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# Lectures 10-12

The z transform
and its inverse

Course of the week
In this week, we study the following:
△ We present the z transform, which is a mathematical tool commonly used for the
analysis and synthesis of discrete-time control systems.
△ We give properties and theorems associated with the z transform.
△ We present the inverse z transform and the ways to find it.
△ We show how to use the z transform technique to solve a difference equation.
△ We show how the z transform is related to Laplace transform.

Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015

153

Introduction
The z transform is a mathematical tool used in the analysis and design of discrete-time control
systems to
• define the characteristics of a discrete-time control system in terms of transfer function in the
frequency domain.
• facilitate finding the solution of a difference equation that describes a discrete-time control
system so that the difference equation is transformed into algebraic equation.
The z transform can be applied to
• a sampled-data signal x(kT ) (k is an integer and T is the sampling period) that arises from
sampling a continuous-time signal x(t).
• a discrete-time signal x(k) that arises by accumulating a variable over discrete time instants.
The accumulation period here is implicit.
• a number sequence x(k) that arises from iterative process in a digital computer.

Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015

154

Definition of the z transform
The z transform of a sequence of values x(kT ), resulting from sampling of a time function x(t), where
k is an integer and T is the sampling period, is defined by the following infinite series in powers of
z−1 as

X(z) = Z [x(t)] = Z [x(kT )] =

∑ x(kT )z−k

k=0

Similarly, for a sequence of numbers x(k) the z transform is defined to be

X(z) = Z [x(k)] =

∑ x(k)z−k

k=0

The z transform defined above is referred to as the one-sided z transform. In a one-sided z transform,
we assume that x(t) = 0 for t < 0 or x(k) = 0 for k < 0. Note that z is a complex variable.
Remark: The z transform exists, if the infinite series above converges. In using however the z
transform method for solving discrete-time problems it is not necessary each time to specify the
values of z over which series is convergent.
When a time function x(t) or number sequence x(k) is defined for t < 0 or k < 0, the z transform can
be defined in terms of two-sided z transform in which series expand from negative values of t or k.
The inverse z transform denoted by Z −1 is the operation to determine the time sequence x(kT ) from
X(z). Different methods are used to evaluate the inverse z transform.
Prof. K. Melhem (Qassim University)

Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015

155

this calculation is usually laborious. Below is such a table. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 156 . K. we determine the z transform of elementary functions by using the definition so that these z transforms will be used with some properties and theorems of z transform to determine the z transform of more complicated functions. Prof. the z transform of a time function x(t) can be determined by the infinite power series ∞ X(z) = Z [x(t)] = Z [x(kT )] = ∑ x(kT )z−k k=0 However. This leads to a table of z transforms of commonly encountered functions for solving problems in the field of discrete-time systems.z transform of commonly encountered time sequences Once again. In practice.

z transform of commonly encountered time sequences Prof. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 157 . K.

K. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 158 .z transform of commonly encountered time sequences Prof.

for the number sequence x(k) we have Z [x(k − n)] = z−n X(z) and " n−1 Z [x(k + n)] = zn X(z) − ∑ x(k)z−k Prof. Melhem (Qassim University) k=0 # Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 159 . If F(z) and G(z) are the z transforms of sequences f (k) and g(k). If x(t) = 0 for t < 0 and x(t) has the z transform X(z). we present some important properties and useful theorems of the z transform. Multiplication by ak . that is Z [ak x(k)] = X(a−1 z). If X(z) is the z transform of x(k). K. Similarly. and α and β are scalars. Linearity.Important properties and theorems of the z transform Below. then the z transform of ak x(k) is given by X(a−1 z). the sequence formed by a linear combination x(k) = α f (k) + βg(k) has the z transform X(z) = αF(z) + βG(z). then Z [x(t − nT )] = Z [x(kT − nT )] = z−n X(z) and " n−1 Z [x(t + nT )] = Z [x(kT + nT )] = zn X(z) − ∑ x(kT )z−k k=0 # where n is zero or a positive integer. Shifting theorem (also called real translational theorem).

