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Burgoyne Report

Burgoyne Report

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Published by Meckanic
Documents relating to the Helderberg Crash, November 29, 1987
Documents relating to the Helderberg Crash, November 29, 1987

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Published by: Meckanic on Sep 19, 2007
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ON REPOR'T ION TIIi:FIRD,{,\D EXPLOS ASPECTS TO OF . RgLATINC TIIE LOSS r T H Es O I T H \ F R I c a I I i R w A Y S7 1 7 = 2 0 0 8O \ 1 8 1, T'8? ON REG.ZS.SA5, 28THNOVENII]ER NEAR II{AURITTUS C,Nl, SOIITIILqRD

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ItuT 3 SourbAlricadAip^ys 747 combi', Rcg. ZS SAS, on 231[November \vnhthaloss olail pa$ene:* crohedinlo rheseaoifMaurhius clll sign Helderberg,

r\ani ;r. April 19891*a insrructed lravel lo SoulbAIrici in urLic' LU lo On 14dr rhelvreckag€ whichhad beenretrieved.Priorlo thisvisit I 'nlelLed to Sea(le whereI mcrwirlr Boci.g pe6omel. I nradelwo tdps to SourhAJri.a, one on 14th illay 1939 ' J i c r i c o n ) 4 r' r . '34. Lruririg luLI ny vlsilsI rook 5orreplroLogr!plr.r scledd!r ol which l qill rse lo

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eDdofthe renp*atue Engeerpcrienced wirhinrhccornpadment !hereto.e and rimn *"T,'*:n

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^-Sc&ml pa eh oidanage emerged whicbindica,eo rna! host.r lhe teal hxd 1.,^_

:l:: suna'nedby irefts which hetted !t relalivety low I

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In addirioqt|ere wasnetrine , ro the copper condlcrors wiing rouredover (ft loMa.d of tiie ratr $ppon beao.-someof rhis nelringcourdhavebeencaused by

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Furrherinfornlljon abour rhe degrecof hear lo which $e skin had b.cn qposedw^ g'!e! b' conducrjvity measuremenrs on rtE skinbv Dr C F.\fler. ,!ken

rrde re$rrs @nrirned rre higr,esr rhat renperarures e[*i.i."a bfIJJin were

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f:, ni .o ,orr " y{h.ped ,a,re,n"{e_a.n8 1eor8,, . . v..nupe : lo r1 ,e jo t:m : | e d r . m - . . . i o . f .)R r _ n : b :l e , , r o! n g e r b e $ . n A S, 8 . 1 ] . n J 8 , t 0 . No fire dahag. lrasdbseredb€lowrhenain 4eckfloor or on anyof rhe irems sroundr.g the lowtr aft a.go tobe. simitrly:. iire danag. *is .bsetued :oLv ai lelel.r,ir|inrhe.rdo ompairn.nr €xcept isolared to. areas sherenolrentrluni.jun nad iallenonro so,ic ilems. ir padicutar rhe 9C carso.e! wasnor hc,t airecred .rlbGriter,r nrFenoorrphotogi,..hL u rd . ( J ! e r - I I D , . . _"'r. l N Ir:i-n ( lt " d \s r rc o r i v o , c u n - Jo r r h e, . s h ts . d e r h c c e o f,,. n+c,orheqrn,roq.Jroos.r_e crr...pJ,,.o..eorenrrv"h.e : lr' d,n,o:rb uc n c u n n : l e . r r o r h er i q h r j d eo f p a l t cp R c r I t e \ e l r \ oerow xpprorjnraret! strjnger t9R, Twosrarswlieh badsupponed bean upo. wbrcn rhe the ov*head srowage bitr \veretued atong rhe cent.e of the akeft sere hear blacke.ed ar high level (Photoeraphs 22-24). Tbs€ srturshad be.en idenrified bavingbeen tixed ar BS as 1180. There was ro evidence suggest ro ttrat tte s;trnr i d h e t l e d o r h a d b e e r Dreached lhe fire anyvherc rbcah(afr. by in As part of my inspedion madea delailederaminarion I ot lhe a.cess door between p4snge. and mai! deck ceSo rhe compartmenrs, a resuhof lhis As exuiaation I concluded the door had rhat b€enin rhe ctosed posirion rhroughour host oifie fire, but rherewN evidence llral it probably beenbrieflyopened bad ,r sohesrage.Therews no evidence rhata lorcedenlryhadbeenmaderhr.r"ri1 rhjs,

