each

of

does

completely subsidiaryto ethics).

are

of

PHILOSOPHY.

felt in

something
Socrates,

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

he

and
"

how

to

passions

and

of human

of life."1

events

Cyrenaic

doctrine

began

satisfaction,for

renounced,

theoretically at

step, affirmed
avoid

to

endure

or

pain

According
the

desire, was
is said

active

possible

pursuit

as

"

the

Lesser

has

already been

further
the

culture

schools
seen

See

to

have

above,

p.

the

effort

an

in the

of

attitude

58, for

human

tive
posi-

mind.

He

treated
reAnniceris, finally,

attention

due

He

to

seems

be

not

have

of

character

accounts

that

Aristotle, and

close

similar

To

the

which

connection.

statement

gence
intelli-

assigned only

the

dwelt

all

to

recognized

even

of desirable

philosophy, with
very

find

to

beyond

as

happiness.

true

scale

need

of Plato,
of

than

things.
doctrines

of

here.

It

upon

pretty fullyindicated, and

elucidation

Cyrenaic doctrine, advocating

he

general

he

a strugresignation,
gle

him, indifference, not

to

Socratics

doctrines

rather

enjoyment.

means

The

in

pleasure and

secondary position in
Result.

be

mental

or
a

of

sources

self-sacrifice

of

of which

Hegesias, advancing

suicide.

earlier

fourth

least, family, country, the

philosophic

the

later the

close of the

regarded

to

committed

have

to

towards
the

he

best

development.

attainment

consist

to

positivepleasure,which
attainment.

the

all else.

happiness

govern

the

century

midst

of private
self-sufficiency

the

intellectual

to

make

to

(near the

affirmed

popular religion,and

in the

still further

Theodorus

century B.C.),who

how

know

to

as

affairs,how

Nearly

underwent

with

far

so

composure

inclinations,and

of all the

This

and

calmness

preserve

it

possessed

perpetual change

of the
his

have

to

appears

J\

are

will

receive

follow

to

of

lian
post-Aristotelast

they
We

will

there-

concerning Socrates.

72

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

fore

pass

ator

of the

at

Plato, who

to

once

philosophy of

Plato.

^Egina,

at

the

427

year

the

assimilated

poets, himself

of

who

were

those

"

name,

other

one

"

shine

however,

the

that

find

in

of the

good

has
of

in
a

of very

of

Plato
a

poetical

Plato's

decidedlyaristocratic

"

asks

he
been

of

came

sessed
pos-

youths,
conceive,

to

corrupt

At

of

perament,
tem-

predilections,

degenerating democracy

earlymanhood.

has

meditative

and

in the

he

eyes

of Athenian

is difficult

that

son

the

have

may

of

Before

the

From

as

in

was,

paragon.
he

of

him

anything congenial
and

that

represents

Socrates

youth

is

What

Socrates.

that

Greece.

only

soul," says

politicians. It
a

in

if

short,

education

dialogue

paragon,

ordinaryambition

then

in

was,

speaking

Plato's

"

which

of

; he

Socrates,

noble

truth

tragedies,

great teachers

such

appear

among

degenerated

Athens

the

addition."

one

and
could

of

was

never

influence

the

elements

afforded.

and
gifts,spirit,

fine

Socrates, just such

by
to

of

exclaims

it would

his master,
under

for universal

!"

If he

all accounts,

educational

and
dithyrambics,lyrics,

delight

slight

Critias.

Apollo,

parts and

aristocratic

lived

he

or

probably in

name,

in which

the

best

Athens,

at

wealthy and
the
highest

age

youth Charmides,
there

same

brilliant

youths

the

beautiful

the

of

was

either

born

received

some

Heracles

By

"

He

clear eye

one

of

ii.

possessed unquestionable poetical talent,

written

had

and

island

doubtless

advantages

having

was

B.C.

family, and
He

the

on

Plato

"

continu-

truest

Socrates.

"
Life of

the

was

politicsof

such

as

all events,

ruled

his

mind

was,

fixed

upon

clitus, if

himself

world

discipleuntil
or

nine

had

as

His

years.

the

and

death

the
the

of

long

that

before

At
his
to

Socrates,

many

years

Socrates

is

of

eight
have

must

of

new

ones,

in

"

brief,a

known.

he travelled

and

to

there

of

companion,
not

After

of
hostility

the

Megara,

to

of

age

ing
already exist-

of

escape

with

all his faculties.

went

there

period

manhood

to

least

at

and

Euclid.

It is certain

Cyrene, in Africa,

Italy,and to Sicily. Probably he visited Egypt also.


Syracuse,Sicily,the tyrant Dionysius,who thought
doctrines

impracticable, "senile,"

get rid of him, treated

delivered
him

of

remained

he

of

ideal

an

strengtheningof

pupil, or

How

to

of

he

devoted

and

awakening

Socrates, Plato,

persecutors

became

with

appetites,and

and

out

master,

intensification

an

implanting

drawing

the

intercourse

consequences

intellectual

of

death

the

the

at

modest

and

"

seclusion

Socrates

to

Hera-

intercourse

of active

one

remained

he

twenty,

or

philosophers

comparative

large. Coming

at

nineteen

than

rather

contemplation
the

life of

already studied

earlier

the

of

others

Socrates, permanently

had

"

for

chose

with

by his intercourse
philosophy he

not

73

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

him

to

as

slave

of

market

anxious

was

prisoner of

Spartan ambassador,

for sale in the

him

and

"

who

yEgina.

and

war,

exposed
Ransomed

to his native
by Anniceris, a Cyrenian, he thence returned
city." Through his travels his views of life and
edge
expanded, and he acquired a fuller knowlsocietywere

of mathematics
and

ethical

account

in

regime
any

view

theories.

earlier,he

was

and
"

of the

facts
of

the

Pythagorean philosophy

that

must

development

taken

be
of

his

By the year 387 or 384 B.C.,


teaching and writing at Athens,

into

sophical
philoif not

where

74

GREEK

founded

had

he

of

place

devotion

culture

instruction

"

given,
of

form, because

contact

and

method

he

Socratic

in

the

But

the

to

his

to

which

was

his

fear

the

of the

with

enjoyment

his

theories, and

the

year

Syracuse, Sicily,instructing
by

that

the

city,in

theories
far

of
a

to

third

and

truly

from

being

the

in the

the

eighty, with

character.

Athens,

had

in

portunit
ophis

him

in

Dionysius,

become

ruler

common

had

Even

of

But

ever
what-

with

other

the

appreciate
and, with

reconcile

earnest

Platonic

and

the

which

seems,

apply

exception

he

Dionysius

went

on

his

with

discipleof Plato,

devoted

phy
exclusivelyto teaching philoso-

He

and

his intellect
No

the

find

we

younger

died

in 347

undiminished,

powers

brilliancyof
his

the

to

man

of his life

by fellow-countrymen
of

B.C.

(about 361 B.C.)during

Academy.

feast.

practicable,"Dionysius,it

journey to Sicilyto

remainder

367

had

failed.

an

un-

intercourse

him

afford

not

not

occasional

an

this

seeing philosophy successfully

to

brother-in-law, Dion,

also

was

politicalphilosophy.

of

"

returned

preference for

he

father,

have

may

been

interval

an

his

government,

Plato

them.

ethical

philosophers

applied

was

of

Plato

hopes
ancient

death

personal

upon

practicalapplicationof

for the

about

his

life did

purely scholastic
desired

set

in

would

discourse

he

pupils of

oral

mostly

was

instruction,social

with

combining

The

complete.

written

Socratic;

true

avowedly

"

been

In

the

tion
sophistic,instruc-

to

value

livingword.

was

he

who,

school

free,

that

called

gymnasium

have

seems

misinterpreted,and

and

in

in contradiction
scientific,

and

be

school

His

Academy.

PHILOSOPHY.

and

at

b.c

the

reverenced

by foreigners for

the

loftiness

and

and

the

age

philosopher,either

of

of

both
ing
exceed-

beauty

ancient

or

j6

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

determined
The

most

these

the
Those

the

another

latter.

dialogues
one

class

dialectic

or

of

death

the

of

see

fit to

adopt

According
divided

be

may

The

first,

and

manner,

of

cheerfulness

form,

dryness,

and

been

first ; while

in

from

and

he
the

receives

ler agrees
pp.
Zeller

and

acquired
fusion

the

of

the

the

Meg-

of Plato's

time

is,on

the

and

ness
ful-

freshness

other, Plato's

the

of all the
his

horizon

has

deepest

Hermann;

Academy,
see

his

pp.

the

103,

get the

we

in which

two

theories

of

the

with

noted

17-1 19.

its
tain
cer-

in

Schweg-

History of Philosophy,

Practically the

is of little consequence

attains

indications

104 ; also pp.

most

Socratic

the
thus

and

certain

Handbook

(Stirling'stranslation).
here

elements

content

and

the

Pythagorean philosophy,

system,

Combining

with

Schwegler

the

criticism

especiallyby

the Older

62-67

searching

and

and

Plato

liveliness, less

foreign countries,

considerations

minor

less

Megarian period,

ideal."1

highest

damental
fun-

the

the

the

perfect exposition of
form

the

class is

period,there

to

the

on

into

polemical) of

third

return

protreptic

second

occupied

the

inquiriesof

enlarged by

knowledge

In

style,a

to

as

residence

by

of

The

that

by

philosophy which

of the

classes.

entirely to

deeper

no

(sometimes approving, sometimes


Megara.

and

almost

yet go

as

distinguished by greater

hand,

of Hermann,

Socrates, in part, immediately after,have

questions of philosophy.

one

seem,

written, in part, before

"

themselves

in

would

third, expository

character, confine

sojourn

mean

elementary,

the

exclusivelyelenchtic

aro-Eleatic

three

or

fragmentary, more
Socratic

mind."

theory

into

Socratic,

"

are

the

to

mediatizing, of

constructive."

or

Plato's

hypotheses, inclining,it

two

toward

of

growth

authorities

recent

between
rather

"natural

the

by

to any

difference
but

the

between

specialist.

GREEK

JJ

PHILOSOPHY.

study of the dialogues themselves,


substantiallythe following groups : I

the

Lysis, Charmides, Laches,

Lesser

Parmenides,

Hippias,

Thecetetus,Sophist,
Philebus

PJicedo,

Symposium,

(transitional)
; 3. Republic, Timceus, Critias,Laws.
places-of Euthy

Alcibiades, Mencxenus
In

in

contained

purely

then,

first group,

the

the

foregoing,
doctrines

Socratic
for

historical

the

and

of

dialogues being

look
in

out

for

the

Socrates, the

ethical ; in the

is

little what

must

we

"

wrought

manner,

these

expand

to

"

First

spurious.1

considered

Zeller

by

are

The

uncertain.

Cratylns are

and

dermis

at

ogy,
Protagoras, Eutkyphro, Apol-

Crito; 2. Phcedrus, Gorgias,Meno,


Statesman,

arrives

Zeller

the

Socratic
substance

second

is

group

of
theory of Ideas,
conceptions and the corresponding archetypal entities ;
the theory of
in the third group
are
contained, besides
be found

to

dialectic

that

he

science, the

as

of

and

state

(for

the

"

theories

of

dialectic

theory

of

applied

knowledge),
soul and

the

of

the

theory of

soul).

good),
The

It should
chief

the
and

be

Parmenides
as

Theory

noted

among
and

the

Timceus

student

will

them

Henry

the

Philebus

Ideas.

1882.)

See

and

below,

p.

and

R.

D.

the very

among

latest form
112.

and

lebus
state),Phi-

infinite,of
nature

English authorities

Jackson
as

Phcedrus

disappointed if

be

certain

containing, therefore, the


of

finite

ethics),

Ideas),Republic

(forthe theory of

that

all

find

to

of the

(forthe theory of Ideas, of virtue, and


and

will

the

of

Apology (fora picture of Socrates),

(forthe theory of

(forthe

virtue,

student

general

Socratic

(for the

Theatetus

The

nature.

requiresin

Protagoras
Phcedo

Platonic

the
principally

at

he

the

and

present

latest of Plato's

(See Journal

the
to

expect

Archer-Hind,

of Plato's

Ideas

ment,
mo-

regard
works

leading thought,

the

bridge,
of Philology, Cam-

y8

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

at every
dogmatic conclusions
step
believed
thoroughly in keeping the mind

in Plato.

find

in every

questions
dialogues

Platonic

the
As

symphony

Plato's

philosophy is,in

dialogues

but, if rightlyread, is

illustration

when

pause.

wise

reader

will

Aristotle

in

metaphors

prosaic.

too

in

places,steeped

remarks

reach

we

and

^philosophical

not

real

temper

of

poetry,

receive
his

and

of

account

on

pointed
criticisms

Plato.

upon

Plato

General

certain

beauty

"

state.1

And

it is

is

alone

the

and

they

of

Idea
as

the

scarcelytell

Phcedrus, p.

all."2

shadows

of

recollection,
of

in

from

that

"true

pre-existent

superficialthing

no

of

God,

the
the

soul

as

soul's

from

be

mortal
im-

an

return

represented

"in

whom

is

Not, indeed, that


for

to

in

God

alone

is

among
no

dark

wise,

realities.

den, where
The

Theatetus, p. 176; Phccdo,p. 82.

ascent

righteousness
un-

pher
philoso-

any

and

discerned.3
difficulty

is with

confined

249.

is

Good

like

become

Good

it were,

vision

essence

perfectwisdom,
the

"

the

earth,"

prophecy

of

Idea

at

has

phy,
Philoso-

"

enjoyment of eternal reality. This


about
by philosophy. By philosophy

and

brought

can

soul had

very

by

of

madness

"

the

caused

"beauty

the

from

knowledge

return

the

this

being

men

of

of which

springs

the

madness"

"divine

sight

the

Conception of Philosophy.

Plato, speaking half-allegorically,


springs

says

finding

in

several

movements

dialogues,the

many

of these

force

The

that.

are,

the

abound

the

it

without

"

which

at

several

say,

trying

read

may

guard against treating the myths

will

to

so

styleof

external

the

to

through,

go

"

One

possible way.

and

open

Plato

the
Men

they
to

can

the

Phcedrus, p. 278.

GREEK

79

PHILOSOPHY.
/

world

upper

last.

Good

is

in the

last of

seen

first is

The

opinion ;
third

is

unexamined

the

Now
of

course

The

at

germ,

is in

"

unproved

completely

or

which

in

stage is reached

madness

realityonly

certain

science,

is

there
or

are

no

eses.2
hypoth-

only through

described

be

may

is

what

or

presuppositions

disciplinewhich

divine

"

last

reason," i.e.,

understanding,

is

unfounded

or

apprehended.1

without

"

knowledge, knowledge

reasoned

stages,

second, right opinion,or

fourth

the

four

the

the

science, though it
commonly termed
it rests
because
on
^z/tf.rz-scientific,

presuppositions;

are

of

real truth

however,

; the

is unscientific

Idea

the

which, only,is
mere

the

there

this ascent

In

belief, which,

true

and
difficult,

and

is slow

being presupposed

as

follows.

to

exist,in

especiallyin certain
therefore, embryo philosophers,there

least, in all minds,

ones

who

must,

in the

first

This

must

are,

place,be

rightopinion

"

"

engrafted

"

"

by trainingin gymnastics
and
music,
gymnastics for the body and music for the
soul.
here
as
(Music is to be understood
including
of
poetry.) He who has received this true education
the inner
being will most
shrewdly perceive omissions
it.

on

be

but

done

"

"

or

faults in art

and

he

praises and

rejoices over

the

good,

and

hate

before
reason

friend

he

noble

the

now

is able

with

to

he

comes,

familiar."

becomes

bad,

whom
The

Republic,p. 517.

and

nature,

know
will

his

he
of

days

education

and

has

education3

Ibid.,pp. 511

and

into

will
his

of the

reason

recognize

taste, while

true

receives

good,

the

the

gymnastic
2

and

and
in

with

533.

his

soul

justlyblame
youth
thing

even

when

her

salute

him

made

supplements

as

long
the

Ibid.,p. 402.

80

GREEK

with

musical
both

animal

there

must

"

to

strength

rise out

Such

thought,

and

of

the

of

method

form

however,

is but

"prelude"

the

step from

semi-sensuous,
"as

but

never

is

It
with
the

which

hand-maids

but

been

her

in the

to

work

and

in

p.

some

opinion

than

this

Republic,

have

to

our

525.

defect

of

is that

it is
it

being,

eses
hypoth-

which,

of

as

we

being

true

about

"

being,

waking

realityso long
turbed,
they use, undis-

which

alone

which
them
in

; and

uses

sciences

we

sciences,

implying

clearness

sketch

of

eye

she

name,

less

away

outlandish

them

other

previous

; the

the

terms

and

does

some

upward

them."2

of

account

any

of conversion
Custom

of

with

dream

establish

look

strain

mere

arts,

buried
literally

discussing.

greater clearness
;

to

taught

they ought

science

dialectic

order

is

give

to

and

hypotheses in
soul,

have

hypotheses

unable

"dialectic

slough, is by
as

the

are

principles are

the

training,

the

compared

they only

"

behold

they

leave
and

like

with

correctly,but

apprehension

some

the

can

they

as

Such

"actual

reasons

mathematical

the

and

geometry

the

vision

"

mind

geometry)

is, as

its first

saying,have

were

which

and

to

It

sense.

that

about

reasons

and

true

like scientific

Philosophicallyspeaking,

arithmetic
(i.e.,

half

the

"right opinion."
to

of

the

towards

give something

its

mathematics
a

it to

soul

the

harmony, unity

; it furnishes

validityto

philosophy."1
but

"

Good

place,

lay hold

measure,

in its results

tends
the

and

change

spirit,

second

enable

training to

of

sea

enables

and

and

But, in the

training gives

to

the

and

firmness, courage

mathematical

of

Idea

and

mental.

and
be

being."

PHILOSOPHY.

was

Ibid., p. 533.

than
called

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

understanding."1 Dialectic,then, is the highest science,


The
sciences.
the "coping-stone" of the
preparation
the
kind, and demands
requiredfor it is of the severest
minds.
steadiest
unwearied,
Only the
strongest and
"

solid

who

man,"

loves

labor, has
should

morally whole

and

sound,

in

be

undertaken

fact,cannot

and

moral

the

best

given

remaining
given

of

The

years

of

into

his task

it.1

in

distinct

and

attempt

any
the

affairs

is Plato's

of
the
be

general

what

something

like

General

their
makes

division

he

than
to

saw

of

had

analysis.

the

held

strands

in

for

whole.

complete

had

of

be

philosophy became
a

tions.
Rela-

Circumstances

parts.

earlier thinkers

hands

tion,
separathe

first

such

But

in his syncontained
virtually
thesis,
and was
made
actual by a pupil of his, Xenocrates.
parts recognizable in Plato's philosophy,are, then,
or

Dialectic,

analysiswas

the

theory

of

thought

Physics,the theory of nature,


the

be

must

by philosophy);
after fiftyare
to

synthesis rather

of

one

his

division

it to

Such

formally

gathered together

and

The

life

nowhere

philosophy which

time

man's

only by

years

of it before

ruled

of

then

Five

be

of Philosophy

Plato

had

Sophistic culture

philosophy.

philosophy
He

of

pursuit

Divisions
"

made

mastery

is to

state

the

to

notion

bodies.

dialectic,

of intellectual

even

practical application of

(forthe

state

thirty,and

best

theoretical

the

to

of

age

in the

minds

make

to

the

it ;

risk
the

as

is

memory,

undertake

without

disintegration(such

fosters)until

good

Good.

Now

Republic,

of

p. 533.

these

and

being,

Ethics,

and

the

as

such,

theory of

parts dialectic is highest, the

md^

pp. 535-540.

82

"

"

coping-stone

it furnishes

and
of

the

to

Plato

Socratic

described

of

being
held

with

in

form

of

the

of

being
It

being.

method
in

and,

the

getting

we

may

say

action, though Plato

if at

all,in this

Dialectic
As

way

as

science

in which

In

of

the

speech,

of

the

of sense,
trine
doc-

exists

only
definite, unchanging
of which

that

sense

universal.

science

of

knowledge,

also, of the

edge
Knowldialectic

the

is
and

science

of

hence

and

science

the

use

had

knowledge

of

application

there

Heraclitus

as

and

not

the

Plato, in other

correlative, and

does

the

of

Eleatic

knowledge

of

of

of

is

of

being

frequently,

term

sense.

Theory of Knowledge

of

knowledge

true

in their
method.

world

thus

is also

in the

knowledge

that

science, the

twofold

things

unchangeable.

being, one

are

of

of

influence, in

the

flux

Eleatics, that

the

it,but

characterized

the

result

repelling,force

conception,

is not

knowledge

hence

under

eternal

Socrates

notion, and, with

and

and

sciences

dialectic

natural

negative, or

one

as

words,
the

the

as

of the

doctrine

edge
knowl-

are

The

"

positive,or attracting,force

the
of

the

truth.

absolute

sciences

Science.

conception developed
mind,

of

ideal

of

tent
con-

cognoscibilityand
"participates" in that true

it

as

and

has

and

Twofold

be

Heraclitic
and

as

may

Plato's

all other

far

realityonly in so
being.
supreme
Dialectic

science

it is the

is derivative

that

method

parts the

other

being, whereas

being

both

regards

as

purest form

its

In

is

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

conceptions
relations.

its lowest
art

it is

of

form

But

are

formed

this

and

as

Method.

account

true

dialectic

developing

and

way

and

"

of
of

the
ceptions
con-

is dialectic

as

simply the art


expressing clearly
is

84

GREEK

is that

truth

thought

The

follow

; the

If I

"

and

Plato

but

of

Induction

definition

of

the

relations

small

which

this

of

of

were

method

is the

; and

their

just

as

Dialectic

verifies

whole

the

be
of

ble
possi-

or

throws
over-

"

defined.

should

you

is to

The

difference

of

and

is,of

consequences

division

the

real

to

is, as

investigation

In

"

Eleatic

course,

shall

we

in
the

are

dialectic

see,

of

conceptions

the

then,

thought

Plato,
1

and

the

cursor
pre-

arrived

at

logic.

method,

have

we

being, and

possible for

conviction

permanent

is

System.

Being.

dialectic

in

opposite hypotheses

following out

described

the

through

of

method
method

clip off

findingclasses.

all the

This

in

With

not

cut

of

likelyway

more

Aristotelian

as

Thought

appeared

way"

That

have

is to

must

hypothesis or

principle makes

in

of the

the

him

conclusive

"downward
a

ture."
na-

God."

hypothesis whose
consequences
probable is the truer
hypothesis. The

most

"

knowledge,

science

the

that,

final and

safe way

the
.

inquiry."1

consists

origin.

we

of

says,

dichotomy.

as

comparing

by

"

; division

of

parts
Plato

this

to

process

known

the

piece

Attention

whole

do

if he

way

method

pluralityin

can

suggests

some

division

to

and

ceptions
con-

hypothesis by exhibiting distinctlyand

middle, and

who

not

division,

is the

knowledge

unity

upward

"

by

knowledge.

too

the

conceptions and

footsteps as

insight but

supplemented

regard

"

in

tentative, suggestive,not

begetter

their

of

man

any

in his

induction,

of

"

find

walk

given

method

seeing

Now

is

knowledge

only.
of

PHILOSOPHY.

not

Statesman,

only
262

as

us.

knowledge, i.e.,
the

only

That

consequence

Sophist,throughout.

real

or

this is true
of

the

synthesisof
The

divine

"

"

natures

the

but

and

than

state

being

of

are

of

organs

considerations

madness"

that

soul's

present,

in the

even

soul

the

but

sense,

of

cognitions,not

are

in which

existence

being. Finally,we cannot


suppose
anything absolutelyout of relation to us,
be out of
who, if anything,would
case, God
since

should

we

absolute, could

is

he

constitute

all of which

is

absolute

an

absurd,

know

not

thing,
some-

such,

as

that

is

there

for in

such

relation

and

us

the

not

sense

of

but

is

source

through them,

of

world

the

thought

cognitions of

be

be
of

Again, the

working

must

genuous
"in-

upon

knowledge

state

present

lowing
fol-

philosophy,can

to

innate

being

the

as

seizes

immediately one.

cognitions,which

our

them

impels
the

the

more

knowledge

and

of

working

higher

and

of

doctrines

such

from

but

knowledge

and

Socratic

and

Eleatic

the

85

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

to

us,

world

our

being by ourselves,

"

"monstrous."1

if this

But

be

true, being is
of

being

being

since thought as the thought


intelligent,
(by virtue of the unity of thought and being)

is

far

so

it

as

(being) is capable

Being, therefore, thinks


The
of

World

being

that

we

absolute

as

can

of Ideas.
know

it)we

with

the

75;

determine, then,

conceptions

nature

but

Phadrus,

p. 245;

and

have

it follows

many

or

in

number

classes

of

being

are

each
that

also.

Thecetetus,pp.

Parttienides,132-135.

it is

determine

must

types

thought

as

place in thought,

To

object of thought (and

an

Now

in

"

being thought.

intelligent.

conceptions. These,

correspond
absolute

is

or

of

the

nature

such

only as
what
and

the

are

nature,
tence.
exis-

phenomenal
one,

and

as

separate character

being

Being

as

is not
one

184, 185, 203-209;

and

merely
in

many

Phcedo,

the

pp.

one

is

74,

86

GREEK

termed
far

Plato

by

as

we

the

certain
of

definite

into

of

out

in,

classes

of

or

which

with,
in

promiscuously, but
The

of

ideas

other

in each

being.2

in
is

being

embracing

mind,

it

in

remain

to

"

being

to

not-being

is the

which

organism
(the

end

of all

element

is

Phccdo, pp. 78-103.

The

and

Sophist,pp. 247-250,

Translated

change,

is but

the

ways.

not

ticipate
par-

is

and

not-

all-inclusive,

devoid

of

of

not

merely.

Ideas

life

and

and

ture."
fix-

something

In

general,then,

or

difference

together constitute

Idea

is treated

of

such:

not-being, i.e.,generation,

otherness

The

is not

is

the

Idea

of the

especiallyin

of

the

Good

the

herent
inan

Good

embraces

dialogues, Sophist,

Philebtis.

into

do

being

being

speak

governed by

of Ideas

communion

ever,
Not, how-

unmeaningness

we

of

The

things).

Parmenides,

But

awful

different

but

being.4

in

pate"
partici-

"

cognizable

of

be

to

motion, variety,etc.,

opposed

Ideas

Being

speaking, therefore,

In

ing
fleet-

are

through participation
indirectly,

follows.

as

contrast

generation

other.

communion

conceive

and

the

each

emptiness."

fixed

cannot

we

admit

"

As

not-being, unless, indeed, being

even

and

"pure

held,

certain

except
The

explained

sharp

motion, for example,

and

rest

tences,
exis-

distinct,

are

in

are

But

sponding
corre-

Ideas.

Ideas

opposites,

"commune"

or

then,

are,

Heraclitus

another."

one

(etBr)).So

phenomenal

the

they

as

their

Ideas

noumenal

are

in this

into

pass

or

there

knowledge,
1

of

beings,

entities,which

sense-natures,
and

World

or

of

types

fixed, independent
with

Idea

speak

can

to

objects

the

PHILOSOPHY.

modern

257, 259.

phraseology,

the
self-affirmation,

this

means

self-identification

that

all motion,

of the

Eternal.

all

"

"

(which is definite
definit
inknowable) and "pleasure" (which is relatively
of the
and unknowable) together with the cause
itself

within
and

"

87

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

mixture,"

"mixture

soul.

or

; and

concrete

is

The

the

as

of

is thus

Good

causal

only
of the

soul, the Idea

mind

"

is

as

Of

well
as

right or

not

the

of the

Idea

with

only knows

of

author

and

things

of

light in
in

but, whether

all the

world

of

last of all and

beautiful
this

to

and

world,

other

which

would

"Whether

true

or

knowledge
is

be

only

seen

the

sal
univer-

right,parent

and

the

is the

this

of

source

first

of

great

either in public
rationally
behold."3
in privatelife must
is
Good
or
Again, "the
not
only the author of knowledge in all things known
in all things visible"]
but of
[as the sun is of "visibility
their being and
is not
essence
essence,
yet the Good
in
essence
[mere being ?] but exceeds
dignity and
As
the supreme
Idea
is an
power."4
intelligentand
it must, as
those
below
intelligible
partaking in
power,
it,also be intelligentand intelligible
(Being,
powers.
indeed, is simply power.5) The realm of Ideas is,then,
eternal
a spiritual
kingdom : an independent, self-existent,
beings.6
community of intelligent
cause

he who

the

says

is inferred

seen,

all

reason

in

appears

when

lord

lightand

that

Good

effort,and

truth

God

he

further

beauty,symmetry,
"causality."2

measure,

Idea

verse
uni-

gent
intelli-

is

Good

"pleasure," and

the supreme

opinion is

false,my

including

as

"mind,"

as

Good

the

am

Plato

by

the

concrete,

The

(and intelligible)
power.
described

principlein

Good

but

abstract

not

Philebus, p. 27.

Republic, pp. 508, 509.

There

Plato

to

the Ideas

are

be

no

Ibid.,pp. 61, 63, 65, 67.

seems

act

See

p.

real warrant

merely thoughts

506.
for
in the

Sophist,pp. 247, 248.

affirming (as
"

mind

"

Republic,p. 517.
some

of God.

do)

that

to

88

GREEK

Relation

PHILOSOPHY.

the Ideal,

of

the

to

Phenomenal,

World.

In

"

is

Plato's answer
to
a
virtuallycontained
is the
relation
question that now
naturallyarises, What
of the
world
of
Ideas
the
to
phenomenal world ? to
given
knowledge and objects of knowledge in the world
?
The
to us
answer
is, in general terms, as follows :
"That
which
imparts truth to the object and knowledge
have
the
Idea
to the
term
subject is what I would
you
will regard as
of the Good, and
that
the
of
cause
you
science
truth as known
But
and
to
speak parby us."
ticularly
the

foregoing

of Ideas
It is

of

the

of

presence

human

to

the

whether

knowledge,

scientific

it be

in

that

us

capable

so,

comprehension

idea

The

understanding.

common

knowledge.

Idea

self -moving, self -identifying,


~and

are

we

virtue

by

related

as

the

as

of
or

and

source

possible for us
synthesisof cognition and being, makes
by its working in us the true thought of reality. For
ments
elePlato, consequently, knowledge
possessed certain
failed

Eleatics

but

anything

earlier

recognized by

not

and

find

to

in

Plato

"opinion";

of

cognition

our

posited philosophically(and
the

knowledge

the

Lesser
are

and
real

rise
that
to

the

Socratics

"

of

of

valid.
thus

real

in

affirmed
Plato

showed

phenomena

declaring things

them

the

was

the
that

be

to

of

first who

only
a

"

selves,
them-

the

Idea,

did

phenomenal.

discovered

the

of

cognition

our

The

philosophers.

Again,

identical

sitions
propo-

principle of

and
possibility

the

so)

thesis,
syn-

necessity

did not
entirely
Thirdly, Socrates
notion
above
the
of merely correct
conceptions to
of ontologicallytrue
conceptions, was
sceptical as

the

attain

judgments.

possibilityof absolute
to a pure
metaphysics.

science, hence
Plato

did

this

did
in

not

positing

Idea

the

doing, he

so

of

fountain

the

as

knowledge
and

content

new

gave

89

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

and

being.

In

new

method

to

of philosophy is not
content
philosophy. The
entity termed
by the Eleatics Being,
purely phenomenal world, which the Sophists

knowable

only in individual
individual
conception,

in
the

world

of

Ideas,

manifestation

in

world
the

the

itself and

Again,

its

these,
and

the

nomenal
phe-

in
cognoscibility

and

the

only

effect

world, and

source

from

declared

of

having

as

phenomenal

having

as

Ideal world.

in

concretion

the

stract
abthe

nor

Socrates

sensation, and
but

the

fact that

the

is the

Idea

of

knowledge and being, it follows that the true


method
or
way,"
"way" of knowledge is the "downward
induction
being but an eye-opener,
merely a condition
of nascent
or
incipient insight. Dialectic, then, is in
the last analysis,
of our
not
thinking
merely the method
source

and

theory of

our

Idea

the

and

"downward

the

Idea,

Ideal

and

is also

but

theory of

it is not

way,"

is universal

Idea

the

not

mere

to

be

of

method

the

as

the

division,but, since

the

the

And

Idea.

absolutelydivided

"

also

place for the "unity of opposites."


synthesis; it makes
But, secondly,as to the relation of the Ideas to the world
sensible phenomena, the Ideas
conceived
are
of objective,
by Plato, not
only as causes,1 but as archetypes of
things,the eternal patterns to which the artificer of the
world
is

looks

in

framing

self-existent and

"participate" in
1

pp.

world.2

independent

Ideas

or

are

Phcedo, p. 75; Phcedrus, p. 95; Zellers


262, 268.
Schwegler's Handbook
of

trans.),
p.
2

the

79.

Parmenides,

p. 132 ;

Timceus,

p. 28.

The
;

phenomenal

"imitations"

Plato
the

of

world

and

Hist,

objects
of

the Older

of

Philos.

Ideas

them.

Academy,

(Stirling's

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

90
The
not

have

to

himself

of this

nature

exact

been

this

at

Plato

explained by

those

(orto

or
imitation,
participation,

coming

after

to
quite satisfactorily

fact,Plato

In

him).

unsolved

certain

point

of

the

of

source

in

us

and

the

existence

used

to

difficulties

These

the

against

world,

phenomenal

things

were

afterwards

participatingin Ideas, phenomenal


of

Ideas.

of

instead

being uncreated, fixed, and

nature,

noscible, is created, changing,

and

an

of

or

out

Though
but

are

this

Why

in

theory

knowledge
pointed

objects

explained
of

the

of

be

they

Aristotle.2

theory by

representations

entirely

are
can

or

his

modification

how

other

ognized
rec-

in

difficulties

a
theory of Ideas, and was impelled towards
of the theory.1 For
example, if the Ideas

independent

seems

is

perfect
imis

so,

that

which,

scientifically
cog-

object of

"

opinion

"

"sense."

and

the

Physics, or
The

Method

"

to

us,

of nature

it is necessary,

remember

that, owing

pertaining to things
speculating
the

rule

Heraclitus's

view

of
of

but

shared,

cannot,

with

See

Parmenides,

and

below,

p.

'*

must
some

Timatus,

pp.

observe

extent,

as

kind

of

pardonable
far

from

112.

pp.

32-135;

5.
3

in

dialectic

perhaps praiseworthy indulgence, though

all,Plato

contingency
we

to

sophical
philo-

physical speculation,(as well as


the
mutabilityof all phenomenal

things),regarding it,however,
and

the

things, proceed

certainty of method,

distrust

to

the

first of

changing,

and

probability."3 Plato

of

Socrates's

created

such

upon

and

exactness

In

of Physical Speculation.

study
reminds

Theory of Nature.

28,

29,

48.

Aristotle's

Metaphysics, Bk.

XIII.

chs.

GREEK

92
of

proportions
soul

The

he

"

PHILOSOPHY.

and

"

formed

smooth,

prior in

perfectlyspherical.

even,

time

and

excellence

the

to

of it." 2
The
world
body to be the "ruler and mistress
is, accordingly,a "blessed
god," not eternal, indeed, but
an
image of eternityand a perfect whole, indissoluble
Time
and
the world,
except by the hand of the Creator.
created

according
into

the

to

planets, all
is

and
in

these

revolve

about

from
but

of all

nurse

which
a

way

portion of

the

things

nature"

divisible
is

by

eternal

"

perceived
2

spurious reason."
have

that

and

become,

the
of

of

occasion

It

phenomena.
to

father.3

It

may

child, and
is the

mean,

Timcetis, pp. 32, 34, 35, 38.

it

but

with

help

middle

of

real,
corpo-

which

"

sense

and

ena
phenomnegation

essence

than

to

of

active),and

the

not-being,or

or

the

in which

rather

source

corporeal substance

that

likened

being

space,

second

it is in its very

the

manner

hensible."
incompre-

and

first and

structible
inde-

extraordinary

an

essence

It is not

be

is most

the

relative

the

in

without

not-being (passive,however,

or

in

and

identify

the

of which

out

elements

"invisible, formless

indivisible

being

essence

and

for it is not

the

cal
spheri-

eternal

an

The

universe)

four

of

out

attains

to

seems

"

The

east.

and

of the

axis

"receptacle
and

of the

that

is fixed

and
intelligible,

the

Plato

"third

to

"motion"

being gods.

(which

generation," an
all

receives

and

created

were

is divided

and

stars

spindle or

west

somewhat,
the

souls

the

world

diversity"of

fixed

earth

the

pierced by

eternal

not

the

having

spiral courses

are

and

of

The

end.

"sameness

spheres, that

two

latter

without

together, are

mutability,

mother,

phenomena

term,

Ibid., pp. 51, 52.

between

nomena
pheto

phe-

Ibid., p. 50.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

and

nomena
"
"

Idea.1

the

matter"

fire

bodies,

much

six-faced

similar

of

more

is,

possible,
and

earth

eight-faced, water
All

(cubical).

character), it

this
be

must

Plato, only "probable"

to

necessity

merely geometrical

air

four-faced,

twenty-faced,earth

"

"

it makes

but

corporeal

being

of

Fire, air,water,

Idea.

consequently,not

are,

element

hinders, while

of the

manifestation

the

It is that

which

"

93

(and

bered,
remem-

conjectural

or

"

science.

not

and

Body
rest

imitating

"

These,

former.2
soul

man

the

(desire).

The

immortal,

or

and

former

by

the

and

in

desire

and

To

knowledge.
parts

these

See
Plato

Plato

the

not

an

is, of

It

participates

and

the

the

but

so-called
their

Of
to

the

is

The

of

often

animal,

in

trunk,

of

tion
inspira-

low

order

parts of the

soul

inter-connection

Timceus, section

the

the

also

very

the

rational

courage

portion
seat

obey

is too

which

head,

two

appetitive
to

soul, but

is the

evolutionist."

the

part has

tendencies.

being

Jowett's Introduction
"

soul

mortal

the

lower

faculties.

but

of

liver,which

prophecy,

the

The

in

the

of

the

selfsimple, self-identical,

naturallyinclined

is located

soul

of

part

himself.

that

its

man

type

immortal

appetitive part,
in

gods.

formed

lower

(courage)

is

vegetable,

the
particularly

not

"

spirited

rational,part

part of the

heart,

"

down

even

is

the
The

created

God,

God

is rational.

and

portions,

dragged

the

indestructible,

Idea

the

of

the

of
but

being

part, which

this

and

moving,

power"

the

of

portion

performed.

of

provided by

was

by

course,

himself

hands

the

"seed"

The

of

God

latter

animals, the

and

in

into

for that

much

which

given

was

Thus

"

creation

of

work

Soul.

3.

of
are

he

offers
with
the

In

Empedocles).
the

meets

eye

and

much

let

this

end,

us

that

"

of

akin

are

the

that

The

affirmed

of
in

the

There

is

which

and

fall from

between

not

exists

former

the

is

of

the

represented
Charioteer

symbolized,
"courage,"
horses

and

1
2

of

now
3

and

in the

its

there

is

state.

ours

of

The

body,

between

the

allegory

in

"Now

gods

certain

influence

which
the

on

reason,

breed, while

it in

degrading, the

Horses,

the

planted
im-

body ("the

well-known

appetite.3
of

"

perfect harmony

relation

The

hand,

one

charioteer
noble

be

into

entered

evil and

Winged

passion,and

or

regulate our

the

are

other,

winged

are

all of

them

are

mixed

; and

Timceus, pp. 45, 47.


There
the

and

the

the

noble, and

being

follows

and

on

and

takers
par-

imitate

might

soul, the

and

prison.
as

being

spiritual disease.

and

soul's

indeed, is the
two

latter

ignorance

contrary,

body

the

and

that

two

the

between

upon

of

cause

On

"

world-soul

the

perfect animal").

antagonism2

them

the

to

nobler, preexistent

the

between

gence
intelli-

unperturbed

body by necessity

of

consequence

of

[mutatis mutandis] may


soul was
hearing."1 The

same

speech

sight to

courses

of God

courses

"Thus

gave

of nature,

computations

true

vagaries.

the

result

senses.

and

(as

fire from

is the

the

the

learning

we,

absolutelyunerring

own

behold

them,

to

of

invented

God

might

we

; and

perturbed

that

say

noblest

like

by

the

vision

fire,and

the

are

like

sight,for example,

external

hearing

which

the

is of

explanation. Perception

no

Sight

is

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

94

is

certain

Timceus

on

discrepancy

this

point.

given.
Phcedrus, pp.

246-255.

The

between
Phcedrus

the

accounts

has

been

of

the

followed

Phcedrus
in

what

GREEK

have

one

of them

have
he

glide in

has

is the

soul.

heaven
of

the

carries

them

spheres

the

vision

but

generation
shall

truth

artist,or

musician,

in the

warrior,

second

lord

or

soul which

or
politician,

shall

be

lover

imitator

will be

an

artisan

sophist or
all these

or

are

or

birth

lover

degree

be

prophet

the

or

shall

fifth,a

as

shall

soul, which

toils

hierophant

; to

husbandman

demagogue
of

;
; to

to
to

the

or

the

shall

in

the

animal

the

most

third

fourth

physician;

seventh,

that

which

of

or

life of

that
a

the

poet

the

eighth,

or

class,

; the

or

the

seen

sixth,

ninth,

probation, in

to

the

the

the

drops

has

trader

the

some

righteous king,

or

gymnastic

hold
be-

philosopher,

is of

economist,

of

sufficiently

seen

which

be

they

other

any
has

the

forgetfulness

soul

of

; that

appropriate ;

states

that

the

; the

of

this

at

tion
revolu-

through
she

the

unruliness

rise

to

of

back

the

the

and

into

to

come

the

and

of

not

and

earth, and

are

upon

load

her

that

ordains

charioteer,

they

around

if

him,

conflict

truth, and

fall from

pass

of man,

only

truth

law

the

then

and

others

in

the

when

double

the

beneath

the

by

unable

of

managing

evil

through

soul becomes

might

as

the

stars],and

beyond." When,

behold

"

has

stand

fixed

vice, her feathers

first

and

out

the

sinks

mishap
earth,

rein ; but

towards

souls,

go

in

and

gods, self-balanced,

agony

of

world

to

extremest

course,

steeds, the

of the

sinks

and

[the sphere
the

and

the

to

immortal

the

their

of

of

hour

For

high

obedience

inclines

gravitatesand

end

the

for the
steed who
difficulty,
been
not
properly trained

this

of trouble

of

chariots

pair ;

origin,and,

upward

deal

in

them

noble

great

the

Now

them.

of

is

95

drives
of

and

is noble

expected, there
.

who

charioteer

we

be

PHILOSOPHY.

of

tyrant

he who

a
:

lives

g6

GREEK

PHILOSOPHY.

righteously improves,
deteriorates

his

which

of
"

it

lot."

is the

righteousness

had

three

thousand

have

it

first thousand
the

and

good

i.e.,what

of the

from

the

beast

who

have

not

classified

man

Platonic

the

souls.

; it must,

sense,

retain

Idea

the

life of

but

the

beast,

souls

death

Idea
as

world

the

mixed

human

souls

the

of

in

that

retribution, and

the

the

though

is and

of

be

cannot

Good
sense

cannot
;

hence

the

state,

in

prior
the

of
be

may

follows

be

must

the

to

the

slough

of

preexistent state,

obliterated

by

completely
there

soul,

immortality of

as

of that

be

the

these

immersed

recollection

some

the

Idea

of

transmigration

imperfectly, indicated

even

From

preexistent

between

the

and

necessity that

it,the

state,

are

points in

essential
nature

or

of those

into

pass

several

logical connection

body

for the

"And

take.

"

Idea, and

participatingin

as

they prefer,

to

After

the

life,the

of

what

not

of

end

punished eternally.

are

realized

recollection

The

the

the

a* manner

briefly,though
soul

will

gathered

psychology

soul, future

the

the

be

participationin

and

truth

last

The

the

in

man

they

holy, moderately good, curably wicked,

as

foregoing may

be

into

the

to

"when

the

at

the

insight,

returning

them

of animals.

those

the

Idea

taking

This

of

his

to

choice

new

"

the

the

seen

life,"and,

beauty

soul

the

judged

are

pass

again to

eternal

glimpse.

then

prompt

may

incurablywicked.

its

soul

alike

natures

into

forms, but

souls

the

is faithful

have

they

bad

their

soul

the

the

first

years,

inspiration to

for

Others

their

completed

chief

caught

who

came.

unrighteously

of

continues

years,

whence

place

soul's

or

lover

lives

who

recollection

heard

the

or

he

The

wingless probation"

philosopher

in

and

must

; but

sense

attained
be

to

future

retribution

of the

must

of

of
him

geometry,

drawing

would

which

geometrical

be

impossible,

of demonstration

mind.1
stone

Again, though
equal, and
by

possesses,
the
for
as

soul

is

Meno,

Phcedo, pp. 74

See

pp.

each
;

and

in

demonstration

alreadyin
pieces

ciples
prin-

the

of

boy's

wood

that

or

lutely
abso-

not

are

be

must

the

soul

implying preexistence,
equality.2 The
ment
argu-

the
is

soul
"

is

be

may
in

ever

rized
summa"

motion

the

could

and

cannot

thirst

for

good,

perish ;

future

into

life,etc.

p. 245;

for

getting

and

destroyed by immorality,the
God

to

ing
noth-

in

destroy it,if anything

creation

the

allow

absolute

life,implies immortality;

other, sleeping into

waking,

preexistence implies immortality;

invisible

an

knows

recollection

soul

because

pass

into

death

that

be

could

and

knowledge
opposites

say

The

it cannot

that

beautiful

the

is immortal

soul
so

follows

only thing

we

immortality of

the

self-moving ;

lain

of absolute

conception

edge
of knowl-

nature

Plato, if the

not

of

sort

shoot
off-

an

demonstration

had

low
fol-

to

as

succeeds

thinks

conclusion

the

soul

yet perceive that they

equal, we

are

doctrines

Plato

to

principlesof

certain

ate
immedi-

or

reminiscence,

boy, Meno,

yet Socrates

him

from

the

and

understand

to

from

certain

such.

as

also

Idea, but

the

character

The

men.