we have Z [x(k + 1)] = zX(z) − zx(0) Z [x(k − 1)] = z−1 X(z) Findings: • Multiplication of a z transform X(z) by z has the effect of advancing the signal x(kT ) by one step (1 sampling period). From the earlier equations. Using the shifting theorem. by using the shifting theorem. • Multiplication of the z transform X(z) by z−1 has the effect of delaying the signal x(kT ) by one step (1 sampling period). 1 − az−1 1 − az−1 Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 160 . 3. we get −1 Z [u(t − T )] = z Z [u(t)] = z Z [ f (k)] = Z [a k−1 ]=z −1 k Z [a ] = z Prof. Melhem (Qassim University) −1 −1 z−1 1 = 1 − z−1 1 − z−1 z−1 1 = . where f (k) = 0. 2.Important properties and theorems of the z transform Shifting theorem (cont’d). k ≤ 0. . for k = 1. . K. . Example: Find the z transform of u(t − T ) and f (k) = ak−1 .

Example for Complex translational theorem: Given the z transform of sin ωt and cos ωt as z−1 sin ωT Z [sin ωt] = 1 − 2z−1 cos ωT + z−2 1 − z−1 cos ωT Z [cos ωt] = 1 − 2z−1 cos ωT + z−2 find the z transform of the damped sine function e−at sin ωt and damped cosine function e−at cos ωt.Important properties and theorems of the z transform Complex translational theorem. then the z transform of e−at x(t) is X(zeaT ). K. A direct application of the complex translational theorem gives e−aT z−1 sin ωT Z [e sin ωt] = Z [e sin ωkT ] = 1 − 2e−aT z−1 cos ωT + e−2aT z−2 1 − e−aT z−1 cos ωT −at −akT Z [e cos ωt] = Z [e cos ωkT ] = 1 − 2e−aT z−1 cos ωT + e−2aT z−2 −at −akT Prof. If x(t) has the z transform X(z). Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 161 .

If x(t) has the z transform X(z) and if limz→∞ X(z) exists. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 162 . Usefulness: convenient for checking z transform calculations for possible errors. if any exist. Example: Determine x(0) if X(z) is given by (1 − e−T )z−1 X(z) = (1 − z−1 )(1 − e−T z−1 ) By using the initial value theorem. a check of the initial value by limz→∞ X(z) can easily spot errors in X(z). K. we know that x(t) = 1 − e−t and thus x(0) = 0.Important properties and theorems of the z transform Initial value theorem. we get (1 − e−T )z−1 =0 x(0) = lim z→∞ (1 − z−1 )(1 − e−T z−1 ) But. then the initial value x(0) of x(t) or x(k) is given by x(0) = limz→∞ X(z). which agrees with the result obtained earlier. Since x(0) is usually known. Prof.

Melhem (Qassim University) lim [(1 − z−1 )X(z)] z→1   1 − z−1 lim 1 − =1 z→1 1 − e−aT z−1 Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 163 .Important properties and theorems of the z transform Final value theorem. Example: Determine x(∞) if X(z) is given by X(z) = by using the final value theorem. Suppose that x(k). 1 1 − . with the possible exception of poles at z = 1. K. we get x(∞) = = Prof. Then. the final value of x(k) can be given by x(∞) = lim x(k) = lim [(1 − z−1 )X(z)] k→∞ z→1 Usefulness: Convenient for determining the steady-state error in discrete-time control systems. where x(k) = 0 for k < 0. a>0 1 − z−1 1 − e−aT z−1 By applying the final value theorem to the given X(z). has the z transform X(z) and that all the poles of X(z) lie inside the unit circle.

the inverse z transform gives only the time sequence x(kT ) at the sampling instants and not the continuous-time function x(t). + x(kT )z−k + . . Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 164 . . . Prof. Note that.The inverse z transform Introduction When the z transform X(z) is given. then the inverse z transform may be obtained by several different methods. the inverse z transform can be obtained by inspection as a sequence of the function x(kT ) that corresponds to the values of x(t) at the respective instants of time. • If the z transform X(z) is given as a ratio of polynomials in z. that is X(z) = B(z) A(z) where B(z) and A(z) are polynomials in z. the operation that determines the corresponding x(kT ) (or x(k)) is called the inverse z transform. Determination of the z transform: • If the z transform X(z) of a function x(kT ) is given as X(z) = x(0) + x(T )z−1 + x(2T )z−2 + . The most used ones are the (1) Direct division method and (2) Partial-fraction expansion method. let us define the notion of poles and zeros of a z transform X(z) which is given as a ratio of polynomials in z. . Before tackling these methods for calculating the inverse z transform. K.