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L T H EC A R C O

3.1 The Cr.so on (hc Ca.soLkr, is prodlcedby lhe DCA ro. tlain c.reo Dock Compartnent Tlre cargo lisred widevariety nens as beingnowedin rhe hain .argo lisr a of comprnmedr. Noneol lboselined, howeve., woulC baveposed pa j.ular hazard a qere .onsidercd be ,Dangeous rnd none lo coodt urdq (he Internarionat An Tnnspontuso.iaton (rATA) Regxt,ijons. un,le$tand, I l,oreve.,lhat ihereve.c a number snrall oi barreries asociar.dwirh rhevarious etecrronic .ompurer and nems noredIn tlrefriindeckc.rgocomparhenl, nlo ryp:: v,,r: r:.ove.ed; and (i) Nicid.cadniun atrd(b) Lirhiunjhionrl.hloride. ii li ilr known whcdre' orherul)eswerea15o pr€serr rhecargo.I alsounderra. in rliarrhese br(erieswerc.or stowcd bulk,bul aspart of th€ comD.nenrj in Ior.,hjrlr pfovided rhey powe.. memory eg ca.ds snalt conputers. for Tte bardies werea ot r sdaUsize wouldhaye aid bee!packaged ituiderheelectrurcnems. Thereis some evidence whenbatleries rhehhium{hionytchlorite rrpo rhat of are subj.rted to abuse,dey can expiode. A reporr has been preparedby 11 \l Tnackeray ouilinjngthe probieG and lhen relevance lnis incilent. Ir lo nppc.6 troo h6 repo and flom ode. Iirerarure thatj lt$ough an ,exptosion, lesulling irom abuse a lilhiumrhio.ylcbtoride of batre.,caMor .bsolutety ruted be out,such.noccurrencera.e. is Theotherimplicaiion ofhaving lithiun batteries rhecarSo ihe poren(ial in is itre promolrig aspedsehich po$esses. lirbiun Liftiun like othersinitarmeGls bufn can $ilh great inrensity, lhe adornt oflirhiumi! Oe hhiun-rhionr-l oid. baneies bur .h in th. cargois verysmall.rd cons€quenrty wouldprobably havea sisniijcrlr nor ptomorin8 etlect ilinvolved fte. in ln sumary, rheretore, couldiind no potentiat I igtrjron sources lhh fne for ahongsl those irems ljsEd on the cargolist s having beensrowcd the mlin deck h 3 2 iATA D!nge.ons CcodsRegutrtio.j Iunsponation all dangcrous of goods,Eherherby land, sea o. air is by internarional regulations recomendariods. .nd The regularing bodyfor

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'DaigcroLs coodt, .r. -"1,"""i1",""AIpon ...nd rr. \r,n-..,*r {,/e5reconhendadons r!n i" as ro - '"b" '",u,_8. ro"d.nE serk_,^, .. a r d securinei and tor rhe ncomrrDk ,uur_ne. w.1,1 g u t d,o ,," w I r ,.*.,o r o r ' e re so;d:;"jlo' c , C o o d r - ., ., . , h ,q, larer, soDe {langero!s o a rg e r u u t J* i t h

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innrucrions. Noneof$esubslaices listedonthecarlo listashaury becdnow.d urd have,D ny opiruon. reacted h one w