They seemed
theory of the

the

from

only

not

bodies

recollection, or

special notice.

demand

the

of

souls

of

and

preexistence

the
finally,

with

vary
the

of

environment
of

; and

retribution

future

and

state

97

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

essence,

and

so

possesses

the

81-83.
and

Ueberweg's

fol.

History of Philosophy,Vol.

Republic,p. 609;

Timceus,

p. 41;

I. p. 127;

also

Phcedo, pp. 62-107.

Ph"zdrus,

98

GREEK

PHILOSOPHY.

Idea ; the
of the
character
imperishable,indestructible
is not
soul
a
"harmony" of bodily activities,but is
the rather
a
itself,
principleof harmony ; it participates
in the Idea of life,is immortal
by virtue of the fact that
tality
immorIn the Phcedo
it lives.
(p.79) Plato conceives
with
in essence,
not
as
everlastingsynonymous
but with
wisdom,
i.e.,perfect self-knowledge and
ness,

self-determination.
Plato

Ethics.

General

Basis.
in the

Plato's

ethical

life ; it

is,by

The

"

Idea

union

only

of the

in the

it is the

of the

soul

with

others
of

the

himself
in

present existence, but

justice with

The

and

is furnished
the

by

in this

Ideal, eternal

an

of

the

vidual
indi-

necessary

itself and

in

harmony

life,the

also ;

concomitant
alone

existence, is

present

one

as

state

conditions

the

soul

is

of

others, not

its necessary

with

basis

soul

future

state, therefore, in which

realization

for the

with

ticipatin
par-

principleof harmony,

and

harmony

as

soul

the
of the

nature

very

individual

life of

happiness.

life of

The

soul

is the

immortal,

as

doctrines.

originalindissoluble
the

and

reason

of the

conception

but

life of

ment
instru-

an

the

Idea

of

Good.1

the

The

of Ethics.

Method

it appears

statements

the

sciences

are

to

Plato

of the
with

method
a

given
1

of individual

of

merely

in

on

tentative

Republic, pp. 611,

612.

Ethics

statal

and

as

that

being

he

the
and

of that, passes
2

virtue,

characteristic

larger scale,"2

theory

Politics,

and

good

Republic

state
a

immediately preceding

essential

an

the

of the

larger and

of

it is

Plato

the

that

and

And

one.

consideration

written

From

"

"

begins
ual
individ-

having
to

Ibid., p. 368.

the

state

the

plans by
the

the
its

which

the

of

guardians

the

peculiarvirtue

is necessary

to

tried

the

classes

the

of

instrument

the

careful

and

the

making

of

tice.
jus-

designates

these

classes

husbandmen

as

has

being

that

fighters courage,

of

conception

of

of

determine

an

Plato

Each

virtue

as

the

of

state.

that

wisdom.

rulers

subsists

state

last-named

two

temperance,

counsellors, who

embodiment

Idea, the
The

rulers,or

the

; and

the

of

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

IOO

of

the

long-continued training
the

guardians: they
gold is tried in

are

the
thoroughly than
fire."
in
They are not only to be given that education
is requisite
music, gymnastics, and the sciences which
as
a
preparation for the study of philosophy, but they
be

to

to

be

pains

and

are

"

more

tried

with

conflicts," and

If

they

retain

the

worthy

will

himself

and

to

the

have

to
"

have

living salary,to
But

"

where

is

must,

says

until
virtue

of
"not

To

the

the

at

whole

allowed
to

latter
of

residues"

virtues,

one

after

is

considers

Republic,

Bks.

what

is

II. and

III.

the

wisdom,

in the

may

and

fully
care-

that

state

implements, agriculture]but

state, and

reside

another,

knowledge

particularthing

question, we

method

"

are

only

themselves,

justice. First, then,

any

in

this

counsellors, which

about

able
service-

most

They are
sary,
absolutely neces-

be

to

virtues

mical,
rhyth-

"a

meals, and

answer

known

carpentering,brazen
the

the

are

rors."
ter-

state.1
is

common

Plato, by the

arrive

we

what

justice?

eliminate

what

beyond

be

and

state," they

the

private houses,

no

"

together.

of

guardians

toils
and

circumstances,
as

property

no

all

under

"

enchantments

such

become

to

have

to

man

with

"

with

memory,

nature,

harmonious
to

of

tests

be

vises
ad-

[e.g.,
about

regarded

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

eliminated

be

may

about

the

virtue

of the

"

nature

husbandmen,
of

harmony

obey

the

as

would

that

the

is not

and

state

"

its

preserves

of whole

method
has
The

Individual.

the

in

Virtue

proposed
found

been

at

to

wisdom,

of reason,

virtue

of

several
will do

his

of the
between

own

rising up

and
whole

soul, an

made

by

whom

he
1

work."

three

not

is the

of

the

his
class
is the

many

the

the

to

three
;

individual.

principlesof

wisdom

spiritor

passion, and

work

own

of

part of

will

the

be

"

perance
tem-

whose

just,and

threefold
kind

of

and
soul

the

being

sion
divi-

quarrel
ence,
interfer-

against

the

unlawful

authority,which is
subject against a true prince,of

natural

Republic,p. 428.

ever,
is,how-

minds

of

meddlesomeness

assertion

rebellious

state

Assuming the
injusticebe a

"

"

It

individual,therefore,

their

soul, must

these

of

The

principlesdo

the

temperance

courage

appetite.

willing to

state.

in him

has

and

courage,

states

"

of

true

individual,then,

in

the
to
According, now,
beginning, we are to apply what

the

be

union

the

also,
justice,
with
perfect

individual

the

the

as

busy-body," and each


own
sphere.
Justice

part in the

and

as

temperance.

all-pervadingspiritof harmony,
in one,

are

is not

each

ordains

described

Now

and

harmony,

wherein

harmony

business

own

law

Temperance,

rule."2

to

preservation

"

the

subjects

distinguished from

be

to

ease

the

Next

fighters,or

slaves, both

and

are

be

to

is the

be best

may

master

governors

appear

of the

opinion which
of dangers."

the

individuals,in which

and

in

of

true

natural

virtue

counsellors, which

soldiers

the

external."1

and

the

courage,

auxiliaries of the
in

internal

policyboth

best

the

as

IOI

vassal

that

"

is

the

sort

Ibid.,pp. 428-434.

of

GREEK

102

thing:

and

Further,

man

the

of

individual, and

of

the

is
strongest,2

false.

is

this

is not

learn

from

mind,"

of

natural

virtue

of education
this

take

in

"

the

It

is,in

ridiculous

such

as

difference

children
a

first

of

virtue

that

Virtue,

as

union

there

is

of
kind

great benefit
in

them

it

it

by
be)

may

to

good instincts,to

the

Republic,p.
Ibid.,Bk.

I.

444.

the

will

and

be

state

will have

to

all

the

make

is

that

the

begetting
education
a

with

be

conducted

things in

pursuits

given

but

refuse

to

men,

The
of

makes

also, a
be

also

mon
com-

bearing

that

must

the

sight.

and

woman,

place,there

be

state

done

first

at

appear

The

second

shall

is to

education

regards

good guardian
In

how

place,hardly possible to

plan may

as

friends

same

of education
1

"

Is not

is unessential.

guardian.
sameness

pleasure

The

have

But

"

the

the

women

mere

or

creation

particular,what

principlethat

the

of

is

(unconscious though

children

and

women

pleasure

sciously
disposition,uncon-

is the

young

or

one.

deeds.

right

Administration.^

managed, and,

man

do

the

improperly be

pleasure,and
in

that

right feelingsgenerally.3

State

to

and

As

"

idea

correct

pleasure in good things, to

entertain

on

the

state,

man.

not

Socratic

the

consisting

tendency

will

the

dialogue Philebus,

the

to

whim

tice,
injus-

general

make

good

(itmay

Plato

the

acquired, to
of

And

knowledge,

or

the

as

quite

in

and

virtue, it follows

of

justice as

point)to

knowledge

we
"

at

is the

citizen

is

parts

ignorance,

virtue

the

these

qualities that

the

theory

notion

Sophistic

added

and

good

this

corollary to

of

error

intemperance,

all vice."
make

confusion

the

and

PHILOSOPHY.

not

good

only

community,

Ibid., p. 402.

Ibid.,Bk.

V.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

or

the

is to

one

his

know

union

The

of

possible,and,
scientific

as

this end,

to

other."

of the

by

There

of

community
must

of

meum

in

state

of

should
as

would

children

and

become

they

adults.

have

of

bravery

Love

for

remains

rule,

the

or

the

as

of

said, have

light of day."
worse

and

kings

theory

be

the
"

princes

of

"

possibilityof

we

are

In

women

children

of such

dangers

they

become
creased
in-

by

of cowardice

and

when

this

by

artisans.

or

It

strong.

philosophers
world

this

ideal

life and

unable

state,

behold

to

the

have

theory is,nevertheless,

because

such

of women,

husbandmen

only

dians
guar-

doubt.

when

pure

be

any

The

; acts

kept

that

the

recompensed

philosophy, will
a

But

be

must

of

must

however,

power

been

rank

the

state

true,

spiritand
has

to

sight

gitimate
ille-

or

ity
practicabil-

some

men.

face

children

libertyto beget
degradation

the
to

the

spring.
off-

must

the
difficulty;
the

not

of the

community

no

they

secretlyand

from

to

is,indeed,
be

often

union, but

irregular

check

and
The

as

place, there

As
is

to

may

best

charge

no

suffer

accustomed

Acts

be

accompany

themselves

take

as

strict

public spiritof

there

would

of

"

state.

managed

tuum.

which

there

war

be

parent."

inferior,and

sort

third

the

to

and

the

the

"no

"

holy

"

of the
with

also

property, there

children, and
times

allowed

as

the

one

The

property.
be

distinction

in

But,

not

under

of course,

must,

unions.

be
men

is to

will

officers, who

proper

the

union

The

as

with

inferior

the

made

united

"

his

be

wise

offspring of

the

rear

be

must

sex

child

any

must

of the

supervision

possible,and

are

must

sexes

children

and

women

child, nor

own

the
to

of either

best

of

in common,

holding

IO3

none

prove

as

the
the
the

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

104

possibilityof

in

ordered

city being

the

scribed.
de-

manner

The

False

Forms
the

constructed

gives, with

pointedlythe
relation

the

the
the

kinds

genesis

corresponding
in

four

are

honor

democracy,

of

have

and

to

been

named,
of

of

government

The

and

up

of

into

Now

control

weaker

race,

the

or

"spirited,"element

and

the

honored

class

Republic, Bks.

and

VIII.

the

four

The

false

which

Plato

as

All

"

actual

strife

they
sive
succes-

by

political

governing
which

in the

tocracy
aris-

following
and

management
mis-

and

births, there

undervalues

knowledge

principleof harmony,
The

gets the advantage of

knowledge-loving and, although

remains

of

i.e.,
aristocracy,

or

marriages

which

state

course,

in

timocracy arises
of

of

(uneducated)

these.

the

the

few

strife.
and, finally,
inequality,
irregularity,

courageous,
the

are,

best.

of

divisions

culture, and, lacking thus

falls into

the

order

and

the

guardians losing,through ignorance


the

springs

wisest

of

of

form,

true

is,in strife.

that

degenerates
way.

the

the

and

government

regarded by

are

the

changes originate in
power,"

in

with

of individuals

forms

with

correspond

them,

of the

There

misery,an

together

to

timocracy, or

tyranny.

degenerations
the

false

state, taken

the

just

The

government

or

and

classes

the

still

injusticeand

state,

and

the

the

corresponding

them.

to

of individuals

forms

of

forms

oligarchy,or government

multitude;
sorts

happiness

number

; the

rich ; the

and

the

showing

to

them

forms

of these

view

Having

"

designates as

justice and

individuals

of

he

of

false

the

Genesis.

nature

between

analysisof

state, which

pattern

Aristocracy,Plato
more

their

and

State

of

does

and

the
not

IX.

guardian

class

fall back

into

the

of

place

from

excluded

are

the

and

thing, and

the

spiritof

timocratical

"

"brave"

fitted for

its

and

like

are

and

arises

the
exclusive

force
such
hold

of government

form

rich

itself,the
cannot

war

afraid

more

of

enemy

element

carried

of

the

has

is

of

is of the

oligarchicalindividual

selfish,arbitrarily
coercing
all his
of
them

energies

rationalizingand
in slavish

the

to

subjection to
him

follows

to

"

the

rich

come

his
at

are

external

systematic

in

short,

avaricious,

impulses

and

of wealth.

desire,and
"

man

and
arbitrarily

ing
bend-

Instead

one

earliest

garchy
oli-

The

extremes.

passions, he

the

other

large floating

it

riches

against

his

democratical
rule

rulers

the

pattern

his better

ennobling

ready to turn against


Democracy and the

in

same

hoarding

of

of

evils

rich

state

wildest

the

desire,

the

on

longer

no

vital interest

no

government

than

is in the

pursuits; there

that

is

there

of this

poor

and

gold

The

the

of

acterizes
char-

is divided

state

subjects

poor

state

the

because

on

for

to.

side, the

one

be

the

of

division

the

on

lover

manifestlythese

are

place of knowledge;

the

thirst

resorted

are

lack

which

honor,
a

son

to

be

realization

the

For

intimidation

and

into

timocracy,grows

possession.

and

vidual
indi-

morally sound
Oligarchy

and

contentious.

and

of power

desire

the

when

longer wise

no

is the

comes

to

"

The

them.

unto

virtue," and

ambitious

whole, but

and

is

he

honor;

seen,

timocratical

easy-going" father,he

"

single-mindedness towards

power

peace

Such

The

genesis.

genesis

but

for

than

war

ambition.

and

contention

his

and

militaryclass predominates,

thing only, is predominantly

one

state

artisans,philosophers

or

the

power,

is better

state

one

of

husbandmen

the

IO5

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

keeps

they are
opportunity.
originate as
exasperate

106

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

the

war

poor

rich must

the

is

there

follow

Then

opinion,
entire

off of
of

of

side

of power

full

of

oligarchicalin
just gets

the
of

taste

the

of

honey

and

insolence

"

under
soul

the

in

grow

anarchy

and

and

lead

the

passions

of vain

called

"bright array"

ing
charm-

"

diversity,
alike.''
of

out

grows

possible.

dissipationand
and

and

the

by

restrained
un-

impudence,"

trooping

come

He

numberless,

and

waste

the

the

flythe old,

away

fierce

conceit,

and

State,

unequals

manner

gratificationof desire,

miserly habits,

the

altogether

variety

natural

most

of

differences

dispensing equalityto equals and


for the democratical
individual,he

As

and

poor,

privileges.

and

to
responsibility

principle,an

government,

of the

irreconcilable

freedom,

abandonment

form
and

false

then

without, and

or

the

by

redistribution

throwing

within

fightagainst or

general

from

comes,

sweet

into

his
of

names

If

"breeding," "liberty,""magnificence," "courage"!


he

another

all

are

another."

He

all

is

order

about

and

men

"

of

all,man

Tyranny
In

the

to

burst

springs

champion

with

If he

and

is driven

follows

they

he

or

by

the

mob

and

is emulated

"

"

ready

are

he

some

make

and

back,

he

liberty.

have

always

again,for

tyrant."

the

things

his

tiful
beau-

of

greatness
at

nothing

most

excess

kills whomsoever

gets back

as

the

all

people
into

honorable

knows

comes

when

"

nurse

he, with

banishes
out

now

and

"liberty,equality,
he

but

"

as

head

mankind,

democracy

liberty,"the

whom

of

alike, tyranny

state

that

"protector," and
condemns,

And

"

from

is

one

of all

alike

women

and

anarchy

"

epitome

his

shakes

finally
that

virtue, then

one

being, full

rare

law.

and

assumes

alike, and

an
fraternity,"

and

by

another, and

and

they

says

he

reform,

to

attemps

accuses,

pleases.

is the

"

peo-

108

GREEK

of

Justice, instead
duties

of

incident

and

truth

of

of

child

the

found

gods

further
for the

of the

just man

itself

essential
of any

care

be like

life ; the

and

Beauty
Good

we

whose
as

man

and

victoryin

Art.

is to

truth

and

Plato

of

of

"imitates"

poet who

the

is

"mind"
and

"We
the

the

must

gods,
1

is

of

and

just

and

to

by

the

blessed

belongs

bad

men,

from
firm

praises of

Republic,pp. 612, 613.

is

in

the
our

famous

symmetry

vading
per-

"

of

faithful

sake

good
the

but

perfectly,is
from

and

that
the

are

"

:
or

"imitation"

The

conviction
men

of the

imitation,"

an

to

ena.
phenom-

art's

"

beautiful;

king

is

art

in

for

art

even

which

symmetry

respectable,but

Idea, and
"

"

arable
insep-

"pleasure"
the

the

is

reflected

are

for

which

business

the

of

account

it is abominable.

removed
remain

is

have

gods

race

the

and

that

Idea,

that

"imitates

"thrice

piness
hap-

pleasure

his likeness

Beauty,

on

nothing

cares

"imitation"

an

"

immortal

Beauty

goodness

cares

the

foregoing

word

Good

only for
representation,of
he

is to

permanent,

become

or
reproduce,or imitate, ideal reality,

ideal

the

as

life is therefore
the

is the

man

justicewith
and

attain

living as

all this

In

which,

and

the

To

"

append

the

absolute

mixture

constitutes

order, is

the

just

of

of that

true

goodness.

that

union

can

The

of

crown

from

state.

desire

virtue."

may

the

permanent,

far

God, and

like

of the

social

application of

be, is essential

must

as

in

The

as

performance

proper

order.

enjoyment

just alone.1

the

well

as

and

being

proof

one

God,

pursuit of
to

the

eternal

an

the

membership

to

beauty ;

member

be

being merely

perception, enjoyment,

the

a.

PHILOSOPHY.

man

tragic
a

ster,
mon-

truth."

hymns

to

only poetry

Ibid.,p. 597.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

ought

which

his followers

and

learn

let them

the

the

practised by
"

the

in

with

common

is the

tic,which

Form

Later
is

of

There

Aristotle2

goreanism,
hand,

the

Small

; the

to

that

form,

came,

hold

that

One

"duas"

causes

and

One,

Ideas, and

says

Rhetoric

as

it is

and

soul

mere

ing
noth-

having
with

or

and

art

dialec-

of

ing
think-

or

being

with

the

Great

of all
1

p.

607.

Small, which

Metaphysics,Bk.

I. ch.

seen,

of

Ideas

Pytha-

being original,
on

the

one

and

the

definiteness
are

in

elements

principle of diversity

the

principle. "Plato,"

Bks.

6, and

the

of them

elements
also

From

of

Great

the

that, since

See

ential.
influ-

have

we

elements,

material

things else,the

been

Plato, later,

doctrine

principle of

"conceived

Republic,

as

of

other,

and

the
indefiniteness, i.e.,

of

influence

the

their

duality,being

Aristotle,

the

Ideas, instead

the

form

has

alreadyconsidered.

Plato, who,

the

in that

writings,and

doctrines

under

on

Plato

going
fore-

The

and, perhaps, more

those

derivative,having for

and

ward
out-

"

other

certain

learn

we

in its earlier

of

the

or

Philosophy.

celebrated

more
are

'

in his

completely satisfied

not

the

accident

philosophy of

apparently,in originthan

were

cooking

only science

conspicuous

the
historically

was

ingly.
accord-

itself.

of the

Plato

of the

sketch

is most

which

of

and

speak

speaking.

and
The

true

of

science

orators,

professional rhetoricians

art

kind

and

else

or

and

minds

unto

and

Sophists

knack," gotten by

soul

men's

in

Homer

expurgated

rhetoricians

sufficient

with

level

be

of the

nature

is

universe,

on

for

Idea, whether

The

is

As

out.

state."

our

therefore

must

driven

be

must

into

admitted

be

to

IO9

II. and

other

III.

passages.

Ideas
are

are

the

IIO

elements

of all existences.

therefore, are
the

One

From

One."

the

the

One

is

else ; also that


all other

entity,not

numbers

numbers

so

do

to

them

by

Ideas

Plato, then,
from

from

ordinary numbers

gives
state

"

the

the

friends

first and

in the

of any

all,not

is conceived
Idea

not

in

Laws,

the

p. 739.

Ideal

will

of

be

nature.

of

Republic).

so

the

much

lives

as

of

Plato

between
differ

the

form

with

the

the

common

state

Laws,
has

the

men)

Ibid.,p. 715.

Ideal
as

the

worldPlato

Ideal)

an

state, and
"that

ancient
"

the

as

the

Laws

law," being

in

In

the

(not

of

Ideal

and

as

in

end

of

form

the

public,
Re-

the

good

the

good

good (the
good

in

saying

(the

party merely.2 But

or

selves.
them-

by

numbers

best"

the

things

person

guished
distin-

as

that

Ideas

In

"

widely

most

that

theory of

observed,

"second

and

mined
deter-

different
being qualitatively

highest

all

have

it is declared

the

prevails

there

described

the

in

government,

which
that

of

reans
Pythago-

class

to

existences,

Timczus, already stated, that

theory

the

intermediate

be

theory

affinity,it

the

existence

constitute,

things.

This

is mathematical

soul

of

of

something

later

the

existences,

in

another.

doctrine

In

to

sensible

and

has

of

though

numbers

numbers

proper

numbers

of

expressly says, however,

Ideas

one

Pythagoreans

phenomenal

method.

phenomenal

Ideal

the

causes).

separate, having been

and

Aristotle

from

But

and
as

his

the

causes

and

tion
by participa-

predicate

the

are

arise

with

things (than Ideas).

regarded

held

held

Small,

causes)

formal
{i.e.,

Ideas

Small

Plato

an

identified
Plato

the

the

and

material
{i.e.,

substance

as

and

Great

The

matter

as

Numbers

Great

the

that

causes

and

in

of

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

rule
man

(See Republic, p. 420.)

of
as

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

dialecticians, but

be

"

rulers of the

The

such.

and

in the

power

old

ten

persons,

law,"

of the

There

of

minimum

and

young,

council

of

in

the

of

and

of

and

best"

"second

of

tion."
educa-

women

regulations as

amounts

and

twenty

priests, guardians

"

property,

certain

however,

are,

is

The

"

obtain

not

not

number.1

general superintendent

Community

children, does

need

state

of

science

the

ten

the

"

"

best

government

and

and

second

wise
only morally and religiously
of philosophy,they have, as
Instead

prudent men.
their guide,religionand
supreme

Ill

state.

the

to

property that

mum
maxibe

may

of property
disposition
tions,
by purchase, sale, marriage, inheritance, etc. ; regula-

held

by

person,

any

the

to

as

also, regarding marriage, the

disposalof

(5040),the
is

a
strictly

affair,and

state

The

educated

alike.

classes

(the class

and

and

citizens,of

there

based
the

on

four

are

property

their

and

state

be

to

are

whom

to

families

Education

women

being

themselves

of

heirs.3

not

men

distinction

devote
distinction),
mental

children

number

bodily development ; agriculture,commerce,


industrial
arts
generally,being carried on

and
the

slaves

resident

or

is

state

it should

foreigners.

The

of

the

work

upon

the

(as,indeed,

the

suggest) a

state

by

instead

law

title

of

or

philosophers, merely.

to

the

Idea, the

theory of

based

by

the

It has
Ideas

second

"

idea

of

of wise

immediate

playing

best

"

expounding

decisions
no

by

ernment
govmen,

relation

part in the

no

Laws.

Result.

"

synthesis of

The

elements
1

philosophy of

Laws,

Ibid.,pp. 951, 961.

drawn

pp.

Plato

is in

from

earlier

its

genesis

thinkers,

738, 747, 884, 885, 909.


3

Ibid., pp. 740-745.

112

conservation
of the

of most,

contained

and

it is

end

universal
been

of

in

of

experience

in

single mental
and

lacuna,

or

Idea, does
with

is

Idea

Plato
in

will,and

first

for

is the

of

development
how

and

why

the

of

and
Plato

which
with

sufficient
that

way"
Plato's

truth

is

thought
have

to

held

that

in

this

there

"

part
a

classes

only (not,as

then, that

he

had

Ideas

traversed.

develop.
-

ParmcniJcs,

At

first

viduals
of "indias

of

well

as

natural
relations

perhaps

in nature."2
to

ever,
how-

seems,

actual

may

Plato

downward

and

formerly held,

Idea,"

by

"

artificial
for

plete
com-

edge,
knowl-

the

to

system

ideas

are

left for Aristotle

Republic, p. 596.

of

being,

out

its

fullyshown

for all groups

Ideas

merely "patterns [or types] fixed


was

of

want

it is the

his

of

negations) ; and, again, that


it

the

fault in

difficult,is made

name,"

there

As

steady development.

common

relation

at

not

ascent

reality:

be

must

natural

thought,

of

imperfectly pointed

undergone

having

so

and

principle,the

united.

has

source

The

goodness.
as

certain

and
perfect intelligence,

Plato

is the

describes

gested,
sug-

only possible philosophical

that.

Idea

is

first

principle,the system of Plato is not


principle; it is at fault,rather, in the

first

and

already been

be

to

have

universe

perfectly concrete

name

and

power,

its

true

elements

the

there

saw,

require

Plato's

merely

has

as

system
in

all the

comprehend

But,

the

that

terms

justiceto

to

and

could

thinker

no

himself

stand

not

the

effort

grasp.

as

gap,

full

do

to

in the

being

be

its idea

In

complete

much

it must

systems.

discover

to

and

thought

anxious

more

earlier

the

truth, with

of view

point

modern

attempt

an

all,of the

if not

(as from

error

deemed)

he

PHILOSOPHY..

GREEK

This

be
last

Finally,in
p.

132.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

the

to

as

theory of

the

the Laws

of the

later

adopted by

Plato

concrete,

of

or

rational."

means

making

the

the

or

superfluous by

passed

interpreter and

the

likeness, to the

Plato

him

pointed
any

of

in Plato's

out

them,

of Plato.

In

characteristic

most

theory of

Ideas

of his

the

disciples.

ways

Not

and

in

given

up

which

that

be

said

be

to

Plato's

it

truest

his

and

Plato

of

Plato

losophy
phi-

that

were

just

been

impossible
just

what

was

doctrines
thereon

Plato

the

"

was

"

developed, by

marked

that

followers

complete

founded

was

ideas

completely by

his

of

have

technical

state

there
the

ther
Fur-

consider,

to

disciplesof

modification
But

have

doctrines, made

of the

without

adopted

not

in

similation
"as-

to

12.

difficulties

fact, it has

notion

is rendered

continuator

Aristotle,should

even

world-soul

by Aristotle,

-The

"

"real

Idea.

point

shall

noblest

the

But

this

at

we

upon

Disciplesof Plato.

numerous.2

the

equivalent

"
The

of

the

explained as

fact that

later,criticisms

abstract

Finally,the

on

the

the

real,"and

nature

bers
num-

evidently

purpose.

bearing

critical comment

Ideal

were

rendering

rational

"

same

"participation"was

of

of

mathematical

for the

assumed

was

the

above-described

The

place.1 Again,

no

phenomena,

to

theory
as

found

Ideas

of Ideas

nearness

II3

any

difference
were

himself, however;

taken

only

held

in
up

in

abeyance.
2

See

553-555.

the
note.

list

given

by

Zeller

in

Plato

and

the

Older

Academy,

pp.

GREEK

14

his followers, and

developed by

and
we

divide

may

the

PHILOSOPHY.

into

them

classes,into

two

hand, Aristotle, who

one

and

teaching,

disciples,and,
in

leaders

death, and

the

on

who

has

above

We

take

been

of the

the

given

Academy.

of

it

of

to

became

Plato.

of

Theory

bers
mem-

and

i3the

in

Academy

various

have

names

various
been

the
New

Old

The

Academy.

Academy
At

the

Old

names

it in later

to

moment

present

the

of Pontus, Polemo,

apply

plied.
ap-

Plato's

period immediately after

only with the


speak particularlyof

we

Academy,

and

Speusippus, Xenocrates,
Crates, Philip of Op?is,

Crantor.

Speusippus.

"

the

at

the
of

instead

the

numbers,

Speusippus,
of

head

Theory
one,

"causes,"
and

Later

To

"

its existence.

Heraclides
and

as

Academy

have

Plato's

what
theory,particularly,

concerned

are

of

incomplete disciples,the

in the

was

death, it is known

periods

natural

Academy, after his


only to comparatively

the

as

existence

its

As

Middle

in

who

persons

Plato's

Academy.

Old

periods

fall,on

all of

other

this

Plato, the

"
The

any

of

which

developed

of it than

Platonic

first these

up

and

adherence

gave

portions of

limited

of

basis

mastered

other, certain

school

the

had

adopted

larger portion

sequence

had

the

on

Good.

the

of

He

the

the

separating, however,

principles

posited many

Idea

sor
succes-

carded
(347-339 B.C.),dis-

of

Plato

"principles,"viz.,the
adopted

and

nephew

Academy

Ideas, and

reducing
or

Plato's

to

One,

three

tinct
dis-

Reason,

Pythagorean theory
numbers

from

of

things.

Il6

GREEK

Other

Members

Pontus,

who

direction

the

editor

Epinomis,
earliest

successor

Plato's

Laivs

followed

Heraclides
in

affect

each

in

have

to

bodies

soul

the

of

Philip

of

Crantor,

be

but

by

himself

devoted

to

kind

of

essence.

exclusivelyto

ethics, particularlydiscountenancing dialectical

"

as

power

ethereal

an

the

assumed

the

the

tion.
men-

ethics, and

having

to

of
"

writings,"deserve

mechanically

not

affirmed

is said

Polemo

and

head

author

supposed

Laws,

the

journey to
as

cosmology, in general, but

other

and
affinity,

and

Plato

principlesatomic

material

last

Polemo,

to

Platonic

of

expounder

Plato's

of

with

Xenocrates

the

to

Heraclides

"

entrusted

"

during

Crates,
of

Pythagoreans

been

succeeded

supplement

Academy.

have

to

who

Academy,

Opus,

Old

Academy

Sicily,"Polemo,
the

the

of

is said

of

PHILOSOPHY.

lation.
specu-

14-

Aristotle.

Life of

Aristotle.

in

Thrace,

the

of

Macedonia.

the

of

Atarneus,

in

of

the

was

went

associated

time,

Diogenes

no

Plato, and

once

declared,
Lives

that

He

left

an

named

with
as

"Aristotle

his

In

about

Aristotle

was

has

of the Philosophers (Bohn's

Class.

us

twenty

seceded"

that
off

Lib.), p.

year

indirectly.
"

tradition

kicked

native

portion

pupil,directlyand
that

king
under

came

considerable

of

son

eighteenth

for

and

Plato,

says1
there

he

Proxenus,

Athens,

to

the

Amyntas,

to

orphan,

Stagira,in

at

was

physician

Minor.

doubt,

Laertius

from

Asia

born

was

b.c.

guardian,

(367 B.C.),he
years

and

Early

charge

of

384

year

friend

Nicomachus,

Aristotle

"

as

1S1

Plato

chick-

GREEK

was

are

of

full share

habit

mete

to

criticism

his

resided

and

Proxenus,

of

relative

three

king

be

to

Mytelene, and from


(342 or 341 B.C.),to
the

become
named

Great."

say.
who

time

future

it Aristotle

Plato,

his

his

governor

until,
to

went

to

later

Macedon

to

of this

we

the

years

afterwards

pupil

Alexander

He

guardian,

he

three

effect

and

Pythias, a

thence
or

losophy
phi-

Athens.

Philip of

the

and
of

career

Alexander,

son

What

Aristotle

between
and

his

of

betrayed

was

of

court

in

remained

and

place,two

the

of

tutor

"The

mind

that

totle's
Aris-

was

married

he

death

to

Plato

earlyfelt by

of

place

Hermeias,

put

that

independence,

left

afterwards, Hermeias

years

Persian

Here

of

pupil.

fellow-pupiland

Assos.
friend

or

native

the

Hermeias,

and

Atarneus

near

that, Aristotle

Atarneus,

at

and

predecessors

intellectual
ability,

of

because

perhaps

there

it

that

doubtless
were
dispositionto criticise,
Not
teacher.
long after the death

and

that

however,

all his

to

hatched";

master

knows,

the

out

Aristotle's

of

between

Aristotle

of

reader

receives

they have been


unwilling to believe

breach

serious

any

Every

critics

modern

but

W]

after

mother

their

do

ens

PHILOSOPHY.

was

sur-

ship
relationthe

upon

cannot

exactly

royal friend and patron,


rendered
him
the proselarge pecuniary aid towards
cution
of scientific and philosophicalresearch.
At this
he obtained
ing
rebuildto the
King Philip'sconsent
By

of

gained

native

his

had
few years
a
city,Stagira,which
rected
diand
he himself
previouslybeen
destroyed in war,
the
to
rebuilding. In 335 B.C., he returned

Athens

(a rival

and
to

the

there

established

Academy)
1

See

in

Ueberweg,

philosophical

gymnasium

Zeller,and

Grant.

"

school

attached

to

Il8

GREEK

the

of

temple

called

the

PHILOSOPHY.

Apollo Lyceius," whence


To

Lyceum.

flourishing,and

the

to

walking,

pupils,were
"

of

the

Aristotle

between

friendshipwith
Court,

Macedonian

power,

and

animosity towards
the

among

the

impiety by

Athens.

Euboea,

the

Life

"

was

"

of

him

the

of

to

when

element
method

felt

which

may

had

bear
he

in

his

to

of the
with

the

island

of

the

events

of

be

found

in

and

from

his

may

inferred

be

the

and

only, but

status

of

frame

his

system.

prominent

that

in

his

he

deserved

fellows.
his

Chief

general

the

by

of
to

even

philosophicalworks,

^Socrates

the

compelled

on

System,

understand

chief

mind

began

which
made

philosophy,not
of

of

religiousbigotry

year,

Aristotle
To

"

Aristotle's
character

thinking

of

sixty-three.From
of

sonal
per-

popular, democratic

probity and good feeling,and


respect and kindly regard of his

Philosophical Works.

necessary

members

by Diogenes Laertius,

Character

General

outward

next

copy

his

because

B.C.,

of

man

of

the

name

formally accused

was

politicalwritings,it

and

won

died

age

of

of

priest),Aristotle

his will, a

life,from

ethical

and

He

the

at

323

philosophers, and

chief

"The

and

supposed sympathy

(for he

and

the

Plato

other

because

Athenians

that

teacher

or

received

In
and

his

and

fact

his, the friendliest

and

Alexander

tle's
Aristo-

of

the

between

cultivated.

were

Macedonian

his

As

and

place called

school

became

years

teacher,
in

was

scientific

From

given

was

Peripatetic School.
relations

leave

or

the

(o wepiiraTo^t the

pupils,so
his

while

given

was

which

of

twelve

next

exclusivelydevoted.

were

instruction

Walk

school,

composition

the

speculative treatises,
life

this

school

the

acter
charthe
it is

philosophical
The

character

philosophy, had

sonal
perand

been,

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

119

and
Definite
preserved by Plato.
large measure,
Plato's
conception of philosophy,
penetrating as was
there
is,manifestly,in his writings a large mixture, as
and
method, of purely philosophical
regards both matter

in

with

elements

elements
in

personal; though
applicableto the
individual
for
From

of

is

philosophy,in
in

and

duality,and

to

is and

is

what

when
were,

in such
in

part imitations
But

based

on

we

and

"

his

full

from

of

late

not

of

his

of

of

as

this

both

ones

from

ter
mat-

probably
of

that

Plato,
Cicero

they were
"

of

Plato

we

have

which

evidently
is, technically

what

is not, and

itself.

method, of handling ideas

perament,
tem-

philosophy,are

what

the

totle's
Aris-

inquiry,What

praised by

were

unworthy

consciousness

time

of

feel

influence

works, those

philosophy
the

the

one

mental
and

properlyinfer

speaking, philosophy and


divisions

observe

it

any

any

by

was,

immediate

may

knowledge

our

with

prosecute

dialogues,and

that

to

earliest works, written

the

est
high-

Now

elements.

philosophy,as regards

His

under

terms

draw

to

and

up

the

not

perfectlyevident

nature

pure

known,

himself.
to

not

was

it is

it is

be

take

method
he

of

poetic.

tonic
dualityin the Placompound of philosophical

writings) Aristotle

just

rabilia,
Memo-

and

perhaps

sonal
per-

essential

an

that

(as must

extant

and

largelydramatic

is

merely

Xenophon's

superficialacquaintance

even

in

that

non-philosophical

sort

that

happened

(as is

the

is not

Dialogues

view, though

truest, there

and

upon

Platonic

example), but
point

one

than

term

philosophizing,for

Socratic

realistic

and

of the

larger sense

of the

element

purely philosophical but

not

There

had

Sophists
such.

of

This

the

grand-

been

tised
prac-

certain

art,

art, which

or

he

GREEK

120

considerable

in

found

PHILOSOPHY.

and

investigatedthoroughly,
"

there

discovering that

"

adequate

developed, was
another

art,

or

that

and

method,

it,he thought

of

be

to

are

originating not
his

of

remark
in the

dropped by
works

certain

The

followers.

it

This

branch

philosophyproper)
is not
philosophical.

his

but

adopted

was

taken
the

Organon,

himself

Aristotle

and

cal
philosophi-

works, which,

as

name

in

so,

that, if

only.

first-named

feature

which

Aristotle

with

did

of

branch

known

now

of

truth

probable

to

that

it in

expounded

branch

one

essential

not

first who

real,or scientific,
truth,

to

an

distinguished from

He

the

the
particularly

thought (though
as

perfection,Aristotle

was

was

adequate

was

of

degree

that

the

with

lectivel
colname

certain

because

thing

of

treated

of

instrument

of,
(opyavov)
philosophy rather than a part of philosophyitself. The
works
tory
are, therefore,in large measure
merely introducthe strictly
to
count
philosophicalworks, though an acof his philosophyhas to borrow
from
much
them.
of the six works
One
constituting the Organon is on
on
categoriesof thought, its title,The Categories
; one
and
terms
propositions,viz., On Interpretation;two
The Prior
scientific proof,or demonstration,
on
Analytics and
The
Posterior
Analytics; and two on probable
proof, The Topics and The SophisticalRefutations. But
philosophy, as a system, has certain
now,
parts or
branches, distinguished by the having of different ends,
has for
or
objects. According to Aristotle,one branch
its end
and

was

pure
third

truth

truth

to,

means

as

such,

in art.1

or

another

The

truth

first of

these

in

conduct,
is termed

Theoretical,or Speculative,
Philosophy', the second,
1

Aristotle's

ch. 7.

Metaphysics,Bk.

V. ch.

; Bk.

I. ch. I, De

Caelo ;

PracBk.

III.

121

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

Philosophy,the third,Poetical,or if,for distinction's


without
the Greek
term
transfer
sake, we
{ttoi^tikt])
tical

Speculative Philosophy

alteration,Poietical Philosophy.
branches

First

Philosophy (irpayrr}
faXocroifcia)
parts of
Theology,Mathematics, and Physics. The
three

has
or

Practical

treatise

Aristotelian

complete genuine

(thereis

Ethics, CEconomics

Philosophy are

subject1 ),and Politics?

extant

no

this

on

philosophy,or theology,is
in the so-called Metaphysics (= fxera
treated
particularly
ra
(f"vcTLfcdafter or beyond the physics,"a name
given by editors of Aristotle's writings to certain books,
either
because
script
they followed The Physics in the manuor
were
regarded as treating subjects logically
subsequent to "physical subjects"). Physical subjects
subjects relating to nature)are treated in several
{i.e.,
First

"

chief

the

works,

Heavens, On

the

No

The

as

As

of

kind
to

the

of

appendix

time

and

been

See

Metaphysics,Bk.

V. ch.

1;

The

Ethics

and

Ueberweg,
Eudemian

"Aristotelian,"but
Nicomachean

1. I. p.

V.

not

in

alone

stands

Rhetoric

this

ethical works.

production

of the

"

works

last

in

residence

Athens,

148.
Bk.

Aristotle's

Ethics, however,

losophy
Phi-

conjecturedthat they were

Aristotle's

during

to

Politics.

The

and

logicaland

of the

it has

above-mentioned,
written

order

devoted

important topics

treat

the

to

is

chology
Psy-

or

to
exclusivelydevoted
chapters (Bk. V. [VIII.])

Aristotle's

philosophy.

Anima,

in Practical

works

Ethics?

Nicomachean

Politics,however,

branch

chief

The

De

the

On

Physics,

Aristotle

only work
Philosophy; certain

Poietical
the

of

is the

Poetic

The

are

work

topics.

are

in

which

History of Animals,

extant

mathematical

The

of

are

X.

The
own.

ch. 7;
Great

Nic.

Ethics

Certain

Ethics, Bk.

(Magna
books

probably Eudemian

VI.

Moralia)

(V.-VIT.)
in

ch. 8.

of

authorship.

are

the

GREEK

122

while
in

he

head

the

at

was

following

nearly the
Nicomachean

The

PHILOSOPHY.

of

the

order:1

Ethics

and

and

Lyceum,

probably
Organon ; 2d,

ist, The
The

Politics

Poetic

and

The
On

Heavens,

Rhetoric;

the

that
of

they

his

regard,
in

passing,

Aristotle

exposition

of

and

Kinds

certain
idea

general
mind.

method,

In

we

of

the

this
note

may

Plato's.

from

the

Anima,

seems

the

In

fact,

phy
philoso-

in his works.

Theory of Knozvledge.

We

"

the

begin

Aristotle's

philosophy with an account


himself
regarded as introductoryto
viz.,his theory of knowledge, of its

philosophy proper,
sources

different

exhibited

as

Aristotle

what

after

De

It

characteristic
particularly

Aristotle

of

of

quite

was

The

in Aristotle's

others, Aristotle's

is not

growth

produced

On

Physics,

Metaphysics.

matured

had

in

as

The

all

were

system

The

History of Animals,

Psychology ; 5th,

or

4th,

3d, The

method.

of Knowledge.

fundamental

"

There
that

differences

are

Aristotle

in

knowledge
takes

three

cognizance

theory of knowledge : differences as regards


edge
Knowlof knowledge.
object,method, and source
have
for its object causes
(or first principles)
may
be apodictic (demonIts method
strative)
phenomena.
may
dialectic ("probable"). Its source
or
maybe

of

in

the

or

sense

his

or

reason.

or
Scientific,
PhilosophicalKnowledge.

philosophical,knowledge

"

Scientific,or

{iiricm^rj)is knowledge,

the

stration
(apyai),the method, demonand
the
reason
(aTToBeigis;),
(vovs). In
source,
is involved
the knowledge of
of causes
the knowledge
shown
whatever
else can
be
demonstratively to flow

subject

of

Compare

which

is

the statements

causes

of

Ueberweg,

Zeller,Grant,

and

Wallace.

GREEK

124

of

the

syllogism are

either

affirmative

indefinite.

into

universal

the

negative, universal,particular, or

negative, the
As

universal

the

of

sorts

syllogism :

particularnegative.
"

four

are

the

be

propositions. Propositionsmay

or

There

enter

may

PHILOSOPHY.

propositions that

universal

the

affirmative,

particular affirmative,

regards the

affirmative

and

relations

of

the

these,

particularnegative are

(avrifyaTucw avTiKeiaQai)
;
the universal
so
are
negative and particularaffirmative.
The
universal
affirmative
and the universal
negative are
dictory
contrarilyopposed (evavrim avrucelaOai). Of contratraries
opposites,if one be true, the other is false : conboth
be false.1
Now
the rules of the syllogism
may
that
in every
given by Aristotle
are,
syllogism
there
affirmative
be
be one
must
premise, there must
universal
be treated
must
not
one
premise, and terms
opposed

contradictories

as

"

universal

as

in the

conclusion

which

not

are

premises.3

Syllogisms differ in kind


according to the relative compass
A
of the
middle
term.
syllogism

and

value

and

"

minor
of

middle

subject of
is

which

is "in

term

propositionin

"between"

both

major

and

middle"

whole

of which
1

the

On

the

middle

Interp.6;

Prior

Pr.

term

Cat. io;

Analytics, Bk.

Analyt. Bk. I.

Pr.

which

the

the

ject
sub-

predicate)

is the
major" (i.e.,

the
this

figure
A

middle

term

syllogism in

which

the

[lessthan] the
subjects of propositionsin each
is a predicate),
is a syllogismof
Analyt.

I. ch. 24

ch. 24

tion
posi-

major is predicate)
"first
figure" (irpwrov

terms

are
(i.e.,

the

the

extremes.

minor

is

the

scientific

is
(i.e.,

middle

whole

which

lies

the

the

syllogism of
In a syllogismof
a)(f}ixa).
termed

middle"

whole

the

proposition of

the

and

is "in

term

in

in

so

are

"

in

I. ch. 2, etc.

(Wallace,

p.

(Wallace,p. 40).

(Wallace,pp. 29-31).

40).