. A graphical display in the z-plane can be used to locate these poles and zeros. . .Poles and zeros in the z-plane .. 2.In engineering applications of the z transform method. . the locations of the poles and zeros of X(z) in the z plane determine the time characteristics of x(k). X(z) may have the following form b0 zm + b1 zm−1 + .The inverse z transform Introduction . . . 2. X(z) is frequently expressed as a ratio of polynomials in z−1 as follows b0 z−(n−m) + b1 z−(n−m+1) + · · · + bm z−n X(z) = 1 + a1 z−1 + a2 z−2 + · · · + an z−n Statement: In finding the poles and zeros of X(z). Prof. As you might expect. it is convenient to express X(z) as a ratio of polynomials in z. m) are the zeros of X(z). . . n) are the poles of X(z) and the numerator polynomial roots z j ’s ( j = 1. + bm X(z) = n (m ≤ n) z + a1 zn−1 + · · · + an or in factored form X(z) = b0 (z − z1 )(z − z2 ) · · · (z − zm ) (z − p1 )(z − p2 ) · · · (z − pn ) The denominator polynomial roots pi ’s (i = 1. K. . . Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 165 . Alternatively: In control engineering and signal processing.

and zeros at z = 0 and z = −0.5z = X(z) = 2 z + 3z + 2 (z + 1)(z + 2) has poles at z = −1 and z = −2.For example. z(z + 0. K.The inverse z transform Introduction .Poles and zeros in the z-plane . When X(z) is expressed in z−1 . Prof.5.5) z2 + 0..5z−1 X(z) = .5z−1 1 + 0. = 1 + 3z−1 + 2z−2 (1 + z−1 )(1 + 2z−1 ) The zero at z = 0 is now not explicitly shown. we get 1 + 0. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 166 .

. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 167 . the method states that X(z) can be expanded into an infinite power series in z−1 by simply dividing the numerator by the denominator. the values of x(0). Hence. .The inverse z transform Direct division method Given that X(z) is a ratio of polynomials in z−1 . x(1). K. as by definition X(z) is an infinite power series in z−1 as ∞ X(z) = ∑ x(kT )z−k = x(0) + x(1)z−1 + x(2)z−2 + . + x(k)z−k + · · · k=0 Prof. · · · can be determined by inspection.

4. for k = 0. we get x(0) = 0. 2. we rewrite X(z) as a ratio of polynomials in increasing powers of z−1 as follows 10z−1 + 5z−2 . X(z) = 1 − 1. 4. K. X(z) = 10z−1 + 17z−2 + 18. x(4) = 18. when X(z) is given by X(z) = 10z + 5 (z − 1)(z − 0.2z−1 + 0.2) First.68z−4 + · · · By inspection. 1. x(1) = 10. Prof.2z−2 Next. Note that resulting solution is not in closed form.68.4z−3 + 18. x(2) = 17. we divide the numerator by the denominator as follows Thus. 3. x(3) = 18.The inverse z transform Direct division method Example: Find x(k). Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 168 .

• When it is desired to find only the first values of x(k). Prof. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 169 .The inverse z transform Direct division method When may the direct division method be used? • When it is difficult to find a closed-form expression for the inverse z transform x(k). • When it is to check inverse z transform calculation by other methods. K.

