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Final Exam Slide List

Coatlicue, Museum of Anthropology,

Mexico City

Abstraction as a whole but realism in detail

2 serpents that meet nose to nose to create
a single monstrous head
Hands resembles snakes= renovation of
Interwoven serpents on her skirt
A necklace containing hands, hearts, and
skulls of sacrificed victims
Two breasts of an old woman= eternal
feeding of all creatures
Thick serpent hangs between her legs to
symbolize a penis

Coatlicue, Museum of
Anthropology, Mexico City
Blood emerges from her
decapitated neck =
blood lost during her
Claws and fangs on the
feet= devouring power
of earth
Bottom of statue: Tlaloc,
god of water= forever
nourishing the earth

The Sun Stone (Aztec Calendar),

Mexico City, Post Classic 1479, Basalt
Center depiction of the sun god
Wrinkled face and blond hair
Tongue hanging from his mouth in
shape of an obsidian sacrificial
4 creations (Jaguar, Wind, Rain,
Water) and cardinal points
depicted around sun god.
Mexica warrior headdress=source
of military and growing power

The Sun Stone (Aztec Calendar),

Mexico City, Post Classic 1479, Basalt
Inner circle represents 20 days of
the month
Carvings on each block symbolizes
the Nahuatl names of the months
Arrowheads= suns rays scattering
throughout the universe in all
cardinal points (ie. N,S,E,W)
Outer circle represents the 2 fire
serpents= connection between the
upper and lower worlds.

Upon entering the Old Temple, the first sculpture you

come across is the Lanzn (Great Lance); blade like form
that is wedge shaped.
The Lanzon is located in a cruciform gallery and
represents the 4 cardinal points (N,S,E W) and acts as a
spiritual conduit.
The ceiling is lowered to allow priests above the sculpture
to pour sacred liquids down the Lanzon so that it appears
to be sweating and alive.
Center notch on the top of the head was used for the
liquid offerings.

Top: Abstract faces that represent the multiple levels of

transformations. Faces can be seen in all directions.
Right hand points to the sky= Upper world= spiritual
Left hand points downward= Terrestrial world= human
Features: Round eyes, feline fangs, flat nose, upturned
snarling mouth, hair in the form of snakes.
On hallucinogens, the sculpture may have appeared as a
living, breathing, supernatural monster.

Paracas Block Color Style Mantle w/

Flying Shamans

Block Color style incorporates

curvilinear lines and depictions of
animals, shamans, and supernatural
Palette uses roughly around 19 colors
Illustration depicts Shamans with
beards and their heads thrown back
They are holding a hallucinogenic
mushroom in their hand
Shamans are seen dancing or flying
which is believed to be a healing trance

Great Mosque, Jenne, Mali, 13th century

(rebuilt 1907)

The exterior is decorated with palm

sticks (toron) which serves an
aesthetic as well as constructional
Mosque created with Muslim
symbolism including a prayer wall
that faces Mecca, box like towers or
minarets toped with ostrich eggs
symbolizing fertility and cosmos, and
5 pillars symbolizing the Pillars of
Building is squared shaped
symbolizing the Kaaba or cube
located in Mecca.

Fulani Women at Gerewol, Southern Niger.

During Gerewol, women act as judges
selecting a champion from among the
Women are dressed in muted garments,
distinct hairstyles, and paint or tattoo their
faces as a sign of beauty.
Unmarried women are free to bestow sexual
favors to dancers they find attractive but in
public they are to avert their eyes and
exhibit reservation in public.
Gerewol is a festival that acknowledges the
cultures sexual desire for healthy &
beautiful children.

Fulani Men at Gerewol, Southern Niger.

Gerewol- festival to celebrate masculine
beauty and charm.
Young men are asked to participate in a
dance or ceremony in which they are not
allowed to show signs of fatigue and
Men dress in colorful cloth and garments;
paint is added to the eyes, nose, and
mouth to accentuate favored features.
Men show virility and strength by big
smiles, wide eyed glances, and bright

Dancing Shiva (Nataraja), South India, 970CE,


Shiva depicted as a cosmic dancer ready

to destroy the universe so that a new
creation can begin.
Shiva depicted dancing in a circle of
flames lifting the right leg while balancing
over a demon or dwarf who symbolizes
lower right forearm contains an uncoiling
Upper right arm hold a small drum shaped
like an hourglass. This symbolizes creation
or beat of the drum is the passage of time.