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

the

which

the
of

modern

the

spring

the
a

universal

of

and

premises
the

which,

alone

there

third

the

sometimes

can

figures,but
these

of

premises

figures

being

being

obtains.
the

does

can

are

"imperfect,"

the former

does

the Predicables.

syllogismthe premises

conclusion

the

drawn,
of the
hence
of

is

universal

(ovala),or
definition.

thing

be

scientific truth, and

essence

done

hypothetical
syllogism in

certain

latter

be

sition
propo-

obtain

does

not

when

obtain,

not.3

Definitionand
of

condition,

if the

; but

derive

this

latter,however, may

not

in

syllogism

"

certain

The

former

universal

is contained

"perfect."2 The
is
e" viroOeaew^;)
syllogism (avWoyicr/JLbs
first

syllogism.)

gives

all that
We

from

only indirectly;hence
the

figure giving only negative

more.

no

and

figure"

Aristotle

of the

that

one

conclusion

conclusion

second

"fourth

of

sions.
only "particular" concluonly figure that yields naturally

the

the

directlyin

syllogism

recognized by

only

each

third

the

and

is also

It

the

in

propositions

conception

second

the

conclusions,

of his

out

in

greater than

subject) is

not

was

figureis

first

conclusions

and

is

term

text-books

not

Now

of

25

syllogism

each

are

(The
figure (rplrov"jyf)iia)}

third

it did

middle

the

terms

predicates

are
{i.e.,

which

of

minor

and

major

middle

the

figure (Sevrepovcr-y^a).

second

the

embraces

Prior

Ibid., Bk.

I. chs.

Ibid., Bk.

II. 4

Analytics, Bk.

which

is

conclusion

true, states, if
is

and

correctly

virtuallythe expression
of

some

knowledge

knowledge

of

I. chs. 5, 24, 26, 32,

1, 5, 7, 23, 24, etc.

the

are

affirmative

nature,
The

of

Now

"

real
of
the

existence

the

essence

common

and

56 (Wallace, pp. 37-39).

(Wallace, pp. 39-41).

(Wallace, pp. 41-42).

126

attributes

characteristic
it

thing

of

of
(Bcd(f"opa)

belong

which

the

in

in

and

nine

been

of

viewed.

Substance

is

Socrates

species, or

genus.

what

?),relation

kind

(7rpc?

condition
{irore),
position (KelaOai),

substance

"

it.

These
idea

(The
These
from

manner

Aristotle, under

to

suggested

7).)

(ovaia),is

substance

or

be

must

categories

imply

Aristotle.

or

may

(iroielv),
passivity{irda^eiv). Of

termed

others

tinction
dis-

of

is the individual,speprimary sense


cies
The
being only secondary substance.2
are
aspects
quantity (irocros how

action
(e^ety),

Essence,

"

property

mark

(not

the

time
tl),place (jrov),

ten

the

(avfju^e^Ko^),which

?),quality (ttoios

many

attributes

are

of

differentia

the

is not

individual, a

an

genus

remaining

In other

subject of attributes,e.g., man,

it is either

the

subject defined.

general

is the

Substance

renders

expression

Other

aspects, according

ten

things

whatever
and

the

to

"

of

defined.

accident

Categories}

The

the

which

to

class.

(yevo?) and

genus

thing

"the

and
not

(opo?)contains

though essential,

which,
(llSiov),

that

the

definition, however)

to

necessary

one

representativeof

the

the

class,or genus,

of the

specificattribute

definition

union

may

the

individual

an

words, the
the

of

and

belongs

p.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

him

to

everywhere

are

of

table

by

the

Categories,4,

of

principal;

have

categoriesmay
table

deduced"

"

not

(see

in

higher conception by Aristotle,but


7, 8;

Topics,

Bk.

I.

9;

all

employed by

Pythagorean

categories were
a

is

these

Metaphysics,

Bk.

any
were

VI.

I,

(Wallace, pp. 25-27).


2

doctrine

Aristotle's

appears

inconsistent

ch.

The

7).

best

above
with

the

or

view

of

substance,
least

at

is the

theory

of

as

we

shall

see

in

what

undeveloped (see Metaphysics,


earliest,and

categories,in

the
which

one

it

that
occurs.

seems

follows,
Bk.
to

VIT.

monize
har-

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

the

as
suggested, perhaps, by
empirically,
forms, or "parts," of speech in the

taken

"

of which
flow from

visible

be

Knowable

known

not

are

things

of

are

to

kinds

two

mediatel
im-

us

those

and
those
(777)0?
vfia"; irporepov)
which
are
prior by nature
("fiv"rei,
irporepov).Of the
kind
first principles.1Our
latter-named
are
or
causes,
knowledge of causes, or what is prior by nature, has its
beginning in our knowledge of things as they are for us.
reach
those firm
The
we
(syllogistic)
by which
process

which

prior

are

definitions,of

the

is the

universals

in

: for
syllogistic

middle

term

terms) by
A

be

to

C,

we

predicated

can

of

For

A, C

the

syllogismis,

is A."

conclusion

The

the

to

is
"

major premise

is

the

and

its conclusion

Posterior

Analytics,Bk.

Topics,Bk.
42-44)-

I. 12,

18;

I. ch.
Prior

deduction, is

is

that

the
C

inductive
of

is

from

middle"

"

may

deductive
"

is A

; then

A, C is B, therefore

inductive

let

B, therefore

of the

syllogism is
strictlyspeaking,

like

of

means

example,

"B

passing

if B

Thus,

by

prove

B.
is

are

by inference the
(major and minor

extremes

other.

syllogism be,
inductive

the

unite

we

of the

of the

means

and

is

which

induction

one

or

which
(iiraycoy)]),

particulars.2Induction,

to

essence,

particularsto universals," and

deduction,

of

the

state

is induction

causes

from

passing

"

inverse

the

us

propositions which

universal

to

for

guage.
lan-

Greek

knowledge consists),
though

of reason,

eye

mental
funda-

causes

can

scientific

them
the

to

of what

or

27

edge
(in the knowlshown
syllogistically

Now

Syllogism {Inductive).
to

syllogism of

responds
syllogismcor-

deductive.
the

is

third
not

The

figure,

universal

2.

Analytics, Bk.

II. 23

(Wallace, pp.

128

but

particular.
if

We

"B

is C

"

No

"

of

most

particular that
The

truths

not

but

of

and
a

of

the

only

"retaining

universal

forming

notions.

to
"

of

the

which

as

then
there

are

in

the

originates in
have

in

universal.2
universal

the

caused

from

The

many.

the

have

power

soul"

the

and

and

so

on,

allows

the

"

or

grows

in which

the

way

flyby

the

perception of

inductive

so

Wallace, p. 43

See

see

Prior

below, pp. 144-146.

one,

syllogism something

is not

diers
sol-

far, however,

given in sense-perception as such (and


by induction only that we reach the first universals
that

forms
inthe

compares

unconsciously

fleeing.) In

of

sality
univer-

to

sense

to

(He

faculty

the

sense-perception introduces,

another, and
results

there

can

Aristotle, however,

particular of

in battle
and

that

the
(i/ATToiei),
in

manner

out

say

gives

hypothesis that

we

Permanency

reason.

presuppose
himself

thing

principles,
such

as

all animals

not

certain

one

first

are

tion
induc-

Animals

sense.

tions."
varia-

syllogism

to

nature

permanent

common

and

by

nature

permanent

lated
formu-

concomitant

sense

the

on

of

Methods,'

inductive

But

tion
induc-

the
incidentally

particular,and

sense-perception,but

of

the

sense.

higher facultythan
of

of

tically
prac-

are

Experimental
of

then
real

Induction

corresponding

universals

common

idea

method

only of

reach
a

of

versal
uni-

individuals

noticed

'

reason,

perceptions

has

the

all the

of

of the

figure.)

of

be

inter-convertible

are

syllogismis

first

he

but

premises

of

knowledge

the

it to

assume

(The

particular kinds

principle of
x

and

knowledge

by Aristotle,
in

holds.

presupposes
class.

that

syllogism

however,

may,

know

we

that

and

is

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

Analytics, Ck.

II. ch. 23.

it is

that

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

the foundation

are

science),induction

of

does

not

29

prove

though it
anything (it is not airohei%L";)
(cnro$eifcvu"nv)
does show
something.
(SrjkoT)
Method.
Probable Proof ; Dialectical and Rhetorical
of scientific
The
foregoing is,in outline, Aristotle's account
in speculative,
method
as
employed particularly
theoretical,philosophy. He recognizes and gives a
or
"

is only
of method,
which
sort
analysisof another
finds
scientific and
place especiallyin Practical
quasiHere
etc.
dialectical,"
ethics, politics,
Philosophy,
or
probable,reasoning is employed. In practicalaffairs
if we
have
it generally suffices
premises that possess
and if our
conclusions
only a high degree of probability,
full

"

"

have,

absolute

not

In

premises.
and

should

in

always

not

the
or

easy

definitions,

absolutely correct

always necessary that all steps in our processes


be
stated, that everything
reasoning should
proved, even
plausibly; indeed, it is better
things be taken for granted, that many things

be

many
left

be

at

fair warrant

it is

matters

arrive

it is not
of

that

such

possibleto

even

but
validity,

natural

the

to

bent

of

mankind

truth

towards

in rhetorical
justice. This is the case particularly
argumentation ; in dialectical reasoning logical method
be
prevails though the premises may
only plausible.1
In rhetorical
reasonings the enthymeme, a ^//^/-syllogism,
having but one
premise, and example, by which
from
a
we
particularto a particular (through an
argue
and

It is

fondness
says,

that
works

is not

part of Aristotle's

for

this

in all

^ZM-scientific

and

this is in

any

Ethics

within

cases

necessary

on

catholicityof temper

and

best
sense

to
a

the
be

method.
reach

content

Absolute
of

with

human

we

he

truth,he
powers,

less

philosophicalview,

Rhetoric.

that

than
must

See below, pp. 148 and

and

that.
throw

181.

shows

some

repeatedly
it is oftentimes
If

we

away

deny
his

GREEK

I30

PHILOSOPHY.

be

universal),may

assumed

complete syllogismand

instead

employed

We
or
Philosophy,'"
Metaphysics.
Aristotle's theory of Being (to 6v) which

outset

things
the

is fixed

in

are

If

equally

are

propositions and
in any

is not

regard

affirmation, and

is

man

fixed

and

in

is

(to bv fjbv),being

it is

being

known

by

first in the

se

that
us

last in order

being

of

Now

being (to bv

per

se,

the

highest part

as

of

in

in

if

the

being

becomes

of

action

?1

this aspect

it

rational
in

may

highest

knowledge,

sense

is

and

time, though (and because)

of nature.

order

and

And

wall.

scientific

to

that

say

thing, and

same

fixed, and

aspect

answers

If all

moment

and

Being is,then,
being per

to

definite, what

demonstration,
one

consideration

have

the

mean
a

changeable.

or

same

his

contradictorypropositions
practicallyaffirm that all

we

affirm, for example, that

with

that

say

true,

very

Protagoras.

we

the

at

same

terms

and

flux,

we

fixed
from

Heraclitus

the

regard.

same

is

now

the

at

agreement

appears

continual

close

Being

being

is not

is and

in

be

to

of

doctrines

the

thing

find

knowledge.

there

That
of

shall

of

theory

come

"

we

the

induction.

"First
to

of

the

science

bv) Aristotle

philosophy

and

being

deems
it

terms

of

"

to

First

be
losophy
Phi-

"

It is what
following
cj)L\ocro"f)ia).
(7rpcoT7)
we,
works,
example of the early editors of Aristotle's
metaphysics. "First
Philosophy,"then, does not

the
term

treat,

does

as

or

department

or

as

of

the

signs

such.

of
And

just as
the

it,and
l

of

being, but

preservation, the
of

for

mathematics,

the

example,
being

"science

production,

taken

the

Bks.

Ill and

IV.

phase

some

universally,

of health"

capacity for it, so

Metaphysics,

of

treats

symptoms
the

science

or

of

there

such

were

things

of

which

nothing

the

Mattel'

things, would

sensible

be

Form

finite

actual

of

which

for

only possible, it

already
it is

us,

cognizable
form.

As

some

of

which

and

Matter
like

cognizable being
it is definite

(vXrj)and

is in

is

and

of

it must
(ixopfyrj),

the

in another
and
the

In

Not

matter.

is

there

union

of matter

certain

be

universality,or,
this

owe

the

to

Metaphysics,
Bk.

I. chs.

Bk.

11,

form

degrees

observed,

there

of

I. ch. 9;

8, etc.

(See

Bk.

and

that

of

the

VI. chs.

Wallace's

in

have
a

element
14, 15, 16.

Outlines, and

ality,
actu-

form

preponderance

substances

largeness

because

is form

are,

are,

actuality

terms,

aspect

least, generality,as

at

matter

substance.

is pure

which

and

Those

matter.

over

one

statue

becomes
possibility

every

form

one

substances, different

in

out

actuality,

which

union,

a
{i.e.,
lar
particu-

potentiality (hvvafjus)and

thing

same

its

stone

individual

an

and

being

is the

results

union

its

a
possibility

generally speaking, correlative


(ivepryeca),
it is the

as

matter.

of

The

form

When

is the

form

or
possibility,

it

termed
but

or

form.

it there

to

form,

is

realization

and

statue.

statue, which
certain

becoming

possibility. As

contains,

is made

character) is given
i.e.,the

the

matter

statue

for

the

"

substance
of

matter"

"

"

of

which

of

is but

being

the

Actuality.

absolutely
it was
possibility,

in

it existed

manner,

is

"

virtue

by

possibility,
every

in

and

relatively or

"

its actual

As

in

was

definite

entities,of

cogniza
relativelyat least, indefinite,in-

was,

That

result

is the

the

said.1

or

Potentiality

substance

that

actuallyis

known

copies of

barren

mere

or

idle

only

be

world

could

and

Every

in

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

132

(God).
different
of

form

stability,

characteristic,
of

form

Posterior

in

ics,
Analyt-

Ueberweg.)

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

matter.1

of

long

is

due

things being
is in

thing

it is in the

as

or

of

process

of

state

imperfection
; it attains

becoming

entelechy (ivreXe^eta),
only

an

in

"prior"

also

it is

But

33

influence

the

to

fection,
per-

ity.
potential-

to

another

as

actuality.2

as

respect, then, actualityis "prior"

this

In

in

contingency

them,

respect:

we

reason
ciple
by the prinpotentialityonly (as we
actual
is
of analogy) from
the
actuality. The
The
partlyprior in time to the potential,partly not.

know

the

child

is

the

prior to

child presupposes
of

actual

the

potentialmay

is that

or

is

actual

The

of

prior

which

existence

the

to

is what

of

prior

man

the
that

to

cause
potentialbe-

it is,whereas

be, is therefore

not

may

the

yet

existence

the

child.

the

and

man,

self-contradictory.3
Causes, or First Principles {apyai).
form, why
assumes
why matter

the

tical,
self-iden-

not

but

If, now,

"

actual,
efficient

the

is, that

answer

motion

imparting

cause

the

These

and

three

nature,

them

must

cause

; for every

be

from
but

house,

material
1
2

has

comfort
cause,

Metaphysics,Bk.
Ibid., Bk.

fourth, the

that

thing

VIII.

end.

an

example

follows

as

is
k'verca,

added

end

The

and

becomes,

ch. 6.

four

would

be, in

end,

reXos,

2.

and

stones

is

causes

final

the

; the

form,

Metaphysics,Bk.
Ibid., Bk.

VIII.

ch. 7;

take
of

cause,

matter,

duced
pro-

thing,"
some-

case

the

"

to

"

final

or

VI.

To

causes.

and

its

power.4

only is

not

These

protection ;

is earth
V. ch.

"

an

in

(reXos),or

something, by something,

illustrative

an

involves

consequently principles,or

are

be

must

efficient

form, and

matter,

comes
be-

into
potentiality

actuality." Every substance, therefore,


existence

possible

"there

from

quire
in-

we

vXrj,
or

ov

or

formal

ch. 8.
Bk.

I. ch. 3.

GREEK

134

cause,

mind

builder's

the

elvcu,is

rl rjv

to

cause,

66ev

and

art.1

But

distinct

widely
causes

is the

child

; the

the

of

end

is also

formal

and

efficient
are

certain

the

final

cause,

the

other

on

cause,

"inherent"

in

Speaking
is

thing
formal

its

only

him

form,

beings

that

the

with

formal

name

the

the

actuality of

speak of things
It is

owing

individual,

this

to

speak

to

comes

"forms,"

as

substance.4

as

actualityof

Metaphysics,

Ibid.,Bk.

Bk.

VII.

those

II. ch.

ch. 4.

ti

rjv

2.

the

and

who

lates.
specuof

cause

elvai.

logical

form

ner
man-

its definition

necessary
think

form

of

ter.
mat-

that

instead

essence,

and

involve

although they

forms

Thus

than

to

in

Again,

cause.

being

of

regarded

is in

cause

it is natural

The

the

without

final

and

or

cases

existence, the
//z/.y

necessarily imply

infinite, substances
the

final

importance

of form

of

speculation

the

implies more

thing,

cess
pro-

act

two

hand,

may,

Further,

the

him

efficient

often

really contains.
to

cause

formal

the
cause

and

and

nature,

to

tain
cer-

efficient

i.e.,seeing and

cause,

so

and

perhaps, generally,be

or,

souls

have

identical

final

of

these

one

sees

ideal

or

formal

viz.,the

one,

who

the

inconsistency,often
as

the

on

builder

identitybetween

generally,since

and

cause

of

degree

; the

is the

sight

in

always

end

end

seeing, of speculation,speculation.3 In
there

the

not

are

material, formal,

the

same

it is made

causes

The

idea

or

Atera/3oA%, is

rVS

parent.2 Again,

the

be

may

pattern

which

to

four

the
here.

as

in the

are

r) apxv

of which

process

mental

the

according

efficient
his

PHILOSOPHY.

totle
Arisof

the

absolute,

or

the

existence

of

VIII.

ch. 6.

substances.

Metaphysics,Bk.
Ibid., Bk. VII.

ch. 7.

See

above,

p. 126.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

Kinds
God.
of

(three) kinds

two

and
others

as

is of

of which

"

the

part is

one

the

substance

need

we

the
known

the

of

nature

and

change
forever.

The

sensible

other

sensible

beings

motion,

change,
these.

purely as

energy

the

how

motion, the
is known

of

Bk.

XL

ch.

are

also

are

infinitum.

No

such

principleof change,
other

some

as

in the

substance.

it does

so

thing

that
as

as

chs.

6, 8.

is

If it is

thing

or

that

is

loved, does.

the

general

XL

hence

change,

causes

I.

Metaphysics,Bk.

duces
pro-

being subject to

motion.3

world,

of

cause,

and
actuality,
or

or

being.

which

immovable

change,
that

or

that

itself

substance

of order

stances
sub-

sensible,

as

of these

lie in

the

and

desired, i.e.,as

Metaphysics,

in

without

immovable

source

These

being ceaselesslyand

causes

must

be

seen,2

partly,from

and

original source,

be

world

reply must

and

It is the

the

movable
im-

the

have

we

beings

on

an

which

must

separate from
asked

for

This, then,

It exists

of

changed by

motion,

or

existence

change, produce motion,

or

look

change,

or

so

or

then,

of sensible

in itself the

substance, has

must,

the

and

they move
change, only as moved
We

of

of sensible

causes

beings, and

motion

existence

substances.

out

pass

sensible

or

; the

decay,

to

super-sensible,

proved partly,as

other

being, or

; and

the

substances,

subject

of demonstration,

idea

very

Of

proof

is

substance
from

sensible

and

eternal

and

no

body

substance."

immovable

cies,
spe-

Ontologically speaking,

mere

is soul

other

seen,

being primary, the

(three)kinds

two

have

individual, as

first-named

35

Substance,

is,we

as

substance.

secondary,

substance

substance

genus,

Immovable

substance

Logicallyregarded,

"

and

Substance

Real

of

See

p. 130.

is

I36

GREEK

in the

of order

Heavens."
blessed.

the

most

find

its

know

to

i.e.,the
essence

His

life

is

sufficient

of

end
the

the

science

of

immovable

immovable,

is

First

Physics, or
is of two

substance
the
But

principleof
the

motion

principleof

Physics discusses,
the

is the

Nature.
and

that

and

is

ergy,"
en-

the

short
the

of all things
the

have

just

We

"

of

or

and

of

primarily

the

manner,

which

has

soul

is the

able,
mov-

Movable

has, in

this

as

The

as

Nature.

that

that

substance

of substance

or

which

in

Good,

movable,

itself,and

motion

for

only

Metaphysics.

or

Philosophy
in

"

else.

things

Divine

Thought.

absolute

substance,

kinds

mediatel
im-

therefore,

of

eternal, alone

He

self,
it-

at
least) also
efficiency

substance,
the

of

highest substance,

Philosophy

of immovable

to

just the

Thought

is immovable

substance

the

is
is

God

most

power

is it of

Being

are

mind

it has

life is

PhilosopJiyof

that

is

contemplation

so

and

all

which
human

things

the

and

seen

is

the

our

(in form

himself.

ideal

Physics, or

science

the

is the

is

absolute

unto

supreme

he

"

God
is

the

of

enjoyment

complete realization, of

eternallywhat

that

universal

mind,

time.

individual

that

Divine

the

activityand
of

of

periods

of

more

is excellent

that

self-contemplation.

life of blessed

ideal

much

life of

the

in

of the

excellent

most

are

satisfaction

highest

Mover

and

is characteristic

It

and

which

the whole

suspended

"

Prime

the

perception

excellent

the

Mind,

life of

That

excellent.

it is

From

army.

The

and

PHILOSOPHY.

not.

; hence

philosophy of,

soul.1
Character

Essential

principleof
1

motion

of

Nature.

within

Metaphysics,

P.k. V.

Nature,

"

as

having

itself,is possessed of
ch.

Bk.

X.

ch. 3, etc.

the

soul,

is

of

those

outside
the

of

cause

The

is both

Nature
such

to

that

always, in

the

same

nature

merely, not

conditions
made

cause,

but

not

attain

inherent
what

in

chance,

the

and

of
end,

of

the

De

animal.

generally, if

not

cognizable ends.

in

are

the

to

is

the

in

But

of

Such

reason.

or

element

dom
king-

nature's

failures

contingent

are

of

cause

of

spite
is

house

animal

the

examples

are

or

Philosophy of

necessity and
governed by form, or

by

Anima,

Bk.

object

an

governed
of

science

contingency inherent in matter, the


strative
or
Physics,is not so purely a demonis that of being.
and
Careful
prehensive
com-

as

those

As

"

the

to

which

Nature.

is

nature

reason,

nature,

from

the

prevails

is, also, a certain

there

which

observation

attained

form,

to

science

basis

the

form

reference

with

which

matter,

yet owing

science

the

of

end

end.

Method

by

the

nothing

mechanical

contingency,nature

or

inherent

towards

There

accidental.3

is

and

nature

monstrosities,
to

works

causes

contingency in

failure

does

is

"

builder.2

the

by

and

end

nature

certain

it is

but

end

Nature

necessity in
secondary, not primary, a condition
just as "heavy" and "light" are

is, indeed,

There

the

form, but

way

efficient

the

just the plant or

be

and

matter

extent

an

whereas

immanent

an

is to

animal

the

plant or

is

end

cient
their effi-

have

is immanent.

nature

principle of

the

governed by
in vain.1

of

respects like

all

latter

the

themselves,

works

in

are

that

artist,except

an

cause

of

its works

living being, and

137

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

to

and
rise to

induction

are

truth

principles;

who, preoccupied with


III. ch.
3

12.

Metaphysics,

Bk.

V.

ch.

requisiteas
is not

to

be

theories,neglect
Physics,Bk.

7.

II. 9.

I38

GREEK

facts.1
be

to

the
in

observations

But

"

of

causes

final

natural

entelechy or
other

In

words

of movement
in motion.

is

in

includes

and

(six)of

all

change,
three

is not

compared

to

"places."
of

the

"place."
motion,

Bk.

2.

kind

of

involve

change,

kinds
in

change
be

to may

of

place.
into

grouped

the

limit

No

water

"place"

world

is

is not

world

perfect motion

answers

is the

Analytics, Bk.

path
to

the

of

eternal

whole

33/

De

(there is

the

ment
move-

is without

sphere

Generatione

in any

only such

of
of
et

of

sphere

is not

; for

nature

the

rial
mate-

The

with

be

exchanging

ends

which

of

other

empty

an

is circular

motion
I. ch.

as

body by

plenum.

but

cupied
oc-

space

; it may

any

is

merely

infinite

The

to

bodies
or

(tottos)

the

presented

in which

the

"Place"

"place."

it)position,nor

the

stars.

motion

Such

Posterior

I. ch.

The

end,

Mover.

in

is therefore

Space

fixed

or

vessel

bodies

from

crease
decay,inand
quality),

or

by surrounding

or

space) ;

empty

as

in quantity (inquality (alteration),


crease

is held.

substance

only

us

Aristotle

(inkind

merely
or

world

inherentlya

origin and

referred

but

body,

surrounding body

of

is

potential.

last-mentioned

are

understand

(as we
by

no

is

diminution),and

and

of

Physics,as

potential as

embraces

which

in

changes

the

six

of motion

six kinds

The

are

is the
(/clvrjcris)

distinguished by

the

only

highest

reality(form) for

Motion

place.

the

is in

Motion

"

has

matter

facts

being

diminution, alteration

and

end

of matter

which
change (jieTafioXr}),

change

of

as

of

state

Motion

the

from

cause.

world

the
"

of

Time.

and

Space,

deductions

idea

knowledge

Metaphysics, the
Motion,

and

the

governed by

"

PHILOSOPHY.

ning
begin-

the
the

Prime
fixed

Corruptions,

140

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

either

quantity,but to change
in place only,and
has
only a circular (perfect)motion.
Of
the
other
elements, earth is lowest, fire highest, in
another,
place and nature.
They easilypass into one
being active and passive in nature, and are, as compared
with
ether, the fifth element, or quintessence,imperfect
changes

to

and

the

air

circular

and

like

points

nature

the
(e.g.,
the
man

the

sponge)

the Sciences.
of

He

are

Its

of

takes

of the

animal

on

of

beings

of another.1

being

neous.
homogeThere

"

being, and

is

certain

at

kind

one

Certain

the

can

plants

animals, and

possessed
Life

by

pervades

work

systematic
careful

soul

the

on

treatises

review

of

Place

and

all

of

physical nature,

inseparablefrom

";

and

character, since
1

On

the

the

on

of

the

the

Parts

are

clear

of Animals,

the

est
earli-

subject,

previous

because

theories

subject.
is

part

"feelings
of

physicalsubstratum

yet, also, that it is of


there

among

is the

general position that psychology

are

life

Character

profound specialknowledge

science

of the soul

General

distinct

the

as

the

very

Aristotle's

"

is based
well

bones,

or

Nature.

of

posed,
com-

elements.

Psychology :

as

living beings

closely resemble
attributes
are
possessed by animals
in a higher degree of perfection.

even

and

those

fire

motions.

in

that
difficulty

Their

intermediate

heterogeneous

gradation

distinguishedfrom

be

all

world.

downwards,

moves

of Being
a

it is with

lower

parts, e.g., flesh

Scale

throughout

earth

earth

parts, and

Graduated

in the

having

and

homogeneous
of

water

fire,air, water,

formed

in

qualityor

imperfection

not

are

upwards,
Of

of

cause

motions

in

of

cases

Bk.

IV.

transcendental
"

ch. 5.

states

"

that

GREEK

peculiar

"are

soul

of the

theories

his

and

of

drousness
the

is soul.

motion.

If

thought,

for

for

of

is

Life

; and

both

on

body, it
De

English,
2

plicity
simwon-

grounds

justice claim
of

knowledge
truth

on

it

is

generally

soul

is,as

it were,

process

of

process

goes

is

prime

Where

this

where

there

is

nutrition,
there

on,

organic being, there


be

may

defined

it

parts

nor

is

all,whereas

the

Since

unit

parts of
the

soul

is

nor

possessed magnitude,

thought

material

bodily, or

and

there

be

is not

are
a

does

not

Ani??ia, Bk.
with

Ibid.,Bk.

Introd.
II. ch.

itself

move

I. ch.
and
I.

1.
Notes

(See
by

or
(topically,

Aristotle's

Edwin

; it

subject

would

may

thing

it

be

Psychology

Wallace, etc.)

no

repetitions

magnitude,
in

to

exercised

i.e.,as
spatialexcept only "incidentally,"

superior

these

with

the

itself,however,

another.2

one

not

high

greater dignity and

might

for

"

magnitude

not

once

acquisition

ence.
entelechy,or perfection, of organic bodily existIt is not

has

soul

chology
psy-

self-contained

(the principle of motion)

Soul

the

the

; and

the

decay.2

organic being

as

of
the

by

nature

Soul.

and

growth,

The

"

and

existence."1

in animal
aud

sided
one-

of

place

knowledge

important bearings

especiallyon

Body
is

of

virtue

contents

have

to

as

empirical

the
:

says

place, and, besides,

thought
factor

form

or

investigationof

foremost

and

in

its

he

him

by

both

Regarding

one

its truths

of

treated

conceive, always something

but

either

another

to

transcendental

purely

therefore

is, we

honorable

the

sciences

the

among

and

and

are

Both

alone," e.g., thought.

character.

knowledge

I4I

investigations are

speculative in
of

soul

the

to

materialistic

purely

the

PHILOSOPHY.

related

is
to

place),and
in

Greek

and

is

itself.1

is

It

sympathizes

is

it

the

and

the

of

existence
soul

then,

soul

is, indeed, dependent


the

as

body.4

of the

the

of

entelechy

separable from
correlative

Parts,

in the

of
vdjjieis)

the

One

has

locomotion

De

Ibid,

The

process
De

Ibid.,Bk.

to

I. chs.

of

matter

prior.3

and

final

shall

mere

see,

is

separate

of

and

faculties

(Sv-

nutrition

(dpeirriKov),
reproduction,5of sense-

or

volition

or

(open/cov),
(BiavorjTLfcov),

intellect

of

(See

3.

The

"

also ch.

5.)

We

II. ch.

3.

That

principlethat
but

to

in the

body is,in
well

can

as

the

nutrition

other

say that

the

words,

body

stage in its

is in the soul.

II. ch. 4.

Bk.

Anima,

the

the soul

of self-realization.

dition,
con-

I. ch. 4.

existence

from
not

Bk.

so

is

the

single and

Soul.

those

are

generation,

Bk.

than

in

body.

and
{kivt^tlkov),

Anima,

The

one.

but

more

no

of desire,
perception (alo-OijTtKov),
of

are

only
and
a
activity,

is

and

Body

part of it,we

and

body,

soul

includes

which

soul

the

gives intelligible

being form,

as

over

being

efficient,formal,

the

But

Just by

soul

body,

its

to

Faculties, of the

or

the

soul,

body.

the

the

in

veloping
parts, de-

its power

matter

upon

short, is the

soul, in

cause

the

its

"matter."

and

condition

which

too, to
The

is

body

of

not

operates

in

that
is

form

as

one,

form

which

body,

and

soul, and

the

does

man

instrument.

organism,

an

body,

the

to

are,

body

the

the

soul

soul, though

and

an

as

the

that

motion,

whole

it

of

unity

entelechy of

as

that

say

the

But
of

using

is the

body,

cause

body

to

learns, but

or

outside

by anything

not

soul.

the

the

through

virtue

the

of

by means
"movable,"

better

thinks

or

moved

being

even

so

and

of

capable

not

far

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

142

form.

whatever
De

Anima,

is

exhibits
Bk.

an

function

of

the

idea

an

end

II. ch. 4.

or

soul

lows
fol-

belongs

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

to

faculties

in

except,

have

Plants

nutritive

developing life,the
within

contains

the

himself

or

merely

as

^m-sensuous

matter.

of

of the

through

sense

alone

organ
the
the

power
other
to

necessary

reallysuch.4
of

in

reason

See

De

what

was

Anima,

lower

the

(man

and

plant

the

species

of

realityto conceptions.
form
purified of all
The

heart's

the

primary

heart, the

which

brain

action.

seat

acting

But

ceptions
per-

such

ber,
numimpressions (e.g.,
given through any one
ticular
par-

not

are

but

all in common,

by

of inference.3

The

four,

through

contact

sense
a

are

received,

of touch

lies
under-

medium

render

the

possible object

Of

five

senses

it.
said
Bk.

dies, the

are

figure,size)as
and

in

stages

gained through five special organs


five well-known
ulty
senses),a general fac-

sense

(the organs

is the

sensation

regulator

of

faculties

external

faculty of

of

organ

give

is the

Reason

and

These

the

other

actuality. In sense-perception,
matter) of objects is preserved,
higher faculties of the soul.2

the

by

locomotion

and

sensuous

of

the

has

(notthe

form

transmuted

Desire

life

individual

the
form

the

Thus
the

be

the

is peculiar

locomotion.

successive

as

higher involving

i.e.,though
survives.

soul.)

of

last-

of the
nutritive
(reproductive)
By means
(universal)soul gives itself outward
manence,
per-

animal1).
function

that

cases,

another

to

one

some

the

only

related

to

The

reason.

facultyis separable from the body, and


the
soul of man.
(Animals have all

named

are

and

understanding

embraces

which

I43

the
In

has

sensation
the

perception by inference, or

above

II. ch.

hearing

of

being

on

the

Socratic
s

12.
*

Ibid.,Bk.

Natural

Ibid.,Bk.

II. ch. 7.

Theology,
II. ch. 6.

most

"incip. 55.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

144

learn

perception," we

dental

from

reasoning
In

concomitant,

the

but
of

form

is

what

is

not

universal,1since

sense

the

(fivrj/jLi]).
Phantasy

and

also, is

Memory,
of

state

in

produced
to

of the
idea

the

it.

Repetition

volitional
; in

ory

this

In

it

simple

though

even

of

as

in

has

it

is not

sense

distinct

Posterior

power

Ibid., Bk.

De

that

Analytics, Bk.
See

II. ch.

A/emoria,

2.

De

is

or

to

of

Hence

I.

before
or

mem

of

another

similarity,

idea

soi

ght.3

spontaneity

sense-perceptio\

reason.

fact

the

A/emoria,

sary
Neces-

(avduvvTis).

receptivity.Thj

below, p. 146.

19, and

quently
conse-

pure

idea

one

perceives

II. ch. 19.

it is

of

so-called

larger degree

from

sions
impres-

spontaneous

recalling the

mere

of

mind, reason)

implicitidea

primarily spontaneous
faculty appears

the

act

an

imagination,

memory,

above, p. 128.

See

the

through

(involving the

be

may

from

moves

given

previouslybeen

it is

case

contiguity, so

act

former

mind

with

an

impression

an

the

Such

be

has

act

or

is such

of

faculty of

mind

the

memory

soul.2

reflection

latter, of recollection

contrast,

soul

active

lodging
of the

states

or

them.

weakened.

imagination

the

connected

than

purely

in the

previous
idea

before

that

the

the

is the

memory

presence

of

image

an

and

sense

ceives
re-

relativelypermanent

or

soul, resulting from

the

the

tasy
phan-

and

but

independence

permanent,

simple

sublated

perception

and

^/^^'-permanence

of

matter

are
sense-faculty

or
imagination,
(cfravrao-ia),

is

butes.
attri-

apprehended

of the

out

by

accompanying,

objects without

Springing immediately

attributes

sensuous
or

sense-perception

individual

mere

of

that

activity

That

there

there

must

the

essential

nature

the

possibilityof

induction.

of

things,a

things themselves,
itself: in

flesh

of form

with
than

bare

and

and

be capable
potentiality,

passivitylike
in kind.

somewhat

kind

of

is related
ideas

of

reason

of

power

by

reason

the fact of

the

unity of

condition

between

of

the

says
be

can

of

of

that the

nothing

the powers

there

active

De

Anima,

Bk.

passive reason

more

from

the

with

reason

fact, also, that

any

in
and

communication

mind

passive
(which

less than

nor

beneath

think

the

and

nothing without

5.

the

it would
ensemble

nature

totle
Aris-

reason,

eternal

pure

seem

of all

reason) is

the

support

the active is immortal

eternallythinks.2
III. chs.

the

manifest

unity of subject

and

intellect,"whereas

by

to

of

and

color

actual

regard,further,

can

eternal,

reason,

In

perishable and
and

and

presupposing
receptivity

the

creative

The

made

thus

the
a

of

the

actual

man

being
"

the

"

world.

object,

of nature.1

relations

be

must

subject and

community

from

matter

as

of active

power

in

degree

words, be

active

objects is

reason

ment
ele-

an

passive reason

ideas

of

and

world,

sense-perception there
object as

the

into

the

ideas

are

external

the

in

that

the

external

in the

is made

Now

light.

active

in other

in
potentially
by the
actuality

potential color

just as

must,

are

into

brought

are

in

to

or

object,

an

different

related

mind

creative

to

having

though

There

passive reason,

the

to,

be

doubt

no

related

in it,or

sense,

of

judges

body
anything more

if it be

however,

therefore, have

must,
of

it must,

tial
essen-

perceives

facultyis

asserted) with

(as Anaxagoras

things ;

which

perceives and

this

Now

matter.

that

that

power

perceives

perceivesthe

from

different

which

that

e.g., that

power,

short, a

apart from

"unmixed"

flesh

of

nature

from

different

power

145

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

Now

the

Ibid.,Bk.

ideas
III. ch. 5.

of

I46

GREEK

PHILOSOPHY.

viewed

son,
merely as possible objectsof reaor
possible forms of its functioning, constitute
The
science
actual employment of these, or
(eV^m^).
functioning with them, is speculation (dewpetv).1As the
reason
perfection,or entelechy,of the soul's activities,
the activities
of sense,
imagination,simple
presupposes
and recollection,and is immanent
and
implicit
memory,
in these.
is thus the middle
tween
beterm
(Passive memory
and
the
reason
phenomenal real world.) This
mon,
explainswhy it is that the special senses, and the comor
general, sense, still more,
apprehend not mere
but
individuals
qualitiesin individuals, and that imagination,
and
recollection
have
a
simple memory,
nent
permaelement
in them
:
that, in short, no
operation of
mind
is purely passive and
the
relative
(irrational),
less of the
but
all partake more
or
spontaneity and
of pure
The
mind
has knowledge
absoluteness
reason.
in sense-perception. The
that
is in the
even
reason
is perceived by the
in the soul.
world
The
reason
of things it knows
for
essences
they are
absolutely,
the
objects, as they are the creations
only of reason.
Active
Aristotle,
however, is, according to
reason,
the
mortality
Imentirelyseparable from
body, and eternal.
finite
for
the
individual, consequently, is
Aristotelian
not
a
postulate of the
chology.
psynecessary
The
appetitiveand locomotive faculties of the
soul
the
others
related
to
are
through the feelings
of pleasure and pain. Every perception,conception, or
a
feeling of pleasure or of pain which
thought awakens
involves the "judgment" that the object of the perception,
thought, or conception is good or evil,and to be

active

reason

De

Anima,

Bk.

II. ch.

I.

I48

GREEK

PHILOSOPHY.

treated,

some,

e.g.,

mathematics,

method,

others

with

greater

the

to

science

(for such

science

in

affairs

known

better
facts

should

"

the

deficient

of

the

end

good

of

"

oiKovofjaKr],

Aristotle

and

(Wallace,

p.

be

8.

23).

nowhere
1

141,

of

and

the

30,

where

Science

man"?

of

"good

him, Aristotle
We

this must

hear
be

of

of

much

among

parts of
matter

so

similar

dis-

cal
Empiri-

little value

if the

attainment.

qualityand

state,

Ethics, treating of the

3.

included

three

of

ered
consid-

be

may

Political

is the

But

puts the
b.

"

(conception

the

Political

18, b. 13) distinguishes between

the
as
(ppSvrjcris

himself

Eth., VI.

12,

must

Science."

that

with

in

poor

should

{Ethics,!. 8,

tion
informa-

Politics,treating of the

what

I. chs.

are

Economics

Perhaps

But

man

and

and

man,

present day.

empiricallystudied

Eudemus

Nic.

the

at

is the

same.

branches

Ethics, Bk.

Psychology

the

practice common

the

that

Political

of

good

essence

state.2

the

for

not

and

materials

"

individual

individual

Nicomachean

souls

of the
in

cated
edu-

morally

or

have

character

Science

the

and

cal
politi-

morally

they

the

in

science.1

Political

natural

two

Following
1

are

the

of

good

good

of

i.e.,from

unprepared

are

because

Philosophy, or

man,

these

has, then,

and

things

to

us

student

well

"

student

of the

of

of

the

as

the

to

Practical

the) good
though

also, the

excellence

content

of

to

themselves,

young)

or

science

and

afford

the

Now

in

been

old

this

completeness
that

known

better

; human

especiallywe

inexperienced, ill-educated,

(whether

study

End

have

here

litical
Po-

Aristotle

latter class

and

of

method.

given by

name

(or knowable)

science

form

things

strictness

of

of the

principles. Hence,

to

the

is the

question) is

from

proceed

must

freedom

especiallyuncertain,

are

with

philosophy

of

definitely.
distinction

Sciences.
tto\itlkt}-

action

Cf.
is

; but

however,

implied"

PHILOSOPHY,

GREEK

pays

the

on

that

things
human
1

end

is

found

limits

and

the
as

man

function,

to

characteristic

the

to

the

most

swallow

nor

one

day

one

happy."2

nor

call

may

wealth

no

one

;
can

of

as

without

nor

be

of

if there

life
a

be

soul
than

more

as

neither

spring, so

neither

make

the

soul's

and

lence
peculiar excel-

Complete
the

the

blessed

happiness,
of certain

presence

possession
element

of

of

truly just who


truly liberal,who

pleasure in acting justly,or

man's

of the

since,

time

the

called

soul

the

lies

"energy

an

which

peculiar

of

reason

the

realized

the

his

man,

in

happiness.

conditions, such

that

to

perfect virtue"; and,

exist without

not

(since

practicable for

energizing

makes

short

external

since

the

most

day

does

hand

simply

of

fortunate

however,

of

is

man

since

or,

and

Good

end

realization

This

we

and

of
The

"best

is

it is too

good generally,is that

the

"in

does

of

we
quality,
may
say
virtue
(aperrj)
; or,

virtue, the

one

idea

"

according
further,

what

is
(epyov),

reason

that
in

matters

in

Good

unity among

only,and

only

man.

of the

real

the

and

good,

being false,chiefly

rejectsas

name

good

work

or

according

one

the
Now

end, and
of

in

the

doctrine

it presupposes

one

for man."

an

he

application to

good

"good
is

are

for

abstract

man)

that

grounds

Plato's

to

doctrine

This

subject of

the

on

particularattention

Idea.

as

opinions

current

cusses

I49

friends

pleasure,
takes

no

takes

no

pleasure in being liberal.2


Psychological
student
soul

of

of

science
political

(though

Nicomachean

Basis

not

Ethics

must,

(and Politics).
"

it is

necessarilywith

Ethics, Bk.

T. ch. 6.

obvious, study

scientific

The

Ibid.,Bk.

the

exactness

I. chs. 7 and

9.

I50

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

and

; he

completeness)

which

the

are

virtues,

not

capable of

we

need

know

must

any

virtue

consider

here.

the

or

The

has, therefore,

For

present

part being

reason

virtues

are

and

Conditions

-is,then,

Virtue

is

which
is
the

result

capacity.2
be

for

capacity

just

actions
brave.

In

this

ethical

has

two

stone),

necessity;

natural

is not

such

render
for

and
and

erted
ex-

tion
instrucit

virtue

brave

by

temperate

remarks,

be

capacity for

opposite. Right
to

nor

; but

knowledge

natural

just

Aristotle

natural

affectinga

capacity

are

habit.

or

requires only to

temperate

that
case,

not

falling of

as

required

are

and

one

reason

action,

with

This
its

virtue, i.e.,a

become

to

Virtue

"

capacity,however,

energy."

habit

virtue.

(SiavorjTLKaL).1

the

teaching

capacity for

right

and

Men

"

an

real

kinds

of natural

but

is,e.g., sight,which

is also

virtue

and

natural

This

capacityas
to

habit

of

reason,

two-fold,

necessary,

thought, identical

Socrates

it,as

and

of habit

result

no

is

habitual

(like,for example,

phenomenon

that

virtues, resulting chieflyfrom

innate

not

for

two

Virtue.

of

ethical,from

instruction, the

of

dianoetic

or

intellectual

the

sources,

soul

to

other, obedient

accordingly

and

Sources

capacity

itself,the

intellectual

and
(rjdL/ccu)

virtue

any

submits

and

then, the

purposes,

of

is

appetitive soul, though

certain

functions,

vegetative soul

want

rebellious, yet, participates in


and

the

Now

are.

its

what

the

real

only.
forming
perand

"energy"

precedes the "capacity" instead of following it. Virtue,


termed
a
being a result of habit, is by Aristotle
1
2

Nicomachean
This

Ethics, Bk.

is Aristotle's

by Socrates,

whether

I. ch. 13.

answer

to

the

virtue

could

be

question, argued by

the

taught.

p. 57.

See

above,

Sophists

and

habit.1

That
natural

mere

it is

that

their

called

not

are

choice

(which, as

of

indifferent.

