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Energy Source

How does it work?

Pros

Cons

Solar Power

The power acquired by


harnessing the energy
of the Suns rays. It
works by having
photovoltaic (PV) cells
convert sunlight to
direct current (DC)
electricity. The photons
of sunlight force
electrons off of atoms.
Metal plates collect the
electrons which can
then be used as
electricity.

-renewable
-abundant
-sustainable
-low maintenance
-environmentally friendly
-reduces electricity costs
-many applications
-silent
-technology is improving

-Expensive
-lots of space required
-Exotic materials
-Intermittent

Power acquired by
harnessing the energy
of the wind.The rotor
that the blades turn has
copper loops around it
and has oppositely
charged magnets.
When the rotor spins, it
creates
electromagnetic
induction(a process
that causes electrons in
a conductor to move)
which generates
electricity. This creates
energy.

-Doesnt pollute the air


- sustainable
-cost effective
-can be built on preexisting farms
-creates jobs

-good sites for a turbine are


often remote
-can hurt wildlife(birds)

http://www.think-solarpower.com/How-DoesSolar-Power-Work.html

Wind Power

http://energy.gov/eere/wind
/how-do-wind-turbineswork

Hydro Power

http://fuelcellstore.com/image/data/hy

Dams hold water in a


reservoir. The dam
closes and opens to
control the water flow,
which pushes a turbine.
The turbine spins a
generator that
produces electricity.

-cheapest way to
continually generate
energy (build dam then its
free)
-clean fuel source
-renewable

-disrupt wildlife,
-occasionally destroys
natural resources
-lowers dissolved oxygen
level in water
-fish migration path
-expensive to build the
power plant

Biomass is living or
previously living
organisms that is used
for something other
than food or feed.
Biomass can be
converted to biofuel via
a variety of different
methods. These
methods are thermal,
chemical and
biochemical. Thermal
conversion uses
burning to convert
biomass into energy.
Chemical conversion
uses chemical

-can be renewable
-plants take in carbon
-inexpensive material
-easy to use
-carbon cycle neutral

-takes a lot of energy


-materials not always
available
-deforestation problem
-expensive to make

dro-energy.jpg

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia
/commons/thumb/5/57/Hydroelectric_
dam.svg/2000pxHydroelectric_dam.svg.png

Biomass/Biofuel

reactions to convert
biomass into fuel, such
as burning and
compressing biomass
into a combustible gas.
Biochemical conversion
uses microbacteria and
other microorganisms
to convert biomass into
energy. Wood,
sugarcane, and corn
starch derivitives are
frequently used
biofuels. Biomass is
mostly converted into
bioethanols(one of the
most common
biofuels), which is an
alcohol fuel that can be
used to make fuel cells
or as an additive to
gasoline.

Geothermal Energy

Oil/Petroleum (fossil fuel)

Plants pump cold water


into the ground where it
heats up and is forced
to the top as steam that
is captured and used to
drive electric
generators or turbines
that create energy in
three different ways

Petroleum is a naturally
occurring liquid found

-very efficient (300-500%


more than heat furnaces)
-environmentally friendly
(no combustion)
-renewable source of
energy
-potential of 2 terawatts of
energy
-can be used in any space
-can meet the energy
base load demand
-small households can
benefit(great for simple
heating and cooling)
-small land footprint
it is very
abundant

-electricity is still needed


-very expensive
-geothermal energy using
wells uses up lots of water
-discharge into earth could
include sulfur dioxide and
silica

Emits carbon
dioxide (20 pounds/1

under the earths


surface that can be
refined into different
types of fuels. It is
mostly recovered by oil
drilling. It is then
burned to create
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki energy.
/Petroleum

easy to use
creates
jobs
No new
technology
required
Easy to
transport in liquid
form

gallon of gasoline)
Non
renewable
Drilling can
lead to spills
Expensive
Dangerous
Endangers/De
stroys environment

Natural Gas (fossil fuel)

/convert/advantages.jsp

A gas turbine ignites


gas under pressure
which then produces
high temperature
gases. This gas then
powers a turbine which
powers a generator
which then gives
electricity to
buildings/street
lamps/blocks.

cleanest
burning fossil fuel
very few
byproducts are
released into the
atmosphere
Cheap
non-toxic
safer- don't
need to store gas
on site
abundant
supply of domestic
natural gases

Nonrenewable.
Pollution
responsible for global
warming and acid
rain
Can have oil
spills and therothe
gives of large
amounts of CO2
when burned
contains 8590 percent methane

Coal (fossil fuel)+

Coal is pulverized and


burned. The heat
generated by the coal
heats water, turning it
into steam. The steam
then turns a turbine to
produce energy.