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be physically separared, sometimes djffererrholds. hshing and in securi,rg amngcnents becai.jcd in ..cordance musl our wilhrheoperarots
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.1. CALCULATIONS Tcslscrrriedout bv Dr c Fowlerindicared rharrheskinber*eenBS r80O.l8?0 Dn! asrowas thepanlt benvcen t5R 14R,lad readku sr, rempenlures beiween 2g8, C and:00L-. Itre nn flow acro$the outside rbetus€l!8e of dudngftightwouldhave hdda subsramial cooli.g€ffecto! rhe skjn and so in order ro esrnrare ener!] $e rcqutred-to Imt thc skin ro rhesctemperarures wd ir n€cesarrlo quanrit/ rhn The cahularions mr.jo ro dale took jnto account fac.tbal onty rhc a shall " \ e m 8 5 . 8 0 t ! . 8 : 1 1 qt - . r g ' r " i . i J r , J r n n p r o \ , . r.:m , F r m i . 9 . : . . . : r

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Caltulrtions w{e atsoma{lein o..le. to p.edicture s ze rrr. ot wtich .outJ .cverop ann reach sready r st!tc,sivenrhevenrilarion (

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i . 1 T}e Originotlhe Fi.eand FireSpre!.r Tle exrenlhd inredsilyot rhe fke dhage lo ireG of debrt recoverel indi.rled rhatrhe fn. sla.redin t:lle! PR, which!a on rlc fronr righ! sjdeot th. ourn ceck careo comp,i:r!:rl, lrd atl h. neatdanree obs€(ed is co.sjsrenl ,irh lrrespreading rhi:3rca. lron Due io lnc linjred anount ot deb6 rerovered fros rbepalleh and due io rhe mmpk:ry of ti.JL.j|L iirc :prcadnnhnrsuch corfgur.rion,ii a \e!s nor ,r,,jrNe r. i,e'ermnetre er:l positio,i *hicn rheihc in sraned hlh .bsotute cerrajnty.there b:s1er, relules of rhe daddeewbichprecluded ain ce arels or rlre pi cl :re,. beinC Iron tIe sear rIo iir.. ot Tnere *as no elidence ol burni.g ro lh€ floor around Fattei pR lnd consequenrly firehadbu.nraltowievelaround 5 i . l e o f r h c no rhe s p x l l d o o rt r i d burni.g debrisfa en down fron rhe pall.r, wilil lne erceprion ot nrotren nateflatfallirgdown behind 9C net. the (ii) 'Ile.e $as no fne damage aroundthe window traneson lhe riahrsideoi palter PR *hich indicarcd no firc had burnron |he irgrrt that lde to\verrhanlbour stringer r9R. il ike had dctetoped lbis point or if debrisbad ar iallen doqn, flahesqould haveburntrhrougb polycrrbonare ,pulrdo\vn,shade fi€ ovc! rhe Mndow wrrhrelarive easeand aho d4ftoyed $e plastc windows, producing traces otrhatbuningon llie window franes.No such t.lcess.ere ioutrd, (in) In ny opitrioq rhefirc laj staded if rowa.ds lert sideoathe pxttcrn qould rhe pLat a fanlyearlysta8e ir is haveinvolved Paner and likdy rhardebris from !he r e d g eo . f e r f _ , ' e bv o , . | 1 , . 1 cJ i e r a o q . " L sI heal . damage $e itoor lo C (rv) The inrense leat which u6 expedenced the skiobehveen l80l]_t82l] i by BS ar levelof slringer15Rindicated lnar a locatised nad buht adjacent rhis fire ro area. If a firc h.d sla.red lowerdoM towalds ccnrre lhe palterI solld rhe of lave expeded to hrve spread it lpwardsard olrwards rowards top ot rhe rhe pall.r, horder ro fiave cals€drhctocalised dmag€ seen o€Neen r30l]-lS2O tss

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it trouldhlve beenoece$ary have ro arriliciatty channelted iire ros.rds thlr rhe

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It is po$iblelharlh; fire adjacsnr BS 18l]0l8tl]caused insutarion o the blanker to lau a$ayberween rhese lrames thc bla*e6 on eirnerstdeof rttisbay neo lnd cooidnave.emained inract Io.longer. Atter. tvety $e btankels rhisir.a all in couldhavefallenawayat abourlhe sam€rjn1e,tn both scenarios tocatise{l a source olnear wasnece$iw ro eirhercausc oi. bltrnket iail wirhourrhe tbe ro orhe:sor to cause re locatiscd h.rr sen on tt,i skin dow. rhe foot of lhe

aonscqucnrir ad ofrhe optnionti,rt lirc;i1e stad€drowardsrhe rop rjghl side I ofPrllet PR in Ihe.r..:r.ri:l !5 lto0l821].