The inverse z transform Partial-fraction expansion method Partial fraction expansion allows us to write a z transform X(z) as the sum of simpler fraction terms so that each term is easily recognizable in a table of z transforms. Interestingly enough. we will be facing with the shifting theorem in order to find the inverse z transform. If we choose to expand X(z) instead of X(z)/z. Note that X(z)/z can be considered for expansion even if there is no zero at z = 0 in the z transform X(z). Prof. Obtain the inverse z transform x(k) using a table of z transforms. 2. the only reason that we expand X(z)/z rather than X(z) into partial fractions is that most z functions have the term z in their numerators. The procedure for inverse z transformation of a z transform X(z) is 1. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 170 . Find the partial-fraction expansion of X(z)/z or X(z). K.

we have Z [y(k − 1)] = z−1Y (z) or Z −1 [z−1Y (z)] = y(k − 1). 3.The inverse z transform Partial-fraction expansion method Before going ahead. By the shifting theorem. Consider the following z transform z−1 X(z) = 1 − az−1 Defining Y (z) = 1 . Hence. 2. K. The inverse z transform of Y (z) is simply y(k) = Z −1 [Y (z)] = ak . · · · k≤0 Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 171 . 1 − az−1 we have X(z) = z−1Y (z). the inverse z transform of X(z) is x(k) = Z −1 [X(z)] = Z −1 [z−1Y (z)] = y(k − 1) = ak−1 Since y(k) is assumed to be zero for k < 0. we have   ak−1 x(k) =  0 Prof. Melhem (Qassim University) k = 1. let us review the shifting theorem.

(2) functions with complex conjugate and real poles. r. K. 2. we can also expand X(z) as Kz K∗z X(z) = + +··· z − p z − p∗ where p and p∗ are the complex conjugate poles and K (K ∗ is its conjugate) is a complex coefficient that can be found by the residues method as in case 1. Melhem (Qassim University) with i = 1. three types of z domain functions X(z) are considered: (1) functions with simple real poles. Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 172 . With complex conjugate poles. X(z) = Case 2: With complex conjugate poles (roots of a quadratic polynomial z2 + az + b). X(z) is expanded as X(z) = The coefficients Ki is given as Ki = K1 K2 Kr + + · · · + +··· (z − p)r (z − p)r−1 (z − p) d i−1 1 r (i−1)! dzi−1 (z − p) X(z)|z→p Prof. Case 1: X(z) is expanded as K2 K1 + +··· z − p1 z − p2 The residue Ki of the ith expanded term is given as Ki = (z − p1 )X(z)|z→pi . and (3) functions with repeated poles. · · · . X(z) can be expanded as K1 z + K2 +··· X(z) = 2 z + az + b The two coefficients K1 and K2 are determined by multiplying X(z) on both sides by the common denominator of the expanded terms and then balancing. Case 3: With a repeated pole p with multiplicity r.The inverse z transform Partial-fraction expansion method Usually.

. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 173 . .The inverse z transform Partial-fraction expansion method Example 1 (Case 1): Given the z transform (1 − e−aT )z X(z) = (z − 1)(z − e−aT ) where a is a constant and T is the sampling period. into partial fractions. Homework: Find the solution now by expanding X(z). . The partial-fraction expansion of X(z)/z is found to be (1 − e−aT ) 1 1 X(z) = = − z (z − 1)(z − e−aT ) z − 1 z − e−aT thus X(z) = z z − z − 1 z − e−aT Hence. 1. find the inverse z transform x(kT ) by use of the partial-fraction expansion method. the inverse z transform of X(z) is x(kT ) = 1 − e−akT k = 0. Prof. rather than X(z)/z. K. 2.

3 = 0. X(z) can be rewritten as  −1  z − 0. K. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 174 .5z −1 − 3z +z 1 − z−1 1 − z−1 + z−2 1 − z−1 + z−2 Prof. With complex conjugate poles (z2.The inverse z transform Partial-fraction expansion method Example 2 (Case 2): Find the inverse z transform of z2 + z + 2 X(z) = (z − 1)(z2 − z + 1) by use of the partial-fraction expansion method.3 | = 1) in the quadratic factor z2 − z + 1.866 with |z2. we expand X(z) in simple partial fractions as −3z + 2 4z−1 −3z−1 + 2z−2 4 X(z) = + or X(z) = + z − 1 z2 − z + 1 1 − z−1 1 − z−1 + z−2 Recalling that the z transform of damped cosine and sine functions are given by 1 − e−aT z−1 cos ωT Z [e cos ωkT ] = 1 − 2e−aT z−1 cos ωT + e−2aT z−2 e−aT z−1 sin ωT −akT Z [e sin ωkT ] = .5 ± j0. Actually.5z−2 0.5z−1 1 −1 1 − 0.5z−2 4z−1 −3 + X(z) = 1 − z−1 1 − z−1 + z−2 1 − z−1 + z−2 = 4z −1 −1 0. 1 − 2e−aT z−1 cos ωT + e−2aT z−2 −akT we observe that the second expanded term in the expression of X(z) above can be viewed as the z transform of a damped sinusoid.