Very
abundant
a lot
cheaper than any
other type of
energy
scientists
are developing
clean coal. This
process involves
stripping the coal
of most of its CO2
has an
existing
infrastructure

nonrenewable.
Large
contribution to global
warming
high levels of
radiation
contributes to
31 percent of all CO2
emitted
Releases a
huge amount of
carbon dioxide

https://www.pseg.com/busi
ness/small_large_business

http://www.triplepundit.com/
special/energy-optionspros-and-cons/clean-coalpros-cons/

Nuclear/Uranium

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
/Gundremmingen_Nuclear
_Power_Plant

http://imgtagram.com/rewto
u2d-uranium-periodic-table/

http://www.livescience.com/
39773-facts-about-

A
nuclear fueled
power plant
uses fission to
turn water into
steam and then
send it past
drive turbines
which spin. The
drive turbine is
attached to a
generator,
which produced
electricity
Most
plants use the
rare uranium235 isotope,
which only
makes up 0.7%
of all natural
uranium.
Uranium
rods are
produced in a
special factory,
where they go
through several
processes to
enrich it. It is
then formed into
the rod shape
correct for the
reactor it is
being produced
for.
Uranium
rods are
typically used in
a reactor for 6
years, then they
are moved to a
spent-fuel pool,
where they stay

relatively
low cost (creating
the energy)
provide
stable source of
energy (can crank
up and lower
energy
depending
on demand)
It is
environmentally
friendly compared
to other methods
Requires
less fuel than other
types of power
plants
Energy
released by
nuclear fission is
10 million times
greater than
burning a fossil
fuel (oil, gas)
Thorium can be used to fuel
nuclear plants - it
is greener than
Uranium

accidents can
happen rarely, but
when occur, scale of
accident is major
radioactive
waste
dangerous for
environment and
humans
releases
mass amounts of
carbon dioxide into
the atmosphere
Lol rekt

uranium.html

until the
dangerous
isotopes
created by
fission decay.
This takes
about 5 years.

Why build a house without electricity?


How much energy do humans use? In what forms?
In 2014, the average American used about 41 pounds of coal per day in
energy. The average energy consumption of electricity in California is
116,200,000 BTUs (a BTU the amount of heat needed to raise 1 pint of
water by exactly 1 degree Fahrenheit). This can be compared to the energy
in 129,050 sticks of dynamite or 24,418 burritos.

The world per capita consumption of energy in 2011 was about 75


million Btu.
23,000 TWh per year / 7 billion people/ 365 days =7828 watt hour
per person / day.
How much energy does our global population of nearly 7 billion
use every year? According to the US energy Information
Administration (EIA), total primary energy consumption came to
493 quadrillion thats 493,000,000,000,000,000 BTUs in 2008,
the most recent year for which figures are available. (One BTU, or
British thermal unit, is the amount of energy youd need to heat
up one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.)That counts
energy from all sources: oil, coal, gas, nuclear and renewable. The
worlds largest overall energy consumer in 2008? No surprise
there, its the US, devouring its way through 100.6 quadrillion
BTUs. China was closing in rapidly, though: it consumed 85
quadrillion BTUs in 2008 and will doubtless go even higher when
new figures become available

Cost/Economics of electricity: The average electricity bill cost in California


is $88, compared to the US average of about $107. Californias energy
costs 15.2 cents per kilowatt hour.
http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2011/10/27/141766341/the-price-of-electricity-inyour-state
http://www.electricitylocal.com/states/california/
http://www.electricitylocal.com/states/california/novato/
http://www.triplepundit.com/special/energy-options-pros-and-cons/nuclear-energy-prosand-cons/

Climate change - how does it happen?(greenhouse effect, carbon cycle,


use of suns energy?
The greenhouse effect causes an increase
in temperature.The greenhouse gases include
Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Water Vapor, and
Nitrous Oxide.The gases in the atmosphere
absorbs solar radiation which is trapped inside
the atmosphere, which begins to heat the Earth.
The Carbon Cycle is a biochemical exchange
between the biosphere, pedosphere, hydrosphere,

atmosphere, and geosphere. It heats the Earth by absorbing infrared energy


(heat) and emits it back in atmosphere.

Only about half of the suns energy actually reaches the


Earth. About 20% of the energy is absorbed by clouds and
the atmosphere, and 30% is reflected by clouds and Earths
surface.

Consequences of Climate Change- what could happen?


Polar ice caps could melt and cause the global sea levels to rise.
Polar bears would go extinct
Could possibly cause an ice age if the ocean currents changed
Europe could freeze over due to the hot water from the equator
ceasing from flowing do to current change
The change in water temperature could cause aquatic life in those
areas to have trouble surviving.
The acidification of z ocean which would devastate coral and shell
fish damaging ecosystems
Another consequence of global warming is intense storms. Due to
the higher water temperatures, hurricanes could get more energy
and do much more damage when they hit land.
Another effect of global warming is fluctuation in rainfall. Areas
that usually get a small amount of rain will receive higher
amounts, and areas that usually receive high amounts of rain will
experience drought.