Submitted by: AJAY KATNAURI B.Arch. (8TH SEM.

) 06608

Stabilised mud block:

stabilised mud block is a masonry unit of cuboidal shape. ‡This may be solid or hollow or interlocking. ‡The shape and size of a block is defined by the equipment used in its manufacture. ‡The soil, raw or stabilized, for a compressed earth block (CEB) is slightly moistened, poured into a steel press and then compressed either with a manual or motorized press.

Auram hollow interlocking block 295


‡Not every soil is suitable for earth construction. ‡Topsoil and organic soils must not be used. ‡Soil used for CSEB has following proportions:

TARA-Balram Machine: Dsigned in New Delhi for the manufacture of stabilised mud brick.

Boulder Foundation

Construction Stage of Mud Block House

Stabilised Mud Block House for KYDC Club

Stabilised Mud Block House for HYS Club

Stabilised Mud Blocks 109 mm

76 mm

230 mm

‡TARA-Balram Machine: ‡This machine manufactures SCEBs by compacting raw earth mixed with a stabiliser such as cement or lime under a pressure of 20-40 Kg/cm2 using a manual press. ‡This machine is a perfect profit making machine for small entrepreneurs. Specification: Size of the machine : 1500 x 600 x 1200 mm Weight of machine : 180 kg Size of block : 230 x 109 x 76 mm No. of blocks per cycle : 2 Nos. Type : Portable Manpower required : 5-8 Energy source : Manual Compaction by : Pressure. Compressive strength : 20 ± 30 Kg/cm2 Stabilisation : 5 ± 10 % Cement.

‡CEB can be compressed in many different shapes and sizes. ‡For example, the Auram press 3000 proposes 17 types of blocks for producing about 75 different blocks. ‡Some of the shapes are given below:

Process: The production of SCEB is based on the principle of densification of raw earth mixed with stabiliser (cement or lime) in small quantities ranging from 5 -10% by weight of the mix. The production process incorporates 3 main stages: Sieving : Filling the mould. humid and wet curing Batching : Moulding final stage Mixing : Block ejection, transportation and stacking.

Module of the block: It is the block size plus the mortar thickness. Select also the module with the thinnest mortar joint possible. Possibilities of different wall thickness: According to the thickness, one can know if a block can be load bearing or not. Area of the block: The bigger it is, the weaker the block will be. A large area will require great compaction energy: Plain, hollow or Interlocking blocks? Each of them has different possibilities, plain ones will be laid with a thick mortar (1 to 1.5 cm); hollow ones will be laid with a thin mortar (0.5 to 1 cm); the interlocking blocks will require a thin mortar (0.5 cm).

Soil identification: The main points to examine are: ‡Grain size distribution, to know quantity of each grain size ‡Plasticity characteristics, to know the quality and properties of the binders (clays and silts) ‡Compressibility, to know the optimum moisture content, which will require the minimum of compaction energy for the maximum density ‡Cohesion, to know how the binders bind the inert grains ‡Humus content, to know if they are organic materials which might disturb the mix

Soil stabilisation:
‡Cement and lime are the most common ones. Others, like chemicals, resins or natural products can be used as well. ‡Many stabilizers can be used. The selection of a stabilizer will depend upon the soil quality and the project requirements: ‡Cement is used for sandy soils and to achieve quickly a higher strength. ‡Lime is used for very clayey soil, but takes a long time to harden and to give strong blocks. The average stabilizer proportion:
Minimum Average 5% 6% Maximum No tech. max. 10%

Cement stabilisation Lime stabilisation

3% 2%

ENERGY EFFECTIVENESS: ‡The production of earth-based materials consumes much less energy and pollutes much less than fired bricks. ‡SEB earth are much more eco-friendly.

Advantages as compared to fired bricks:
Pollution emission (Kg of CO2 /m2) 7.9 times less than country fired bricks Energy consumption (MJ)

2.4 times less than wire cut bricks 4.9 times less than wire cut bricks 15.1 times less than country fired bricks

COST EFFECTIVENESS : ‡CSEB are most the time cheaper than fired bricks. ‡This will vary from place to place and specially according to the cement cost. ‡The strength of a block is related to the level of compression and to the quantity of stabiliser.

‡It means reduce the quantity of cement but not the cost of the labour.
‡In the context of Auroville, a finished m3 of CSEB masonry is always cheaper than fired bricks. ‡ 19.4% less than country fired bricks and 47.2 % less than wire cut bricks.

ADVANTAGES OF CSEB: ‡A local material ‡A bio-degradable material ‡Limiting deforestation ‡A transferable technology ‡A job creation opportunity ‡Market opportunity ‡Reducing imports ‡Flexible production scale ‡Energy efficiency and eco friendliness ‡Cost efficiency ‡Social acceptance

LIMITATIONS OF CSEB: ‡Proper soil identification is required or lack of soil. ‡Wide spans, high & long building are difficult to do. ‡Low technical performances compared to concrete. ‡Untrained teams producing bad quality products. ‡Over-stabilization through fear or ignorance, implying outrageous costs. ‡Under-stabilization resulting in low quality products.


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