Dancing Shiva (Nataraja), South India, 970CE,


Upper left hand contains fire, signifies

2nd right hand shows the Abhaya
mudra which means fearlessness
2nd left hand points to the raised foot
which means upliftment or liberation.
Shiva is shown with long matted hair
that is knotted in the flames.
Stoic or calm face= being in balance or

Durga is the principal form of the
Goddess also known as Shakti and Devi.
She is a warrior goddess associated with
creation, preservation, and annihilation

She was created by Brahma, Shiva, and

Vishnu to kill the buffalo demon

Durga fighting the buffalo demon, Mahishamardini cave,

Mamallapuram, 670-700CE
Located in a rock cut temple in
Depicts the story of Durga
slaying the buffalo demon
She is seen riding a lion chasing
the buffalo demon with

Durga fighting the buffalo demon, Mahishamardini cave,

Mamallapuram, 670-700CE

Mahisasura considered himself

invincible because he felt it was
impossible for a woman to defeat
Durga is shown riding into battle
holding onto celestial weapons
such as arrows, trident, sword,
spear, and others.
She shoots Mahisasura with
arrows then jumps off of lion and
beheads Mahisasura with her

Represents workers unrest and

oppression by the government
Murder scene of peasant workers
indiscriminately killed for revenge.
Purpose of this work of art is to stir
emotions of the viewer against the
Lithograph- Printmaking technique for
creating mass produced works of art.
Meant to be circulated to as many people
as possible, French govt tried to suppress

Manet paints Luncheon on the

grass using traditional painting
Created for La Salon; but was never
shown to public.
Shows an everyday scene of a
picnic except the woman is nude.
Nudity was meant for only
goddesses not everyday people

The new goddess of the modern,

industrial world is the prostitute.
Her eyes gaze the viewer directly
without coyness or shyness
Painting meant to directly confront
the hidden or dark underbelly of
Manet takes the ideas of a normal
lunch and removes it of its context.

Toulouse-Lautrec was born into an

aristocratic family and wealth
He was born with congenital health
problems due to his family inbreeding.
His physical disability isolated him from
high society
Became familiar with the Parisian night
life of drinking, drugs, and prostitution.
Many of his artworks depicts this dark,
sad, and lonely night life and style.
He died at the age of 36 from
alcoholism and syphilis.

Dark and fanciful colors, harsh

brushstrokes gives this an altered
perception or state of mind.
The greenish overcast = sickness
of urban living and late night
Peoples faces= masks= hiding
Artist depicts himself in the center
People depicted in an odd way to
resemble circus freaks.

Van Gogh born into an upper middle

class religious family
Very close to his brother Theo who he
dedicated a lot of his works
Everything we know about V.G is due
to his letters to his brother Theo
Van Gogh suffered from mental illnessmodern psychologists believe this
includes bipolar disorder and
Regularly committed himself to an
asylum during which he painted his
famous pieces.
Dies at age 36 from infection from a
self inflicted gun shot wound.

Night caf described by V.G as a

dark and dreary place where one
can go mad.
Unrealistic interpretation of a bar
(angular pool table, room is
crooked, colors are fantastical)
Night caf is a bar with isolated
figures at the late hours of the night
Meant to symbolize his isolated and
anxious driven mind.
V.G paints himself in the portrait
(center figure in white)

Mel RAMOS. Chiquita. 1964

The conflict between symbols and signs.

Signs are used to convey textual
information. By removing the sign
Chiquita this art becomes a symbolic
Symbols are things that represents or
stands for something else
Therefore, Chiquita becomes a symbol
for our own interpretations.
The conflict is what is considered truth?
What we read to obtain knowledge?
Our own emotions about our
interpretation of the world.

Andres Serrano. Immersion (Piss

Christ). 1987
Artist places small statuette in glass filled
with his urine.
Without the title (Piss Christ), audience
associates the amber-rose color with
words like radiance, calming, and
godliness. With the title, people change
perceptions and it becomes disgusting
and vulgar because it is urine.
The idea is that whether it is religion or
urine the experience is the same and
truthful for each person.

Photographic series in black and

white with the artist as the subject
She wears a Chador (veil) represents
liberty and freedom from sexual
objectification for most Muslim
Western perspective- women of
Veil=protection of sexual objectivity
Womans gaze= signifier of sexuality,
sin, and shame.

Writings on her body becomes

symbols when not understood
Signs vs symbols
Text is used to communicate specific
Becomes symbols when the words
are not understood= distortion of
communication and

Purpose of this is for the experience

Burden questions violence in media
vs. real life acts of violence. Idea:
Why do people feel uncomfortable
with real life and not depictions in
Chris Burden, Shoot, 1971
By experiencing the pain firsthand,
you become less mystified and
scared about it.
Volkswagen is the epitome of
consumer culture. He crucifies
himself to the car to show that mass
Chris Burden, Trans-fixed, 1974 consumerism is the cross to bear.

5 Elements of Deconstruction

1. Appropriation Taking already made physical objects, images,

and ideas and using them over and over again.

Andy Warhol, Marilyn,


Shepard Fairey, Obey,


2. Juxtaposition
The fact of two things placing them together to create a
contrasting effect.
Man Ray, The
Gift, 1921
(replica 1972)

Oppenheim, Object, 1936

3. Recontextualization Taking the meaning of a familiar image,

symbol, or text and associating it with the


DArcangelo, Full Moon, 1963

Ramos, Chiquita, 1964

4. Interaction of Text and Image:

An interplay between the meaning of a text and the meaning
of an image that have no relationship forced together to
create meaning.

Jenney, Meltdown
Morning, 1975

Kruger, Untitled, 1989

5. Representation

Proclamation of ones identity and culture. The strategy

of using ones artistic voice within ones personal history
or culture of origin.

Shirin Neshat- Rebellious

Silence, 1994

Kehinde Wiley, Napolean Leading the Army

over the Alps, 2005