"moved,"

be

Again,

rise

give

definite

and

end

first

reference

of the

doer; but

have

to

condition

certain

the

of

mind

of

the

he

does

Just

done

for their

them

from

firm

and

acts

does

man

virtue
and

of

Habit
in

means

the

soul
2

to

would

conditions

the

(e|tsis
Aristotle's

exelv"

usage,

t"

{i.e.,
a
faculty,almost),

Nicomachean

Ethics, Bk.

kind

mentioned

if

not

in

them

does

them

choice

principle.

just

or

perate
tem-

artist

an

by

of

knowledge

as

conditions

an

act

virtuous

have,

and

etymologically habit) fairly

fixed

condition

or

itself,

if,thirdly,

artist is

certain

just

rendering

from

in

; and

as

for

have

does

purpose

The

those

choice, and

such

are

do.

possession of

skill ; the

necessary
1

the

or

doer

sakes

settled

acts

class

viz.,if,first,he

own

and

temperate

from

temperate,

deliberate

things

that

certain

mental

or

if the

wittingly; if,secondly,with

of

is excellent

just and

result,but

are

actions

are

latter

what

are

men

(established)virtue

character

actions

certain

of

to

disposition.

the

to

The

dition
con-

said

are

distinguished

art.

production

without

they

of

morally

but

nature,

Now

leading

place, be

works

the

by

ours

intent

are

certain

constituting virtues
Acts

the

of

be

to

such.

is

see,

feelings we

by nature.2

bad

habits

to

resultingin
their

habits

our

nature.

in

must,

by

to

feelings

our

capacities are

our

good

not

by

Moreover,

merely

deliberate

to

action),the

virtuous

bad

and

capacities as

about

are

we

stance
circum-

the

from

good

relation

feeling nor

mere

their

feelingsor

Inherently, i.e.,without
or

not

is evident

capacity

men

of

because

and

habit

151

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

not

and

not

con-

definite

merely

II. ch. 5.

are

power

customary

and
mode

tendency
of action.

in

152

clitions of his
skill

or

is

of

by

show

Habits,
the

either

habits

the

"

Virtue

excellent

The

ethical

with

arithmetical, but

involving
time

the

motive

the

whom,
actions

must

avoid

mean

as

avoid

the

be

must

one

pleasure

Definitionof
virtue

leads

to

is habit

by

reason,

There

are

The

and

to

the

involved

Nicomachean

by

prudent
in

Ibid., Bk.

this

and

Ethics, Bk.
8

extremes

in

for

following :
must

one

is

he

"

which
rules

the

clined
in-

more

pertaining

matters

of virtue

deliberate

is fixed
would

man

or

also

determine

points

two

Bk.

VI.

"

tue
Vir-

determined

accordingly, (by

II. ch. 4.

of

choice, in the

definition

are,

II. ch. 9;

discussion

foregoing

ourselves, which

as

the

"

towards
in

are

definition

following

require elucidation,
1

"

characterized

relative

mean

Virtue.

the

investigation

an

which

guard

mean.

pleasant.3

the

and

his

on

well

identical

not

convenient

to

rate
accu-

as

the

at

manner

two

extreme

art

persons

ourselves
of

worse

"

more

"

the

Certain

is in

categories,

the

which,

regards

especiallythat
;

to

for

certain

other

that

every

by

which,

performed.2

are

hitting the
one

of

in

cases

is

be

may

habit

course,

is determined

application

the

when,

the

by aiming

is, of

however,

mean,

upon

regards

nature,

its end

or

as

art, and

any

realizes

science

every

than

necessary

constituted.

mean

be

the

dependent

the

must

is

is

as

either

virtue, like

because

and

in

be

this,

and,

knowledge
among

it

virtue

habit

emotions,

or

ourselves.

mean,

of

But

quantities,may,

as

extreme,

or

action.1

sort

hand,

importance

secondary

virtuous

regarded

other

the

On

of

what

passions

in

as

action.

only

conditions
to

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

Ibid., Bk.

ch.

I.

it."
that

Aristotle

II. ch. 6.

later

disciple of his1) further

faithful

some

or

of

chapters

Nicomachean

the

is
precisely,

deliberate

exercised

the

by

from
choice

be

consequence

action

or

doing

the

which

is made

or

but

of

choice

is

laws,

or

Deliberate

About

which

that

ordinary

impossible,or
choice

it is

means

oftener

in

narrower

within

and

external

choice,

ends,
as

things
often

within

choice
1

our

exercise

deliberate

It is

power.

choice

is

opinion

common

Ethics

not

were

for

is

among

written

by

A.

the

with

deliberate

but

tain.
uncer-

definition,
which

by

V.-VII.
close

Nicomachean

Ibid.,Bk.

Ibid.,Bk. III.

Ethics, Bk.
III. ch.

1.

III. chs.

1-5;

Bk.

See, also,Rhet., Bk.

chs. 2, 3.

VI.

chs.

I. ch. 4.

All

voluntary

definition, a
Bks.

to

madmen

choice.
all

not

is

regard

of

1-13.

virtu-

the

follower

Eudemus.
2

about

more

Children, fools,and

critics that

the

deliberate

no

are

from

voluntary, but
Now, by the

in

deliberate

they

do.4

to
or

gard
re-

irrational, or

or

exercised

not

in

power

voluntary choice,

voluntary,but

is deliberate.
a

our

necessary,

appears

necessarilycalculating,nor

not

or

exercised

nature,

than

range

the

making

through constraint, or

calculating choice

about

the

involuntarychoice

purely accidental, there


sphere. We
beyond our

Deliberate
is

person

whether

commonly known
particular circumstances.3)

is eternal,

than

voluntary

general and

certain

of

course

the

is

tinguish
dis-

wittinglyand

which,

done

or

things contingent

to

as

be

is

done

of

(That

of

reason

must

That
or

is in

deed.

through ignorance, not


facts

choice

choice.

cause

not,

or

is

?
(cfrpovifjLos)

is made

origin or

willingly,the
choice

which

in

;2 viz.,What,

What

Deliberate

"

53

developed

Ethics

? and

man

voluntary

action

or

choice

prudent

Choice.

Deliberate

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

machean
Niconamed

154

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

act

ous

habit

or

deliberate
that

choice,
far

so

ethical

is

act

an

character

dependent
of

maintains,

voluntary, they

are

and

habit

Aristotle

but

acts

as

or

classifiable

are

upon

course,

are

of

an

or

the

virtuous

as

opposite.
The

Ethical
of

nature

Virtues.

requires

man

dianoetic

"

right

"

reason

virtues.

that,

give

to

together

"excess"

demonstrated) by
(the mean),

is

It

These,
in

exercised

as

examination

an

virtues.

undertaking

determination

The

"

of

of

the

Aristotle

be

to

rashness

or

before

the

ethical

corresponding

"defect,"

and

prudent

however,

account

with

the

intellectual

necessary,
an

the

by

the

of

are

the

assumed

tremes
ex-

(not
age
Cour-

following :

(the excess), cowardice

(the

of
defect); temperance,
intemperance, want
bility
susceptito feelings of bodily pleasure and
pain ; liberality,
in the

ordinary giving and receiving of


or
riches, prodigality,illiberality
right
; munificence,
moderateness

or

in

measure

in

expenditure

magnanimity

humbleness

ambition,

mildness

of

tion
ostenta-

in

this

high-mindedness, vanity,
ambition,

or

or
spiritlessness,

clownishness

indignation

shamelessness,
malice

love

of

gard
re-

sive
exces-

honor,

of ambition

want

are

illustrations

II. ch. 6;

not, A. says,
of the

cleverness

of

bashfulness

Bk.

III.

strictlyvirtues

doctrine

the

to
susceptibility

of the

mean.

ch.
and

6;

wit,
ing
feel-

just indignation,

injustice.1

[!]; justice,equity, and

Ethics, Bk.

Nicomachean

as

smallness

self-depreciation
;

shame,
envy,

and

"

irascibility,
insusceptibilityto
gance,
civility,
obsequiousness, incivility
; candor, arro-

buffoonishness,

or

"

money,

vulgar

temper,

assumed

of

of

; moderate

inordinate

anger

of money,

large expenditures

Bk.

V.

vices, but

Shame
are

tioned
men-

I56

GREEK

whole

the

of the

virtue.1

of

virtues

relative
else

and

the

to

PHILOSOPHY.

the

not

and

transactions

between

termed

geometrical

is that

which

justiceis
of

based
be

must

one

divided

also

is that
not

that

which

as

the

to

its

lack

rests

of law

of

knowledge,
fail of

may

law

of the

and

legal.

the

of

the

and

equitable

the

law,

Nicomachean

and

of

takes

of the
the

is defined

it is defective

inadvertence
the

Ethics, Bk.

law-maker

V.
3

who,

or

ch.

and

Ibid., Bk.

V.

than

general
2

1.

Ibid.,Bk.

ch. 6.

through

Its defect

feeling

rather

owing

legislator,the
bound
to

of human

account

character

justice
depends

preferring arbitration
due

may

Supplementing

part of

man,

other.
an-

Legal justice

specific.
being sufficiently

sympathy,

intention

the

on

losses
of

gains

Natural

received."

so

corrective

"

the

by

equaliti
in-

deserts
:

mean,

wherever

of

based

justice.2 Justice

not

universality." Through

judicial procedure,
of

man's

enactments.3

on

second-

justiceis

distribution

for

being

not

or

kind

merits

and

everywhere equallyvalid

"correction

supplied by
the

"

natural

in

justice

perfecting legal justice is equity,which

and

law

being

upon

is

is

which

is

errors

equalitiesand

arithmetical

compensated

into

the

as

"

reciprocityis

Mere
be

the

upon

character

in the

receives

he

of

Distributive

Distributive

mean,

ever
what-

members
of

one

mean

or

distributive, the

the

of transactions.

the

first-mentioned

justice,of

; corrective

individuals

the

the

The

is

honor,

correction

the

to

of

merely

account

upon

wealth,

corrective, justice.

mentioned,
takes

virtue, is

among

men.

particularjustice is

of

of

of

distributed

politicalcommunity,

justice,which

whole

distribution
be

can

Particular

V.

is

by
strict

failings,
letter

the
conduct
chs.

2, 3, 4,

of

5.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

the

the

of

accused,

person

differences

in

faults

57

and

crimes.1
Reason"

Right

"

What,

Generally.
"

exercised

as

reason

the

ing

practical mean

will be

brought

have

virtues, which
has

character

"prudent

man"

in determm-

be

to

of

of

question

intellectual

the

treated.

that

either

this

to

answer

discussion

now

object

as

exact

The

in the

out

tues
Vir-

is the

now,

the

by

tJie Intellectual

and

Prudence,

The

standing
under-

is necessary

which

is contingent
which
that
or
absolutely knowable
and
Things of the firstonly relativelyknowable.
either
mentioned
kind
are
principlesor consequents of
and

these

things
of

objects
intuition

second-mentioned

of the

experience.

their
(1/0O?),

habits,

Principles

by

consequents

Intuition
(iiria-TijiLrj).
as

class

and

known

are

by

demonstration

demonstrative

virtues, and

are

lar
particu-

are

thought,

sidered
con-

constitute

together

wisdom

the
highest of the intellectual virtues,
((ro(j)La),
the highest because
noblest
to the
having reference
habits the objects
or
things.2 The intellectual powers
of which
and
are
contingent are art (rexvtf),
prudence,
differ in that the
which
or
practicalwisdom
(fypovrjcris),
"

principleof
the

is

the

class

one

of

objects themselves,
certain

the

reason;

habit"

"

absence

governed by

false

practicalwisdom,
of
mark

of

the

such

Nicomachean

Ibid.,Bk.

of
of

man

chs. 3,

other

art, the

be

further
or

is the

Ethics, Bk.
VI.

the

The

prudent,
a

related

6, 7.

to

in

"making"

reason.

may

(as

V.

persons)
doer.3

the

"habit"
nature

by true
"making"

of
of

prudence,

explained by

Rhetoric, Bk.
3

Ibid.,Bk.

The
success-

I. ch.
VI.

or

eration
consid-

man.

deliberate

abilityto
io;

Art

governed

practicallywise,

ch.

lies in

13.
ch. 4.

158

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

fullyrespecting the good and expedient in relation to


deliberates
have
one
no
Now, as we
livingwell.
seen,
than
otherwise
be
about
things that cannot
they are,
about
do.
to
nor
things that are beyond their power
Prudence, or practicalwisdom, then, is not that wisdom
in

intuition

which

but

certain

human

to

rational

has

But

means.

embraced,

are

having practicalreference

habit

Wisdom

good.

with

demonstration

and

do

to

with

is

prudence

ends, prudence
than

more

mere

fair-mindedness
gence,
intellior
or
sagacity or shrewdness
in it ; it is the
be contained
though these may
moral
insight and the tendency to right action that are
begotten of experience in acting justly,temperately,
etc.1 Until prudence is attained, virtue or, rather, what
to

appears
of

"who

those

ought

man

be

to

Virtue

tarily.

virtue, is habit

do

they ought and what a good


do
only half -consciouslyand half-volunnatural
as
distinguished from
proper,
"

such
the

its

question, discussed
Socrates,2

and

whether

knowledge
though

of

sensation

possesses
Nicomachean

do

so
"

to
"

answered

in

the
when

mind,
that

is present

VI.

chs.

may,
10,

of

regard
the

of

exist

about,"

or

scientific

arise,

passion cannot
opinion which
that

the

to

negative by

when

that

; and

the

force
may

"dragged

holds

in

but

conjunction.

With

is

and

virtues

in

"

knowledge

Ethics, Bk.

unity

Opposite.

knowledge

is present

it may

the

exist

with,

perception

natural

by passion,Aristotle

overcome,

the

or

are

virtues

true

Self-Controlarid

in accordance

merely

not

that, whereas

separately,the

virtue, the virtue

what

Again,

mean.

prudence

result

"natural"

is but

with, "right reason,"

union
true

such,

one

is the
who

tually
vir-

nevertheless, do wrong
II, 13.

See

above, p. 57.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

fails to

habit

of

the

use

being

characterized

"

habit

self-control.

is

blameworthy (not
held) than

the

not

is

of

to

virtue

and

It unites

desire

common

other's

It is

sake.

friendship is
agreeable ;

good,

good.

True

to

passive,and

exists

of

it be

consonant

those

among

friendshipis not

consists

in

more

Friendship

men.3

valued,

because

By

the

can

Nicomachean

Ibid.,Bk. VIII.

society:
of the

Ethics, Bk.

political
is among
for that

another

1.

who

true

themselves

are

is both

and

expedient

merely

habit but

; it is active

man

it he

chs.
3

No

merely expedient or
only with a love

justice as

to

VII.

it is

rather
in

ing
receiv-

acquires a
virtue
3 and

and

is

second
the

(of

of union

bond

friendship

an

than

implying community

as

contemplate

ch.

states, and

conferring than

good

through

dition
con-

ble,
honora-

there
to

one

the

implies intercourse

among

of

when

good

love

exists

and

and

consideration

do

interest)is closelyrelated

he

had

indeed

necessary,

existence

friendship is

benefits.

others);

virtue, if

to

friendship,however,

and

Socrates

"good-will mutually felt."


on

Perfect

pleasant.
energy,

based

true

of the

is less

man

as

individuals

of the

condition

eminently a subject for the


philosopher.2 Friendship
men

nence
"inconti-

to

man.

is,besides, most

pleasant.

prime

ence.
prefer-

or

a
virtue, is friendship. It is certainly

kind

and

choice

blameworthy,

Closely related

"

in

intemperance

incontinent

The

more

"incontinence,"

corresponding

intemperate

Friendship.

is

deliberate

by

"mean"

The

passion

It differs from

of self-control.

want

of

the influence

pain through
not

59

knowledge he possesses.1 The


yieldingwrongly to feelingsof pleasure and

if he

or

greatly
self

(in

good

4.

Ibid.,Bk.

VIII.

chs.

2, 3, 4, 5, 6.

in

l60

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

others

better

desirable

in himself

than

for

the

Friendship, that

alone,

of the

sake
is to

say, is

and

"

existence
of

perception

is

good.1

the

self-

a
species of
practically

contemplation.
Pleasure
defined

and

ingredient,

of
perfect activity,
more

"energies"
noblest
the

to

good

good only as
of

soul

the

of virtue

according

the

highest

faculty is

the

virtue

noblest,

be, in each

man,

part."

comparison

In

is

most

self-sufficient,the

most

his

each

the

to

self,the

true

with

not

man

with

the

"

strive

conception

energy

of

this

pleasant,the
It

to

seems

the

ruling and

energies

better
of

are

it would
to

this,

to

ethics

is not

"

virtue.
the

utmost

of

virtue, the

of

indeed,

his

to

virtue

all.

this, ethical

Absurd,

to

of

divine

the

is the

highest

most

constant,

as

such

seen,

of

the

wisdom,

most

secondary importance.
were

differs

condition

law

theoretic, faculty. The

speculative,or

is nothing

itself;it is

have

the

to

in

and

we

highest happiness corresponding


But

energy,"

appears

good

perfection.2 Happiness,

absolute
energy

is not

concomitant

Pleasure

is what

pleasure

Pleasure

man.

"

able
agree-

highest pleasures attending

True

energies.

the

activitythat

perfect virtue.

differ,the

the

been

virtue,

pleasure is

an

power,

any

less than

nor

for

regularlyattends

that

has

good

includes, besides

pleasure ;

"

consciousness
or

Human

"

happiness, which

as

second

Happiness.

live
be

be
in

his

cordance
ac-

true

self!
Ethics.

Practical
of

ethics

about

"

Theoretical

must

men

virtue.

be

Something
1

Nicomachean

Ibid., Bk.

virtuous,
more

than

Ethics, Bk.
X.

chs.

not

1, 4, 5.

IX.

the

merely

theory
ch. 9.

is

whole

theorize

required,

mankind

business
be

be

of the

state

should

Even

virtue.

all necessary

with

provided

the

its citizens, it is the


the

to

will best

he

able

be

legislator.1This
part of

the

which

to

man

and

sexual

those

organic

beings whereby

animal

inborn

and

some

the

being

state

households,
these, for

all

he

were

is

by

justice,of

and

organ.3
Nicomachean

The

J. E.
3

C.

Politics, Bk.

for

which

outline

M.A.
I. chs.

by
the

the

X.

follows

(1883).
1

and

2.

the

be

to

"

state

the

others

of

jects.
sub-

individual,

Community,
of

several

association

of

of

is but

or

the
the

eral
sev-

prior

politicalanimal

god

realization

germ

human

is in idea

state

ond
sec-

"natural

among

"composed

nature

have

Ethics, Bk.

following
Welldon,

would

fitted

and

is

man

not, he

nature

But

etc.

vegetable world,"

are

village" the simplest

villages,""the

be

desire

is

village,or

association

an

the

that

which

state

the

and

This

good.

differences

the

tribute
con-

the

growth

and

"

to

fit to

naturally rulers,

are

family,or household,

of

proper,

on

'-'

oneself

like

Historicallyprior to
the

is

state

relation, based

whole

the

to

as

The

education

himself

human

of

to

friends."

Politics

science

may

conditions

the

and

make

to

us

"

offspring

an

if he

brings
general

is the

"leaving

do

to

the State?

Origin of
of

of his children

virtue

it is the

individual

every

of

sion
pas-

its citizens

neglect

of

by

And

practical

state

duty

majority
but

virtue.

to

legislatethat

to

so

the

knowledge

by

not

educated

must

for

virtuous,

men

guided

are

they

of

making

the

for

l6l

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

brute.
idea

to
"

He
of

law

embodiment

ch. 9.
the

translation

of the

Politics

made

by

62

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

The

Family.

The

"

household,

family, or

the

between

those

husband

slave

and

wife, parent

and

; and

science

the

three

branches.

beneficent

institution, owing
intellectual

the

function

slave

the

of

him

head

children

among

household
whole.

the

family.1
is the

This
of

the

to

Criticism
Plato
"

and
in

whole
the

and

of

and

head

to

the

the

unnatural

trading

difference

reference

of

that

of the

has

the

to

the

the

of

child,

head

the

its

of

hold
house-

foundation

of

the

earth.

is the

finance

It is

money.

of

(ideally)

virtue

products

in

ruler,

part

every

the

lower

is natural

science

from

and

of

in

is contained

reference

finance

money-getting

subject

is

acquisition,which

realized

natural

In

there

the

branch

of

art

soul

erty.
prop-

Wife

virtues

children

and

the

is

latter

of

corresponding

state

kind

ruler.

those

society.

family ;

One

wealth
is

the

slave, has

wife, the

the

in

household

of

head

the

in

subject ;

of

In the

in the

of

; he

of the

wife

as

part of the

persons
and

is

virtues

same

One

he.

slave

constitutional

The

men.

service

power

and

differences

of

the

has,

natural

natural

family rules

some

natural

other

exists

as

possess

than

degree

the

the

possess

family, but
the

but

despot

as

of

is

physical
The

child, master

household

natures

mere

being despotic.

The
not

is

the

to

Aristotle,

to

and

the

Slavery

of his master,

tool,or instrument,
over

of

moral

and

existing in

according

are,

therefore,

in

relations

elementary

art

greatly

abuse.2

of

Certain

Others.

Plato's

Politics, Bk.

Theories

The

"

12

and

Forms

of

theory propounded

Republic has,
I. chs.

and

13.

Aristotle
2

the

by

State
"

tes
Socra-

thinks, three

Ibid.,Bk.

I. chs. 8-1

car-

1.

164
in the

ing

the

of

source

of

Community
Platonic

common

invariable

of

ttse

has

Republic
but

is

intellectual
the

main

little

"

If there

be

them,

; and

guardians
in

If

one.

land

on

condition

guardians, they
There

are

To

the

Politics,Bk.

they

induce

them

be

soon

also
the

fixed

arrogant

certain

minor

of

Plato

as

Ibid.,Bk.

pline,
disci-

(3) About
but

the

the

Republic.

dians
guar-

and

erty
prop-

the

dians
guar-

ruled

the

by

states

rent

and

defects

nearly
the

in the

Ibid.,Bk.

II. ch. 6.

able.
intractin

the

property, the

of
the

to

the

same

exception

of the

tions
regula-

Republic?

by Phaleas, Hippodamus,
II. chs. 3-5.

in

given ownership

become

Laws

munity
com-

mutually hostile

two

paying

Laws

in the

fact

moral

from
be

to

wives, children, and

same

in

nity"
"commu-

children

differ

are

their

by

and

applicable,since,with

of

advocated

will

are

objections are

community

of

least

not

only

all,indeed,

"

husbandmen

the

Republic?

The

education.1

will

will

There

at

philanthropic appearance,"

wives

of

how
will

what

homicide.

legislationproposed

is determined

nothing

or

tional
addi-

an

simple

so

produceable by

state

community

among

from

The

it.

that

the

be

perhaps desirable,but

culture, and

of

body

would

"

plainlyimpracticable.

practicable is

another

to

impossible,

''specious and

The

keeping
quarrellingof persons
travellingtogether. Community

of

tenure

only real

Socrates."

love, and

is evident

is

property

in the
the

while

purse

in the

is also

as

"

"

class

one

sensual

outrage,

sense,

this is the

possible,would

if

even

property

of the

that

as

from

of children

impossible, and,

eulogized by

unity so

transference

the

affection

is mutual

state

of

source

be

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

ities
Pol-

Solon,

II. chs. 5 and

and

6.

GREEK

others, and

the

institutions

Carthaginians

and

End

The

of

PHILOSOPHY.

the

also

are

State.

the

of

65

Spartans, Cretans,
by Aristotle.

reviewed
it has

Man,

"

been

affirmed,is

would
animal," and men
political
naturallyunite in a
the motive
of a supposed or
social organizationwithout
perceived common
advantage to be realized in so doing.
The
view of the state
true
undoubtedly is that it is an
of which
the prevention
the real end
is not
association
of mutual
exchange,
injuryor promotion of commercial
though these are secondary objects of its being, but
licity
a
independent existence, a life of fecomplete and
"

"

nobleness"

and
but

life ; the

noble

life in

state

is

-not

"

true

merely,
chieflyto

common

devoted

virtue.1
Nature

The

entity
have

elements

in

defendant

the

nor

as, for

the

the

residence, nor

state,

the

determine

to

Citizen.

the

of

of

the

which

conception

right to

mere

the

example,

artisans

the

citizen.
as

Not

plaintiffor

existence

children

and

posite
com-

possession of

the

being indispensable to

citizens,we

are

of

is

state

appear

judicialaction, nor

together,but

of these

As

"

are,

dom,
free-

of the
nor

all

"participationin judicialpower

"

is the absolute
mark
of citizenship
public office
there is a question as to what
(in a democracy).2 Now
of a good citizen.
Is it or is it not identical
is the virtue
of the good man
?
The
that
with
must
be,
answer
and

in

general

with
that

different
there

whereas
same.

terms,

are

the

And
Bk.
Politics,

that

forms

even

virtue

of

of government

several
virtue

the

kinds

of the
in the

III. chs. 6 and

same

8.

of

the

citizen

(forwe

may

polity,or

good

man

form

is

differs
assume

government),

everywhere

of government,

Ibid.,Bk. III. chs.

the

there
and

5.

66

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

different

are

functions

virtues

in

the

possesses

the

which

such.

as

The

the
prudence {i.e.,

of
is

hence

performed, and

citizens

virtue

man),

good

be

to

ruler

good
virtue

indispensable

not

ferent
dif-

in

of

the

the

ject.
sub-

the
subject
polity,however, in which
become
ruler, and ruler subject,there is doubtless
may
the virtue
of a good citizen and that
an
identitybetween
of a good man
"the virtue of a good citizen may
; and
be
defined
a
as
practical acquaintance both as ruler
the
rule
and
of
free
characteristic
a
subject with
Virtue
approximating that of the good
community."
the
citizen ; and
it is just
to
man
is, then, necessary
Under

because

fact

this

of

that

artisans

and

children

not

are

citizens.1
A
the

in

state

of the

according

as

interest.

"

or

which

office."

supreme

they

have
the

When

the

the

or

Polities

may

individual

also

or

of

the

the

best

in

governing
or

persons

is termed

interests

third, a PolityProper.

politiesare
Politics,Bk.

the

the

5.

vidual
indi-

the

with
may

normal

of the

ences
differbe

an

polity

second,

best, ol apiarot,

community,
The

to

Ibid.,Bk.

an
or

apcarov),

corresponding

Tyranny, Oligarchy,and

III. chs. 4 and

nity
commu-

polities

of

which
A

the

Few

perversions."2

accordance

Kingship,

the

whereas

are

many.

of the

of

either

power,

by

kinds,

public or private

individual or

Masses

divided

of two

are

end

interest

"

the

or

be

few

first sort

else for the

their

rule

Aristocracy (a government
the

Polities

for

selfish

Few

regards

as

of

polityis an order of
generally,and especially

its offices

respect of

subserve

the

"A

"

Many is exercised for the benefit


normal,
large,the politiesare

the
at

of

its Kinds.

and

Polity

rupt
cor-

Democ-

III. ch. 7.

real

The

racy.

is

democracy

difference

between

difference

167

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

regards wealth,

as

should

Who

ought

in

general terms

be

rule ;

to

of

external

the

in virtue

the

"all

should

follows

be

kinds

populace

populace

of

which

is suited

entitles

cratical

populace

obedience
for

them

of

command

as

populace, one

conformity to
to

the

rich

law

is unstable

rule

masses,

become
1

which

is

the

III. chs
*

he

; and

of

rule

6-9.

Ibid., Bk.

king

for the

kinds

rulers.

"The

superiorityin
;

of

aristo-

an

yieldingthe
fits them

constitutional

and
the

subjection in
offices

of state

desert."3

cannot,

The

unsupported,

assistants, they may

longer king.

no

is naturally

as

virtue

whose

have

is

it

different

is such

principle of

and, if he
and

of

capable

distributes

; for

his peers,
Politics,Bk.

to

this

reason

family whose

capable

according

kingship
the

sufficient

politicalrulers
is

him

polity(not,however,
democracy) must generally

those

to

are

of

classes

that

one

men

that
a

to

or

From

politicalcommand

to

is

free

to

this

on

if there

them

to

kingship

to

submit

qualifiedto
virtue

different

demand

lectively
Col-

sufficiently
eminent
pre-

man

the fact that

polityin

virtues
i.e.,

man,

; but

masses,

is

answer

would,

many

one

form

there

best, though

different

the

constitutional

but

the

wealth, birth,etc.

even

democratic

democracy

pure

of

the

asked,

in itself the

willing obedience."2

render

that

good

supremacy

the

wealth

"

be

many

the

as
or

above

the

to

such

is

should

class embraces

masses

if there

or

men,

it

or

conditions

ground, generallyhave
few

few,

one,

goods

viewed,

If

"

is,Whatever

largest number
and

Rulers.

latter.1

the

characterizingthe former, poverty


Who

oligarchyand

an

Ibid.,Bk.

III. ch.

17.

III. chs.

In

11-13.

fact,

l68

GREEK

the

of

tendency

towards

will

of

or

one

the

few, but

individual,the

in the

is
alreadyconstitutional
a
polity,i.e.,
polityresting not

polity not

constitutional

the

on

PHILOSOPHY.

In the

element

universal

(law is

intellect

law.

on

the

rules

state

the

as

ular,
partic-

creation

of

is

the

best

the

highest

intellect)the

passions.1
Best

The

to

comprise

furnishes

and

independent

an

now,

which

is that

individuals

life for

"

general,it

In

What,

Polity.

and

alike.

state

of

comprehensive knowledge,

of

another

one

also

should

should

to

be

be

of

point

any

located

so

be

can

it will possess

of

at

with

naval

consistent

part of the

the

with

citizens,

The

state.

character

and

try
coun-

in other
in

military succour

reference
and

to

land

The

and

other

The

force.

that

cient
yet suffi-

cities.

citizens

city

sea

security,and

with

It must

should

be

"spirited"

and

"independent."

There

mechanical

arts,

supply of

religiousritual,means

money,

of

administering justice.

of

division
"

between

citizens

the

There

citizens

and

class, those

not

artisans, and

hired

expenses
1

Politics,Bk.

basis.

of

III.

who

The

state

must

have

The

common

line

true

zens,
citi-

not

are

public lands
and

food,

proper

comprising

religiousworship,
ch. 14-17.

soldieryand

laborers.
"

the

those

citizens

partlypublic,partlyprivate,

be

be

the

comprising

be

must

must

being

notice."

short

independence

suitable

of

should

state

"readily comprehended

facilities for intercourse


have

the

size

such

The

persons

on

affairs

i.e., "allow

single view,"
brought

the

it

that

respects

and

ditions
con-

a virtuous,
i.e.,
intelligent,

largest number

the

polity?

the
the

lands

liberati
debandmen,
hus-

must

defraying
meals,
psychological

privatelands being

and
be
the

city.

The

The

for health
be

to

the

the

same

for

all

in

supreme

the

The

education
rather

peace

than
former

latter.

It

should

natures

of

the

since

the

"habits"

to

children

must

earlyyouth
influences

must

art

the

should
of

art

it

is

education

intellect,the

of

first

and
be

of

source

the

with

V.

the
of

health

must

and

purest
scenes.

of their

because

rational

children

and

the
and

body precedes

Politics,Bks. IV.

from

painting,for

it promotes

ethical

Infancy

manners

or

the

begetting

state.

taught,

design

training of
1

the

forming right judgment

to

means

the

tive
relato

and

is

development
and

and

purely rational,

the

carefullysurrounded

writing

because

the

of

relative

and

state.

virtues

physical
to

regulated by

gymnastics, because

music,
Since

advance

regards speech

as

general utility
;
as

the

the

leisure

to

the

for

in

same

public,
of

those

than

Marriage

be

erence
ref-

state, since

be

suited

war,

with

order

be

and

Reading

and

reason.

The

the

the

member

be

and

higher

child

should

should

begin

natural

provided by

subject

business
are

ditions
con-

being

be

must

business

provided

the

to

be

must

is but

to

citizens,buildings appropriat

Education1

public

individual

every

regard

magisterial boards"

"

citizens,and

slaves.

be

(with certain exceptions),

religiousservices

etc.
locality,

training

the

of

convenience

meals,

common

with

in

as

with
arranged, internally,

and

walled

well

as

69

must

militaryaction.

politicaland

and

(who

owners

soil should

the

favorably situated

be

cityshould

that

the frontier

of

cultivators

citymust

to

divided

so

portions on

citizens)possess

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

its

of works
and

fulness
use-

of

vigor ;

enjoyment.
that

be

of

the

in gym-

GREEK

170

severe

the

Before

nasties.

feelings,and, besides,
Three
to

other

Lydian airs,which

musicians

education

which

must

the

politiesarise
elements

laws

the

hired

of

of

forms

when
who
or

free

in

exists

poor,

mechanical

the

in

popular

in

and
be

are

hands

the
in

may

noble.

The

"

true

each.

of

Differences

in

combination

or

there

be

the

erative
delib-

Oligarchy.
in the

and

democracy

may

hands

"A
of

oligarchy

an

or

or

principal

two

propertied,

supreme.

rich,

of these

are

and

cultural
agri-

or

commercial

more

majority ;

of the
In

of the

husbandmen

authority is
a

man
states-

forms

possible

military class, the


Two

be

word,

class, the

Now

minority."
decrees

ing
afford-

Dorian

public officials,or

one.

when

who

the

practicallyuseful

all

the

polity,viz., Democracy

it is in the
are

polity;

judicialclasses.

democracy

is the

use

emotional, may

or

in the

laborers, the

practicallyunite

the

leisured, class, and


and

of

appropriate to

class, the
class, the

taken

is, also, liberal and

differences

parts

or

be

and

should,

state

knowledge

from

may

The

of DifferentPolities.

possess

polity and

the

indispensable

which

Characteristics

given

frequentlythe Phrygian, which is


its effects.
Flute-playingand "professional
are
hardly to be encouraged. The

is

that

merely, but

be

so

provided by

that

not

pations.
occu-

may

chief

nature.

and

in their

intellectual

its

intellectual

are

employed, but not


largelyphysical in
"

for

emotions

or

rational

the

to

brutal

gymnastics

severe

be

not

Lacedemonians

youths

them

passions

the

enjoyment

the

later, because

comes

should

following puberty

years

purificationof

of

renders

unfits

studies, then

Music

up.

this

puberty

experience

gymnastics

severe

proves,

of

age

the

for, as

PHILOSOPHY.

noble, class

either
If the

the

laws

laws
are

172
"

GREEK

irresponsiblerule

or

superiors of
ruler

the

rulers, for
of

not

the

is,in general terms,


and
A

democracy

of

calling the

for

of

standard

human
life ;

middle

the

majority,or

is

class

the

In

executive.

either
few

in

proper,

why

some

in

in all

by

cases

suffrage.

questions
of

the

"

persons

The

of

war

and

VI.

chs.

life

of

is

the

by

of

nary
ordi-

in

that
in

the

the
laws

and

middle

the

Every

good

politiesthe
; in

persons

middle

polity

political,

function

chieflyby

or

alternation
few

the

mean

are

deliberative, the

the

of
ple,
peo-

oligarchical,
in

polity

persons

appointed partly by

persons

appointed by lot, or

appointed partly by lot,partly by

deliberative

alliances, the

Politics,Bk.

by

others

judged by

is that

them.2

in

democratical

cases,

polity

existing politiesare

democratical

small

ment
ele-

no

best

of power,

many

comparatively

or

The

satisfaction

so

or
collectively
by

suffrage, and

at

balance

performed wholly

is

deliberation

by

aim

departments

of

state

attainment

happy

latter.

oligarchy,"

(as regards wealth)


the

reason

the

an

when

the

proper

oligarchy

will, accordingly, be

least hold

generally

three

the

state

oligarchical or

either

has

since

of

possibilityof

or

pohty.1

beyond

not

classes

that

The

classes.

the

at

enacted

are

the

in the

best

appears

best

the

of

change

beings,

and

which

virtue

is

existence

which

that

be

known

polity

towards

polity a democracy

and, further, the

must

between

mean

fusion

good

same

anxious

of

equals

are

personal advantage

subjects."

kind

the

of whom

inclining,however,

"

"criterion

subjects,all

over

the

and

PHILOSOPHY.

peace,

body
the

supreme

formation
of

enactment

7-10.

is

and

laws,

Ibid.,Bk.

upon

VI.

all

tion
dissolu-

sentences

chs* 11-13.

of

GREEK

confiscation

death, exile, and


of

of

officers

state, and
their

expiration of
executive

forms

different

of

of

of

of

the

though

two,

"

two

in

vested

and

; in

some

the

appointment

all the

cases

the
both

; in

is made
either

some,

by

lot."

partly by
judiciary
court

court

trial

try

between

court

court

try

to

cases
a

to

to

of
of

lot

is made
the

persons

others

is

eligibleare

in

them,

and

suffrage

or

the

sort

gible,
eli-

are

by

of

lot

all

all

not

by lot, or

some

by

more

combination

either

aristocratic

of

courts

offences

in

and

"

or

ment
appoint-

partly from

against

individuals
cases

court

The

of

of

court

questions,

try important

contracts.

constituting the

"

committed

constitutional

law

number:

officers and

petty

some

suffrage,or partly by suffrage and

or

The

homicide,

nation
combi-

combination

by

or

partly from

some

eight

are

"

by

by

"appointment

either

the

in

polity "all"

but
collectively,

made

polityof

garchica
is oli-

different

are

by

lot

the

in which

is

council

by suffrage, or
some

by

citizens,in

appointment
"

that

citizens

or

the

appointment by suffrage is

the

both,

to

by lot, or

some

from

all

suffrage,or

the

peculiar :

democratical

polityproper

regards

oligarchical polity,appointment

an

than
oligarchical
strictly
of the

In

some

the

common

appointment

"from

some

by lot, or

some

the

; in

two

at

preliminary council

by suffrage,or
"

the

is made
from

polity.

all

"from

appoint

of

modes

The

As

are

are

election

the

responsible

are

offices

some

institution,a

democratic

belongs

office."

polity,others

of

forms

it

they

of

73

; to

it

to

term

department,

various
is

PHILOSOPHY.

of

court

state,
to

try

respecting fines,
private contract,

aliens,
forms

the

scrutiny,

of

court

for

constitution

the

of

1^4

GREEK

the

which

in

courts

and
eligibility

are

oligarchical;
of

combination

universal

"characteristic
Methods

of

of

the

population.

differences

the

in

combination

of

of state

rule

the

individual

do

the

either

twice,
shall

or

do

military
either
the

judges

the

same

shall

only

so

hold

not

the

offices

in

of all

in all

or

or

or

of

almost

in

all

body

Politics,Bk.

VI.

at

state

least

chs.

all

to

or

skill ; the

sence
ab-

requirement

of

office

of

it is

the

14-16.

once,

or

exception

tenure

from

any

than

the

where

chosen

lot in the

hold

with

cases

all,or

the

each

tion
regula-

short

of

of

and

oftener

cases,

system

few

are

office ; the

never

it much

one's

to

by

special

shall

person

the

appointment

of

possible qualificationfor

of

all

of

offices
or

rule

of
eligibility

use

qualificationor

in all cases,

power

all the

to

are

government

individual

all ; the

over

from

that

according

their

and

character

ciples
primary prin-

the

the

"

each

over

turn

property

lowest
that

all

of

Various

spring

two

are

the

features

popular

require experience

not

of

offices

in his

appointment
that

of

the

is

differences

also

live

liberty to
features

to

in

equalityand

following-named

citizens
all ;

there

Characteristic

pleasure.
the

the

and

majority,

that

seen

may

the

Maintaining
have

But

there

are
eligibility
polity."1

differences

all democracies

of

which

Differences

peculiarly democratic.

in

limited

and

from

those

jurisdiction are

in

those

We

"

arise

in democracies

universal

aristocracy and

Government.

of

democratical

and

of Establishing

universal

and
eligibility

are

limited

combined

Forms

universal

combined

jurisdictionare
which

PHILOSOPHY.

of

offices

possible

all to

sit

greatest

as

and

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

most

important

audit

of the

cases

of

the

of

they disagree,
of those

There
the

the

and

enroll

all the

their

bastards,

the

citizens
fathers

best, the
not

for

their

cause

They

and

the

only

the

of

in

It is the

Such

to

be

laws

should

satisfied

pursuits, given
1

share

Politics,Bk.

in

VII.

be

with

subsidized, should

be
the

chs.

is

the

cultural
agri-

usually
in

only

not

upon

only, whether

the

first

is the

of the

but

directed

lator
legis-

provide

to

enacted
their

as

will

condition.
to

enjoyment

1-14.

the

descended

are

business

democracies,

if

other

citizens, but

these,

of

and

agree,

persons

parent

one

Of

establish

poor
be

side

sible.
pos-

dation,
degra-

leaders

who

children

mothers."

security.

of

children

worst.1

to

as

commercial,

or

of

number

ment
pay-

decision

democracy

popular

the

assessment

property

"the

upon

upon

last the

should

far

as

they

mechanical

in which

legitimate

or

the

in

majority, or
of

all

where

citizens,conferring politicalrights

upon

from

forms

largest possible

of the

rank

if

poor,

collective

pastoral, the

extreme,
the

and

four

are

most

is the

life,the

for

absolute

the

whose

The

"

feature

departments,

office

rich

both

question,

birth, poverty, intellectual

low

holding

not

majority of

higher.

the

the

most

attendance

characteristic
of

are

for

fee

large

the

any

council, except

Others

words

over

is the

members

the

office

feature

Another

of the

least

at

possible."

Assembly."

the

questions,or
number

receive

citizens

authorityof

supreme

individual

no

the
and

cases,

smallest

characteristic
the

all

in

of

and

important,

only

constitutional

; the

private contract

of

arising out

cases

as

officer's accounts,

public assembly

or

such

cases,

75

trial
indus-

of

the

1/6
of

property
have

The

the

rules.

militaryclass

oligarchy,we
In

it there

a
qualification,
higher

admitted
of

of

polity,so-called.

property

elements

form

best

the

all persons

better

the

of

degrees

lower

the

rich.1

the

approaches

seen,
two

are

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

In

commons.

This

from

citizenship are

to

has

four

and

oligarchy

an

divisions

alry,
cav-

heavy-armed troops, light-armed troops, marines.


cavalry and
Only the rich can
support
heavy-armed
hence

troops, and
others

in

of the

suited

rule.

may
the

division

country

the

offices

of

the
in
in the
and

the

fines, the

of

the

of

divine

not

of
of

worship,

celebrated

Politics, Bk.

VII.

oh. 5.

the
upon

such

the

and

are

the
to

the

sented
pre-

being

the

superintendsacrifices

public

priesthood, but

the
hearth

Ibid.,Bk.

be

to

and
the

accounts,

last

this

cording
re-

collecting

bills

to

the

erty
prop-

property

revenues,

public

of

law

ket,
mar-

military affairs,

offices
and

the

private

levying

assembly,

Religious

assigned by

solemnly
1

the

auditing

public

of

city,the receiving

of the

superintendence

office.

supreme

are

of

preliminary consideration

to

are

superintendence

accounts,

affairs, the

encies

and

suburbs

upon

of all such.2

superintendence

distributing public

public

division

properly constituted.

be

of all

sacrifices,

poor

public

the

and

holding

giving

that

and

for

expenses

must

the

city,the

country

marine

are

alry,
cav-

supreme

that

troops

relieving the

superintendence

of
of

heavy

government

offices

Executive

be

may

to

preserved by putting

are

and

suited

country

militaryclass

of

burden

public buildings,etc.,
The

In

heavy-armed

to

Oligarchies

rich

peculiarlyoligarchical,the

are

democratical.

being
that

these

VII.

of

the

chs.

state.

6, 7.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

offices

Other

the

are

presidencies of

Causes
consider

the

"

Revolutions,

of

It remains

"

In

the

the

others

people

of

increase

in

change
states

one

of

high repute

or

vice

class

in
;

the

influence

and

the

;
;

diversityof

country is not

singlestate

the

") ;
to

Politics,Bk.

of

some

VII.

they
have.

that
inferiority
the

gain

of

hope

of

causes

and

honor

of

others

honors

contempt

state

when

others

by

; fear

versa

when

predisposing

desire

gain

is

sedition

position of equality

The

of crime

or

the

the

the

great power

government

("when

existence

too

victims

masses,

of

from

are

of

sedition

to

other,

revolution

and

becoming
the

the

tages
politicaladvan-

than

position

predominance.

possession of

for

cumstanc
cir-

general

seditious

oligarchs

greater share

indignationat

and

envy

not

the

of

of

share

and

have,

in the

and
of

smaller

encouraged

are

hope

the

it is from

case

of sedition

the

have

one

equality;
by

have

they

they

to

revolutionaryage, and, lastly,


ually."1
politiesboth generallyand individ-

than
think

of

the
polities,

preservativesof
Generally speaking, the cause
people are
"inequality." The common
think

oligarchical,

character

several

the

politiesin

of

the

they

aristo-

an

political revolutions,

produce

agencies destructive

etc.

and

number,

nature,

which

sequence

is

Laws

women,

Dionysiac

and

Preliminary Council

Political

of

of the

77

democratical.