In m! opinio.rheilames spread rtE sj<le rhetusclase rhcrigh!sidcadd up ot on xcr.rslhe crown.Thereis aGoevidence ilaneshadspread lLat oier lhe foNar{t tire farr supporr bean, bcr\veen 1680-1720. g.sesv.rld hav€b(ih up ,tong rlre Hor lenglhof rhc conpa(menrbenearh crownand someinsutalion lbe blankels wolld iiale become detached duli.g tlt rin.. Ttere wasno evrdence, norvever, r! her ol &es developing areas in orberrhanpaltetpR lnd rheheardanree rowfuds rer! rhe or !r3 compandenrwas retarively minorandwasconcenrraredbighlevet. at pR h fry opi.iodth€ flanesfromPalter di€dbackafrera shod rifre tuc ro (he d.plerion ofongen rnd/o. exringuishnenr acdonby rbec.c1v, a retr(ively and slendy staletrreburned inPauelPR. It is po$ibterhatflames werepeaisrenr rhroughour lhe re4a,nder rhc flightunril jdpacr,bur rhefire sizewouldhavetjeenlimir€{jro rhe or tze of a buning arnchairor lrrge set€e dependi.g rne venrilarion on avaitrbte ar

Accordin8 the rrauc.ipt ot |he CockpitVoice Recolder(CVR), ths Fne to Ala.h b€ll fiEr sounded 28.31 at and lhe C\,tt first becam€ affecred the iie !r by 29.40. 800H2Tesl rcne sigdalcomerced), T]re recordrng (ie ended!l 29.52. Th...fore r]relviringto lhe CVR whichwas,ouledatong both sid.s of rhe crotrn becan€ iNolvedin ine aboutI minute I minure scconds ro 20 aftersmoke detecrio..

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Cons€qtrently lhe rime rharderecrion bt had oc.!(cd lhe lr.e \ris dcveL.ping r!pirlly rnd ra myopnnonnames hadprobrblyatreadyreached rhe

Th*c ue rwoseneios whichwoutd rheorericr|y explain ine.l,.k *,nng sl'oiry a|l{ aaivdionofrhesookedereclo6. (r)

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A normal dirfusion flamctke invollingontyrbenlleriah Inrenon t|c ca.g. l$r w|ich had becr burningrnd producjng smokctor sornetin., bur lor some ..rson hadnotbecr dct.clci
A prornord or a(.tenrcd lire which w."rd h.v. d::.l.i.j ,.r, ,.1piLltv rn<, i n i r i . t i o n . n di o r L d h a r e p , r C u . e d n t c n s e e a tI n F " d i ^ r e l , i h i . U o * i n di S r i r i . . This Ilpe oa tne coul,l hxur i.ecn .r!3e.1 !t .ither an inc€ndixr/ devi.c or br !ome chetriicxl rc.cliotr\virhincrrgoDorlisredon lhe ca,gortrr. The nomal niilusjonflame Ine, tuclled odt by lje qpe ., $bn.nces li$eJ in