sin ωT = inverse z transform of X(z) is found to be   4(1(k − 1)) − 3(1k−1 ) cos (k−1)π + √1 (1k−1 ) sin (k−1)π 3 3 3 x(k) =  0 √ 3/2.The inverse z transform Partial-fraction expansion method Example 2 (Case 2): By identification. Then the k = 1. Hence. Prof. K. · · · k≤0 Homework: Find the solution by writing the expanded term of quadratic factor as two terms with complex coefficients. e−2aT = 1 and cos ωT = 1/2. 3. 2. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 175 . we get ωT = π/3.

Melhem (Qassim University) 8 1 − 0.5) 1 X(z) |z=0.5 = 8 z z Thus.5) We expand X(z)/z into simple fractions as 1 K1 K2 K3 K4 X(z) = 3 = 3 + 2 + + z z (z − 0.5 1 d 3 X(z) d 1 −1 z |z=0 = |z=0 = |z=0 = −4 1! dz z dz z − 0.5) z z z z − 0.5)3 K4 = (z − 0.5z−1 Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 176 .5 = 3 |z=0. X(z) is expanded as X(z) = −2z−2 − 4z−1 − 8 + Prof.5)2 z3 K3 = 1 d −1 1 (−1)(−2) 1 d 2 3 X(z) z | = | = |z=0 = −8 z=0 z=0 2! dz2 z 2 dz (z − 0.5)2 2 (z − 0.5 (z − 0.5 where K1 = K2 = X(z) 1 |z=0 = |z=0 = −2 z z − 0.The inverse z transform Partial-fraction expansion method Example 3 (Case 3): Obtain the z transform of X(z) = 1 z2 (z − 0. K.

Melhem (Qassim University) z z − 0. K.The inverse z transform Partial-fraction expansion method Example 3 (Case 3): The inverse z transform is then given as   −2δ(k − 2) − 4δ(k − 1) − 8δ(k) + 8(0. without the need for partial-fraction expansion.5)k−3 x(k) =  0 k≥0 k<0 k≥3 k<3 Notice that the solution can be directly obtained using the shifting theorem. Thus. we can write   (0.5 Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 177 . since X(z) can be rewritten as X(z) = z−3 Prof.5)k x(k) =  0 Notice that x(0) = x(1) = x(2) = 0.

and (3) the technique by the z transform. x(n − 1) as well as the input u(k). x(1). . if they cancel each others in the equation. the second form will completely determine the system output response. There are three basic techniques for solving linear constant coefficient difference equations: (1) The classical approach consists of finding the homogeneous and particular solutions. Even these initial values are nonzero. This equation to be solved needs to specify the initial conditions x(0).A difference equation: Definition and forms A n-th linear constant coefficient difference equation describing a linear time-invariant discrete-time system is given as x(k + n) + a1 x(k + n − 1) + · · · + an x(k) = b0 u(k + n) + b1 u(k + n − 1) + · · · + bn u(k) where u(k) and x(k) are the system’s input and output. (2) the sequential procedure. . respectively. K. Prof. . This difference equation can have a different form by replacing k + n by k in the equation above to yield x(k) + a1 x(k − 1) + · · · + an x(k − n) = b0 u(k) + b1 u(k − 1) + · · · + bn u(k − n) This second form of difference equation is useful when the system has zero initial conditions (zero initial values for the output and their shifted sequences) and zero initial values for the input and their shifted sequences. which is used in the digital computer solution. Next is to consider the second and third techniques. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 178 . .