Council

the

and

boys

exercises,

Guardianship

cratical institution,the
and

of

censorship

gymnastic

The

Contests.

punishment
of the

or

oligarchs

disproportionate

party-spirit
; gradual
race

; the

localities of

naturallyadapted
accession

of persons

peculiar office
ch. 8.

to

or

the
of

class

I78

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

in the
the

state

Political

state.

either

balance

even

an

force

by

fraud.1

in Democracies

is the

force

who

demagogues,

be

may
The

"

of

cause

lution
revo-

of

conduct

propertied class

in

about

brought

main

intemperate

the

classes

antagonistic

disturbances

by

or

of

the

combine,

to

dividual
prosecutions against inpartlyby institutingmalicious
and partlyby exciting the masses
against them
transformed
as
a
are
body." Democracies
by revolution

democracies

into

Revolutions
the

in

different

of the

of

the

due

occur

their

in riotous

means

strive

and

oligarchs suffer
in

of

the

Oligarchies
of

governing

of
is the
from

other

in the

when

; and

In

of

of

upon
of
state.

on

one

of

the

innovation
of the

Another,
side

or

Politics,Bk.

the

VIII.

result

of

of

dental
acciof

persons

is the

cause

ting
put-

Another

strong

existence

1-4.

them

cause

number

existence

chs.

sedition.

one

excessive

Finally,the

state.

the

of

bers
mem-

within

of consequence.

individual

Overin

of

cause

Another

persons

wasted

of others.

creation
be

court

masses.

some

aristocracies

state.

an

the

may

limitation

exclusion

poverty

for

eager

class, is

Revolutions

honors

stigma

honors

the

to

or

hands

the

destroyed by

are

is the
to

paying

oligarchies,exciting indignation

circumstances.

admitted

tion
sedi-

oligarchs,having

tyranny

repulse at

oligarchies.

revolution

the

living,are

establish

to

despotism

when

Sometimes

demagogues

to

kinds

two

tion
sedi-

oligarchicalparty

Revolutions

tyrannies.

oligarchs,and

oligarchsthemselves.

the

members

the

by

masses

oligarchies is

in

into

and

type

principallyof

oligarchiesare

oppression
among

to

of

wealth

character
of

sive
exceson

the

already of

l80

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

All

be."

legislationbeneficial
in

them
which

that

is

fixed

condition,

guided by

the

spiritof

in monarchies
"

the

in

education

fear, and
injustice,

are

The

predisposing

causes

or

person
the

form

the
the

upon

first form

of

attack

an

authorityof
occasioned

are

times
some-

the

upon

rulers."

Attacks

by insolence, by

sonal
perbition
Am-

affronts, by degrading corporal punishment.

by

from

influences

of monarchy
of

will

on

the

avoiding

the

for

only

of
to

the

assumed

ness
mean-

them

among

his

towards
of

the

masses

collect

taxes

economical

of

preservatives

following :

city by

spirit of

good
lavish

by
and

impose
the

serving
prethe

sternness,

subjects,moderation
the

of

subjects,

purposes,

dignity without

pleasure,enriching
in

to

his

destroyed

are

affairs, affecting of

monarch

seeming

insults

The

the

terms,

indignation

address

of

within.2

subjects,distrust

part of the

burdens
an

Tyrannies

incapacity for

expenditures, the
public

or

general

the

spiritin

exciting

not

without
in

are,

another,

one

insurrection.

cause

may

surrect
in-

to

tion
Insurrec-

"

either

the

the

contempt,

spoliationof private property.

take

may

serve
pre-

mean.

in insolence,
injusticeconsisting principally

in the

of

the

to

especially

most

principleof

polities.1The

those

but

polities is

of

preservative

strongest

politiestends

to

in

edifices

the

and

guardian

sual
sen-

orations
decof

the

public interests, display of religiouszeal, inflictingpunishments


the

through personal agents,


of their

places

not

suddenly

harshly,but

and

mildly, avoiding oppression,

and

"

the

appearance

Politics,Bk.

not

VIII.

of

tyrant, but

chs. 8, 9.

depriving

in
of

short,
a

Ibid.,Bk.

officers

gradually
"

wearing

householder

VIII.

chs.

8, 9.

or

king

of

; not

Most

Polities.

Permanent
the

politiesare

in

advanced

most

public

permanent

polityproper

; the

least

tyranny.

Revolution.

Theory of

The

"

the

and

kingship

oligarchyand

permanent,
Plato

of

guardian

interests."
The

of

self-seeker, but

l8l

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

The

"

is

Republic

the

of

theory

defective

lution
revo-

at

many

points.2
Rhetoric.

An

"

dialectic is Rhetoric,
of

but

of

tend
of

science

of

It

from

the
It

It

is not

from,

effective

of

means

unscientific.
the

In

in

result

the

of

not

at

aiming

VIII.
3

ch.

2.

Rhetoric, Bk.

in
but

mind.

and

the

at

and

duction
pro-

merely at the artistic


of propositions.3 Persuasion
classes
as

of

"proofs,"

scientific

and

comprised arguments,

are

the

disposition of

the. latter,witnesses,

Politics,Bk.

truth

exact

politicalscience

in

of two

speaker,

and

neither

ordinary life

the

former

the

quasi-

after,that

because

persuasion, designated

character

audience

of

truths

and

the

that

employ perfect rigidity

or

logicalcombination
be

suasion
per-

or

formed

it aim

dialectic

conviction

may
or

the

differs,further, from

of

curing disease,

science

or

science,

dialectic to

principlesof
of

and

adapts

suasion,
per-

"political science"

theory nor in practice does


only probable truth of matter,
of method.

of

possible remedies

it is the

is borrowed

dialectic.

all

of

not

means

of

whose
discourse, particularly,

drawn

are

method

whose
of

kind

that

propositions

for

cure) ;

to

possible

art,

applying

and

"faculty,"not

or

the

is the

and

politicalscience

art,

discovering

finding

or

cure

the

or

(as medicine
but

of

offshoot

I. chs.

I,

properly

tortures,

Ibid., Bk. VIII.


2.

the

ch.

12.

82

GREEK

of

taking advantage
oaths.

Arguments

possess

at

be

least

the

of the

state

laws, deeds,

truly adapted for persuasion


character
and
gzeasi-syllogistic

of

composed

PHILOSOPHY.

propositions that

or

are,

and

must
must

be,

to

seem

to
speaker must
highly probable. The
appear
be
a
having ability,principle, and
good-will
person
and
his hearers.
The
wise
othertowards
only honorable
of controlling the feelings
properly rhetorical means
in the honesty and
of an
audience
be found
to
are
true

or

good-will of
the

the

method

does

the

passions.1

There

one

treating of

the

themselves

of the

another

in the

deliberative

has

three

for its

object

; that

justice for

of

the

which
its

oratory

is

place

in

the

is termed

object,and

harmony

with

the

general tendency

towards

truth

and

justice,and

science

to

at

both

useful

and

of

Rhetoric, Bk.

Ibid.,Bk.

II. ch. 26

Ibid.,Bk.

I. ch. 3.

and

Bk.
Bk.

place

ent,
expedi-

which

finds

assemblies
perative,
vitu-

law,

has

it is in

because

in

is better

II. ch. I;

of

Judicial Oratory.3
human

nature

adapted
the

Bk.

III. ch. 1.

I. ch.

than

mind

is such

question, and

I. ch. 3;

the

courts

legitimate art,

finds

atory
Or{liri^eiKTiKr])

ordinary intelligence,trains
sides

style,and

panegyrical or

is

look

which

that

Demonstrative

finds

address

of

another

Rhetoric

which

regular public

as

honorable,

is termed

and

persuasion

Rhetoric

of the parts of the discourse.2

well

irregular as

by firing

of

branches

assembly, has for its end


Deliberative
Oratory ; that

is termed

in

of

means

kinds

are

place

"

arrangement

There

and

three

are

rhetorical

mind

the

warping

of

knowledge
True

men.

understanding,"

the

to

in

consist

not

the

and

dispositionsof

and

passions

himself

speaker

2.

means

to

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

for

defence

of

mind

the

skill is for

gymnastic

as

83

the

body.1
Poetical,or Poietical,Philosophy (seeabove,
Poietical

of the

theory

of

"habit

do,

have

we

including
Art,

as

intuition
form

and
a

as

productive

arts

sculpture,

immediate

"imitates,"

arts

have

rational

for

moral

enjoyment

chapters

of Bk.

Nicomachean

Physics,Bk.

other

it

art

purely

arts, poetry,
three

are

cesses
pro-

contemplation.

art

is

such

as

artist). Art

the

As

ence,
experi-

perfects

element

in

either
which

that

"imitative,"

in

makes

art

things.4

The
"

and

from

arises

I.

purificationof

the
As

the

pain

of

labor.5

"imitated"

here

may

aspirationsof

the

feelings,
and

amusement

of the

perception

Attention

passionsand

of

source

the

things

I. ch.

of the

or

to

poetry, music, painting,sculpture


their effects amusement
and
relaxation,

"heals"

art

in

being.

Under

and

of

to

"

between

discussion

(not

discipline.

Rhetoric, Bk.

works

universal

enjoyment

relaxation,

of

imperfect.3

the

"imitative"

and

there

art

represents,

left

prominent

may

In

has

with

wisdom.

to

son."
rea-

wisdom,

superior

"imitative"

the

as

etc.

end

or

has

nature

is

house-building and

themselves2

works

the

concerned

production, contrivance,

The

contingent, whereas

in rank

well

as

"

knowledge,

is included

right

(or doing"),

science, is

next

"

of art, is the

with

joined

conduct

the

and
of

stands

whole

music,

with

seen,

making

with

Art, together

philosophy

the

philosophy, or

121).

p.

called

men

fact

their

and

be

rational

in the

to

of

"imita-

the

able
remark-

first seventeen

II.

Ethics, Bk.

VI.

ch.

II. ch. 8.
5

Politics,Bk.

4, and
*

V.

Metaphysics,Bk.
Poetic,ch.

chs. 5 and

7.

9.

semblance
re-

I. ch. 2.

184

GREEK

tions," and

discoverythat the imitations


symbols of the objects imitated,

the
or

that

of

partakes

knowledge.
impulse

the

have

men

after

of art,

men

"

of

liking or

representing, such

or

effects
causes

of

ethical

effect

by

Phrygian.

and

measure,

in narrative
be

better

ordinary
worse,

of persons

In

are

the

an

and

cal
physi-

imitation
of

all of

rhythm,
these,

"

imitated

may

worse,

than

nor

in

comedy,

"imitated."

edy
Trag-

representation in pleasing language by

means

of narration,
merely by means
tude;
having dignity,completeness, and magni-

acting and

action

not

producing, by
fear

(or terror)and

such

feelings.3 The

confounded

and

tragedy, better,

ordinary characters

original

stated,

means
or

better

ducing
pro-

melodies

characters

neither

or

worse,

characters.

than

is the

an

or

The

some

the

been

Dorian

by

i.e.y
by

in action.

or

by

has

the

ings
feel-

right

feelings,and

and

as

affords

by "imitating,"

it does

sentiments

"

ings
feel-

by teaching

by the Lydian,
Poetry consists in

and

actions,manners,

melody,

of

produced by

of the

entertain

produced

music,

emotional

an

the

In

is

This

those

to

and

Art

character

pleasures

similar

them.

harmonies,

of

dislike."

desire

state, experiencing

relief."2

enjoy right pleasures and

to

normal

our

influences

discipline,and

nature

new-

ecstasy of soul produced

an

"pleasurable feelings of
moral

sentations
repre-

discovery

Purification

relapse into

we

are

acquisitionof

an

by

knowledge."1)

place when,

works

of

character

("All

towards

takes

by

PHILOSOPHY.

here

Metaphysics,

Bk.

Politics, Bk.

V.

its

effect

upon

the

pity,a purificationof

with
I. ch.
ch. 7.

fear

and

horror

I ;

pity (which
and

Poetic, ch.

emotions

must

compassion)
Rhetoric, Bk.

4;
8

mind

the

Poetic, ch. 6.

not

awakened
I. ch. 4.

of
of
be

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

arise

by tragedy
character

of

only such

ridiculous
for

and

and

for

latter

attended

be

to

story, of

fable, or

is the

poetry

truthfullythe

more

have

of the

earlier

here

that

Aristotle

the

as

in

was

mental

'

seen,

its

Poetic,chs. 13
Ibid., ch. 26.

and

of
of

gives

without

life.3

down

contact

in

earlier

to

to

mind

sketch

Plato,4

and

thinkers,
Plato, and

natural, though

would, perhaps,

Ibid., ch. 9.

See

of

his

Metaphysics,

Bk.

We

genesis

bear

to

his master,

temperament

14.

it

and

refers

comparison

tory,
his-

points of

beginning

then,

even

with

"

sources

he

is the

PhilosopJiy.

chief

poetry

of human

It

say,

The

compared

uncritical, conservative.
to

excellence

historico-critical

works

doctrines

have

we

of

it is well

its

of

epic poetry

every

element

prepared

perspicuity and

As

Aristotle

And

philosophyfrom
frequentlyin various
upon

he

of

Greek

that

excels

kinds

the
(briefly)

systems.

requiring

because
philosophical,

universal

in

ginning,
be-

having

unity.2

philosophy of Aristotle, and

with

of

both

action.

more

consider

to

now

the

Genesis

and

Sources

in

to

are

larger degree

it possesses

simplicity and

of

as

employing neither
tion
requiringa nobler dic-

and, besides, greater

degree

greater

tation
imi-

tragedy

in

Tragedy

the

and

in

metre.

following reason

the

point

stable

more

the

narrative

spectacle,and

the

nor

differs

but

end,

wonderful, in being

music

of

than

worse

action, in admitting

extended

the

Comedy is
ordinarycharacters

Epic poetry resembles


subject an important action

its

coming
short-

some

merely.
middle,

more

through

85

worthy

nature.1

human

to

of

contemplation

misfortune

undergoing
incident

having

the

from

be

ments
com-

ticularly
parthat
not

safe,

doctrines

I. chs. 3-9.

l86

of earlier thinkers, that

those

with

doctrine

of

theories
of

of

the

glance
most

part,

evident

that
of

of

relative

the

order

of

Being

and

the

Parmenides,

of

conceptions
him,
the

his

from

The

it would

must,

of

first
seem,

teacher's

his
it

regarded

In

point
seems

effort

these

for

of

have

Heraclitus,

two

heroes
of

e.g., the
his

of

See

causes

above,

the
him

to

in

from

highest
and

nomena
phe-

and

the

organic

an

thinkers
to

of

Being

the

fore
be-

reconcile

early Greek

doctrine

of

causes

his teacher

Timceus, but, judging

historyof
that

improbable

his doctrine

the

formal

Aristotle's

causes

and

come

in

of

imate,
legit-

the

actualityis
most

tions
condi-

and

being

four

is

bringing

the

and

unite

of the

suggestion

view

not

ripe

Anaxagoras,

doctrine

works,
of

intellectual

line with

to

be, for

yet it

and

metaphysics

attempt

Parmenides

ideas

grand

thought.

or

after

the

its

Greek

to

appear

dialectic,false

and
possibility

of

continuation

his

the

through

of

the

and

earlier

the

the

direct

Nous

Plato, and

of

in

adopted

consideration

Socratico-Platonic,

and

are

him,

was

of

logical system.
God

of

of

time

chaos

and

systems involves,therefore,

out

The

age.

ing
lead-

no

philosophy

originalwith

sprang

not

negative, to

logical theories

and

new

they

his

his

principal features

Sophistic

Idea

earlier

Aristotle's

thought.

out

with

the

at

of

had

that

speculators.

genesis

and

sources

of contact

point

the

earlier

those

that

discovered

was

tant
impor-

no

was

and

notice,

reference, positive or

without

him

own

there

philosopher

critical

his

principle of

by

earlier

any

his

under

passed

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

as

p. 3.

Greek

Aristotle

phy,1
philosohimself

his
substantially

own,

88

GREEK

framed

after

theories
in

the

subject ;

truly organic

of

Plato

thinker.

other

means

of

the

of

his

real

or

he

As

are

his

ethical

no

we

words

of Sir Alexander
to

whole,
of

Plato

"

chief
and
or

an

epyov,

this, and

(4) The
(5)

The

towards

doctrines

that

it is

sort

'

self-sufficient

or

his

conception
doctrine

Occupying nearly

and

well-being
of

is

Psychology

and

science
is the
of

the

of

inseparable
for

the

whole

first book

['perfect

of

the

De

has

perfects

aperrj

Mec-orr)? [the Mean], which

the

cal
practi-

man

of

of

ment
improve-

that

basis

as

science

avrap/ces

man's

the

plainlyenough

of moral

as

with

borrow

incapable

that

Socrates.

of Socrates

than

conception

function,

proper

that

']

ing.
teach-

respect

conception

(3) The

addition.

this

it is reXeuov

fessed
con-

Aristotle's.)

which
politics,

(2) The

that

"

of

stance,
sub-

already

to

compare

conception

be

have

those

Aristotle

Plato's

we

better

Grant.

happiness.
Good,

do

as

immortality

relation

affinityin

(i)The

"

to

fect
per-

thought,

it must

spiritof

the

perhaps,

cannot,

human

'

attitude

here

in
soul

the

teachings prior to

Aristotle's

Plato,

owes

viewing

ethical

it is necessary

showing

In

of

by

yet

entelechy,or

advance

perhaps, their
sufficiently,

which

with

the

true

far below

regards

indicated

(There

made

negative

fall

to

seems

sights,
in-

everywhere

faculties,he

unitary being, though

in his

that

unites
true

or

almost

and

parts

mode

apercus,

as

originalinsight of

Plato, in the

and

closelythan he does any


vision
subdisubstantiallyPlato's

more

into

realization, has
upon

Here

Adopting
soul

real

Greek

previous

it embodies

the

way

all

of

and

theories.

those

follows

else, he

review1

thorough

on

PHILOSOPHY.

from

it.

morals.
is

Anima.

only

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

modification
of

of

the

of the

is

various

view.

kinds,

pleasures. (8) The

mental

Plato.

with

trine
doctions,
altera-

(7) The

theory of
transcendency of
Friendship,which

the

and

The

(6)

adaptation,

an

Socratico-Platonic

Pleasure, its

of

Merpior^

which
(frpoi/rjais,

89

theory of

suggested by questions started but not answered,


the
(9) The
Lysis of Plato.
Agnoiology, a theory

in

is

Ignorance,

in

against what

be best,
which
to
to
they know
appears
sions.
considerably suggested by Platonic discus-

is

happiness, being

approach

Aristotle's

end

of

the

was,

no

doubt, the

whole,

state,

state

Aristotle's

by
reason

and

would

seem,

human

passion
is

follows

universal

and

nature

had

better

immanent
has

best"

state, expounded

Essay

more

in Vol.

in

better

the

Plato

in

I. of

the

Grant's

and

with

Laws

Aristotle's,it

for the

Ethics

with
natural

of

totle
Arisof

conception
Aristotle's

Plato's
;

that

in which

elsewhere,

the

ferred
pre-

stood
under-

accords

as

of

men,

state

particular.

kinship

wise

state

provides

closelythan

more

Plato's

(made

Here,

The

good

or

; but

in view

which

has

philosophers,

rule ; but

should

passion.

over

polity"

See

Each

theory

"best

Plato's.

psychologicalbasis, a

true

not

law

governed by

the

state

governed merely by

state

of

the

happiness
state

"

greatest

nature

both

by

Ethics,

the

with

common

viz.,the

citizens).

rule of intellect

the

act

can

the

theory of

part of the

any

state

the

have

actual

was

should

men

and

the

to

conceived

as

same,

of

not

of

highest good

in
less, relatively,

much

the

the
an

Being." 1

Divine

explain how

to

"

practical conclusion

(10) The
philosophy

that

XII.,

"

been

have

Book

of

but

"second

Plato

Aristotle.

is

as

much

extremist

an

in

another

in

through
Plato

one

conception

of the

struggle with

Plato's,and

his

here

to

be

to

seems

but

of

sifted

thoroughly
it

of

art

his

or

theory

rhetoric

rather

it falls to

do.

to

here)

of

the

Socratic

of

of

race

truth

hence
the

if not

would

would

without

has

beings

seem

to

of

soul.

his

be

that
that

conception

truth, and

could

of

beauty

had

an

as

to

the

truth
sense

instinct

with

the

that

would

that

abiding

rely on

terity
aus-

elevate

mean

towards

tends

term

the

and

; Plato

to

the

Aristotle's

in

of

qualified

was

apply

may

nature

afford

false

rhetoric,

true

he
stylist,

nearer

of

the

theory,which,

nature

Aristotle

of

destroy

to

is little

naturally

quite

such

(ifwe

come

is

of

human

reaching

hatred

merely purify and

doubt

of

right and

human

as

of

theory

conception

play-instinct in

Tightness
and

construct

Platonic, there

the

Aristotle

homeliness

Aristotle

inborn

The

thinker,
the

is akin.

reach

to

Plato's

and

reallypersuaded

habitudes

business

construct

To

of

than

be

can

and

for

Phcedrus

capable

and

it his

made

Aristotle

as

course,

men

false

the

as

hints

in the

instrumentalities

Sophists having

it

Fundamental

that

circumstances

but

Platonic;

idea

The

of

and, instead

rhetoric

Sophistic

logicalfaculties

and

in

development

rhetoric,or theory

found, however,

Plato.

moral

their

from

systematic philosophical theory


is mostly original. He
had
and

judgment.

be

only by

largely

state

part of it,condemned

the
to

are

of

Gorgias

the

any

warping

easy

gence
general diver-

that

Aristotle's

(it is

divergence

natural

is in

he

as

first

it treats,

subject

adopting

the

part of

result

is the

persuasion, is
the

Laws

Finally,Aristotle

metaphysical standpoint.
of

the

his

which

of

in

way

Republic}

the

see) attained

to

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

I9O

natural

and
of

the
se-

is within

justice.
the

stantial
sub-

intelligence

positings

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

verely restrict feeling and


union, constitute

Plato

and
in

are,

This
with
whose

all

Plato

those

rid

of

support

of

rational

is

his

the

The

"

totle
Aris-

that

they

substantial

they

that

to

be

mony.
har-

compared

in

are

such

modern),

or

thus

regard

thought
such

kind

is

other

is passive
of

the

rational

many

the

negative

Plato's
into

to

entirelyget
of

of

real

pletely
com-

spirit

matter

it is

thrown

the

no

kind

Aristotle

Plato

both

are

or

viewed,

spirit,and

weight

fact, probably
With

as

Aristotle, with

Plato's

they

that

; to

; to

it is true, in

In

two.

form

already seen,

master-thinkers
these

if

for

it

entire

real,and

added

own.

fact

not, it is true,

treat

world

thesis

the

demurrings,

simply

but

The

have

we

as

the

"

view

do

They

in the

reason."
was,

between

together,

one,

the

to

or
spirit,

reason

at

are

absolute.

function

of them

number

any

"matter,"

of

out

(ancient

air, fire, atom

committed

only,is

Aristotle.-

in

divergences,

immediately

Aristotle

and

to

us

nature.

fundamentally opposed to either,i.e.,


principle is a purely material
principle,

water,

these, or

blind

not

their

is

first

whether

need

and

pointed

been

appears

who

one

have

of

spite

in human

Plato

Unity of

that

divergences

in

imagination,which,

art-instinct

the

Substantial

The

I9I

"

rious
spu-

teaching
scale
and

criticisms

in
the
and

secondary matters,
immense
weight of
two

of

substantial

the

world's

agreement

as

solidarityof thought throughout

whole

speculative thought,
history of human
the philosophical
mind
of the world
would
be reallyone,
indeed
it ideallyis. Philosophy in itself and philosoas
phy
in its historywould
be all but identical.
Result.
worth

"

of the

We

have

now

to

leading features

attempt
of

an

estimate

Aristotle's

of the

philosophy.

1^2
In

general,

it may
of

development
which

be

that

Anaxagoras
that

he

opposite of
That

the

dens
the

ex

ends

in

assertion.
the

of

bond

parts of

has

other

with

"

of

in

God

the

Aristotle's

transcendent.
not

life

in his

defect

of
that
the

is

conception
standpoint
of

theory
predecessors,

was

not

"

its

in
of

earth

the

of

be

the

naturalistic
of the

Somehow
he

that

God,

is,also,
of

or

spirit,
scendent
tran-

excellence,

an

son,
rea-

in

the

not

system

defective
is.

doubt

as

From

totle's
physical speculation, Arisfalls below

Anaximander

the

merely

instead

nature,
no

an

separable

feature
of

from

among

be, but

conception

modern

but

God

purely

must

respect

nature

of

of

such

organic unity.

great

and
of

soul

make

was

some

the

naturalistic

to

Thought

organic)

with

conception

Pythagoreans
the

to

category

held,

warrant

to

fact

seems

reason,

system.

Aristotle

the

his

merely, and
divine

world

God,

being,

or

in

reason

the

the

began.

consistent

been

Deity,

hand,

ignore

conception
spiritualistic
immanent

of

the

immovableness

perhaps,

satisfied

world,

the

age,

doubted.
has

The

(even though

be

his

it
a

been

est
highto

which

idle, shadowy

an

of

the

is to

nature

of the

often

but

seem,

on

of

established

dualism.

union

is to

and
view

But,

with

Plato)

separableness

faculties

other

the

to

suggest,

the

absolute

as

circumstances

the

transcendence
the

mind

Aristotle, is, it
has

the

first to

naturalism

machina,

system

Thought,
the

of

of

carried

philosophy fully around

nai've

system

being,

under

idealism

universalistic
in

the

(together with

he

Aristotle

conception

brought
the

that

said

was

point possible
and

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

and

(the

centre

so-called

that

of

most

other
of

whose

"central

"

of

his

ists,"
evolutionuniverse

fire"),the

GREEK

Atomists
like
least

accounted

"

as

in that

But

93

by speculation something very


the
is at
atom,
hypothesis of which
an
indispensable working hypothesis

modern

").

discovered

(who

the

PHILOSOPHY.

it

under
demonstrativelyput matter
and
of reason
the sway
the
kept the "object" within
thus
it organic,
made
sphere of the "subject" and

Aristotle's
that

theory far surpassed in philosophic Tightness


of the
early nature-philosophers, and has
any

of

hardly been

him.

succeeded
of

surpassed by
That

that

his

of any

theory of

of those

the

theory of nature, has stood the


hardly need be said : his conception of
as

his

mechanistic

ethical

virtue

"All

is

in

health

man's

; but

can

the

conception

capacitiesin

and
(epyov),

There

as

moving

is,indeed,
surd,

or

habit

force
in the

man."

all,moral

activityis

thing beside

and

But

ought,

moral

poise

just synthesis

of

his

of

function

the

tion
concep-

tion
foundaitself.

reason

describing virtue

retical
theo-

"quantity," the idea of the


question whether, after
may

we

such

surd,

as

involving some-

calculation,as being only semi-rational.

mere

virtue

in the

to

has

been

felt

but

here

not

substantiallycorrect.

again

Socrates's

"You

is eternal

Again, contemplation, the


Ethics

is wanting,

fixed tendency,the

formula

not

of

in
stability

of which

irrational

"prudent

of

In

there

certain

sense

this moment.

right fulfilment

the

great strength and

of virtue
and

is

there

centuries

widely prevailing

Kant's

or

kernel

and

decision

and

knowledge,"

of

reason

politicaltheories

clearness

"

therefore,you
and

and

doubt, the

no

of

soul, the
test

of

psychologicaltheories

Aristotle's

is far in advance

organicallyone

have

who

we

may

be

of

unmoral

question
He

"the

whether

philosopher"
in

character
Aristotle

practicallyadmits

is
that

such

is

virtue

there

it to

so

far from

very

ethical

the

"

be

the

Socrates

supplanted.

But

Aristotle, as

did

the

of

as

Plato, put

shut

be

up

must,

of

that

man

in outward

and

develop

developed

and,

as

The

of

should

of

the
there

were

of

few

We
tus

of Lesbos,

Messene.
who

were,

editors

Strato

it would
and

spirit,and

after

above

in

commentators.

had

such

grasp

grasped
indeed

of

made

thinker.

and

those

speculative thought.

even

of

comprehended

system,

not

Of

PeripateticSchool,

worthy

but

three

of Lampsacus,

appear,

he

no

so-called

here

be

should

Aristotle

of his

death

strange

was

of

thinkers

will

and

spirit is

the

who

appear

fact, there

speak

Mention

even

scious
perfectlyself-conganism,
Society is an or-

thinker

would

Aristotle, the

very

entirely

say, recede

philosophy as

highest importance

school

for

adopted only portions


the

to

That,

"

followers

immediate

be

is-

his

Plato's

matter

is

man

institutions.

arise

all sides

on

and

and

School.

Peripatetic

Aristotle, there

that

philosopher

so

as

merely, but

"
The

retical
"theo-

more

at least,the notion
that, practically,

for life

not

not

forgotten that
the

man

Aristotle
Were

never

self-determining being.

and

to

them

seem,

be

not

justice in
Is

doctrine

might

politicalanimal

by

The

it must

give larger place to

not

it

can,

citizen, and

man

laid down

"practical"?

than

; is

men

in this ?

Kant

and

requirements

"politicalanimal"

man

perfect virtue

most

most

theoretical

certain

of

reach

the

beyond

nevertheless,

not,

holding

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

194

scarcelymore

being

membered.
re-

TJieophras-

"

Diccearch

and

later

of

of

of

Peripatetics

than

lian
Aristote-

I96

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

pupilof Theophrastus and


the next
School
leader,after him, of the Peripatetic
Strato of Lampsacus. Strato discarded
(281-279 B.C.)was
Strato

ofLamps

acits.

"

the doctrine of the real transcendence


and

held that there

which

placedthe

had

seat

and

in the
the

human

of

the

of the

tellect
in"

sense.

members

seat

share

the

in

alreadybeen

sensation

He

of the
standing;
under-

of
activity

vertible
understanding;made the understandinginter-conwith thoughtdirected upon sensible phenomena,
standing
so
came
near
resolvingthe thought of the underinto sense."

from

derive

to

nothing in

heart,but in

to

gave

the

not

be

of sensation not

in the

body,nor

could

of reason,

This

Aristotle's

was

done

in the

conception of

attempt

nature

as

towards
ends
a
working unconsciously
fectly
perso) concepsimpleorganic(even materialistically
tion

power

of the

universe.

Strato

did

not, it would

seem,

busy himself with experimentalfact,but erected his


basis.
The
theoryof
theoryupon a purelyspeculative
Strato is obviously
a forward
step in the direction taken
by Theophrastus.
Diccearch

of

Messene.

Dicaearch

"

went

still further

all

forces,includingsouls,to a
particular
singleomnipresent,natural "vital and sensitive force."
have
the naturalistic conceptionof organic
Here
we
unityin perfectsimplicity.Dicaearch is said to have
than to
devoted himself
to empirical
more
investigation
speculation.
and

reduced

"

Leading Post- Aristotelian

Three
"

16.

We

come

to

now

three

Schools

of

phy.
Philoso-

leadingpost-Aristotelian

Hitter's Hist, of Phil.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

I97

philosophywhich, though standing in peculiar


garded
oppositionone to another, yet are reallyto be reof
to the same
as belonging
organic movement
and psychologilogical
thought,and to have a common
cal
the Stoics,
the
as
point of origin.They are known
be
Epicureans,and the Sceptics(among whom
may
included the Academicians).
schools of

"
The

Stoics:

and
Zeno, Cleanthes,Chrysippus,

Stoic school

The

third

17.

century

founded

was

near

the

native

by Zeno,

B.C.,

Others.

beginningof
of

Cittium

the
in

in the
Cyprus. Having spent twenty years or more
studyof philosophywith teachers of the .Cynicand MeCrates,
garian schools, and of the Old Academy,
he opened a
Stilpo,Diodorus, Xenocrates, Polemo,
Painted
school at Athens, in a place known
the
as
"

"

Porch, TToiKiXr)Xrod
and

"

gained

of
simplicity

ateness

and

of his manner,

Athenians,
.

party."
"who

honored

statue."

of

him
In

He

gave
with

obedience

him
a

the

keys

golden
to

what

omen,

Stoic

School

was

school

have

"

relaxed
the

great respect from

won

Cleanthes,

Diogenes Laertius,Lifeof Zeno,

of

he

believed
end
the

walls

their

and

crown

signifyingthat he should
at
strangledhimself. His successor
or

of the

name

is said to

which, however,

dinner

his

terseness

the

noted
disciples. He became
the temperhabits of living,
his speech,and the austerity

numerous

for the

at

whence

"

brazen
a

his life,he
head

of

water-carrier,who

pp. 259 and

sign

following.

the

is

I98

GREEK

described
the

slow

very

of

of

teachings
books

and

to

He

The

the

born

280
of

whom

in

instructed

used

the

from
(largely

in

from
to

earlier

as

than

doctrines

Stoic
he

philosopher

sin.
.

died, in the

your

mouth

mouth."

but

Diog.

only

school,

the
them

Laert.

say

that

and

hundred

mysteries
to

wagon

the

to

of

the

by

to

say
:

anything,
therefore

wagon

"

form

would

Class

you

the
say

be

Lib.).
of this sort:

commits

comes

By

ness
complete-

B.C., the

therefore

what

very

Zeno.

uninitiated
:

He

departing

in Bonn's

uninitiated

teachings

Stoicism

the

he

books,

delight in proposing questions

if you

Again,
you

to

be

to

day, compiling

206

year

wanted

trious,
vastlyindus-

brought

was

Cleanthes,

himself."

in which

fixed

used

reveals

also

in

that

so

way,

put forth

teaching

respect

hierophant reveals

commits

he

portions

"This

the

every

was

great natural

of

man

seven

Diog. Laert., Life of Chrysippus (Trans,


who

who
(or Cicilia),

lines

hundred

the

Chrysippus

dialectician,2
was

the

philosophy."

was

for

person

called

Stoic

the

The

been

demonstration

poets) more

when

in every

was

has

Stoics, without, however,

from
essentially
Chrysippus the
; and

that

of

and, it is supposed, expanded


the

the

numerous

Zeno, and

say

dogmas

the

the

was

acuteness

acquired great fame


writing five

of

influence

wrote

school

Cilicia

He

dissented

discover

would

more

He

the

Stoic

the

"

great

often

he

of

document

B.C.

points he

many

voted
de-

wholly

nothing

or

his

by

extent.

Tarsus, in

Soli, or

and
ability,

little

did

Zeus, which

to

president of

about

tive
atten-

intellectually
strong,

sanction

great

Hymn

next

and

master,
not

as

to

any

important

"most

his

industrious,

as

veloping
Zeno, being intellectually
incapable of de-

them

to

mind.

philosopher than

of

of

teachings

philosophy, but

to

as

Laertius

by Diogenes

to

and

PHILOSOPHY.

sin:

hieiophant
out

comes

out

of

of

your

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

for the

down

handed

Stoics

eminent

Aristo

who

Zeno

inclined

to

Nature
of

certain

of the

doctrines

is characteristic

It

Stoic

the

philosophers that,

dividing philosophy into logic,physics,and


chief

laid the
that

which

well

this

the

of the

other

large infusion,

spiritof

the

general

relations

conceived

they
virtue

is "life

sippus

and

nature

in

only

Xenocrates)

certain

way

science

of

methods

the

and

Zeller's

Life of Zeno,

"

by

of

Stoics,Epicureans, and

Cleanthes

pp.

The
ethics

of

to

of

of

is

nature

method,
or

nature,
of

reached
and

criterion.

nature,

Speu-

right conception

standard,
;

with

is virtue

good

according

certain

is ethics

criterion

The

descendants

(a saying

having

certain

good

the

chief

life

"

times.

Academy.
logic,physics, and

true

philosophers,

dialectico-sceptical

nature"

to

bly,
proba-

the

and

The

the

as

The

us.

Cynic schools,

the

conception

true

the

upon

applicationof

the

follows

according

but

between

as

depend

must

of

school

Megarian

of

earlier

the

of

intellectual

words)
doubt,

no

real

for, most

education

conditions

by,

on

look

to

are

we

general

(in

were,

acted

be

can

representatives of

and
a

or

conditions

as

Stoics

of

ethics,3they

ethics, conceiving the

upon

on,

source

in the
as

stress

acts

historical

repudiated

Dionysius,who
Cyrenaics,etc.
and Parts
of Philosophy!1

points ;

some

Conceptionof the

Stoic
"

in

the

who

Chios,

of Carthage,
philosophy ; Herillus
knowledge to be the chief good, and

declared

opposed

of

Other

ethical

philosophy but

all

followingcenturies."1

next

were

I99

by
The

physics;

of

knowledge, logic. Hence,


Sceptics.

274-276.

says there

are

six divisions

of reason,

phy
according to philoso-

dialectics,
rhetoric,ethics,politics,
physics,theology."

Diog.

Laert.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

200

ethics

though
another

is

Zeno

logic.

presupposes

philosophy to

animal

an

physics the flesh,and


Logic.
of

only

not

their

of

what

is
is

formal

logic,and

criteria

of

science

knowledge.

the

science

can

be
a

of

admit

on

knowledge

thing

the

nor

dealing with

one

of

originate

cognition,
of

of the

some

speaking

domain

belongs

now

sources

in

the

ideas

and

of

what

other,1

is true

well

and

concerning
"

and

ideas, and

the

other

the

the

"

ters
mat-

dialectic,
which

[Chrysippus]

false,and

Dialectic

etc.

rower
nar-

rhetoric,

"

answer

and

to

Stoics, however,

narrative

by question

what

that

Ideas?

from
is

in sensation

seal

the

logic,

has
with

neither

two

the

parts

sion
expres-

ideas.

Origin of

upon

of

detailed

Stoic

arguing correctlyin discussions,

of

carried

what

for its parts,

have

about

conversant

which

...

to

included

By

externally

falls in

now

science

"

be

the

sinews,

corollaryof
that the
simplicity)

its

in

that

of

compared

is the

logic

expression

theory

theory

declared

logic was

in turn,

and

really and
internally. The

much

the

or

sense,

one

of

but

it also

bone

is in

soul.

Stoics

the

virtuallyand
; but

grammar

Chrysippus

the

to
action, i.e.,

therefore, included
of

ethics

thought

man

he

first,it

sense,

logic being

With

"

and

leading thought (taken

end

one

last,presupposing physics, which,

sense

Stoic

in

highest, and

All

"

the

sensation, or

given

in sensation.

affected

is

ideas, according

pressed

by

The

external

upon

it.

Diog.

Diog. Laert., Life of Zeno,

working

to

of

the
the

wax

mind

held, is

soul, Zeno

objects,as

Stoics,

is

by

the

Perceptions {^avTaaiat)

Laert.
pp.

277 and

following.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

impressions

are

in

or

upon

Chrysippus preferred to
and

soul

the

that

say

internal, are

201

iv tyvxv)(ru7rcoa"c";

perceptions, both
of

changes

(erepcbaeis

soul

the

ternal
ex-

active
rather
than
to regard perception as
"tywxfjs),
sive
pasof the object instead
a grasping (fcardXrjyfr^)
as
; i.e.,
of a being impressed by it.
Perceptions remaining in
soul

the

which

after

the
in

taken
this in

of

act

their

unity,or
the

being

turn

spontaneously conceptions
Stoics

termed

"

directed

which
"

ideas

All

thoughts

our

combination,
those

perceive

similaritythose
our

from

senses

which
for

as

instance,

his likeness.
either

adopting

Tityus

the

or

We

Cyclopes

So, too, the

was

derived

be

the

of

case

when
when
we

we

turn

take

of

from

by analogy
the

smaller

in the

idea

thoughts

to

in
of

of

what

we

breast

Some

we

by

to

by analogy
thing
of

man's

death.

sense;

idea

centre

centaur

follows

as

of Socrates

the

We

of

idea

spheres.
a

is

diminished
the

special

point present
an

idea

sciously
con-

sources) by

conclusions

our

or

idea

fancy eyes

we

our

draw

perception

some

form

we

increased

an

pigmy.
one

from

start

or

objects

are

irpo-

by direct perception
transposition, or

direct

By

or

the

or

theory

the

which

to

media

either

which

things

As

Stoic

opposition.

or

arise

produced, by

analogy,

by similarity,or

or

be

formed

are

there

(/coeval
evvoiao,

from

gotten, the

are

belief

notions

mind.

the

(as distinguished

processes

"

rience,
expeor

judgment,

general

may

of

act

of

perceptions

ideas

notions

memories,

whole, become

basis

or

common

General

Xrj^ei^).

as

From

sensation.

transcending

become

perception

as

the

of

as

of
world

perceived
use

to

tion
transposi-

; combination

opposition when
ideas

arise

from

202

GREEK

comparison,

for

"

PHILOSOPHY.

instance, from

places."1

and

Criterion

The

Chrysippus

and

perception :

we

only those

these

wise

others
know

ideas

reference

of

real

But

for

notions

with

the

or

That

assent.

or

distinctness

certain

others, a
other

and

ideas
to

power

ideas

ideas

objects ((fravTacTLai
/cara\r}7rrt/cac),
possess
than

What

no

certainty only by

perceptions,

compel

tinctness
dis-

compel

belief

possess

such

also

might

Stoics

the

assent,

the

real

of

greater

to

power

which

us

contain

merely subjective.)

known

is

knowledge

knowledge

objects. (General
be

to

perceive (by sense)

we

certain

According

"

criterion

only what

contain

can

man.

Ideas?

in

the

are
reality,

to

are,

Truth

of

of real

ideas

are

did

deny.

not

and

System
knowledge
science
of

of words

comparison

of

and

as

systematicmethod

did

viz.,deduction,

in the

improvements.

They

important part
what

is

of

capable

of

of

the

subject

what

which

now

is known

1
2

which

seem

as

of

the

down

they

held

aids

made

formal

the

our

the

edge.
knowl-

tion,
argumenta-

irrelevant
laid

some

to

particular

(Trans, p. 278.)
3

most

it shows

distinctions,

logic.3 They

Zeno.

and

or

logism
syl-

forming
to

some

the

that

in

character

trivial,useless,

branch

be

to

ground

numerous

of

little attention

but

propositions

Diog. Laert., Life of

Ibid., p. 276.

idea

only one

to

they

scientific

On

laid

the

which

demonstration,

gives

of

of

dialectic,on

and

Stoics

But

of

theory

particularlyemphasized

judgment,
the

included

they give

theory

doctrine

the

ideas.

of

Stoic

The

"

conceptions

system

Method.

Logical

Ibid., pp. 282-289.

avoid

not

their

is also

Stoics

Theory of Nature}

the

Physics,or

held

This

idea

realityis
God,

being

the

matter

which

of

Good,

admitted

and

matter

any

inherent

in

force.

mind, soul,
"

principle of

degrees

in different

Exterior

being

produced by

the

difference.

to
no

God

parts.

it is

An

common

stance,
Sub-

in the

vacuum

out

of

his

own

pp.

in the latest

the

is due
has

well

as

is

as

duality

active

is reason,

principle,
God,

or

whatever

between
The

is one,

and

from

it
is

them

world

fore,
is, there-

in

"

nature,

soul

is distinct

and

ceived,
con-

called,

name

by soul,

boundless

Diog. Laert., Life of Zeno,


idea

It

space,

world

acting

The

distinction

living thing, pervaded

world,

ments
judg-

or

The

world

us.

passive principle,is

the

By

time,

all-pervadingfire,the

the

without

distinction

there

is the

that

by

on

logos2 (X0709),fate, law,

reason,

abstraction

of

the

quality.

material.

as

God

providence,

words,

passive,matter,

the

totelian,
Aris-

rb ttolov,

bodies.

capable

Matter,

distinctive

however,

seminal

is

other

theory

matter

objects. Quality,

; in

on

being.

immaterial.

be

universal

circulatingthrough

acted

of

the

is acted

or

to

individual

; matter

doing,

doctrine

material, though

of

nature

could

virtue, vice, emotion,

is either
viroKelfievov,

double

only in

us

the

so

sensational

ethical

their

rb

without

"

whole

their

on

Stoics

the

to

acts

the

Soul,

air currents

being

with

course,

place,expression are

of

fact in

the

be

to

with

harmony

of

that

are

with

knowledge, apparently a misconception


and,

to

physics of

metaphysics, for, though they

material
is in

The

"

palpable inconsistencies

they
of

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

204

finite,and

different

cal.
spheri-

(incorporeal)
vacuum,
world.

The

substance,

world
and

will

307, 318.

period of

Greek

philosophy.

was

be

absorbed

will
of

creation

the

a
Immediately afterwards
in infinitum. In
be created, and
so
on
the world were
generated, first,the four

into

again

world

new

that.

without

the

the

air,then

rest."

The

centre

as

Water
air

the

water

the

is

placed

the

and

water

has

earth

; so,

its soul.

substance

law

the

abides.

body

of

worlds

and

in

in

animals,

gods

and

attach

not
to

The

soul

of

the

body

and

be

with

is

the

details

the

body

fire and

nature,

by

are

into,

his

the
own

all

Throughout

of the

have

whole,
evil

is

There

their

whole,

as

are

"Whatever

influences

this

three

the

soul

extension
is the

and

motion
and

kept

be

in

over
are

the

due

to

p. 309.

poreal
cor-

soul, since

whole

the

is

dimensions

three

in health

Diog. Laert, Life of Zeno,

than

other

with

case

dimensions

life is matured
1

by it in turn, whatever
again separated from it,must

can

has

Moreover, thought
Animal

of

and

How

corporeal,and
in

it.

is influenced

Whatever

it extends

same

only apparent,
(which is organicallyperfect),
the
constitution
of things.

is material.

man

the

is, by virtue

the

man,

whole

the

to

corporeal.
?

in

of

surrounding

that

Imperfection and

men.

but

united

animals

of

the

and
force, an organic whole.
unity of matter
Plants
to ends.
perfectadaptation of means
end

that

it were,

and

similar.

world

The

all
are

; after

centre

back

taken

all respects

in

are

changes

from,

forth

Deity put

air

fire is

stars

as

the

the

too, has

successive

The

sediment,

sence
es-

first of

fixed

spherical form

constitute

earth

which

the

in

"

The

"

planets revolve

; and

earth, which

all is the

in which

the

in which

; in

aether

generated

was

that

set, then

is called

all,

are,

quality."

distinctive

any
that

sphere

earth, which

and

elements, fire,air,water,

highest,and

205

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

body.

animal

by

the

life.

breath

206

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

of

life.

also

Experience

with

consequently connected
The

central

of the

soul

power

of

the

of

seat

the

are

perturbations,"and
in

perturbations. Being
individual

subject

to

moral

lives

to

be

as

practised by
Chrysippus

"

divided

ethics

tendency],

the

of

what

Ethical

"

and

others, but

into

"

the
of

be

of

universal
in

the

According
of

topic

[or natural

bad, the

the

topic of

topic

exhortation

here

of

the

the

treat

Wise

Man,

Classes
and

of
the

the

topic of
and

Good,

the

Classes

attitude

the

good,

Chief

Virtue,
Stoic

of

chief

the

of

Goods,

in

Cleanthes,

and

Virtue, the

world

Diogenes,

nor

inclination

and

good

Zeno

not

becoming,

of

poreal,
cor-

sively
exten-

was

to

actions

Nature

it is

of the

end

of

shall

soul, the

soul, though

and

are

these

will,though

primary estimation,

things

Stoics

ments.
merely judg-

speculation

Stoics.

the

topic

We

the

free

is

it sprung.

passions, the topic of virtue,


and

the

the

individual,being dissolved

an

whence

its Parts?