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rhecareolisr an{trheasso.icred packagi.s. onlyreactr ain renrper!rures can cc ao{l .nir cedainlevehot cnergy.This h dtre to rhe fact lh.r theyarc lestrj.ledbl 1|e sfeed ar rvbich(he iuei can conbine wirh orrgen in th€ surouiding.ir ie. rhe corlbi.arion ontyhke ptace the €dges rheflafre. ConsequearL), can at of rherareof Dum'ng soull be less and rher€tore enerSy lhe emilred eoutd be sma er than if rtj. oxrSenwas mi{edwirhrhefuetbefore icnitjon premiled ie llame. -:l A prented n.me or a chemica pronoredfire h c.pabteof producine y v:i,r iniense loc.lisedflxn€s whichcoutddeletopveryraprdly. Sucha .lreni.ll would ryprcaUy irs ownortgensource ir qoutd relese have ie oxyge!as a by producr is ot oq conbustion, in rhe conrexr this tue voutd probabty and o! be cnpabte seia of igtriling causing or ignilion due ro spillage, example An ofsucha sLbsranc. ooeof is he orgahicperoxid* shichca! cause ignition ifspiUed onloorbersubiarces lrjtl and hurnwifi a veryfi.rce and violentnane, Other cramptes includenelal iires e.g, sonium, finelydilidedmagnesiuo, someof rhefinetydivided or netal caBlvsrs \vhich hP ly oidise on cr?.sur. toajr. ]lre hear danaceobserved $e r U n j u s ta b o v c n n g e r on n l 5 R b e n v € eD S n 1800-1820 localised was and inrense and i! my opinionfi€ energies .equiredro Pfoduce danage lhar sere untikety havebeenanained a normal ro by djfiusion lame L're considering rheSeonerry thjscase rbedjsiance anete of i_e aod berween pali.r rhe

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1fiecarse tte fire was of somerhinc rhc in nave.been incendjary an device whichwar
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I an tr.refore of (he ca.gosro$cdon pallerpR. oelibeEtely ptanredin rhe

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dis dcdarcdand clusd igdirion whenspilledor she! conranjnared someorher by

..rct qrlh tlre burningFeral 4! oyirlijcr jnJ pic.lJ.. M .\-Jt$nic.eacriotr Lyhi.h enn6 a raree quaniitt ol |eat. rhus pronod.g the iire insre3ri.!.r.inAui:tii3 ii. rvrtcr *ould have a similar €ifect or metat lircs untesssuficienr spray could D. appliedIo cool rhe area. This is u..likelyiron a iimired source suchrs a p.rr.b!. fire

'fhc h.in dcckcrrtso conrpldhen!wascquiptedwnh r 16 ttr {7.25Kg) IhLon L.ll1 crrnrsuishd o$d !lalon erringlishe^nnd waterc{inguishenwere ako but rerrl,bleon boardlbe ahcrafr.Ellod 1t11(;CF) extinguishes names interf*ine by $irh rhechainroacdon ilanes antl consltuedtly in liaton lould be €ffecrive fics on lrnBnorn'alpackagnrg n,vo mare.irkin.!io:: !3nslbt. tiquid!. riHalon js uscdon lrcs iuv"lvirgoxidisiDg lgcrrs o! ircrlLsN rtrc iLrct, Ios..vcr, rhcr rtre IIrt(nr crn

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Ti:e lire on boarddr SouthAlricanAiNlys 747,Regiskarion SASlvhjch ZS (d'ed ofl i{auririuson 28tbNovenber 1987 in srarted P.llet PR,\vhich silulred was rttlrelrontrighrsideof naindeckcargocomplrlmeni the

In iry opinioorhe lire na ed a a rlpidly devetoping namingfire rowards rte rup righl sideof rhepaller, nmes cxrended and a(.$ lhe c.oNn.i the ahcdit and ove.,1!et_oNdrdlileraftsuppoiib€amatBS1680-1720.'tl;cheatdamagede(easd .s th€distlnce fromBS 1800 !820incrededIi j; aljo rny opinion lhar tbe fi.e wascaused sonelhins in rnc careoa.Fen by on Palle' PR whichpr.m.!.J a npidly devclopiig fire ar an early si!:.. Tl,i! .,-nt hxeebeeneitheran in.endiarydevice orahuardols substance wnhin nie.!rgo shi.tt had appar€ndy beer declared.Mant 5uchsub$nces havelhe abilily ro isdj|e anJ not promorcan n'tense ifspilled on ro suitable tue subsrrates,

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