except we implemented on a digital computer as shown next. Prof. m(0) = e(0) − e(−1) − m(−1) = 1 − 0 − 0 = 1 m(1) = e(1) − e(0) − m(0) = 0 − 1 − 1 = −2 m(2) = e(1) − e(1) − m(1) = 1 − 0 + 2 = 3 Using this sequential technique. and so on. for large values of k.Solution of difference equations The sequential technique: An example It is desired to find m(k) for the difference equation m(k) = e(k) − e(k − 1) − m(k − 1). e(k) =  0. we can find m(k) for any value of k. K. This technique is not practical. k even k odd m(k) can be determined by solving the difference equation first for k = 0. k = 2. k ≥ 0 where and e(k) and m(k) are zero for k < 0. Thus. then for k = 1. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 179 . however.   1.

mk] mkminus1 = mk. ekminus1 = ek. end This program gives m(k) for 0 ≤ k ≤ 20.Solution of difference equations The sequential technique: An example The following Matlab program can be used to solve our equation mkminus1 = 0. for k = 0 : 20 mk = ek − ekminus1 − mkminus1. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 180 . Prof. ekminus1 = 0. [k. K. ek = 1 − ek. ek = 1.

the z transform method enables us mostly to find solutions in closed form.Solution of difference equations The z transform technique Difference equations can be solved easily by use of a digital computer except that closed-form expressions cannot in general be obtained. However. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 181 . the difference equation is transformed into algebraic equation for which solution can be easily determined by using the inverse z transform. Let us look at some examples. Prof. K. By applying the z transform to the difference equation and using the table (by shifting theorem) below.

. Substituting the initial data and simplifying gives X(z) = z z = z2 + 3z + 2 (z + 1)(z + 2) Expanding X(z)/z in simple fractions to have 1 1 z z X(z) = − or X(z) = − z z+1 z+2 z+1 z+2 Now. x(1) = 1 Solution Taking the z transform of both sides of the given difference equation and using the shifting theorem gives z2 X(z) − z2 x(0) − zx(1) + 3zX(z) − 3zx(0) + 2X(z) = 0. . x(0) = 0. Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 182 . 1. K. the solution x(k) to the difference equation is x(k) = (−1)k − (−2)k . applying the inverse z transform. Melhem (Qassim University) k = 0. .Solution of difference equations The z transform technique: Example 1 Problem Solve the following difference equation by use of the z transform method: x(k + 2) + 3x(k + 1) + 2x(k) = 0. 2. Prof.

3.5 ± j0.Solution of difference equations The z transform technique: Example 2 Problem Solve the following difference equation by use of the z transform method: 2x(k) − 2x(k − 1) + x(k − 2) = u(k). K. gives 2X(z) − 2z−1 X(z) + z−2 X(z) = 1 . 2. 1 − z−1 Solving this last equation for X(z). where x(k) = 0 for k < 0 and   1 u(k) =  0 k = 0.5) of the quadratic factor. 1. we obtain 1 z3 1 = X(z) = 1 − z−1 2 − 2z−1 + z−2 (z − 1)(2z2 − 2z + 1) With complex poles (0. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 183 . · · · k<0 Solution Taking the z transform of both sides of the given difference equation and using the shifting theorem. and the z transform of u(k). X(z)/z can be expanded in simple fractions as X(z) 1 −z + 1 z −z2 + z 1 −1 + z−1 = + or X(z) = + = + z z − 1 2z2 − 2z + 1 z − 1 2z2 − 2z + 1 1 − z−1 2 − 2z−1 + z−2 Prof.

we get ωT = π/4. e−2aT = 0. Then the inverse z transform of X(z) leads to x(k) = = 1 1 1(k) − e−akT cos ωkT + e−akT sin ωkT 2 2     kπ 1 kπ 1 1 k 1 k √ √ cos sin .5 and cos ωT = 1/ 2. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 184 .5z−2 √ √ By identification. 2.5z−1 1 1 1 − + X(z) = 1 − z−1 2 1 − z−1 + 0. 1. sin ωT = 1/ 2. . . and √ e−aT = 1/ 2. K. Actually.5z−1 0. . Hence. k = 0. 1− + 2 4 2 4 2 2 Prof. X(z) can be rewritten as 1 − 0.Solution of difference equations The z transform technique: Example 2 Recalling that the z transform of damped cosine and sine functions are given by 1 − e−aT z−1 cos ωT Z [e cos ωkT ] = 1 − 2e−aT z−1 cos ωT + e−2aT z−2 e−aT z−1 sin ωT −akT Z [e sin ωkT ] = .5z−2 2 1 − z−1 + 0. 1 − 2e−aT z−1 cos ωT + e−2aT z−2 −akT we observe that the second expanded term in the expression of X(z) above can be viewed as the z transform of a damped sinusoid.