Ethics:

the

consequence

will at

death, but

soul

universal

is not

parts

sire,
grief,de-

as

by

to

responsibility. The

after

(cycle)cease
the

soul

human

of

part

The

personal identity.

termed

is

last-named

The

declared

thought

be

must

substratum."

classified

were

were

they

breast.

of

seat
"

"

qualities

generative power,

passions,"

pleasure

Error

the

is the

and
"

or

and

fear,

is the

intellect.

the

speech, and

emotions,

soul

the

that

corporeal

five senses,

principal part,

The

"

and

propagated by generation,

are

mental

that

proves

suasion."
disthe

towards

Popular Religion.
The

Chief

Good:

Life according to

Zellcr*s

Diog. Laert., Life of Zeno,

Stoics, Epicureans, and


pp.

Nature.
Sceptics.

290-307.

"

Nature

of

working

as

artist

an

inclination,or

animal

is its life

This

chief

the

is the

according

good,

only life according to nature.


?
On
according to nature
the
of opinion among
understand

we

both

merely
in

; but

nature

the

Cleanthes
alone

order, for

Nature

did
(

of
in

ence
differ-

nature,

of

conceptions
of

development
then

or

least,emphasized,

at

or,

must

the

icism
Sto-

last became

which

Virtue.

the

to

and

in particular,

other

than

people ought

"life

according to
a

to

the
live

all mention

find, life in and

natural

live is

to

nature

of any

repudiates

is but

nature

ought

we

of

nature"

according
for

synonym

off-spring of

to

reason,

reason,

the

of mankind.

life determined

reason

that

shall

but

nature

common

be

can

"nature"

also human
admit

In the

also, we

society is

and

as

particularnature."
social

was

three

which

will not

according;

manner

is included

adopted,

and

and

nature,

one

common

good

and

last

common

but

in

second

own

is virtue

universal

our

these

corresponding to

manner

both

the

its

existence.

there

By

of the

course

every

being held by Chrysippus. "Chrythat


the nature
Diogenes,1 "understands

sippus,"says
a

the

the

predominant,
in

first of

the

theory

as

Stoics.

had

of

is life
what, precisely,

point

or

it appears,

Zeno,

this

of

own

chief

the

But

human

our

its

; this

and

form

of

preservation
of

certain

object"

nature

virtue

for

"

to

thing
certain

dearest

its consciousness

and

each

preserve

and

first

(man included)

existence

in

produces

tendency, to

"The

existence.

207

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

"

by

Now
that

life

which

according to nature
takes
cognizance

world, viz., real knowledge.

Diog. Laert., Life of Zeno,


get beyond Zeno,

who

p. 291.

This

apparently stood

is
nearer

point in
to the

Virtue,
which

Cynics.

is
of

in

Cleanthes

208

other

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

is

words,

With

knowledge.

the

Stoics

the

tinction
dis-

made

by Plato,between
by Aristotle,and even
based
virtues
on
knowledge, on the one
hand, and on
the other, natural
and acquired virtues,or virtues based
habit "joined with
on
reason," does not hold.
Strictly
have
speaking, the emotions
nothing to do with virtue :
hindrances
to it, perturbations,"
they are, if any thing, mere
from which
the wise or virtuous
is entirely
man
free.
Virtue
is,rather, a condition of apathy {airddeia).
But
though virtue is in its origin intellectual,it is in
than
that : it is action,
actualitysomething more
tue
action based
on
knowledge. The Stoic conception of virdiffers considerably,
it thus appears,
from
the Socratic
conception and the conception held by Plato and Aristotle.
The
Stoics differ from
Socrates, also, in holding that
be classed
wrong-doing must
things voluntary.
among
vice
of ignorance
that
is the
result not
They assert
has
merely but of emotional perturbation,and that man
"

"

and

must

exercise

control

the

over

emotions,

"

ally
gener-

There
no
are
degrees in
by suppressing them.
virtue1
time, a distinction is
(but then, at the same
action
that is merely
made
an
by the Stoics between
from
virtuous
that results
a
fitting,KaOrjKov, and one
there
between
is no mean
disposition,
Karopdco/na)
; and
either
be
virtue and
must
vice, a "stick
straight or
Cleanthes
crooked."2
According to
(with whom,
not
however, Chrysippus disagrees at this point)virtue canof the firm perceptions which
be lost, on
account
it plants in men."3
Classes of Virtue .^
Regarding the classification of
"

"

Ueberweg's

Hist,

of Phil., Vol. I. p.

Diog. Laert., Life of Zeno,

Ibid.

200.

p. 305.

Ibid.,pp.

292,

293.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

virtues, there

the

there

and

phanes,

asserted

with

held

constituting distinct
of

those,

held

also

that

that

"prudence, manly
in

them

presence

of

contained

who

has

one

all"2

has

these

Classes
have

we

of

could

Goods

wisdom

was

seen,

summum

bonum.

Aristotle

had

to

virtue

nor,

admit

good

to

is
1

to

the

"

with

be

another

and

species

Stoics

Bonum."

Stoics

Stoics

The

was

the
not

any

thing

degrees

no
:

"

All

in

desired

Diog. Laert., Life of


3

That

the

that

he

goods

the

good,

admit

the

in

Virtue,

"

chief

did

happiness, or

goods

ance,
endur-

by Chrysippus.
ing
agreed in think-

even

Summum
the

admitted
in

of

kind

are

taught.3

constitute

degrees

some

temperance,"

one

soul

virtues

in council."

other

held, there

they

as

as

admitted

was

be

"

magnanimity, continence,

Cleanthes, Chrysippus,and
that virtue

of

least

at

or

justice,and

to

mind,

sippus
Chry-

conditions

primitive

"

reciprocallyfollow

"virtues

considered

pluralityof virtues,
are
"primitive" and

virtues

courage,

are

Allo-

; one,

concerned.

was

is

the

that, "subordinate

and

them

virtue, viz.,

was

Those,

there

of the
;

four

what

Some

among

one

distinct

were

that

"

ethical.

but

one,

virtues.

some

derived

"

some

held

who

tical
prac-

was

itself

there

that

speculative and

properly a varietyof objects

more

was

virtue, in

which

the

than

that

thought

virtues

varietyof

there

that

Aristo

among

opinion

others, and

Chrysippus, more

Cleanthes

prudence.

into

virtues

four

were

of

logical,natural, and

into

; another

said

virtues

divided

One

Stoics.

difference

was

209

that,
be

to

Ibid., p. 292.

added

equal

did

highest degree

Zeno.

as

highest good

virtue,

are

or

they
every

and
.

Ibid.,p. 304.

210

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

of

admits

relaxation

no

things,however,
others

and

of

because

good

still

others

final.

The

acknowledged

which

may,

Stoics

perhaps,

be

All

goods.

things

positively bad
opposites of the virtues
Things

rigid

cerning
con-

indifferent.

or

the

vices,

rule

diametrical

intemperance, cowardice,
folly,
indifferent
are
are
things that

injustice. Things
beneficial

"neither

quired
softening (re-

their

the

and

distinction

good, bad,

are

are

as

goods

efficient

another

of

by practical necessity)

final

to

both

are

regarded

Some

("finalgoods "),

lead

they

("efficientgoods"),

extension."

no

in themselves

good

are

are

and

injurious, such

nor

life,health,

as

pleasure, beauty, strength, riches, good

reputation,

nobility of birth, and their contraries, death, disease,


bad
labor, disgrace,weakness, poverty, and
reputation,
it is

some,

birth, and

of

baseness

evident,
"

they

because

life," and

Of

things

in

producing

things

are

be

to

well-regulated

avoided

because
they are of the
(diro7rpoi]y/jb6va),
"Every good is expedient, and

useful, and

profitable,and
and

inasmuch
do
we

have

it

as

good

us

need

to

with

return

inasmuch

as

serviceable

be

which

inasmuch
assisted

that

care

interest
it

eligible,and

is
to

supplies

because

it does

Diog. Laert., Life of Zeno,

as

rejected

or

acter.
char-

opposite

and

necessary,

serviceable,

brings things

; necessary

all the

repays
a

and

advantageous,

indifferent

objects of preference (Trporjy/jLeva)

are

concur

others

like."

the

and

beautiful,

just : expedient

by

their

it assists

happening
us

in what

profitable inasmuch

expended
great

our

with

us
us

p. 292.

as

it, and

on

advantage
what

is

service

which

of

it

makes
useful

utility
;
is

much

Ibid.,p. 296.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

212

wise

held

that

children

and

only person

wise

the

Again,
(Zeno

the

was

man

wise

among

Chrysippus, take

he

will desire

to

be

men)

realize

friends.
children

beget

of wives

"community"
; he

will

also, according

part in affairs of state, for

active

restrain

have

to

and

marry

should

there

to

And

will

man

worthy

vice

and

excite

virtue.1

to

men

fullyas possible the conception


of individual
the wise
independence, the Stoics made
too
world, not binding him
a citizen of the
man
closely
by ties of family,friendship,or nationality.This idea
the
crudeness
of Cynicism, pure
hit the mean
between
and
simple, and the practice of ordinarysocial life in a
nation
is a
state.
or
a
(The best politicalconstitution
mixed
"combined
democracy and
one,
kingly power
the universe, as
and
a
whole,
aristocracy.")Towards
to

yet

and

the

that

of

is but

will
.

God

honor

follow

must

one

to

way

will realize
on

under

or

the

of

this

by resigning
will think

his

it is the

happiness

out

of

of

or

will

"

if he

Diog. Laert., Life of Zeno,

Zeller^s

for

Diog. Laert., Life of Zeno,

his

will

man

the

sake

bitter

incurable

Sceptics.

306.

"

man's
there

is

that

of

things

Stoics

p. 303.

p.

than

of

the

in

be

S'oics, Epicureans, and

the

wise

nature

wise

mutilation, or

to

; that

But

life,either

friends,

affliction

the

will."2

hand, that

other

his

is in

our

virtuous

independence,

and

what

itself of

accord

own

he

all circumstances

that

his

attitude

better

destiny,but
it of

is

man

The

"

in

himself

take

country

the

In

that

willingnothing except
and

the

remember

follow

prerogative to

wise

of

nature.

will he

divine

will

will ; he

only

true

own

will ; the

divine
own

his

attitude

obedience.

resignationand

man

we

therein, the

power

acting out
.

as

firmed,
af-

ally
rationof

his

pain, or

disease."3

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

Stoics

The
did

not

Their

least
of

for

in

was

of

gifts

names

the

gods,

and

heroes,

the

on

was

had

point. They

consistent

ancient

myths,

meanings.1

them

giving

or

them

To

over-fondness

peculiar

there

plain
reason

was

everything.
Sources

the

in

Their

In

Socratic
'

'

Aristotelian.

In

Cynics, and

the

physics they

the

of

the

Polemo).

On

ethics

'

See

they

Follow

Cynics and
Academy
the

'

their

enunciated

fire, or

teleology

'active'
'

followed

of the

followers

their

force

Academy,

by

been

certain

Stoics, Epicureans,

cannot

and

be

Sceptics.

the
their
ticed
prac-

phers
philoso-

(Xenocrates, Speusippus,
Stoics

and

being quasi-

Socrates,

Old

is

individualistic

nature,' having

whole, the

Zeller^s

and

induction

were

Aristotle

'

matter

philosophers

leading doctrine,

by

of

(not Aristotelian), their

principles,

of Aristotle

followers

were

subjective

and

historical

in part indicated.

world-spiritbeing Heraclitic,

logos, or
passive

chief

neglect

their

with

Heraclitus, Socrates,

being

Stoics

the

generally.

The

"

already been

Cynics.

keeping

tendencies

Stoicism.

have

dialectics

logic and

quite

of

of Stoicism

and

'

God

the

gave

at

"

last

sources

of

religious,or
''

ancient

of

full of the

was

other

"

Historical

In

thus

was

and

worship

rationalizingthe

and

world

everywhere accessible, practised


of divination
and
art
prophecy, though
them
in regard
not
perfect unanimity among

the

this

the

that

hypothesis

to

philosophy

"fruits, wine,

to

forbid

not

there

the

them

ities
instrumental-

and

theological,philosophy. They

gods

did

"

Stoics

The

Religion.

ordinary forms

To

religion.

Deity.

Popular

of the

approve

of

the

and

21

and

credited

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

214

with

of

large degree

intellectual

rather, apostles of moral

were,

ethical

It

"

remains

A
involved

in the

universal

and

validityof

distinct

breach

is

fact

be

to

of

universal

only

material

real.

soul

is

with

the

Of

similar

or

be

cannot

The

that

of

the
is
the

and

to

say

individual

subject

the

the
is

There

least,in

merely

ethical

nature,

there

historyof

the

inconsistency.

nature,

the

is

universal

is

of

that
on

level

of

unity

of

such

body
rialistic
mate-

word)

an

unexplained

an

idea

that, though
and

reason

Stoics, Live
of

development
a

the

nature
or

certain

of

In

ing
accord-

thought

instability

individual
union

ideal,

morally responsible.

proves,

nature,

the

organic unity

universal

of the
the

school
Is

of

that

expression,

contained,

Stoic

An

position

idea

allowed

the

doctrine

is,as

is the

about

is, too,

part

processes

simple identity or
be

is

sense

admission

The

difference

necessity,he

to

cardinal
to

in

which

the

is the

form.

that

Another

space,

conception
a

denied

the

essential.

the

are

be

be

while

physics

Stoics

may

speculative,unity.

paradox,

real and

simple

too

unity in

are

the

organicity(ifwe
it is

Stoic

character

Here

Hylozoists.

soul

the

is

to

to

sense.

something

things, e.g., time,

here

in.

knowledge,

as

things

corporeal.

given

and

of

treated

are

it is

this, is that

to

held

is held

sense

ceptions.
con-

system

is

reason

tion,
connec-

Stoic

Stoic

the

element

source

immaterial

certain
are

only

in

knowledge,

inconsistencyin

obvious

is

the

thought

that

(limited)

leading

the

and

incoherency, closelyakin
of

certain

the
(briefly)

whereas

knowable,

rational

that

criterion

and

source

examine

to

and

coherency,

held

force,

individuality.

Result.

there

originality; they

human
the

two

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

later

The

Stoics, as

view
The

of

and

the

becomes

yet there

of

some

useful

and
done

right

it.
he

distinguished

needs

to

is

having

the

wise

should

and

take

dependent

perfect,are

not

all bad

for

companion

order

universal

In
of

Zeus, and

yet

should

that

be

general, the

harmonizing
and

sense

brought

the

or

reason,

Stoic

opposition,and

this, too,

aimed

at

conception

whole

and

by

the
of

the

in

of

individual

the
as

See

below,

p.

who
is

man

towards

is full of

world

fit

mission.
sub-

paradox

esis
antith-

universal,

into
obvious
as

the

and

natural
and

are

an

sharper

unity
organic

being universallyself-

sufficient.1
1

absolutely

wise

the

the

by

resignation

of

press
sup-

all virtuous

antithesis

spite

tion,
emo-

and

Diogenes,

individual

the

to

part in public

are

reconciling the
of

members

man

but
self-sufficient,

men

system

the

wise

subject

attitude

of

with

benefited

and

his

done

repress

Finally,the

bad.

the

tingly
fit-

act

an

Furthermore,

goods.

Socrates, Antisthenes,

not

to

and

upon

absolutelyvirtuous,

; but

of

active

an

that

ent,"
indiffer-

"

one

is

is

man

things

; and

sphere

of

versal.
uni-

only good,

are

from

yet he

bare

preference," and

man

and

extent

external

bad

of

the

friends

are

instead

reason,

Moreover

possession of

the

Further,

pure

affairs,and

men

be

the

that

of

is to

least

at

wise

the

be

things

to

conception.

besides

be,

"objects

are

tioned
last-men-

in the

to

pleasant

be

to

of

practicallynothing

absorbed

to

class

which

intention.

is said

it

admitted

are

positivelybad,

are

be

is declared

virtue

Again,
and

if he

nothing

is

the
the

solving

himself

in

took

seen,

thus

case,

individual

mere

have

we

21

246.

2l6

GREEK

PHILOSOPHY.

"
Epicurus
the

his

and

School.

Epicurean School,

342

or

one

account) by

get

satisfactoryanswers
from

chaos)

fourteen,

the

his

the

in

born

was

his

went

and

began,

the

year
to

failingto

and

the

at

At

philosophy.

Athens,

to

of

inquiries (concerning

instructors, he
of

in

Samos,

Hesiod,

of

to

founder

the

inquiry (according

to

reading

study

he

eighteen

Epicurus,

"

Stimulated

B.C.

341

18.

the

remained

age

of

age

of

there

as

of

philosophy until, at the age of thirty,he


began teaching it,first at Mytelene, then at Lampsacus,
and finally
(about 306 b.c.)at Athens, where he taught for
His
knowledge of and
regard for
thirty-sixyears.
other
some
slight. He had received
philosopherswas
student

in the

instruction
"

golden,"

and

of
had

he

in

borrowed

Aristotle
called

as

pupil

Protagoras

the

Cynics

the

Dialecticians

envy."

The

same

Plato.
of

of

may
His

His

"

it is hard

of

be

to

towards

criticism

of

why

things

ridiculed
of

drugs

''eaten

other

; there

upon
to

his

disturber,"

are

his

that
with

up

Anaxtraces

no

thinking.

admiration

philosophers is
in

who

; declared

were

regard

other

of

he

"

risively
de-

pupil

thought highly of

see

with

Greece

Anaxagoras

said

been

vendor

Heraclitus

him

physical

whose

Sceptic ;

of

he

Democritean,

glutton, and

have

to

whom

perhaps

(the Stoics?)

opinion

his attitude

had

Pyrrho, the

said

thought

but

(humbug?),

enemies

and

Democritus,

"porter,"

influence

any

Plato,

Nausiphanes,

"

is

though

agoras,
of

the

He

of

debauchee,

of

freely;

and

Xenocrates
been

those

Leocritus

called
theories

doctrines

general, which
philosophers,

of

indicative
is negative.
it

would

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

and

appear,

and

there

been

but

of

by

with

country

the

suffering,by

He

contemplations."
had

he
the

after
it "

them

members

of

tie, and

his

his

there

statements,

his

by

school

pp.

of

boasted

See

Lives

424-479.

and

very

well

of

the

B.C.,

physical

him

without

as

writer
the

he

almost

originalityof

Philosophe?-s
(Bohn's

bodied
em-

common

of

any

the

when

down

petual
"perevery

fallingoff,

ceeding
philosophers, suc-

interruption."
rivalled
his

Class.

was

committed

school, which,

any

the

dogmas

handed

were

of

and

dogmas,

speaks

numbers

in

strong personal

and, regarded

without

coming

dwell

and

His

and

to

all

to

his

as

minds.

Laertius1

his

countless

productivityas

was

disciples
of

another

one

270

in which

garden

Between

decayed, continued

produced

by

philosophical

"abide

to

their

upon

succession

He

the

doctrines.

traditionally.Diogenes

and

"his

possessions (fcvptcu
h6%cu),were

memory

other

of

in

of great

school

his

personality,as

brief

intellectual
to

"

warmly

honored

died

midst

choose

school

the

deeply impressed
in

of

should

who

maintain

and

the

bequeathed

members

surviving

to

disciples in philosophical converse

his

met

him

been

and

He

recollection

"

extreme

an

have

to

statues.

in
spirits,

as

trines,
doc-

comment,

declares

friends,

brazen

in

cheerful

made

piety;

numerous

very

him

his

modesty (a modesty that


of state "), of filial gratitude,

affairs

philanthropy and

regarded
his

avoid

of

Laertius

of excessive
"

to

feelingand

spoke

Diogenes

man

him

caused

who

those

were

of

character

hostile

him

towards

voluptuary ;
have

also, the

doubtless,

excited

217

In

his

Chrysippus.

writings,

of

the

Lib.); Life of Epicurus,

21

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

perspicuityof
constraints

and
of

neglect

their

rhetorical

true

there

should

and

modern.

Metrodorus

Apollodorus
who

has

Zeno

De

gossip
The

Parts

of Philosophy.

Epicurean

three

parts

is the

science

nothing

of

than

the

of

for

schools

poet,

points

immediate

the

several

were

Epicurus

"

Canonics,

women,1

disagreeable

divides

Physics, and

criteria of truth.

of the

of words

death

essential

with

things

was

phy
philosoEthics.
It

tains
con-

that

the

sufficient

for

dialectic,for Epicurus declared

correspondence

the

Hermarchus

school.

the

Canonics

after

Among

rival

about

into

"

to

Epicureans

Lticretius,the Latin

Natura.

occasion

of

Polycenus of Lampsacus

Sidon

Rerum

gave

eminent

school

personal disciplesof Epicurus


fact that

condemnation

Epicurus closelyin

followed

in his poem

the

and

of

the

following:

the

of

guilty of a
has
justly

which

Of

mentioned

be

of Mytelene, president
Epicurus

style

his

rhetorical

was

method

upon

critics,ancient

from

he

But

ornaments.

down

brought

freedom

style and

philosopher."Epicurus regarded it as scarcelymore


introduction
in turn
to physics,which
was
a mere

subsidiaryto ethics,for Epicureanism, like Stoicism,


of the
other
most
post-Socratic
Cynicism, and indeed
primarily(and onephilosophy,was
systems in ancient
in fact,to have
There
seems,
sidedly)ethical in its aim.
been
a
strong tendency to make, or, rather, a habit of
making, two
parts of philosophy, Physics including

held

Canonics)
proceed,
1

The

Hon, and
2

and

how

Leontion

Ethics.2
the

of

It will be

physics,very
Landor's

Ternissa, bears

the

seen

in

largely,and

detail,as
the

canon-

Imaginary Conversation, Epicurus,


name

Diog. Laert., Life of Epicurus,

of

one

p. 434.

of

these.

we

Leon-

220

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

in the

idea is

one

Such

idea

of

that

makes

we

give

not

notion

judgment

"Error

depend

upon

the

be

confirmed

will

overturned
and

human

to

judgment;
in

things

if

horse
had

we

were."

all

at

or

The

They

determining

an

which

or

an

not

will

events

passions
the

are

ox.

liminary
pre-

be

not

pleasure

are

the

eign,
for-

other

ethical

criteria of

Epicurus), judgment

to

what

or

preconceived

being natural, and

i.e.,(according

able

The

that

supposition

nature.

be

minds

our
a

dition
con-

certaintyof
our
properly applying our
false
judgment
always

and

former

pain, the

of

upon

evidence."

by

form

horse

the
one.

is

"To

is

distance

things

depends

of

tion
percep-

representation

the
to

of what

every

judgment.)

at

names

The

correct

to

anticipationin

anticipations.
idea

as

"

"

and

with

nature."

upon

condition

see

some

acquainted

us

could

our

depended

(That is,

what

such

preceding operation

necessary

have

must

we

the

"presentation"

affirm

We

be

judgment.

or

ox,

is

and

is such
to

it is to

and

an

Man

"owe

we

senses/'

to

"

sentence,

things

should

be

ployed
em-

chosen

and

(So^a) and "supposition"


are
partly true and partlyfalse : true when
(yTroXrjtyis)
tradicted
supported, not contradicted, by evidence
; false if conIt is often
to
by any evidence.
necessary
what

avoided.

suspend
truth

the

and

judgment.

There

in
objectivity

dreams.

Canonics:
method

to
"

from

be

the

Method
in

"verbal

mere

the

known

exact

an

"Opinion"

to

notion

the
for

certain

Study of Nature}

in the

study

is

of

nature,

each

demonstration

Diog. Laert., Life of Epicurus,

pp.

Now

or

there

of

as

proceed

First, there

term,
in

"

must

we

unknown."

degree

will

must

result

infinitum." Leading
437, 438,

456, 459,

etc.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

must

terms

We

according
able

be

must

the

necessary,

and

to

some

We

false

guard against

induction

analogies

and
appearances

that

only

it is

one

different
to

deductive

principles of

to

is

end

know

happiness,

only

disquietude

of

mysterious

and

First

so

"

and

insisted

rus,
by Epicu-

and

can

of

come

which

it

can

which, entering it, can


1

there

that

is

Phenomena

require

as

many

little attention

gave

Character}
in the

by

Besides

"

the

canonic, physical
idea

the

that

that, therefore, he

man's

requires

all

ground

the

fear

of

of

daemons,

death,

for
of

events.

fundamental

nothing

always will be, such


into

on

preclude

The

"

Now

will

unforeseen

Principle.

ances,
appear-

tions,"
"explana-

conception (material

principle)of physics is, according


nothing

on

tainty.
cer-

as

much

soul,

verified
un-

such.

conditioned

be

our

of different

and

laid down

method

on

hypotheses.

Epicureans

The

General

and

speculation must

and

causes

logic as

Aim

founded

explaining phenomena.

explanations.

Physics:

chief

susceptible

different

many

be

immediate

guard against supposing


of

way

by analogy
to

to

superior to

rule, made

must

we

have

may

be

may

and

held

be

to

are

presence

against accepting

those

Proper analogiesare

the

unknown

in value

equal

as

in

necessary

and

criteria.

when
investigation,

receive

is

it

i.e.,notions

of the

more

our

the

to

pass

may

notions

or

into

bring

to

induction, but

by

one

impressions we

"

objects."

of

indemonstrable

represent

true

22

as

it

Diog. Laert, Life of Epicurus,

there

change.
pp.

that

always been,

is there

nor

it to

Epicurus,

has

is,since

now

change,
cause

All

the

to

438-466.

ing
is noth-

anything
The

uni-

222

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

is

verse

existence

the

to

material

of

of

the

or

in which

in other

reason)

infer

we

could

conceive

words, perceive,or

analogy, any universal quality or


body, or qualityof body, or vacuum.
Atoms.

to
can

if

we

brought

are

by

of

the

remains

bodies

And

in

to

qualityin

in

magnitude.
vast

great,

an

have

the

process
to

varietyof

universe,

division

must

we

it is

form

in

impossible
bodies

incalculable, varietyin form

entire
not

universe

being

the

the

limited

number
number

must

we

differ

atoms

account

for

supposing

among
of atoms
is

may

differences

to

without

tude.
magni-

dimensions.

and
that

solid

being

extent,

as

able
cogniz-

bodies

of

possible

suppose

have

has

which

for sensations

account

Again,

of

smallest

particularfinite body
the

infinitum,

not

it

magnitude,

indefinite

an

the

bodies

though

atom,

part of that

atom

of

The

carried

to

solid

"

dissolution

their

divisible in

be

ite
compos-

Composite bodies, then,

must

since

order

are

is

that

something

after

to

of inference

"

atom.

senses,

the

senses

be

must

aid

absurdityof reducing everything


consequently of saying that something

destructible,and

assign

in

that

nothing.

conceivably be

any

there

the

the

the

But

the

to

nothing," and
come

But

suppose

their element

and

"

indestructible

because
we

perceptibleto

dissoluble.

and
and

Bodies

"

cannot,

thing

or

not

which

We
the

by

nothing

across

or

of

vacuum,

be

move."

they reallydo

as

move,

are

seen,

call

we

contained

be

timony
tes-

existence

would

there

the

upon

the

which

that

testimony

have

we

senses,

"

not

were

bodies

the

could

they

of

bear

senses

reasoning

intangible nature,

or

space,

; and

(forthe

if there

for

space,

Our

bodies

senses

foundation

the

universe.

atoms.

In

is finite

infinite,for

the

by anything, is infinite,and

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

body
the

and

vacuum

infinite,the
would

finite,the bodies
would

they

infinite

keep

hand, the

of

together
atoms.

The

moving

and

the

since

with

percussion

of the

movement

to

and

due,

not

their
the

movement,

atoms,
fro."
senses.

has

The

motion

but

all

to

otherwise

arguments

est
light-

the

ent
differ-

downward,

move

the

horizontal

movement

any
of

reciprocal

"

have

the

sity,
neces-

of

power

"swerve

is

atoms

natural

to

the

eternity,
the

to

of

certain

it were,

as
ability,

the

to

of

continually

been

not

of

ing
knock-

motion

of

atom

atoms

dissolution

Because

held, merely

weight,

Among

movement.

clearlycould

resistance

of them

An

finite,

were

the

have

Because

some

straight,fixed, and

selves,
steady themplaces by mutual

only by

of them

some

Democritus

as

to
i.e.,

from

atoms,

the

across

to

presuppose

heaviest.

the

the

perceptible to

and

more

no

pressed upward.

are

place :

Furthermore,

fact, must

offers

of the

in any

equal rapidityfrom

an

to

rest

bodies

caused

be

atoms)
in

atoms,

it does

weight
some

the

vacuum

than

the

motion

weight. Finally,the
sensible bodies
(which can

have

being

vacuum

in the vacuum."

contained

be

never

other

bodies

scattered

in their

being infinite,then

bodies

to

power

any

another

one

the

repulsion : if,on
the

of

for want

to

able

be

not

if

"

of

number

transported about,

be

vacuum
or

consequently infinite,because

are

were

vacuum

223

necessary,

employed by

self-

little"
line

of

tius
Lucre-

curean
(who may be regarded as an authorityfor the EpiIf all motion
physicaltheories) is the following:
"

is

linked

ever

another

springs from
of

do

not,

motion

to

together,
in

and

fixed

by swerving, make
break
through the

order,
some

motion

new

and

first

ever

nings
begin-

commencement

decrees

of fate

that

GREEK

224

follow

cause

all

not

from

cause

here

living creatures
from

wrested

been

whither

forward

fixed

time

itself

in the
The

of the

distances

substances

(as
have

they
when

union

the
"

body

"

are

be

affect

have, the
and
had

made

motion

in themselves.
some

vary,

of

and

Of

Rerum

ceived
con-

be

these

of

not

in the

there
their

by
the

be

cannot

entire

ranged

things.
in the

bodies.

These
idea

of

in which

moment

have,

"

or

to

appear

between

mary
pri-

Democritus

similar, distinction.)
Natura

ceived
con-

entirelyinherent

psychologicaldistinction
or

be

must

essence

we

said

constitute

invisible

only

it be

cannot

bodies.

are

(Here

senses.

same,

can

and

such

particular

not

are

bodies,

secondary qualities of

Lucretius, De

of

and
the

through

cause

They

nevertheless,

conceived

modern

the

beginning,

necessarilyinherent

not

the

all.

and

substance

incorporeal

they
body," can

these

properties of bodies,

the

idea

an

which,

last,as

they

of

accidents, which

the

among

in

another

one

attributes, which

eternal

; and

doubt,

asserted),nor

realityat

form

we

bodies, but

in

The

"

Stoics

the
no

classes

two

from

mind

is contained

atoms

independent

as

are

other

at

the

willed

are

wise
like-

we

where

colors, magnitude, weight,

forms,

that

each

no

which

Propertiesof Bodies.
as

for

go

small.

others

being great,

and

has

we

neither

motions,

when

notions

that

ask,

each, by which

beyond

makes

have

which

by

power

our

is,however,

than

atoms

of

For,

will

There

the

place,but

fixed

beginning

limbs."1

earth, whence,

leads

direction

own

this

from

"

on

will

whence

everlasting,

fates

prompted?

his

things

the

nor

has

the

the

change

PHILOSOPHY.

(Munro's Trans.),p. 34.

Visible

The
must

we

that

the

our

own

infinite

will be

by

motions

violent

and

of

"

earth

why

the

is

its

have

another

the

into
the

that

has

of the

"

are

the

In

"

must

heavenly phenomena
"produced

regulated

whose

or

See

by

any

business

Zeller.

it is

in

They

are
"

bodied
em-

size
not

of supposing

motions

"the

eclipse,their

the

being

one

beware
"

from

are

moon

"

the

it should

that

be.

in

it is proper

in which

to

We

the

that

into

the

whole.

place

order

and

world

senses

stars,

its

world,

formed

and

sun

no

explains

it,conjoined

and

whole.

the

of the

courses

etc."

to

appear

reabsorbed

which

its existence

The

from

the

underneath

lives."

they

of

is

There
as

to

that

or

Lucretius

lessened,

be

airy portions

and

and

middle

the

nature

of

follows

as

The

form,

universe

ering
gath-

reasonable

in

sink

or

and

by

formed.

it is not

air.

the

drop

should

weight

beginning

in

not

thus

by

but

worlds,

nucleus,

in the

body

world,

in

rest

that

what

does

of the

may

of

they

formed

were

possible form.

every

from

and
itself,1

identical

are

suspended

earth

centre

with

of

decrease

or

The

earth

worlds

the

objects

separated

other

; but

and

less, rapidly. Epicurus

nucleus

is infinite

worlds

are

increase

the

worlds

that

suppose

of

form

the

Worlds
those

to

worlds

any

to

about

germs

of

number

there

"

atoms

bodies

to

others

crashings

of

flowing together

regarding

been

each

that

space

compared

more,

believe

not

in distant

eyes."

peculiar

destroyed,some
did

be

movement

do

own

have

eyes

worlds

we

our

may
"

the
as

under

objects that

under

Of

"

much

very

observe

"

we

all other
"

Universe.

reason

225

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

ting,
rising,set-

particular being
it is to

regulate,

226

for the

future, the

benevolence

and

of

weakness,

that

order

And
in

phenomena
cause

of

mode

of

production

fact

that

these

bodies

fact

that

other

bodies

lightning
the

that

mutual

"

old

idea

the

in

in

difference

is but

example,

interpose
effect

of

single

one

other

be

may

of

between
"

due

clouds,
of

or

(to employ

or

the
us;

winds,

pressure

conditions.

principleof

modern

to

the

the

various

the

the

and

by

of

or

to

collision of

and

clouds

nations
explaeclipses

them

shock

of the

the

phrase

rality
"plu-

for

very

historyof philosophy)are, likewise, the

the

length

of

nights, clouds,

and

days

thunder, hurricanes, earthquakes, winds, hail,snow,


comets,

falling stars,
should

fact, the

full

wise

The

be made

appreciationof

quietude
the

not

etc.

Regularity in
any

more

of

and

confidence

which
of

would
soul

dew,

celestial
than

daily occurring immediately

coincidences

an

uniformity

"

probability."The

on

against them,

causes

of

rejecting "all

of

have

organization of

idea

any

Susceptible of explanation upon


of

phenomena

extinguish themselves,

pressure

winds

the

these

of

has

try to explain these

there

clouds," of the lightingup

of the
of

the

be

may

thing

first

not

with

for

moon,

the

of

consequence

necessity"; they

must

and

anxieties, the

which

at

we

founded

are

and

sun

them

immortal

being compatible

is that

of

accordance

"

from

want

truth

supposing

which
the

the

yet

and

cares

far

being

contrary, the

"kind

given

was

universe.

the

the

The

governed by

are

the

for

fear, and

world,

the

anger,

on

else."

something

of

the

felicityare,

with

of

order

perfectlyhappy

and

of

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

little

the

about

bring

that

nomena
phe-

us,

the

fect
per-

characterize

man.

Gods.

"

Nature,

we

have

just

seen,

is,

to

the

228

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

into

these

the

the

of

joy and
death

of the

and

Sensation

motion.

produced

by

the

affections."

of

part
the

having

atoms

in

vacant

One

"

images.
external

objects

rays,

us

admit

we

from

the

the

and

of

objects

to

us,

rapidity,and,
forming
of
the

atoms,

compact
emits

vision

perception
the

is

the

as

from

passes

the

them

termed

are

the

conceive

us

of their

form

and

that

medium

by

or

from

of
of

means

them,

to

so

color.

as

This

of the

and

arrive

so

images
on

as,

and

mass,

always

color, of the

same

proportionate magnitude

the

continued, and

which

bodies,

sight and

proceed

images

These

comprehended.

These

produce

and

us

of

sense

rapiditythrough

through

us

being

as

motion

something

to

or

contrary, is perfectlyexplained, if

certain

that

shape,

same

affect

can

on

leaves

from

it is difficult to

impression

an

phenomenon,

; for

emissions

whatever

give

to

that

is between

which

air

the

infinite

in order

us

of forms

knowledge
external

admit

must

objects to

soul

of

and

all obstacles.

tions
emo-

chest.

organs

emanations

glide with

fused
dif-

of sensation

power

arrangement

not

in the

the

body

the

upon

same

escaping

space,

seat

explained by Epicurus

bodies

the

its

is

has

there

the

as

longer

impact

the

part,

no

small, thin, film-like


infinitely
which

"But
the

rational

of the

reflects

body is
soul, only,is

the

having

prove,

dissolution

and

then

and

soul of which

body,

fear

dissolves

it and

sensible

as

whole

over

the

envelopment,

irrational

The

capable."

On

body

affections

certain

are

is its

which

body

the

always

animated

are

the

being

at

comprising
same

by

produces

preserves

object. Every conception, every

the

in

of

us

same

sensible

an

ceeding
ex-

solid

quantity

vast

quantity

and

seen

side, the

other

pass

particles,
one

single

relation

to

perception

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

has

which
these

to

do

images

is

with

the

only the

of the

it with

of

the

one

and

which

they

this

depends

case,

subjectand
of moral

Ethics

First

first

The

us.

all human
the
and

end

which

of

of

we

and

desire
us,

nature
us

very

with
of

aware

this

the

istence
ex-

Perception,in
"

sympathy

between

is similar.

accordinglya

"

that

e.g.,

All

"

proper

avoidance"
do

The
ject
sub-

tion
priva-

that

to

it is inherent

which

beginning
without

which

it, with

The

to

reference, "for

have

seek

nothing.

evil,

death, is nothing

well), that
{i.e.,

and

and

is the

which

everything," "the
"

and

good

pleasure,it being

unsatisfied

with

is connate

we

"puts

posing
com-

blame.

living happily

are

satisfied

is

and

which

of

is

man

sensation,

good

identityin

of smell

case

in sensation

are

"choice

sake

of

sort

is produced,

bodies

sentiments

Principle,Pleasure.

absence

or

"

praise and

Epicurus,

says

are

free,and

small

circumstances."

The

object.

will is

human

on

and

of current"

sort

become

to

of actual

Hearing

emanate

of

body

in consequence

or

their

another

external

some

image,

solid

the

sort

by "some
of the
affinity

frequentlyinto communication
us
object,or at least causes
of

of

air,but

object from

the

of

left in us."

it has

the

by

which, by virtue

with

of the

which

not

form

of

attributes

other

or

in virtue

condensation

traces

form
same

either
perceiveddirectly,

continual

229

desire
in

of

we

pleasure

animals.

No

bad ; but
not
intrinsically
every pleasure is
efficient causes
always worthy of being chosen, for the
of some
a
pleasures bring with them
great many
bations
perturof pleasure," and
the
choice
of such
pleasures

pleasure

is

"

would

contravene

good.

Even

some

the

law

pains

are

that

better

pleasure
than

some

is

the

chief

pleasures,

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

230

of the

because

degree

choice

of

them.

chief

is the

Kinds
either

in

the

upon
that

greatness

Pleasure.

of

and

bodily or mental,
e.g., freedom

pleasure that
the

of

soul

the

which

avoidance,
from
which
the

troubles
mind

pains
the

are

of the

soul

are

pleasure
virtues
is the

is

inseparable

but, nevertheless,

chief

good.

pleasure;

not

Courage
a

of

as

not

means

exist

of

one's

what

wants,"

and

is suitable."

the

highest pleasure
motion,

ambition,
the

but

from

state

fear

is not,
; e.g.,

and

highest happiness

as

It
the

pleasure

for the

they

is

and

have

engendered
"Friendship
a

nity
commu-

appears,

then,

Cyrenaics

contentment,

which

sake

pleasure.

to

apprehension.
of

other

the

from

"arises

noblest

but

hindrances
but

the

Justice

existence

nature,

and

while

and

account."

own

by

body, since

virtues

participationin pleasures."

from

does

by

their

the

the

body,

The

virtues

the

choose

We

the

of the

prudence

not

arises

pleasures of

future."

independent

no

consideration

is caused

that

"

on

significanceonly
by

from

and

opinions

affliction

present

plation
contem-

vain

of

from

choice

the

those

past, present, and

injustice have
"

than
to

sober

confusion

those

to

joy, or

body

for

though

superior

is "sensible
the

"the

flight the

But

worse

the

reasons

to

puts

soul."

the

soul

feels

the

"

"motions
and

of

greater portion of the

or

body

soul

of

which

the

is not

"freedom

into

kind

bodily pain. The


the bodily pleasure

or

confusion,"

from

in

are

either

are

fear

good

the

examines

and

which

chief

sort.

cheerfulness

from

but

debauchee,

and

pain

is the

fore,
pleasure,there-

certain

they

[the Cyrenaic doctrine], e.g.,


"states,"

sequent
pleasures con-

pleasures

Now

"

the

The

is of

good,

of

human

clared,
de-

freedom

cally,
Specifilife is

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

is

capable

and

death

that

and

the

existed

of

or

envy

by

overcomes

wise

once

as

he

that

if the

wise

still be

feel

gratitude

whether
a

that
be

whom

that

wise

the

gods.

never

content

if it does
and

entangle

beget

of
he

the

to

himself

man

been

to

put

things
of

his

equally

Nor

will he

will

punish

indulgence
do

Epicureans
love

only

not

them

show

that

nation

will

He

and

cannot

torture, he

the

to

the

progress

every

man

in

of

or

love

think

not

that

is

will

he

passion

will

to

man,

; and
.

in

affairs

and
the

we

wise

still,under

forsake

indulge
in

has

or

They also assert that he


study of oratory. Marriage,
.

harm

will

who

in

wise

be

children

life,he
ever

The

benefit
no

wise

however,

forbid.

burial, or
.

the

in

ever

injuries

dominion

nor

pity them,

his

about

that

absent.

or

laws

will

man

indifferent

will

the
also

the

friends, but

virtuous.

are

the

present

but

anxious

; that

ence
exist-

no

state

man,

be

to

his

to

they, is

Nor

body

wife

the

marry

of

are

inspired by
be

state

they

his servants,
any

wise

happy

such

himself

hinder

were

the

of hatred

man

to

the

man

of

"said

invent

; that

every

either

contrary disposition,nor

subjected
he

can

would

to

be

the

itself."

which

that

accord

own

nor

in

marry

receive

wisdom

towards

that

never

should

passions ;
exist

; also

can

of his

he

can

reason

of

consequence

all of

contempt,

born

it has

one

existence

no

in

either

men

among

the

Epicurus

"

soul

concern

to

class has

Man."

"Wise

The

is "no

dead, since

other

the

relative to

apprehension

of

state

death

of the

livingor

all

from

eternity,a

knowledge

of

freedom

2$

these

state.

will

man

certain
rules

drunkenness,
of

be

must

Nor

and
nor

will

say

quite
never

stances
circummarry.
will he
he

be-

GREEK

232

come

And

beggar.
will still

he
take
He

of

will

like

than

other

of

grieve
fair

raise

not,

it does

in

poetry

; and

poet.

not

signify.

can

converse

ruler

absolute
him

for

have

the

of

but

not

him.

about

crowd

sake

school,

will

that

be

It is

and

possible for

Friendship.
"

Zeller

school

was

supposes
a

cultivated

and
2

that

consequence

by Epicurus

the
of

his

only

music

and

be

the

to

be

in

as

same

the

friends

"

; and

dogmatism

draw

will

nounce
pro-

asleep and

than

Wise

will

multitude,

die for

wiser

humor

to

man

to

earn

He

He

long-continued existence
the

will

as

recite

propitiatean

inclination.

even

needs

become

habits.

system

willing
man

yet

is the

requires,and

his

Independent

Epicureans is,he
1

one

; if it does

not

will

He

also

will

man

also, if he is in need,

such

on

will

will be

he

wise

man

but

correcting

against
He

pleasure

more

The

poems,

to

as

wise

will

He

dogmas.1
awake,

The

tune,
for-

will show

inclination

his

occasion

when

find

his wisdom.

only by

resist

extent

an

correctlyabout

man

but

will

he

realize

wise

The
.

money,

"

and

such

will

future.

the

He

speculations.

can

for

of his friends.
to

; but

He

will

if it suits

he

assemblies.

country

none

him

; he

the

will

He

behind

provide

reputation

statues

who

person

and

he

eyes,

law.

to

go

frequenting

in

being

to

subject to

will be

man

or
...

his

lose

himself

of

property,

men

may

wise

Cynic

should

object

being despised ;

avoid

but

his

for

regard

The

not

fond

will

become
he

memorials

be

care

and
a

life.

to

and

not

he

though

will also

books

will

will

even

cling

He

grief.
leave

Nor

tyrant.

PHILOSOPHY.

friend."

another."
Man

"

of the

friendshipis
of

the

Epicurean

(and conservatism) practised

himself.

Diog. Laert., Life of Zeno,

pp.