Every T seconds. a number is shifted into the register. if e(k) is the input at the register. a discrete-time system can be represented by a block diagram. the output would simply be e(k − 1). Prof. K. the number that was stored in the register is shifted out. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 185 . which is a shift register as shown in figures below. As shown in the figure on the right.Block-diagram representation of difference equations Like a continuous-time system. The basic element of this block diagram is a time-delay element. and at the same time.

K. For example. can be used to represent a linear time-invariant discrete-time system. together with devices that perform multiplication by a constant (data registers) and summation (adders). the discrete-time system given by the following difference equation m(k) = e(k) − e(k − 1) − m(k − 1) can be represented by the following block-diagram Prof. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 186 .Block-diagram representation of difference equations An interconnection of these shift registers.

consider the Laplace transform of x∗ (t).Relationship between Laplace transform and z transform As seen before. the sampled-data signal x∗ (t) is given by ∞ ∗ x (t) = ∑ x(kT )δ(t − kT ) k=0 Now. we have ∗ ∞ X (s) = ∑ x(kT )e−kT s k=0 If we define eT s = z or inversely s = 1 lnz T the Laplace transform of x∗ (t) becomes .

.

X (s) .

x(2T ). . . . K. x(T ).s=(1/T ) lnz = ∗ ∞ ∑ x(kT )z−k k=0 The right-hand side of the last equation is no other than the z transform of the time sequence x(0). . . generated from x(t) at t = kT where k = 0. 2. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 187 . Prof. 1. .

Relationship between Laplace transform and z transform In summary. we have .

.

X ∗ (s) .

• The definition eT s = z is essential to introduce techniques for analysis and design of discrete-time control systems. Actually. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 188 . but rather X ∗ (s = T −1 lnz). K. such techniques are derived from their counterparts for continuous-time systems using the aforementioned definition.s=(1/T ) lnz = X(z) which gives the relationship between Laplace transform and the z transform. Prof. Two important remarks are in order: • We stress that the notation X(z) does not signify X(s) with s replaced by z.

K.The z transform of functions involving the term 1 − e−T s The transfer function of the plant preceded by the zero-order hold is 1 − e−T s G(s) = G p (s) s The z transform of G(s) (or the discrete transfer function of the plant) can be proved to be as   G (s) p G(z) = Z [G(s)] = (1 − z−1 )Z s Prof. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 189 .

Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 190 . K.The z transform of functions involving the term 1 − e−T s Example: Obtain the z transform of 1 − e−T s 1 G(s) = s s+1 Applying the previous formula. we get       −T s 1−e 1 1 1 1 G(z) = Z = (1 − z−1 )Z = (1 − z−1 )Z − s s+1 s(s + 1) s s+1   1 1 (1 − e−T )z−1 −1 = (1 − z ) − = 1 − z−1 1 − e−T z−1 1 − e−T z−1 Prof.

B-2-16. B-2-18 Also. A-2-12. A-2-6. B-2-7. A-2-5. 2-10. Melhem (Qassim University) Digital Control Systems Academic year 2014-2015 191 . B-2-5. A-2-7. K. A-2-11. 2-11. it is suggested to solve the following problems from your [textbook.Suggested problems Students are suggested to solve the following problems from the book [Discrete-time control systems by K. Ogata. Chapter 2]: A-2-4. B-2-17. Prof. the accompanying solutions can be checked for confirmation. 2-21 Students are encouraged to solve the assigned problems by hand before seeking help from classmates or the teacher. Subsequently. Chapter 2]: 2-9.