466-468

(trans,somewhat

altered).

to

him,

next

of

source

who

they
to

fear

with

from

arrived

those

of

grounds

of

lamenting

his

preciselywith
The

State.

somewhat
of

would

never

be

are

live

men

fulness, and
the

not

premature
agrees

practice.
the

the

state

Epicureans

have

declared

he

; and

state

; such

all their

in

shy. Epicurus himself, we

affairs

there

them

Epicurus's theory here

Towards

"

men

having nothing

of

pitiable circumstance,

of their friends."

death

happiest

agreeably,having the firmest


in one
another, enjoying the

most

he

friends,

make

point

surround

friendship

as

death, the greatest

The

"

the

at

confidence

advantages

of

cannot

one

who

another

one

If

enemies.

making

have

fear

from

pleasure.

avoid

should

freedom

to

233

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

avoided

seen,

the

that

were

wise

man

himself

unless
greatly with these
for so
special reasons
doing. But, as may
from
of the Epicurean
Diogenes's account

busy

were

inferred

Man,"

"Wise

advocate
believe
or
a
they did not
haughty independence of and disregard for governmental
not
chical
republican but monarauthority; and they were
in political
sentiment.
where
They adopted here as else-

independence

an

overshadow

threaten

or

for the
the

individual

which

independence

of

did not
other

any

individual.

Substantiallythe

Religion.
"

attitude

towards

of
be

and

not

the

Nature

gods
are

are

they

universal

independence

wise, is

nature

the

not
to

overawed

gods,
is not

reached

be

and

but
an

is the

same

order

the

dwells

object

things

freedom.

easy

by

of

in
of

Epicurean
an

"

if he

Man,

contemplation

serenityand

fear

by divination and
merely contemplated

or

in

their

of

ness.
happi-

worship

prayer

titude
at-

; the

rather,

perfect

GREEK

234

felicity.Such

immortalityand
the

of

source

the

Historical

; in

Sources

ritus

of

from

the

Epicurus
given
of

arrived

in

sense

added

intellectualism, giving the

definite

pointed

Result.
if

the

individual.

for

Epicurus

is

who

one

that

seeks, but

not

inclined

thoughts

natural, but
the

atoms

for

the

from

and

such

canonic

oppose

necessary,

empty

space.

agreement
The

interest

Man"

with

with

his

others

to

independence

he

world

into

is to
in

the
templation,
con-

who

second

there

is

atom,

place

quiet

to

in the

realize

those

with

view

the

by positively

not

mildly

of

"Wise

individual

this

idea

most

His

aim

converse

With

Epicurus,

of
being-for-self

the

whose

but

of

interfere

the

independent

wills.
not

No

the

and

otherwise

those

pleasant

to

and

appearance

system

doubtless

all others

and

speciallyprepared
and

the

to

by activelycooperating

or

of

doctrine

Epicurean

independence,

by withdrawing

conception

the

bearings.

might

himself

for

is

what

value.

idea, obviously,has

in its ethical

independence,

from

certain

independence

This

all

atom

conceptions

Cyrenaic

ethical

for

called,is

possesses

mastering

secure

be

undisturbed

and

easy

theory

logicalkey

it may

system

the

out.

The

"

Democ-

ingredient of subjective

an

sources

In

"

departs

of

atom

the

higher

no

historical

be

can

but

the

To

he

doctrine

Heraclitean

such.

as

refinement

man

Democri-

of

schools.

both

his

at

deduce

pleasure,Epicurus

of

of

and

to

attempts

Theories.

Epicurean

doctrines

Eleatic

by combining

the

obviously a follower
Cyrenaics ; though

the

have

to

seems

of

was

ethics,

somewhat

is to

contemplation

purest happiness.

physics Epicurus
tus

PHILOSOPHY.

are

their
certain

doctrine

like the

human

of

236
from

doctrines
he

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

certain

accompanied

Great.

From

and

having
is

admired

of

excepted).

He

is said

his

and

much

country
them

among

of

His

his times

that

had

he

known.

the

instructor

the

him

and

Timon

not

their
the

first

of

of

few

of

qualitiesof

of

of

Stilpo,
of

styling

elaborated
these

certain

the

the

mention

we

(firstcentury), a
and

of

i.e.,in

men,

others,

and

the

thinkers

other

a.d.,

Agrippa,

are

Pyrrhonists

these

Of

says

them

leader

as

The

up

of

that

Timon

pupil

than

age

Nausiphanes,

Pyrrho

centuries

of

name

Diogenes

been

later

others)

certain

the

losophe
phi-

celebrated

Empiricus (200 a.d.).

Theories

of

Pyrrho

the

thinkers,

is

in

is

knowledge,

sense

Earlier

of

and

either
no

and

by

philosophers

(among

successor.

Cnossus

the

by

later

second

cially
espe-

philosophers,

mentioned

Pyrrhonists,took
Pyrrho and Timon.

^Enesidemus

Sextus

no

social

the

and

doctrines

the

very

had

who

he

B.C., at

works.

be

may

Considerably

themselves

in 270

fact

one

succeeded

had

possess

day.

died

Epicurus,

(320-230 b.c),

school.

of

of

Megarian,

did

these

that

certain

by

disciplesbut

Of

human

highly honored

been

written

no

many

now

Phlius

He

the

was

philosophers (Democritus

esteemed

in

appears

he

general

suppose

have

to

that

the

being extremely

with

eccentricity
among

left behind

he

to

the

Epicurus.

ninety.

learn

we

sympathy

reason

any

of Alexander

army

temperament,

no

no

the

Laertius

in

morbid,

There

nature.

in

Diogenes

peculiar,even
indifferent

India

to

whom

philosopher, Anaxarchus,

or

Pyrrhonists.

Timon,
that

"

adopted
is

there

in intellect

and

The

extended

criterion

no

position
of

by
truth

that, consequently, there

contradictories

are

equally

true

(or

the

false),that

of

other

in

contradictions

same

the

realm
had

in

even

Timon

did

to

later

in

truth

judgment
The

the

like

"

Later

of

Pyrrho

of

truth

arriving at

and
a

conduct, they believed

life,or

shadow,"

the

is

truth

follows

and

turbabili
imper-

suspension
dience
obe-

unquestioning

knowledge

"Tropes."1

The

Pyrrhonists :

Pyrrhoniststhere
of

But

tradition.

and

custom

the

principlethat

Sophists.

They taught here that


of mind
(arapa^ta),which

accessible.

of

of

in

out

complete development,

entirelydespair

not

kind

certain

received

not

the

indeed

and

pointed

its limit

to

men,

Eleatics, Hera-

the

had

thinkers

is

intellect

Sophists, Plato,

theories

the

of

realm

the

developed

them

before

the

they, like

earlier

of sense,

in

that

clitus, Democritus,

nearly all

(eVo^/y). These

judgment

finding

words,

mind

of

philosophic attitude

true,

complete suspension

237

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

advanced

were

certain

against

special

the

By

"

the

sibility
pos-

of

modes

view

of these, which
are
{rpoirot).Ten
attributed
to ^Enesidemus,
are
(insubstance) as follows :
The
ences
denying of knowledge on the ground (i)of the differ-

"tropes"

termed

in the

is

pain, what
in

the

feelings of

the

injurious or
"

"difference
of

the

in

changes

of the

and

(6)

the

to

of

(2) the

sense";

ences
differ-

(4)the
and
individual],

it is

which

promiscuousness
1

of

organs

established

and

of men";
idiosyncrasies

subject [the human

traditions,conventions
"

regards pleasure

as

advantageous

and

nature

general

in laws

animals

and

belief

the

in

mythical

dogmatic opinions

confusion

Diog. Laert., Life of Pyrrho,

position
"dis-

ence
liable"; (5) "differ-

customs,

art, and

(3)

pp. 409-413.

of

"

objects";

238

(7) "difference
and
"

magnitudes

"

qualitiesof things

or

frequency or
"

(10)

held
practically,

that

in the

fact

For

since

apple

fragrant to
smell

the

believe

to

is

that

another

it unnatural

Greeks

the

them,

burn

of

dead

these

the

for

is

to

no

object

its

relation

always

since

to

Paeonians

possible.

third

with

is

and
law

of

sible
imposof

the

"trope,"

sight,sweet

the

to

it is

"

taste,

sight,taste,

the

"

Persians

his

marry

and

ble
impossi-

of

The
in

them

five

into

the

else

hypotheses ;

Romans

lake,"

the

in

among

men

no

disposal

infi7iitiimin

fixed, first principle; the

something

among

Egyptians

the

or

think

tropes of Agrippa

opinion

proceeding
a

the

bury them,

throw

not

daughter, but
since

"and
then

do

are

the
the

fact that

always in
ing
necessity of start; the
of
the
reciprocalnature

perceived independently, but

to

the

sense

regarding marriage

disagreement

is

differences

realityanything such as we
what
is seen
apple (say) to be
something else than reality." To

man

at

of

is in

dead, and

arrive

it is,

suspension

incommensurable,

it is unlawful"

the

known

cases

uniformity; i.e.,it

the

under

"

be

logical necessity
attempt

the

to

(9)

"

an

positive conclusion
of the

for

ground

since
smell, i.e.,

there

example

their

embalm

of

and

ordinarilybelieve
is just as likelyto
take

all these

impossible to apply

yellow to

sense

thing

things are

"

different

are

is

all

In

that, owing

the

(in the strictest, narrowest


take
the
to
example,

term).
an

of

that

is

there

contrarietyof things,it
or
conception
identity,
think

fact

others."

with

by comparison

the

"

coldness,

or

variety of color," etc

or

the

regards

as

heat

"

rarityor strangeness

consideration

judgment

distance, position,space,

(8) differences

space

slowness, paleness

or

to

the

regards

as

in

objects

speed
"

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

239
and

proofs,e.g., proving porosityby evaporation


by porosity.
Impossibilityof Demonstration, of a
The
Cause, etc.
possibilityof demonstration

Sign, of

The

the

Sceptics

indemonstrable

true

aiming

premises,
ultimate

at

be
the

invisible

visible ;

the

or

invisible,since the

the

visible.

Cause

is

such
be

are

no

all

soning
rea-

regressus

In

of

body

that

of that which

cases

is

body,
causes

another

one

for

the
ception.
con-

It is relative

which

is relative

real existence.

no

said

in
; two

is

bodies

that

must

case

agents

cannot

is

be

the

any

cannot

the

incorporealcan

thing

as

of

cause

nature
as

for

same

have

the

other
an-

inasmuch

it

rocal
recip-

two

passive subject.
be

the

cause

cause

of

produce

of

Also,

reason.

same

the

the

of these

same

cause

would

be

the

cause,

without

incorporeal thing, for


that

have

one

such

as

cause

be

must

neither

no

be

is the

one

other

is

the

things

be

must

incorporeal

cannot

incorporeal thing

nothing

such

are

body

there

body

that

the

there

therefore

incorporealthing

because

other,
an-

spurious

that

corporeal. Now,

both

since

then

And

reason.

Again,

is

fact, one

if it be

and

But

that

which

possible;

body,

is

one

sign

of

sign

to

relative.

has

then,

case,

that

or

In

of

cause

cause.

admit,

us

cause

cause.

need

something
and

relation

no

no

of

visible be

let

causes.

bear
is

conceived

only

However,

is

the

can

two

it is the

of which

that

nor

notion

the

Again,
"

one

without

and

certaintymust

there
finally,

and

is

there

that

ground

also that
denied
anything could
infinitum. It was
regarded as a sign or indication of anything else :
be
invisible obviously cannot
a
sign,either of the

in

to

the

on

nied
de-

was

"

by

ration
evapo-

body,
body.

GREEK

24O

Nor,

other

the

on

PHILOSOPHY.

hand,

incorporeal, because
be

must

its

passive subject, it
all.

all

principlesof

if it did

exist,

distinction

Pure

Negativism
the

by

seem,

in

admitting

that

declaring

fact

because

they

of

Pyrrhonists answered

the

such, i.e.,not

as

in

that
stated

fact, but

their

that

saying

position.
we

are

fact ; but

is the

comprehend";
we

do

Arcesilaus
1

not

Middle

The

See

that

aware

we

or,
even

and

do

"while
say
New

knew

we

were,

they

they

did

knew

ing,
noth-

know,

fact

"

merely

they merely

said

how

in

even

not

admitted

yet

nothing

"that

that

such

we

and

demonstrate

they,

see,

that

say
as

and

nothing

fact,

knew

know

sistent
incon-

were

demonstrated

or

we

thing

how

define

we

see,

we

ing,
noth-

definition."

Academies}

(third century B.C.)had


Zeller; Ueberweg;

ing,
learn-

"

that

they

and

that

the

likewise

evil,were

comprehend

not

ciple,
prin-

and

agent

logicallydefine or

we

first

Pyrrhonism
being objected (itwould

that

confess,"

"We

and

any

the

such

Pyrrhonists

that

not

as

of
possibility

or

saying

they

did

the

experience, or

known

as

it

they

know

must

that

Pyrrhonists.

the

self -contradictoryin

terms

and

that

tive
produc-

any

for

Pyrrhonists.

when,

Stoics)

common

act

good

the

of

both

the

later

its culmination

reached

be

between
the

reality;

is

being

thing

it follows
no

must

Motion,

impossible by

found

have

from

such

there

what

as

of

object
no

all which

things

efficient cause."
the

the

is therefore

From

but

protected

be

cannot

of anything

cause

production

every

nature

own

There

power.
at

in

the

passive subject-matter;

some

incorporeal is by

cause

be

body

can

Diog. Laert.,

been

pp.

Arcesilaus.

"

pupil

of

163-170, 177-180.

"

the

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

and

PeripateticTheophrastus,
of

Crates

Middle

the

the

or

that

reached

his

in

with

with

Cyrenaics ;

think

that
of

he

from

as

as

second

of
ergies
en-

of

theories
idea

of

ception,
per-

obvious

of

sufficient

be

true

very

possible
that

even

know

to

did

we

he

not

Pyrrho. He was, also,


holding probabilityto be
of

"man

Arcesilaus

From

nes,
Diogeexpensive

very

ought

haps
per-

sympathized

with

all events,

at

; and

one

Aristippus,"we

have,

we

no

to

reason

theoreticallyan

practicallyor

Stoic

was

fond

cate
advo-

the

the

arguments

worthlessness

criteria of

See

Zeller's

by

him.

New

drew

him.

little attention

gave

disputing

repeats with

Stoics,Epicureans,

and

Stoic

Neither

the

and

the

and

senses

The

topics.

persons,

many

He

of the

ethical

on

of Arcesilaus

knowledge.

especiallyattacked
1

hear

the

B.C.),industriously studied

doctrines,
of

of

founder

the

speaker, and

schools, to

illustration
on

the

practicallife."

for

the

forcible

other

nists

in

(second century

physics,and
was

Pyrrho

Carneades,

"

combated

He

founder

impassivity.

Academy
to

not

not

in ethics

was

Carneades.1

and

was

with

him
of

"sort

as

agrees

standard

infer that

to

the

he

describes
a

and

philosophical

on

well

it

that
"

"highest

habits,"

as

certainty

this

In

who

His

representation might

position

agreement

the

the

was

denial

compel assent,

the

know.

Crantor,

cataleptic representation" ((^avracrta

"

false

to

anything

He

so-called.

basing
KaraXijirrtKi]),
strength

Polemo,

given chieflyto combating the


He
denied
validityto the Stoic

Stoics.

ground

of

Academy.

Academy,

were

the

Old

the

24I

even

added

Pyrrho-

the

lect
intel-

theology was
allegedconsen-

Sceptics.

sus

him

human

race

world

the

the
the

is sufficient refutation

the

But

of

of

infinite

of

God

can

of

be

pleasure

called

God

sense

and

of

it is useless

to

supposed
of

is

accidental

free,

uniform

of

cases

for

expediency.
guide

is

grades

We

that

impeached

are

fulfilment

of

is

no

nature,

decisions
no

be

confirmed

under

we

since

and

to

voidable,
una-

the

Any

are

merely

the

human

existence
as

probability is

mere

only

our

of

of

matter

Justice is

positiveknowledge

probability.

there

harmful."

know,

free.

tradiction
con-

tively,
posi-

And

Further,

and

the

assert

prophecy
of

corporea
in-

or

impossible, and

probability,unimpeached
and

cannot

necessary

proof
are

probability. Now,
mere

God

God.

is

the

he

encountering

beforehand

even

have

We

corporeal
of

an

can

conceivable,

it would

there

our

divination

coincidence.

causalityin

fact, that

of

being

the

those

more,

nay,

right,therefore, to

no

events

know

God,

reason

prudent

without

the

ings
sensation, feel-

what

think

is untenable.

of

unlimited,

intellect

is

of

man,

changes

cannot

do,

nor

accidental

cases

of

With

or

we

have

Stoics

gods

"know

pain

limited

or

the

as

no

the

short,

we

are

subject to

as

In

of

attributes

in

of order

being possessing
infinite

an

brave, magnanimous,

conceive

forms

moral

and

danger

affirming

idea

very

the

fact of

appearance

for

crime

supposed

there

The

personal being,

intellectual
How

necessityis

world-soul

the

God

majority of

existence

of the

admitting

even

what

world,

existence

of

existence

among

nothing, and

proves

providence.

will

opinion

the

in nature

destruction, folly,
misfortune, misery, and

and

be

of

agreement

mere

of

demonstration

manifested

allegeddesign

the

gentium, nor

is to

in

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

242

three

probability,un"

The

lowest

de-

GREEK

244

have

just been
and

assumption

that

the
he

must

notion

indeed,

given

therefore,

than

truth

upon

thought

such

no

sensible
of

of

state

and

they

may.

the

on

worth

other
and

to

fair

meaning

this

way

comfortable

to

the truth

other

fall

mental

in

mind,

attitude
;

necessity than

pension
sus-

contains

upon,
the

into
did

his

the

for

which,
that

of

have

but
a

best

as

what

they,

they

by

were

tion,
reflec-

approach

nearest

doctrine

been

thought

only as a way to
theory adapted

in other
which

must

did

nor

Carneades's

or

act

he

scheme

do

not

The

to

its

Sceptics saw

itself in

"facts"

not

for

is

contradictory phenomena.

of them.

seems

"practical purposes"
no

content,

how

Again,

induction, supplemented
out

object
demand

their

be

; but

present

is contained

which
probability,
as

other

facts, i.e.,
something

as

whatever

Sceptics
take

they

suspension

Sceptic'sprincipleis Thought,

hand,

by

but

certain

if reflected

could

the

are,

negativityin thought possible?

pure

phenomena

This

draw
made

let

fact,

ing,
properly speak-

no

not

abstracting, from

or

If the

think

is

have

can

mind,

mind,

which

only that side


withdrawing,

the

universal

It is double-sided

negation.

own

as

not

"Facts"

there

recognized

judgment,

This

and

supersensible?

or

from

means?

is there

and

the

he

philosophical thought

Thought

in facts

dogmatic

fact, must

inference

thing

reality;

or

and

can,

as

fact

meaning,

immediately before
whether

the

for

judgment.

the

thing
of

what

ultimate

not

be

must

ask

we

think

only presupposition
identity. In other words,

of

obligation to

for its

has

consequences

not

the

best

as

thought

admits

Sceptic

accept

of

always

principle the

if the

of

considering

everywhere
and

PHILOSOPHY.

words,

implied

of

of
a

to

contained
the

impo-

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

tency of mind
of

character

the

irrational

the

not

thing regarded

and

the

as

non-existent

object of
valid

Sceptical doctrine, though

The

uncritical

and

245

edge.
knowl-

against

as

(e.g.,Stoicism), is not valid as


against the position that in human
experience,subject
and
object,thought and phenomenon, are, by the very
dogmatism

of

nature

the

real

thought.

are

at

to

their

and

sense

of

the

modern

of

the

suspend
make

the

deduce

said.

judgment
of

most

the

of

his

Scepticism

for

the

on

facts, and
of

consequences

it

that

"

brings

"
The

Common

Ground

Sceptics. Widely
"

have

just been

forms

of

tallywith

perhaps
it

said

be

said

was

on

distinct

them

with

them

brings to lighta

other

and
very

one

hand,

he

must

the

other, he

must

suspension

and

understand

is

this

this

of

fact to

the

ment,
judg-

the

fact

service

the

of

light.

20.

of

speaking may

each

as

own

namely, he must
accept
mere
subjectivity. And

of

theory,that it was
convinced
this
even
nobody. But
The
Sceptic is not at libertyto

but
be

not

natural

for

Sceptics,as

we

thought,

should

fact

might

ancient

Sceptic

unanswerable
need

the

thought

It

thought.

of

theory

allowance

of

tions,
concep-

of pure

conception

the meanings
activity,

positings

by

the

Making

between

follow

fact, obliged,to

consequences.

mental

of

in

them,

among

difference

the

We

liberty,and,
and,

not

is the law
identityin difference
not
at libertyto
are
ignore fact ;

identitybut

mere

experience, correlative

of

conditions

the
as

Stoics, Epicureans, and


the

schools

seem

to

with

the

be,

of

which

we

comparison

schools

of

preceding

important point of agreement

246

GREEK

the

As

them.

among

first

period

PHILOSOPHY.

of

Greek

and

Plato
the

three

instead

of

the

Aristotle, the

and

in

subjective stands

principle in

subjective embraces
with

the

somewhat

doubtful

of

the

and

from,
with

as

than

subject

been

the

universal

knowledge

and
chiefly,

senses

in

of

characteristic

are

that

which

general
if not
such
its

yet

Epicureans,

determining

itself

side

narrower

the

and

end

not

the

from
at

determination.

the

abstract

very
In

practicalrenunciation
incomplete.

They

most

this

in

ment
retire-

tive,
objec-

relatively
Plato

and

tendency
and

to

avenues

which

things

of conduct

is

sole, reference

philosophy
of

the

the
seen

the

to

of

the

individual

of

Stoicism

and

of all outside

on

stage then

direction.
is

as

developed

advanced

universal,

threshold

are,

in the

Sceptics is,in tendency,

individual

abstract

pure

it is Socraticism

is the

and

has

sources

The

by philosophy in

reached

therefore

such.

the

to

individual, i.e.,in

an

highest

as

the

either

by

lie in those

primary, if

has

it

upon

The

as

with

But

particular individual

the philosophy
actuality,

in

the

the

individual

Stoics, the

man

with

schools

Stoics, or

subject
to

the

tive
subjec-

relation

Sceptics.

placed

supposed

are

of

towards, the

the

upon

purely transcendent.

become
of

placed

had

Aristotle, and

and

Epicureans

is

the

attitude

negative

the

value

higher

with

objective,as

of

positively

later

objective,preserving a ^/^-independence,
midst

the

objective (nature).

its sway;

in

objective

thinkers

schools, together

their

Aristotle, have

(mind)

the

philosophy,the period

nature-philosophers,these
Plato

from

distinguished

In

cism
Scepti-

able
hardly distinguishand

philosophy

of

Epicureanism
the

is

Scepticism

individual

selfthe

self is

therefore, slightlyless advanced

of

stages

the

that

thought

the

weakness.

laid

stress

"
Philosophy in
have
just been

reached

Rome

it has

natural

the

be

of

individual.

repetitionof
A

conduct.
earlier

itself

or

complete

standpoint, that
of the

negativism

of

last-mentioned

philosophy

in the

directly
"

all the

than

all

character
to

exhortation

spirit,the

and

the

this
1

See

time

and
of

of
The

Zeller's

The

vidualism
indi-

evident

destructive

and

give
was

it the

active

there

thing
any-

philosophy to beget
Roman

becoming

was

the

the
particularly
to
produce distrust of
scatter
disintegrate and
"

organic totality. Nor


fortunes

Aristotle, seems

it and

consciousness.
at

and

and

concentrate

outward

this

world

but

philosophy

strained, paradoxical

are

the

nothing,

development

Plato

doctrine

science,

of

to

Epicureanism,
of

as

consciousness

into

Scepticism
"

rather

thought

Stoic

of

one-sidedness

passing

The

of

thought

direction

of

of

practicallyimpossible.

this

In

return

longer

no

thought
turning-point,

expected

Thought),

; it is

is the

but

life.

be

of

in

and

sake

own

sake

this limit,or

is to

seem,

have

to

appears

(the Thought

universal

Beyond

its

for action's

gives place to action, or


it would

for

thought

character

the

schools

the

In

"

rather, turning-point: ceasing

or,

thought

thought

Eclecticism}

limit

universal
become

2I-

considering,thought

(with Aristotle) to
its true

of

essence

universal.

the

as

we

the

constitutes

schools
by all these
individual, lies their strength as well as their
vidual
But
they only implicitlyposited the indithe

In

Scepticism.
upon

247

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

Eclectics.

world

Roman

"

"

"

and
was

248
a

GREEK

world

of action.

think

must

to

the

as

practical,in
large

Philosophers were

for Romans

"do
literally,
be

PHILOSOPHY.

the

individual

of

thinks
for

it

as

pretension

the

or

must

give

universalityas

to

knowing

becomes

words,

happens,

It must

sense.

whatever

him

and,

knowledge

other

philosophymust,

even

"

do

narrowest

its

extent,

Philosophy, in

Rome,

Romans

the

object

in

or, if not,

Romans,

gards
re-

subject.
"

eclectic

"

the

practical necessity or

requires or suggests,

is

up,

venience
con-

governed

by

theoretical

as
regards the source,
necessity neither
ideas
origin,or consistencyof his thought. He borrows
and
them
combines
loosely; he borrows
only such ideas
have
as
a
practicalbearing, and gives them
only such

combination

and

Differences

suggests.
the

the

differences

do

not, of course,

of

the

Eclectics

them

among

School,

of

persuasion

the

did

sect.

of

begin

with

we

the

but

later

make

sense

so-called

also

find

Peripatetic

School.

Cynic

the

strict
the

but

Eclectics

become

not

We

the

and

Academy,

the

Eclectics

The

number

rowing,
bor-

and

ideas

in any

^^-representatives

Epicureans
distinct

greatest
Stoic

they borrow,

school

or

of

amount

"Eclectics."

constitute

of

are

the

setting borrowed

the

The

term.

which

and

between

practical demands

regards

as

combining

the

as

from

sources

of

manner

setting

The

remained

Peripatetics.

"22.
The
not

to

Peripatetics.

Later

"

great

any

theories

or

and

extent

may

later

Peripateticswere

ceptions
originatorsof philosophicalcon-

but

were

Of

commentators.
we

The

mention

chieflyAristotelian
these

Andronicus

editors

and

itors
edmentators
com-

of Rhodes,

by

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

it is

whom,

of Aristotle

works

the

supposed,

249
"

were

(70 B.C.); Bo'e'thus


properly collected and edited"
author
of a
(firstcentury B.C.); an unknown
of Sidon
work
remarkable
entitled On the Cosmos ; Alexander
of
first

a.d.) ; Aspasiits

jEgce (firstcentury
Aphrodisias

Aristocles

(120 a.d.);

Adrastns

and

of
and,

of Messene,

the pupil of Aristocles, Alexander


disias
of Aphroparticularly,
who
known
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PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

252
itself

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253

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

orator,

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254

GREEK

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PHILOSOPHY.

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Cicero

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PHILOSOPHY.

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Malorum

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Eclectic

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towards
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257

PHILOSOPHY.

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control
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258

PHILOSOPHY.

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gentleness

that

general.

lies in the

distinction,even

despised, which

most

forget

not

man,

for

regard

his

of

of

itself

bestows

disinterested

crown

love

PHILOSOPHY.

est
mean-

slave

of

does

disposition

especiallyantagonistic to anger and hatred,


considers
which
cruelty,and
nothing
tyranny, and
so

worthier

of

forgiving

divine

towards

of human

punish, does

by
sympathy
was

older

exclude
not

virtue
that

Stoics

Seneca, Stoicism
Musonius

Deserving

Seneca

(about

the

of

and

Rome,

Emperor

of

Musonius,

of

Epictetus ;

and
so

Marcus
that

three.

possessed by

their
the

the
In

have

to

seem

"

science, are

tributed
con-

Musonius

century a.d.),Epictetus

slave

close

They

spiritand

ethical
1

is

of

religion.

who

taught philosophy

Antoninus,

a.d.). Epictetus was


Aurelius
a profound

there

and

Aurelius.

Aurelius

Marcus

(i21-180

the
in

first

injury."1

mildness

true

Marcus

time),a Phrygian

same

between

the

will,
good-

opposite.

though they

philosophy as

to

this

than

its

theology

its

upon

mention,

of

(latterpart

agreement

in

of

heartless

rather

verges

Rufus

Roman

influence

Rufus, Epictetus,

nothing

in

the

became

from

the

which,

spare

injury with

even

the

good

rather

enemies

even

unselfish

imitating

the

would

return

of

and

than

nature

is

secret,

evil

the

to

that

in

weakness,

not

will

and

benevolence

happiness

goodness

mindful

according

more

and

mercy,

disseminates

and

It

and

man

are

historical
also

in

the

pupil

admirer
tion
connec-

essential

teachings. Completely

idea, the

whole

Zeller's Eclectics,p. 240.

force

of

their

26

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

rendering the individual a, so


tion
relato
sphere, perfect in itself and without
say, moral
of dependence, positive
or
negative,to others.
They
dence
of an all-pervading,
teach the doctrine
over-rulingProvitoward

philosophizinggoes

of

and

belong

They

kind

but

to

the

noble

of

Aurelius

taught

within."

Their

type,

with

for

reverence

"

Later

Cynics.
"

looked

be

may

of

original prototype
and

Antisthenes

philosophers of

came

Stoics

as

upon

the

the

Diogenes,

of

(Sai/jicov
the

Stoic

Cynical

pure

the

to

Cynicism

fundamental

most

Stoicism

of

seminato
dis-

Marcus

reverted

Stoicism, i.e.,the

element

permanent

and

God

the

man.

and

spirit. Epictetus

philosophy is, of course,


tendency to simple Cynicism.

type, who

class of conservators

ethical

the

for

dispassionate regard

its

being

of
and

disguised

Cynicism.

General

Character

of

Greek

Philosophy.

the

end

of what

less

or

in

as

object
and
as

of

or

thought

in the

above

or

higher

constituting the
this

period.
and

It

than

essence

the

Hence

as

and

nature

is

First

the

as

characteristic
that

truth

from

thought
Period

in the

and

covers
dis-

(more

realityare

(mind, thought, vovs) regarded

reason,

opposed

beyond

of Greek

designated

fundamental

in the History

Period

review

conscious) assumption

contained
either

the Second
A

"

was

common

of

indifferent

(theprimary
First Period) or as wholly above
phenomena generallyor, finally,

nature

to

but

of nature

designation
perhaps

embracing
and

or

at

least

phenomena

Rationalism

hazardous

precise classification

nature

to

of thinkers

(p.34)

attempt
and

erally.
gen-

schools

for

matic
dogon

262

the

basis

one

as

thus

the

the

but
classification,

following appears

opposed,

at

or

universal

in their

for

afforded

representatives of
is

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

correct.
substantially

the

assumption

least

indifferent

character

above

and

of

the

that

assumption
embraces

it

members

of the Old

the

Stoics

Plato

tendency
toward

of the

thought,

natural

standpoint
position
in
the

which

of

Plato

of

ordinaryuse

of the

like

the
or

and

as

suggestion
the

term

The

eral
gen-

being

as

assumption,

of the

the

regards
of

not

Aristotle,,in
which

naturalism,

rationalistic

actual
is to

But

of

course

abandon

this

supra-rationalistic.The

Being

and

supra-rationalism,

universalism.

thought

reason,

science

"

first-named

is allied to

Megarians

Peripatetics,

described

from

the

another,

of

the

nature,

nature.

be

developed by

thought,

distinct

with

may

step for

thought,

is above

thought
the

of the

of

Plato, the leading

Eclectic

reason

all,perhaps, but

In

have

for

Megarians

object

of

of view

thus

as

wholly

than

higher

contradictorycharacter

standpoint

is

reason

of rationalistic

subjectivism,away

i.e.,toward

(?),

(in ethics),the

Megarians

toward

kind

thought

point

the

because

the

the

tending

toward

of

taken

Academy, Aristotle,the Peripatetics,

identification

the
i.e.,

reason

Stoics,Academics,

its essence,

constitutes

Aristotle
others

the

phenomena

that

though

(in physics),and

and

and

or

to,

that

Sophists,Socrates

assumption

reason,

view

Eclectic

beyond phenomena,

The

or

early Stoics

Epicureans, the Sceptics,the

Cynics

the

are

Cynics, Cyrenaics, the

and

such

some

the

the

being, or
is above
of

reason

One

The

name.

the
of

istic
supra-rational-

Eleatics

idea

of

son.
rea-

the

essence,

the

the

was

above

power

heavens

good

and

the
we

"

higher standpoint
in the

of

than

period covers.

GREEK

III.

263

PHILOSOPHY.

SUPRA-RATIONALISM

SUPRA-NATURALISM).

(AND

"26.
Standpoint and
in

Greek

this

"

the

latest
in

was

period

of

part involved

several

of and

"daemons,"
but

was
a

natural

real warrant,

and

that
a

warrant

the

It

should,

natural

was

first of

standpoint

century
was

B.C.

filled with

existence

the

in

rife ; 2 and

soul, was
be

made

such

also

of

and, of

dreams,

should

attempt

of

aspirationstowards

philosophicalbasis,for

aspirations.

and

an

just

was

sophical
non-philo-

one

"

magic,

character

immortalityof

in the

course,

prophetic

common,

which

"

with

in

belief

supra-natural:

Such

time,

afterwards,

(supposed) intimations
the

the

the

Period

schools

and

thinkers

in

of

centuries

of fact it

thought.

even

Latest

supra-naturalism)that

hence
the

Greek

consciousness
and

of

standpoint

and

matter

supra-rationalism(and

became
the

As

Philosophy.

Third

of the

Schools

that

all,be looked

to

it

find

intimations
such

for in

basis

systems

of
As
matter
a
philosophy already in existence.
in the
found
fact, it was
particularly
systems of the
tain
Pythagoreans, Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics ; and certhat were
than
little more
professed
systems arose
of these
rehabilitations
systems, and having in common
with
one
another, not only the same
general aim but
doctrines, adopted from these systems. To the
many
been
schools thus arisinghave
andrian,
Alexapplied the names,
lian),
or
Jewish- Alexandrian
(Platonic and AristoteNeo-Pythagorean, Eclectic-Platonic, Neo-Platonic,
of

etc.

See

an

interestingdiscussion

Vol.
Philosophers,

II. ch. 4.

on

this

point in

A. W.

Benn's

The

Greek

264

GREEK

PHILOSOPHY.

"27Jewish-Alexandrian
the

Schools.

Jewish-Alexandrian

(160 B.C.),who
Jewish
daeus,

school

Greek

and

in the

part of the

first

Aristobulus, combined
Alexandria
whole

Mediterranean

also,for
Aristobulus.
ruled

by

God),

and

days'

"In

of

had

compared

nation

(Solomon,

torch

Prov.

and

heavens
show

how

number

Philo

but

the

like

for

point

the

of

cretism,
syn-

world

the

is

whole

of

the

but,
22

of

to

all

first

day,

things

are

Peripateticphilosophers
he

adds,

seq.

of

one

?) had

the

his

own

testified

it existed

Aristobulus
order

the

on

which

by

of

phorically,
interprets, meta-

then

of

before

rests

it

the

endeavors

world

to

the

on

seven."1

Jtidceus:

General

Attitude?'

Philo

"

of
material
philosophical system out
the
Greek
philosophers and treated in

Hebrew,

and,

created

was

viii.

earth.

the

ished
flour-

conceptions.

that

God

finely,that

distinctlyand

more

who

Ju-

world.

that

wisdom

the
some

to

Philo

a.d.,

natural

held

light,which

which

of

Greek

creation, Aristobulus

symbolizing

illumined,

of

and

bine
com-

"potency"
is extra-mundane,
visible
only
interpreting the [Jewish] seven

God

the
as

and

(not

power

that

work

ideas

first to

meeting-place

Aristobulus

divine

the

century

and

time

Aristobulus

of

Alexandria,

first

world,
the

"

(vov$).

reason

of

Jewish
this

at

was

been

conceptions,

(Jewish) theologian

philosophers of

speak

we

have

to

appears

the

Of

"

rather, Oriental

or,
1

Ueberweg's

Ritter

and

Hist,

Ueberweg.

the

up

spiritof

of

I. p. 227.

God

from

borrowed

conception

of Phil., Vol.

built

as

the
the

265

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

above
the
being and as remotely transcendent
the
world.
logic and
Naturally,therefore, he treats
physics of the earlier philosophers (so far as these

sole

of

divisions

things

philosophy

with

concerned

are

mundane

general range of human


of comparatively slight consequence,
as
philosophy into higher theology.

and

converts

within

are

ligence)
intel-

the

Theory of Knowledge.

Philo

"

with

agrees

and

the

(Academicians) as to the inabilityof the


of the
mind
to attain
to knowledge
real, but
of adopting their theory of probability,
makes
possibleas a "gift" from God, a revelation.
knowledge
soul

to

comes

in

absorbed

which

thought
of

"

to

of
be

for

of

from

is too

God

things :

high

clearlyapprehended

such

Man

by

his

by

may

In

it

edge
knowlThis
of

divine
and

sense

lation
reve-

of the

in

even

able
prob-

human

above

state

effort become

own

revelation, worthy

instead

state

such

knowledge

the

man

human

"reposeful

is fructified by God.
itself,

enthusiasm."

capable

certain

soul, liberated

the

is contained

ground

in

"enthusiasm,"

denominated

rapture,"in

when

man

tics
Scep-

of

such

gift,

through philosophic thought ; the revelation itself is


edge
knowlgift. Philosophy is the highest form of human
Other
sciences, i.e.,grammar,
strictlyas such.
but

limited

the

higher

rhetoric,geometry, etc., are


are

have
true

in

merely propaedeutic to
value

knowledge

media

is

individual

of

in

but

condition

cooperation

between

given

demonstration,

activityor
no

as

of

not
"

the

the

lowest

They

reason,

sense-perception

immediate
soul

form

but
nor

intuition,"

in

which

bodily activity. Knowledge

object is

they

wisdom.
and

sense

in

in power

of

there
of

knowledge,

an

is
the

the

266

GREEK

highest

form

being.

Of
is

which

being

PHILOSOPHY.

with

concerned

being, however,

all
practically

that

According

this

the

we

only

we

know

highest genus,

know

that

of

God

as

it

is,

he

is

in himself.
God.

"

is the

sole

self-existent

he

And

yet

he

immutable,

no

name,

is, if

we

must

Aristotle)above

by

his power,

by

not

Logos.

and
his

of

emanations

from

is creative

these

These

him,

his

conceived

be

to

are

"

the

Second

the

the

creator,
God."

As

Logos (Word)

symbolized by
thought
and

their

in

the

terminology
the

the

both

or

of

is

the

Philo

Idea, the

the

which

and

God

or,

here
Idea

in

world,

an

Logos
image

adopting
of

be

may

The

and

expressed

an

is thus

world,

and,

minister,

interrelation.

the

of

highest

and

nature,

Sophia)

as

his

God

thought

union,

unity of

Plato). Though

to

inward

the

which

him),

activities

personal

double

and

"law-giving," etc.

related

Plato, whom

Logos

the

of

it

"ruling potency,"

ruler,

archetype
of

as

in

potencies

The

Word.
is the

Ideas

God

and
totality

is

(sometimes designated
God

and

Mover

essence.

energies, or

Logos
has

an

or

universal

present

distinct from

second

power,

perhaps, beings (likethe


is

attributes,
Prime

between

"fore-seeing," fourth,

third, the

world

the

or
Logos (\6yos),

is the

(likethe

term

lies in

power,

is

he

(which,though attributes,are
which

him

to

substance,

middle

The

"

world, i.e.,his

are

beauty and
unknowable, simply is.

ascribe

out

God

mixed,
properties,un-

supremely happy, supremely good,

of

The

without

is

supra-sensiblelight;

reason,

knowledge,

science, than

and

has

of

theory

being,

virtue

than

higher
goodness;

to

manner

of
the
lows,
fol-

Ideas, the

"place" (toVo?)of Ideas, the supra-sensibleworld.

The

268

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

from

that

virtue

life,and
mentioned

is

human

are

its condition

as

is

on

level.

Result.

Philo's

ethics

Platonic

Moses

to

of

original

idea

in man,

Idea
act

that
that

or

soul

of

is in

there

and

immortality.

Philo, owing

to

man

the

But

the

Greek

Philo
the

Stoic

reans
Pythago-

the

leading

gifts from
in

growth

His

God
the

is
tory
his-

it, perhaps, may

to

is the

of the

working
of

Idea

Good

the

Cicero's

by

thought

perception of virtue,God,
of

extremes

Oriental

the

posed
sup-

philosophy.

as

the

demics,
Aca-

Later

of

science, and

innate

an

to

of

sources

the

most

new

rise to

than

higher

that

to

knowledge
we

of

also

Similar

thought.

justice.

(of which

much

virtue
"

it

account

and
originator),

historyof
and

is,however,

historical

Ideas

owed

distinctive,

Plato's

seem

He

knowledge

Greek

of

real

the

in the

and

and

scepticism

debtor, indeed,

systems

theory

be

ing
hav-

tions
rather, perhaps, condi-

or,

theory of

physics.

was

earlier

the

three

is that

this

on

conspicuous

are

the

and

virtues

most

doctrines

an

The

"

which

first

two

These

; it

hope, repentance,

are

The

of virtue

kind

virtue, with
Other

virtue,

to

fourth

ascetic

an

last is divine.

the

"gift."

philosophicscience

is natural

gift,as

resulting from

natural

interdependent.

are

virtue

(human) science,

"

the
of

remoteness

of

system

from

God

distinctlyseparated that they are


nation,
brought together only by an act of speculative imagi-

the

world,

or

outside

are

so

faith,whereas

the

sphere

of

thought,

objectiveorganic

whole.

synthesis in

system

the

emotion

systems

of Plato

Plato

neither

or

The
of

the

point

Philo

is

an

aspirationtowards
(i.e.,
and

Cicero

it is

an

nor

Cicero

steps

conception of
and

the

principle

unexplained
God)

intellectual

of

jective
sub-

in

effort

the
to

(not passively apprehend) things mentally in

grasp

unity. According
to

man

thing

is

he

the

power

is

just
it

of

concerning

God.
him

(analogous
and

that

because
did

he

identifythe

nor

which

not

his belief in

Logos

practical and

redemption

of
with

the

its

goal,

that
the

he

practised

Jewish Scriptures

"impurity

of

ter,"
mat-

incarnated

the

Logos

the

expected Messias,

he

as

powerfully

was

Messias."

the

it and

inappropriatelybe

spiritualinterest

through

of

rationalizingof myths),

Stoic

conceive

such

religious

upon

it reaches

which

may

nevertheless,

course,

the

by

of

not

the

to

of

is, rather, assumed.)

theologian

self,
him-

seizing upon

existence

himself

based

It
as

of

account
intelligible

an

given
acquires

mystical philosophers ;

among
has

that

the

Cicero

man

their

is

possessed by

unliteral,allegorical
interpretationof

an

"

(" intuition ") by

knowledge

added

by

giving

process

Cicero,

(By Pla"o

is therefore

feeling without
of the

which

of

theologian who

and

of

means

knowable.

place

Plato

to

is deduced

power

Philo'

by

function

the

Philo, spiritualknowledge

to

according

knowledge

such

the

269

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

to

moved

with

connected

"28.
Neo-Pythagoreanism.
in the
lus.

first
The

century

school

Pythagorean

Pythagoreanism

"

by

B.C.

thus

certain

originated

P.

revived

Nigidius Fign-

is known

as

the

Neo^

School.

"
The

was

Eclectic

Platonists.
1

See

"

29.

We

must

Ueberweg.

mention

here

the

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

27O
Plutarch

historian

doctrines

who

Eclectics

those

among

Plato

of

kept

is known

closely to

most

he

that

have

regarded

the

was

and

one
substantially

as

in their

both

doctrines

the

purity.

the

Plotinus.

years

in

about

the

of

school

the
age

of

Here

habits,

for

taught

he

of

ashamed

was

of
at

his

strip the
and

with

state

Plato's
his

his

of

one

Laws.

ideals
; and

he

by
both

He

male

as

to

In

the

ascetic

resembled,

yet there

can

it would
be

no

as

of

such

and

the

to

far
his

doubt

flesh

have
as

aimed

possible,

attributes
of

;
a

expounded

in

character

of

the
that

nor

tion
informa-

founding

mystic
seem,

of

of ascetic

giving

that

as

school

female.

and

was

appears

practical projects was


such

neither

should,

at

went,

there

He

averse

that

constitution

a.d.),a

large number

twenty-sixyears.
of his body, ate
was

are

philosophy eleven

opened

eminence,

individual

outward

taught

Saccas, and

attended

philosophical culture

have

to

Neo-Platonists

studied

and

personal history.

Aristotle

and

{circa 205-270

Rome

bread, despised medicine,

is said

He

a.d.

Proclus.

Ammonius

was

learning and

of

persons

Plotinus

"

Plotinus
nourished

have

and

andrian
Alex-

an

of

Plato

liehus, and

forty,to

philosophy,which

of

leading

Lycopolis,in Egypt,

of

native

the

little else

teacher

same,

Other

Plotinus, Porphyry, Jamb

Life of

by

Saccas, of whom

Ammonites

except

revived

was

(presentlyto be spoken of), and must


third
in the earlypart of the
century
to

placed

30.

Platonism

"

named

is

himself.

"
Neo-Platonism.

a.d.),who

{circa 50-125

Pythagoreans
he regarded

GREEK

theoretical

the

the level of the

far above

as

27

PHILOSOPHY.

practical,
"

moral
philosophicalcontemplation as above narrow
in all,were
His works, fifty-four
arranged
edited

by

his

pupil Porphyry,

groups,

of

nine

works

was

pugnacious Christianityof
in

and

desire
of

his
and

purpose

Dialectic.
in

the

middle

philosophy
in

in

Good

of
the

born

in

gifted,each
than

most

world.

lover

and

is

the

The

to

the

See

Ueberweg's

chronological
2

See

order

Good

standpoint

sense

higher

to

to

the

method
from

with

Idea

and

level

gifted
from

the

inner

truth

are

in

the

musician
of

things

sensation

mere

have

natures

of

perception

which

which

who

lies veiled

the

plains,
ex-

mode

or

the

finer

that

perception

of

it, to

to

philosopher,

and

harmony

these

principles

those

ascent

an

by "astonishment,"

figure)in objects of
of

the

harmony

beautiful ; and

raised

be

of

the

of the

have

overpowered

of

of

men,

sensuous

this world

particularway,

Plato, particularly

approach

Plato, the

lover,

musician,

nature.

pure

opuscule,On Dialectic,he
of

Idea

things

held
philosophizing,2

the

God,"

his

manner

the

to

ascent

in

; and

after the

"like

the

own

master

his

flightfrom

mental

region, in becoming
of the

of

period

rather, perhaps,

or,

his

his life

full relief the

above

its

lightof

six

of the

in

both
in

mind

the

did

Plotinus, as

"

the

consist

hold

and

Enneads

opponent

out

cipline.
dis-

of

name

; but

age

stands

to

and

sense

mere

there

writings

the

violent

his

collection

whence

each,

Plotinus

nine)}

(evvea

in

they

can

first to

guish
distin-

beauty (e.g.,concord, rhythm,


from

principles. They

the

immediate

may

then

ment
environ-

contemplate

History of Philosophy for the subjects,


grouping, and
of

the

works.

Thecetetus,p. 176; also, Phcedrus

and

Republic.

272

GREEK

principlesin

those

beautiful

pursuits

the

of the

study

and

thought
"

feeling;he

is

from

the

other

it

it

the

also

the

the

its

and

employs division,obtains

Good

not

connecting
things, intellectually

of
from

till it has

them

nature,
intelligible

an

it arrives
Dialectic

that

at

is not

it is concerned

it knows
and

the

what

it

to

which

merely
with

motions

Works

again by
it

All

of

of

the

the

from

of
lies

(trans,by

of

from

things
It

"

results

whole

of

the

beyond being

soul

manner,

T.

first." 1

philosophy

the

soul, what

it understands

Plotinus

and

analyticprocess

an

what

thing

first genera

which

that

of

or

contrary

these

the

instrument
and

from

opinion."

of

proceeded

the

being

rejects" ;

Select

the

proceeded through
and

is in

is, if

and

everything,

different

from

knowledge

It is

"

beings is,
but

be

to

it differs

these

contrary.

and
scientifically

it discusses

of
of

the

having

dialectic

what

nothing

not

are

after

about

of

readily

passes

something

number

in want

dialectic ?

reason

each

and

sense

only

He

is

common

discusses

Eternal

it, the

and

thing is, in

each

is, what

It

beings).

"

to

does

perceive thought-distinctions,

to

then

of

ment
instru-

of

sciences, finds

its possessor

non-beings (which

meshes

universal, and,

participates,where

is, what

of

the

science

immediate

way."

What

what

things,

from

the

the

born-philosopher

dubious

"indicate

through

on

pass

"

The

disengaged

what

then

the

naturally quick

enabling

which

is

itself.

element.

know

and

development (e.g.,

dialectic,or

which

training in

his native

to

to

particular to

received

habit

sciences

is somewhat

to

one

laws)

be

but
some

and

Good

require to

not

of

higher grade

being,

of the

PHILOSOPHY.

Taylor).

admits

virtues,

habits, passions, actions.


"

of

part

other

without

dialectic

these

though

It

parts.

in

be

first

intellect

in

soul

and

highest

the

logic,or

principles of

faculty,which
inferior
is

observed,

the

immediately

in

origin

activityof
concerns."

understanding,
the

tic.
dialec-

their

the

lectic
Dia-

"surveys,"
dianoetic

or

sciences

relating
it is to be

foregoing, which,

Platonic

quite

have

above, and

govern

The

concerns.

inferior

stands

without

"

perfectedby

faculty or
"

but

concerns";

dialectic

any

form

is

know

possible to

understood

them

to
relating particularly

in its

to

in

not

is presupposed

and

is not

manner

principles of

honorable

"most

"inferior

dialectic,"the knowledge of
The

the

it presupposes,

knowing

may

is

It

philosophy,but

by, the

273

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

quality,elevates us to the
standpoint of speculation

standpoint of Plotinus, the


Another
or
(vision),
thought, or self-consciousness.
pure
of the steps leading to this standpoint (which
account
should

is

added

be

scientific

more

the

foregoing, not

but

also

to

only
the

because

because

without
philosophy is easily missed
attempt to approach his standpoint) is the

The
for

"

as

most

first and

the

is

whatever

is

pleasant
from
of

the

soul

good."

See

among

these

"Others

recalling

On

sarily
neces-

Some

thought.

considering the things of sense


of things and
apprehending that

them

"Others

is evil and

are

things subordinate,

worthy pursuit."

ing
follow-

last

painful

of

that

to

in

care

is,naturallyand

sense

prior

men,

get beyond this

never

of

standpoint

of

meaning

Plotinus's
the

it

the

from

in

more

small

degree

excellent

pleasure
through a more

Intellect,Ideas, and

whatever

to

is
vated
ele-

parts
a

more

excellent

Being (Taylor'strans.).

274

GREEK

with

and

power

the

light, to
world,

and

being

no

piercing eyes, acutely perceive supernal


vision

clouds

the

above

is at

virtue

and

of

is

is

he

who

of soul
is

there

"

the

the

of

in

the

ble
sensi-

science
of

that

itself."

the

which
this

In

(" liberation

is in

that

love

of

of

"

satisfaction

soul

many

third, love

from

complete
for

"

is

country."

beauty

fourth, love

beautiful

which

first,love

of soul

sense,

after

are

beauty

of

his lawful

to

love* of

lower

place

beautiful

parturiency")

from

the

the

"

the

regions

progression

which

alone

last

of

steps of

of

beauty

and

first

restored

themselves

the

second,

beauty

these

than

own,

length

it were,

as

with

delighted

properly their

raise

they

abiding despise

Concisely stated,
and knowledge of

cause

which

darkness,

otherwise

wanderings

"

of

and

there

trulyand

and

PHILOSOPHY.

intellectual

travail.

Since

the

from

itself

ascent
"

uniformities

and

more

and

beautiful

is

types
that

not

by

the

of that
a

of

itself" must

forms,

which

is

which

is

"

one

were,

unwise

be
is

soul
and

which

conceived

beautiful

would
base

with

the

sensible

world

be

not

(as now

"

ryeia).Soul
reason

is beautiful
; reason

merely
alone

as

and,
"

of

beautiful

"

thinking

intellect,or

first and

"

abstracting from

and
types in thi7igs,

is in
(incidentally)in motion,
distinction
(Aristotle's
energy

or

which

process

Ideas.

of

is
the

as

as

"

realm

itself,"

beautiful
is the

"

SiW/"w?

case) ;
:

it

involved
in

not

and

participatingin
and

and

states

thus

first

Soul

from

capacity

is in energy

more

reason.

subject to passions,or passive changing

is linked

"

Realm

types in themselves, that

another

wise, and
is

been

from
or

realm

the

and

of the

because, if it

soul

to

has

the

of pure

Nous

Intellect,or

Reason,

iveplect,
intel-

always

in

276
is

fire ; and

posteriorto

itself
its

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

being (and hence

object

being,

or

Considered

one.

would
we

is

the

that

contrary,

has

with

do

to

there

agriculture be
plant ;

body,

habit.

corroborated."

all natural

world."

soul

The

sciences

and

The

One,

The

reason,

there

is

true

therefore, says

even

and

intellect.

intellective.

being

that
with

which
or

to

It

is

In

"

the
in

intelligible
and

the

intellect,or
knower

is
or

one,

Absolute

the

qualification. It
itself

neither
the

and

manner

Absolute

The

intelligiblein

intellect

the

is not

reason

is in

alone

ticipatio
par-

conversant

is there

be

Good).

It

merely by

in

Good,

these

without

and

simply

ceconomics,

temperance.

Plotinus,

One, The

another

by being

duality of

though

and

being

certain

poreal
cor-

sufficiently

art,

essence

First, The

known,

(The First, The

its real

in

of the

good

are

there

arranged

justiceand

the

is One

power,

military

be

health

another

the

sensible

and

objects are

must
intelligibles

the

art

no

will

with

strength

Geometry, however,

"

particular,"

quality,art."

all animals

Rhetoric,

and
politics,

with

is

nature,

Neither

"

saves

to

which

health, there, through

nor

which

there

For

to

world
intelligible

things.

contributes

which

or

and

is conversant

which

medicine

the

nor

according

stable,essence,

sensible

the

contents

according qualities

universal

is in the

there

"

are

magnitudes, habitudes,

are

both

difference,the

"sameness,

in it

and

passions, which

and

its

to

in

it became

intellect

and

being

contains

or

lack

if
intellect)

reference

motions, permanencies,
On

that

quantities,numbers

actions,

be

not

say

with

world
intelligible
and

yet, since intellect would

is

is what

prior

intelligible
that,

sense

absolutely perfect, its


reason

to

is essential

to

ence
pres-

the

GREEK

is

would

have

hence

would
The

or

through

of

it is

to

abstract

soul

it may

distinctionless,and
vision

wishes

and

"When

soul

the

formless,
is

not

by

then

being

bounded,
former

of

view.

this

kind,

and

it

sensible,and,

just
of

sight, also,

as

small

the

proper,
to

the

we

as

it were,

the

Absolute,

however

apprehension

happens
it, the

One

to

pure
of the

us

forms

One.

it that

to

One

because

meantime

In

at

thing
some-

to

larger."

are

be

approached

intellectual
are

tions
percep-

conditions

but

speaking

of the

designate not
possess

subsisting

in

perception

as

itself,but,
we

quently
fre-

survey,

the

such

of sense,

of

solid substance

with

All

from

endeavors

the

First,is

hension
appre-

nothing

in

on

to

or

the

till it arrives

rests

described.

manner

irnpressed with

wearied

when

is

which

from

things

necessarilyapply names
that
is reallyin the

which
from

all

sense.

that

possess

descends

the

which

that

to

weary

objects,eagerly turns

Nevertheless,

only in

becomes

of

world

the

comprehend

it will

of

weary

nature, it falls from

gladly

fallingfrom

and

to

is afraid

Hence

absolutely formless

it were,

various

mit
com-

One

its attention

as

requisite

in, intellect."

it

again to

unable

and,

of it and
the

directs

else.

"to
i.e.,

be, becomes

descend

to

it is

of sense,

establish
is

thought

anything

One

of the

in

one

The

of

and

nor

many,

thought
world

the

thing, and

"many"

absolutely sole.

which

that

perceives

it another

among

perception
to, and

perception, it

first, but

one

the

totallyfrom

one's
then

unlike

the

to

not

it is

many

wholly

attain

To

is

One

and

sole

be

not

If this, which

intellectual

present with

have

to

277

intellect.

itself,had

intellect

prior to

second.

activityof

and

perfect being

PHILOSOPHY.

"

One
thing
any-

something
something

itself.

It is

278

neither

One,

it were,
the

speaking

call it that

to

in which

manner

fall from

it

by

arises
is not

nor

like

types]

All

him.
far

union

the

explaining
it.

At

time

Doubt

of

one

another

at

it.

perception

science

by

cially
espe-

the

highest

natural, or
[i.e.,

Good

mathematical

by intelligence [the knowledge of pure


other
but
of
intelligibles,
by the presence
extends
concrete
or
synthetic doctrine
only
.

the

the

him."

to

complete merging

subject with

knowing

is of

which

is

One

of

union

progression

and

way

perceiving

perfect

about

of

about

it, but

to

near

the

running, as

we,

because

the

as

affected

are

doubts

our

effected

science]

draw

we

But

desirous

it,are

we

accurately of

this.

nor

externallyaround

time, indeed,

of

when

however,

necessary,

so

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

of

nature

known

One

the

The

act

into

it,a

object,a

and

is hence

necessarilya perfect union of the knowing subject with


It is only after separating from
itself.
the One
that
has

intellect

is distinct

One

The

object.

distinction

it the

before

of

subject

from, though present

and

with,

all else.

Reason,
Intellect,
thus

being
absolute
How

prior
the

does

soul,
else
we

follow

may
of

of

prius

for

as

all

from

the
well

One,

or

One

and

foundation
order

of

of all

being perfect in

else.

But

things ?

we

formlessness,
of

the

Plotinus's

things

consequence

after
of

what

do

in
we

of

of intellect,

things

hold

or,

the

tion
concep-

find

neously
sponta-

This

opposite.

theory

way

all
to

try

One
is the

lead to that

say, lose, ourselves


pure

else

in

How

When

The

"

things

One

of the

arisingthe thought
is the

all

to

things

sensible

and

Emanation.

an

thought

(our)thought

just as
the

Nous

or

the

the

first."

not

seeking

fact

"

tion
genera-

"The
or

One

possess-

in

being

ing, or

2/9

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

of

want

becomes, as it
anything
the
super-plenitudeof it produces
.

overflowing,1and
is gensomething else. That, however, which
erated
from
its influence)turns
it (being still under
it (tobecome
towards
to
or
partake of, the One) and is
this is
filled,and was
generated looking to it. But

were,

the

permanency

being, but

its vision

intellect and

it is established
it becomes

it,then

and

of

produced by

its

of power

to

overflowing

and

"

of

presence

the

in

viewing being

as

"

that

is

one

in

that

vision

say,

having

it

causes

down

(for

of

knower

the
and

light reflected

to

which

realm

In

consciousness

it sinks

at

see
2

being, and
organicallydistinguished

thus

are

One

the

the

being."

the

energy

look

into

power)

immanent

joined

an

it and

intellect

and

being

One,

it may

that

and

has

duced
pro-

therefore,

When,

intellect

The

One

the

in order

One

intellect

itself.

intellective

that

One

it about

intellect.

once

towards

back

turn

at

of the

vision

this

the

about

of

other

by

known.

from

the

lect
Intel-

the

One

"

it has

ing
immediately on leavthe One
sees
being as one
(a form of One) rather
with
itself (intellect)
and
one
: it therefore
many,
itself. Viewing being as being, i.e.,
established
as
it as
independent, it sees
(rather than one).
many

seeing being by
"

than
sees

and

latter

the

In

intellect.

pure

it is discursive

form
"

self -consciousness

or

Reason,

of

thought.
1

In all other

the

obtain, first

we

subject,and

Subject
natures

scientific,not

analyzing the conception


By logically

of

as

and

desire

and
or

want

of

all,Nous

Existence

object,
is the

cause

the

as

considered
of

their

itself,

object
as

the

putting forth

energy.
2

On

the

trans.).

Generation

and

Order

of Things after The

First

(Taylor's

280

GREEK

with

same

distinct

another, give

one

they give
the

to

one

thought

itself

gives

obtained

so

The

The

Rest.

and

specificdifference gives Quality,and

everything
of

the

and

Being.

the

notion

is

of

in

of

the

forms.

universal

substratum,

the

of

bond

of the

is in

there

matter,

union

form

world.
intelligible

nal
eter-

ization
real-

have

must

matter."

Ideas,

It is

of

intelligibleworld

the

the

among

fall below

not

organism

an

incorporeal

"

Nous

intelligibleworld

The

since

Now,

tion
deduc-

from

and

does

It is

One.

minations
deter-

ples
princi-

is the

One

the

organic unity.

"

and

types

from

these

Such

world
intelligible

The

image

"

an

ideas

primary

of

Quantity,their

from

is derived."

else

limitation

pluralityof

gives Number

as

from

passage

the

Motion

gives

considered

Identity;

us

Difference.

us

other

to

PHILOSOPHY.

This

distinct

or

is

forms,

"indefinite"

cognized by

reason.

Soul.

Nous,
this

Out

"

of the

soul,2 which

comes

is

of

abiding

One.

the

of

nature

of permanence,
intervenes

they

image

an

kind

of

soul.

rational

and

Benn's

See

the Soul.

of

On

The
the

itself ;

looks

both

irrational.

of

"

Philosophers, Vol.

of

the

Soul,

the

are

as

negative
ever,
how-

though

other.

Idea) and

nature

these

The

origin (as the

the

to

viz.,visible

From

Essence

its

to

the

Nothing,

Nous

with

Nous,

permanent,

in it also

and

one

of

the

motion.

soul

back

Timceus

Greek

has

but

principleof

looks

of

Intellect,or

"

image

"

an

partakes

continuous

are

Plato's

of

It

between

imitating Nous,
gus

is

Nous

the

of the

superabundance

which

tinct,
dis-

Soul,
Demiur-

generates
also

is

generated souls,

procession," or

going

II. p. 321.
Discussion

of Doubts

relative

to

forth

of

beautiful

certain
a

tendencies

natural

the

"resembles

act, but

compulsory

actions

particular end
or, to

is

the

state

the

at

in

the

intellect

an

Prime

Deity, or

in

world,
intelligible
and

heavens,

are

from

proceed
others
such

as

from

hence

which

have

their

by

from

education.

to

which

natural
all

even

are

beings

good

or

sions
progresof

them

these

being

themselves

draws

the

free

condition

in

this

to

life

either

fortune

it were,

deserts

down

herentl
in-

circumstances

from

or

as

them

differ

things," is

their

evil,whether

coordinating

"

the

bodies, but

raise

Souls

that

to

smallest

justiceawarding
done

and,

adapted,

the

which

and

introduced

That

the

great weight of oblivion

diversityof

are

they

together

the

course

into

some

others
to

power

influence."

they

conducts

into

of the

attracted

oppressive

which

which

sufficient

its

their

as

inferior

into

soul

each

they proceed

And

length.

itself ;

fall from

Souls

far

its

"suspended"

body

so

bodies

account

have

or

into

certain

not

on

they

in

heavens

the

from

pass

bodies

extended

law

the

place, indeed,

receiving

terrene

more

first

rent
inhe-

has

naturallyto

are
"

by

rules

Heavens

or

excited

way,

which

Mover).

the

there

it into

through

different

to

soul

it

carries

impulses

not

are

appointed by

(as,according to Aristotle,the
from

we

that

fact

from

suspended

the

or

individual

Each

time

same

which

to

law

universal

voluntary nor
physical leaping
a

wedlock,

to

reasoning process."
in it the

is neither

Nous

souls, from

28

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

of

existence

weaving

kind

those
or

necessity

and

and

who

of

versal
uni-

have

preexistent

state.

Soul
and

and

divine

Body.
allotment

As

"

"

the

being
soul

an

is

"

not

nature
intelligible
body nor the har-

282

GREEK

in

mony

incorporeal natures,
of

the

and,

body

with

the

it,as the

not

air is and

shines

present with

the

is in each

(as thus)
the

separate

of

all

order

and

analogous

case,

wisely connects

and

power

is the

of

the

virtue

body
of its

the

In

present

the

with

instrument

as

bodily

in

brain.
it

nature,

intellective.

The

entirelybeyond
Memory

partlyin

the

of

take

soul

is, to

in

all

it. This

the

has

by

reason

the
its

phantasy.

all

whole

the

the

roots

The

of

is

by

body

is

of the other

sensitive

seat

soul

is

"judicial,"or
and

widest

appetiteare
and

reason

partly in
soul

parts

central

The

impulse

influence

body,

things wisely."

extent,

some

quite

sensation";

body.

Though

so,

them.
a

things in

of

of

single power

soul ; in that

the

not

findings

phantasy, or imagination (in the

sense), is permeated
not

all

touch

parts of the

is the

sensation

be

must

The

of

ences
differ-

registering

to

cosmos,

"power

sense

in

were

locating

it "conducts
indivisibility
of

case

the

mental

no

governs

life and

with

whole

impossibilityand

world.

the

soul

the

is

function

(relative)
divisibility,
supplies

only limited

senses

of

its

If

be

the

soul

adaptabilityto

an

there

which

of

be

of

beauty

of

synthesis of

will

that

virtue

its

and

The

part.

as

body.

all

there

soul of

is in

body

intermediate

difference

of

the

show

by

and

distinguishingand

sensations, for

The

has

would

senses

the

As

the

intellect

and

world), the

(the sense

whole

as

organism,

an

likewise, would
of

body

organs

light.

fection,
per-

with*

present

; rather

body

parts by virtue

in the

"

perfectly indivisible (the One

part, but

different

entelechy,or

intellect

in the

divisible

the

is

soul

in the

the

between

the

nor

is with

One

the

as

and
intellect)

the

The

body.

soul, it is

in nature

soul

PHILOSOPHY.

the

tasy.
phan-

intellect,

throughout,

there-

284

GREEK

assume

PHILOSOPHY

ratiocination

of

kind

this

must

we

not

...

think

voice

is

entirelysubsist
have

they

dialect

bodies

which

be

conscious

know

done

are

each

inhabitant

say."

The

Individual

The

individual

world

just

"

those

is pure

body

before

what

the

one

and

intended

thus
the

to

speak

can

former

completely
of

conception

world, which
is

the

of

imitation

of

the
the

from

in

beauty

and

his

inherent

own

of

the

soul

of

of the

verse
uni-

womb

is

the

soul

The

mother.

of

order

worth

of
the

Man

the

the

is, by virtue

that

child

the

of

"

mos,
cos-

rise

may
and

world

the

dignity
as

fested
mani-

cosmos.

Sensidle
and

soul

World.

soul

the

least)transcendent.

at

contemplation

begotten
"

of

produces

sense

in the
The

that

(in part,

true

soul

the

the

of

it ; but

from

different

Soul

rapport with

en

influences

part,
as

the

and

is

soul

from

different

Soul

receives

and

of its rational

an

through

Nothing, likewise,

eye.

organized,according

or

also

They

pertaining to

spirit-realmis

Plotinic

The

command

it.

every

fictitious,but

or

orderly

an

self-consciousness.

pure

by

an

in

or

here, likewise, we

eyes,

however,

it were,

the

use

knowledge

even

the

not

neither

about

their

since

where

through indigence
they

of

they

as

But

do

everything

latter knows

the

determined,

to

There,

concealed

to

here

consult

objects

is,as

long

so

they

nature

nor

the

silent.

another

to

things through

that

to

heavens

perception ;

many

is there

the

according

to

there

world.
intelligible

performing

mutually know
a

in

but

and

anything

the

they employ

ambiguity ;
manner

in

them

by

employed

World

and

fashioned
"

of

that

Matter.

by
soul

the

"

soul

The
of

sensible
the

immediately and

world

universe, is
of

the

in-

for
indirectly,

world
telligible

intelligibleworld

and

such

are

objects

as

these

changes

objects. Corporeal
All

of

false.

without

"

is

magnitude,

for

the

which
a

in

example,
"his
the

that

which

it contains

is

genus

another

form.

of

For
a

"

seeds

all

"

of

the

of

subsists

is

one

Matter

See

Plotinus's

under

of
the

Matter.

quantity
with
(i.e.,

this.

of
and

it

receiving."

is defined

is indefinite

possess

wished

reason

magnitude

On

not

and

with

ent
subservi-

be

he

capable

sort

possessed

would

which

any

are

possesses

If matter

magnitude

ing
hav-

as

tions,
determina-

alone

would

things quantity

bird."

is

accompanied

there

or

Anaxagoras,

which

quality? ]

matter

elements

the

qualityof

creator

now

ent
differ-

some

or
qualities,

by form,

productive principle)and

with

form,

Democritus,

matter

possesses

every

"

manent,
per-

of such

matter

are

of

out

such

as

one

as

production

form

"Every

of

distinguishableness.

quantity [nor

should, but

it

to

and

that,

to

and

"always

absolutelywithout

being given
or

and

quires
re-

Sensible

into

now

respect,

atoms

magnitude

even

definiteness

on

is

it shall receive

to the

takes

the
virtually

Matter

to

however,

matter.1

be due

must

matter

and

do

as

soul

theories,therefore, that represent

Empedocles
form,

These

the

and
intelligible,

fixed,or determined, in any

as

in which

termed

all things
another, is potentially

thing."

of

the

objectificationof forms,

is

is

from

things.

constantly passing

form

Since

existence.

all

of

objects. Form,

this

existence,

receives

function

that
objectification

for its
real

is the

it

sensible

of

world

the

soul

the

principles

result, the

The

objectify.
just

the

forms,

principles,or

285

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

Hence

together
a

man

and

perceived

286

GREEK

indefinite

the

by

known

by

were,

of

conception
; be

genuine

indefiniteness

the

certain

in

if it be

of

the

at

affirms
But

matter

quality that

seemingly,about
into

denly develops
is

to

there

the
be

subject
form.

no

there

is between

prior

their

union,

matter

Matter

is

quality."

When
mean

to

we

only
1

it is not

Timceus,

p. 52.

is

of

tively
instinc-

entity.

quality
objectivity

nor

other

other

every
the

words,
sud^

quality.

qualitiesand

as

and

far
form

matter

as

no

tion
rela-

ferent
being entirely"indif-

mere

or
externality,

infinite,or

something
See

above, p. 92.

"

pained,

nothingness

But

matter

it the

term

that

and

magnitude

then

into

the

color?

of

the
in

Form,

pass

concerned,

to

can

merely

realityif

no

form.

is in

soul

magnitude

capacity for

the

the

nonentity,

kind

but

the
as,

as

is the

to

indefiniteness,and

nonentity

merely

of

The

not

of

Matter

of

rious
spu-

conjunction

invisible

exactlythat

nonentity.

'

does

darkness

is,nevertheless,

sort

is

think

seeming

any

just

of every

Or
in

is it like

is not

is not

Plato's

negation

matter

thought

of

has

the

matter

possible to

shrinks,

certain

not

all-perfectignorance,

knowledge

affirmation, and

notion

The

of

and

therefore,

it not

Is

it

as

the

which

(compare

reason

soul ?

ing
wish-

case,

spurious,

imagination

an

absence

obscuritybeing

eye,

be

the

is

deed
in-

reason

it,and

be

Timceus1). What,

the

consist

indefinite
with

of
as

of

kind

in the

reason

if this

rather

of

composed

here

intelligencebut,

"

will

everything

about

say

not

intellect,

matter

'

such

requisite to

of

another

and

but
intelligence,

intelligence is

privation

true

it is

become

to

and

reason

If, however,

"

reason.

what

says

PHILOSOPHY.

ness.
other-

indefinite,

we

possessing the

GREEK

of indefiniteness, but

attribute

is

matter

the

and

Virtue}

by

his very

virtues

knows

founded

are

is

man

and

purely intellectual

act

is

of

the

other
The

sorts

ranking

in

passion, and
and

the

See

That

in

On

the

of

part
In
must

of

means

part.

virtues"

in

making

irrational

consist

which

result

divine

as

such.

the

tude,
forti-

God

has

Assimilation
of

two

other, that

one

other, this

remaining unchanged.
perfect virtue
the

sensations

liberation

from

soul
with

transformed
of what

of

all

pleasure

obedient

this idea, the


so

lation
assimi-

soul
of

is

pain, in causing

be

to

depends
Such

unchanged.

necessary

contemplation

"

certain

; but

the

purificationof

the

son
rea-

is not

approach

an

in similitude

is

accordance
be

the

and

ample,
ex-

pure

indeed,

quality;

which

upon

that

to

must

rational

"first"

as

assimilation

remedies

in

things approach

two

so-called

virtues
political

"

possess,

to

other

; in

Temperance,

requiring

one

God

deliberation

virtues

these

each

towards

assimilation

the

of

any

two

things
of

of

like

fortitude,for

and

function.

efficacyin assimilatingman
need

manent.
per-

if all the

so-called

or

and

subject to fear;,but

justice

and

prudence,

no

become

is,

man

pure

"

deliberation, but

on

whereas

soul,

doubtful

The

dread.

no

poreal
Cor-

evil ; for it

man,

change,

Temperance

that

imply

is

It

virtues.

are

and

flyhence

must

is,for

sense

intellect and

"

lies his virtue.

this

of

world

essence,

He

itself.

"

of indefiniteness

world

is the

indefinite

evil.

The

"

the

perfect poverty," necessarilyevil,"

"

of

cause

287

PHILOSOPHY.

that

wisdom

intellect

to
"

the

cal
politi"will

contains"

Virtues.

is, the virtues

good citizen,the

described

member

by

of the

Plato

and

ideal state.

Aristotle

as

necessary

to

288

GREEK

justicewill

true

be

PHILOSOPHY.

that

of

"energy

one

thing

and

another

itself in which

there

the

self-consciousness)
; temperance,

of

unity

turning

intellect

to

similitude

of
in

shining
(i.e.,
pure

is not

that

which

to

and

Reason),

The

which
perfect felicity

return

God, the

to

the
soul

is of

from

being
"

and

produce

towards

the

Historical
we

the

standpoint

indicate

at

sources

and

Plato

or

conception

of

object we
world

See

See

One

this
it

virtue

of

is its

anated,
ultimatelyem-

the

in

of

acts

natural

virtue

individual

of all else

virtue"

"

intellectual

that

have
"

their

tion
contempla-

aspiration and

turn
re-

the

(in

the

and
the

Plato's

On

"

reconcile,"
from

time

system

the

of

the

Good

Republic'1)to

be

Idea

or

essence,

being
of

as

the

Ideas

of Aristotle's
Contemplation,

and

in itself.

which

above

being.
unity

Aristotle, and
of

shall

historical

the

realm

above, p. 87.

main

of

God

Nature,

the

latter,we

character

have

reason

or

of the

than

If

"

is,historically
sidered,
con-

between,

same

science, and

have

Plotinus

former

the

we

of Plotinus.

System

Aristotle, rather, however,

and

psychologicalcharacter
1

in

works

essential

one

knowledge,
and

of

the

affirmed

is that

man

in

only

Soul, Nature

mediate

to

and

the

of

end

which

"

to

the
(i.e.,

Nous,

of

system

one

the

the

of

of Plato

systems

inward

One.1

the

the

{i.e.,

naturallyimpassive

growth

say, in their

attempt

an

In

their

looks

found

be

with

Sources

that

say

and

proper

One.

the

is to

virtue

from

The

; that

is

source

One.

soul

which

soul's

like nature

emanates

the

is to

The

contemplation.

"

fortitude, apathy, according

reason).

another

towards

given
God.
the One.

of

both
In

the

subject

in the
rather

telligib
inthe

Plotinus's

its doctrines

theory of the soul, with


the imprisonment of the
is Platonic

and

soul in the

the

to

be traceable
of

account

to

of

combination
combined.

Aristotle's

sensible

the

preexistence,
Plotinus's

; but

De

world

Anima.

In

of matter,

and

Platonic, Aristotelian, and

Again,

its immortality,

body, and

unity of the soul, its relation


subject and object,etc., seem

the

body, the unity of

to

of

Aristotelian

not

relatingto

arguments

289

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

Plotinus's

ethics,if

Stoic ; in

somewhat

its

purely

find

we

Stoic

such

is,in its subjectivity,


asceticism, and

termed,

Plotinus's
a

views

it may

be

ity,
impassiv-

theoretic

tendency,
Aristotelian
aspiration
; in its purism, enthusiasm, and
towards
supra-mundane perfection,Platonic.
Finally,
from
of all things else,we
in the deduction
the One
have an attempt similar to that of the Pythagoreans to
all things else,from mere
deduce
number
sciousness,
up to self -confrom the primal One.1
Plotinus himself very
of the
ancient
losophe
phifrequentlyspeaks with veneration
and freely
acknowledges obligationsto them.
Result.
debtedn
Notwithstanding,however, the obvious inof Plotinus to earlier philosophers,it seems
"

"

clear,even
he

had

from

our

sketch

brief

standpoint and

of his real system, that

full,firm

grasp

upon

the

osophic
phil-

conceptions that he had borrowed, that were


By bringing together Plato's Idea and
quite his own.
Aristotle's
Thought of Thought, he, in the first place,
from
the former
an
idea, or thoughtopenly converted
object,to a conception, or thought-function,or, better, a
made
and
so
thinking-subject,
an
intelligent,
synthetic power,

say, is Plato's

Idea

become
1

See

the
"

Idea
the

more

distinctly

One, that

inner, spiritual
; and,
above, p. 7.

is to
in

the

GREEK

29O

PHILOSOPHY.

place, made

second
which

is

the

more

less

or

distinctlyabsolute
idea, the

One

dual

Plotinus

externally,or
indeed,

seems,

abstraction, indistinguishable from


from

comprehended
it

"

is

If it

its

be

fulness

of

the

overflows

into

"

existence,

Plotinus

considered,
excellence

unique

both

above
of

dialectic
"

of

Idea

with

his

dominates
in the

of the
line

mental

the
to

seems

system

of

Greek

lie in the

One.

consideration

of

truth.

of

Plotinus

As

"

as

the

fact

with

that

the

solution

the

system,

The

system

fact
of the

that

is

the

one

straight

its first

One

is

return

first

antinomy

that, just because

the

system

at

seems

new

regards

no
is, logically,

itself

One
a

and

there

the

and

constitutes

thought.

This

sis
synthe-

of

conception
; and

mind's

the

keeping
sole

ter
mas-

ness
lofti-

purity and

the

spect,
re-

discursive

here.

circle, a

The

one

attention

demand

emanation,

of

the

system

peculiarlyinconsistent
is the

other

of

of

attitude

first .principle
upon

instead

the

certain

masterly attempt at
Thought of Thought,

which

history of

perfection of
point

the

"

certain

his

the

and

completeness
force

Aristotle

direction

in
particularly
the

in

and

member
re-

abeyance,

possesses

peculiarpower

in the

fixed

appears

and

thinking

insight and

ever

of

Plato

to

is in

places him,

even

that,

"

viz.,a singularlysustained

reflection,

eye

that

of

reality
spontaneously
actuality. Psychologi

concrete

or

in

One

forth

goes

but,

have

held

the

mere

nation.
self-determi-

we

merely

system

which

power,

content,

is

opposite

absolute

power,

content

developed by

the

but

as

matter;

mere

is

lack

to

seems

that
is to

within, it

intellectual

pure

Thought,

self-consciousness,more

Viewed

spirit.

of

of

latter, Thought

seems

sight
ciple
printo

is abso-

292

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

Below

the

One

the

are

world,
intelligible

thinking beings, including Nous,


(Creator).
the

in rank

Next

sense-world.

is

blended

with

Pythagorean number-speculation.
contained
of

in the

of

ideal

Neo-Platonists

the

of Greek

.-1

of

Life.

himself

prepared

afterwards
to

Proclus

"

for

form

and

for

noted
the

possession

but

also

of

and

to

seems

but

to

intellectual

of the

of

school

in the

history

His

theology

to

the

him

of

tific
scien-

among

the

He

Ritter

that

of

he

that
every

is to
of

master

cially
espe-

for

the

for

pupil
of

branch
a

of
lightenment,
en-

means

purify himself

physics,
knowledge

and

by

of the

complete system
consequential reasoning."

construct

and

was

"religious," virtues.

view

the

of

that

"political virtues,"

the

himself

is to

works
of

much

appreciation

himself

train

See

the

as
philosophical specially,

prepare

larly
particu-

spiritualexcellence;

of

himself

way

oratory

"

on

place

and

held

avail

object
on

this

"theological," or
have

of forensic

system-makers.

merely

not

a.d.) carefully

commentaries

which

moral

make

logical exercises
divine.

Porphyry,

sciences

the

to

that

in
higher intelligence,

by virtue,

of

his

the

theology ought

profession

and

power

master-dialecticians

to

the

attention

gave

intellectual

He

the

(412-485

gaining probably in

"

method

"

been

is

creed

and

great mind

last

geometry, preparing

Euclid,

fine

the

and

image-

speculation.

Proclus

and

have

to

last

theology Neo-

ethical

last great thinker

the

Proclus,

His
Plotinus

by

is said

He

purification.

of

Demiurge

defended

He

prophecy.

idea, held

and

Power,

world

of souls, and
triplicity

Jamblichus

worship, theurgy, and

the

Uebervveg.

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

He

Philosophy of

clus may
the

in

same

from

it in

form,

and

by

or

which

gods.

that

of

"

and

from

by

the

second

of

under

there

essences,

of

order

the

third

in

"

each

of

the
of the

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illimitation,"the

the

union

"life";
itself."
term

this

the

of

the

in the
In

is also

these

three

the

triad

second.

term,

The
or

third

first

two

these

denominated

or

of

limited

the

of

or

or

that

that

of

classes

of

their

by
of

term,

"

Proclus

the

first

or

"

and

triad,

second,
"life

"

in

limiting

follows

(who
and

rower
nar-

triads,

first

has

first,

the

in the

Jamblichus)
Power;

unity,

limit

in the

which

triads, the

being,

three

are

"being";

or

ligible,
intel-

under

includes

are

essences.

in
intelligible

being

terms

relation

of

concept

terms

below

unities

essences,

Being,

first two

the

is

intellectual

third

of

unities"

what

participatesin

second

particularthe precedent
second

intelligible

also, notwithstanding

; the

of

the

These

life,the

third, ideas

each

system

it.

the

under

of

that

exist

rank

sense

in

falls

Between

thought.

an

these

diately
Imme-

the

entirelyout

and
intelligible-intellectual,
first

regards

as

"pluralityof

One

otherwise

followed

in

Plotinus,

the

emanates
are

is

Pro-

Plotinus, differing

theological aim.

being, but

being

They

The

taught

substantially

as

symmetry,

there

between

which

that

to

One

and

One

of

that

marked

in

as

general terms

rigidityand

the

reason

the

in

more

mediate

them,

Timceus

philosophy of

The

"

with

scientific

not,

world,

Proclus.

content

below
Proclus

and

theology generally, and

described

be

philosophy,

Athens.

philosophy at
The

Greek

Parmenides

the

on

Plato's

and

Plato,

of

course

commentaries

prepared
of

whole

the

mastered'

293

in

Father"
the

third

294

GREEK

mixed

or

Reason."

"

term,

PHILOSOPHY.

sphere falling under


into
triad

the

the

of

who

hold

The

intellectual

and

together ;

of

feminine

the

triads

and

first

two

One,

; One

and

triad

the

of

the

correspond

respectivelywith

being

subject

third

according

but

in

rank

with
he

as

did,

that

had

conceived

in closer

doctrine

system
aim.

of

"

The

illustration

an

geometrical method,"
of

we

"

give the

Theology

of

excellent,

the
or

"

of

productive
nature

relation

of

Life

while

the

Ueberweg,

Translated

removed

from

Plotinic

more
:

equal.
Vol.

by

I. p.

Thomas

(Stoic)

individual

to

The

mystical.

application
the

Proposition in

is

Plotinus

than

the

of

order

ing,
Hold-

its demonstration.

another

spirits

or

love,

by

is

God

philosophical in

his

seventh

soul,

each

probably under

"

with

or

of

than

thing produced
worse,

of

the

Proclus

theological rather

As

and

with

matter

rejected

system of

in the

is

Euclid,

with

terms

human

is farther

connection

cept
con-

number

the

or

commune

union

soul

the

gods

the

Being

is effected

above

apathy.

of

the

to

The

not

The

it,Proclus

universal

the

"

of

it.

above
next

and

triad

mediately,through daemons,

that

God

Whole

Many,

division,

undivided."

Proclus, does

to

immediately
being

threefold

remains

term

next

to

Other, Being,

triad,

which

divided
sub-

perfecting Gods.'

'

according
in

terms

cording
ac-

is

fallingunder
lastly,

arranged

are

Illimitation,the

essences,

reason

life contains,

of

divinities, and

original numbers

Part, Limitation

intelligible-intellectua

concept

following

and

seven,

the

Proclus,

to

The

For
Let

excellent

of

258.
Taylor.

be, in

the

influence
the
"

"

ments
Ele-

thing
Every-

than

it is either
it

its

the

the
more

first

will itself also

other,

some

barren, it will
cause

unequal
will

either

will

be

each

to

in all

case

other

and

another, since
the

producing

producing

is

cause

equal

the

producing

its

to

posterior to

such

as

For
form

its

itself
a

all

more

powerful ;
power

for

anything
it

else

more

than

its

do

good.
is

duced.
proon

itself

make

will also

hinder,
of will.

defect

nor

if it

Hence
will

also

equal
and

can

perfect

posteriorto
cause,

to

which

power

cannot

neither

producing

thing

this, it

impotence

which

can

essence

also

can

can

thing produced, therefore, is


excellent

should

neither

the

of all the

perfect,it

perfects that

itself.

also, according

is present,

things naturallydesire

its

to

of these

prior to

confers

it

if it

But

is

power

productive

is

hypothesis the

than

cause

than

equal powers

But

worse

equal

which

thing produced

itself possesses,

fabricative

itself before
The

more

ever

be

productions

which

this

(and

equal

of

cause.

it bestows

production.

be

in this

the

producing

if it is

And

that

since

that

be

cause

thing produced,

essence.

that

producing

if the

For

make

other, since
to

that

property

it

constitutes

always

the

tive
produc-

excellent

not

be

natures,

itself

to

itself)or

But

will

things will

nature

it is the

equal

of other

more

it will

case,

requisite,therefore,
be

all
be

to

ing
produc-

possesses

equal

will

effects.

each

to

not

the

this

equal

unequal

It is

is

its

inefficacyit

things,and

; for

cause

fabricate

are

which

productive

in

But

its

of

if it be

But

than

worse

productive

nothing

the

productive

power

prolificand

produced equal

thing

unequal.
to

is

that

produce

the

of

if it be

But

power.

be

account

which

fore,
this,there-

entirelybarren.

because

that

to

from

produced

possess

be

this

on

and

either

it will

or

is

which

That

place, equal.

295

PHILOSOPHY.

GREEK

itself.
to

nor

hence

296

GREEK

producing

the

of

nature

is

cause

the

PHILOSOPHY.

thing

entirely

Greek

of

its

to

unite

on

gave

transition

to

the

to

Christianity,
and

philosophy
it

of

Notwithstanding

philosophy.
leaders

to

Christian
Church

popular

from

pure

Theology.
in

the

last

the

was

"

of

than

the

produced."

Neo-Platonism

Result.

excellent

more

Middle

this

religion

the
school
and

by

by

super-naturalism

It

Ages.

had

the

was

Greek

ancient

of

pagan

large

the

schools

opposition
its

attempt

ment
encouragethe

point

tion
speculainfluence

PHILOSOPHY.

Empirical Psychology
The

or,

Mind

Human

Laurens

By

Julius
300

Revised

President

LL.D.,

$1.25;

Price,

Mailing

pages.

LL.D.

D.D.,

D.D.,

ye,

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Given

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Hickok,

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Seel

H.

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of

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Introduction,

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It

clear.

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John

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Pres.

Bascom,

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It has

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several

Reading

It

by
do

to

an

to

teachers,

0.

This

clear

Hickok
By

Laurens
H.

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288

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's Moral

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hardly

in his

presenting

mental

accurate

dently
confi-

the
to

so

careful

recognize

experience.

own

(April 6, 1882.)

Science.

Revised
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recommended

delineation

more.

by

Marietta

edition

new

its truth

Andrews,

sented,
pre-

Circles.

good

(Feb. 3, 1882.)
I. W.

markably
re-

and

compact

is evidenced

as

Philosophy,

cellent
ex-

President

much

be

to

science, concisely

tual
is

much

done

time

same

the

found

terms.

of University

revised

as

is prepared

Seelye,

plain

Madison

Wisconsin,

of

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proved

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be

will

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outline

complete

book

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concise,

that

Seelye, it

unsurpassed
time

same

G. P. Fisher,
Yale

Dr.

and

the

at

remarkably

The

the

work

believed

that

systematic rigor

of Church

Prof,

College

in

is

tory,
His-

style

is

so

same

time

is

eminently

clear

and

colleges
and
and

scientific

simple

adapted

so

and

to

and

in

as

serve

higher

it God

will

be

precision,

style.
a

text-book

schools.

it is

manner

I wish

work

this

speed.

in

In matter

capital book,

109

PHILOSOPHY.

Lotze's

PhilosophicalOutlines.

Dictated

Portions

Hermann
of
in

each

80

cents.

the
for

in Yale
Philosophy
College. 12mo.
Mailing Price per volume,

from

dictated

few

in

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subjects. They

and
of

final

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tingen.
Got-

trustworthy

philosophy
opinions

with

met

the

to

Rehnisch

mature

his

as

and

himself,

Lotze

subjected

this teacher

considered

of

(at Gottingen,

Professor
a

pages

Price,

consists

made

by

hearers, and

180

Introduction

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lectures

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Berlin)

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Outlines

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Lectures
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Translated
edited

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German

rpHE

(at Gottingen and Berlin) of


T.
fessor
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no

self,
him-

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These

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Motion,

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The

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Metaphysic

Being,

Causation

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Content

Coherency

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Matter,

third, of the

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our

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Existent, Reality, Change, and

Events

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S.

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undertaken

been

Metaphysic.

which
three

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Natural
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nition.
Cogentire

his

philosophical system.
Outlines

the

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I" OTZE

here

Philosophy
seeks
be

Religion may
agreeably

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and

World,
of

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Religion.
ascertain

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He
and

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the

Personality of

Religion

World-time.
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The

Morality, and

at

or

Content

the

Dogmas

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brief

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tions
Concepof the

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closes

of

confirmed,
Existence

Absolute, the

the

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least

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Creation, the Preservation, and


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