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Objective

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To determine the coefficient of friction between belt and pulley.
To differentiate the efficiency between V-belt and flat-belt.
Introduction

Belt is flexible ban which is in power transmission. It is able to transfer the power from one
point to the other points with minimum power loss. The belt is able to work smoothly and
quietly even without the requirement of lubrication. The earliest belt used in the world was
the flat belt. In flat belt, only the bottom part of the belt is in contact with the pulley surface.
The disadvantage of flat belt is that the flat belt pulley needs to be carefully aligned to
prevent the belt from slipping. In order to solve the problem encountered by the flat belt, Vbelt is introduced. Normally, the V-belt is placed on the groove of a pulley. In V-belt, both
sides of the belt are in contact with the pulley groove. This can prevent or minimize the
chances of the belt from slipping.
Flat belts require significantly higher pre-tensioning in order to transmit a certain
torque without slippage. This especially applies to large transmission ratios and thereby low
angles of contact. Tension pulleys with defined contact pressure are recommended in cases of
this kind to reduce the transverse force. V-belts are characterized by their trapezium shaped
(v-shaped) cross-section. They consist of a tensioning section of multiple layers of endlessly
wound polyester fibre cord threads, the core which is made of a high-quality rubber mixture
and the enclosure which is made of rubberized cotton or synthetic fabric. Depending on the
intended use, different designs are used.Flat belts are not advisable for high outputs at high
speeds.
This experiment is done to determine the coefficient of friction between belt and
pulley. The factors to be discussed are the use of belt and the angle of contact between belt
and pulley. Two types of belt used in this experiment are a flat belt and V-shaped belt. This
experiment was initiated by placing a fixed weight of 1.48 kg mass at one end of a flat belt.
The value is recorded as tension, T1. The other end of spring was placed at angles of 45° to
165°. A nylon rope was attached on the rim of the pulley clockwise and end freely suspended
with a weight of value which is W. The weight of the lead pulley is taken when the pulley
starts to rotate at constant velocity. Then the tension, T2 is obtained by subtracting the total
value W from T1. The ratio of T1/T2 is taken and the value of ln (T1/T2) is calculated. A
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belt holder. spring scale holder.0 Equipment & Material Spring scale. 3. spring scale with screw strut. wing nut and safety door 2 . screw strut holder. pulley with different grooves. angle display.graph of ln (T1/T2) against contact angle was plotted to find the coefficient of sliding friction between belt and pulley.

(Make sure the weight is in 6kg) 6. 5. (Do not open the door using the bottom right end as it may break the acrylic cover. 8. 4. Place the spring scale to the spring scale holder at 45°. Take the reading at the other spring scale.0 Procedure 4. Insert the spring scale screw strut into the inner side hole of the screw strut holder. Place the spring scale to the spring scale holder at 60°.4. Apply the load to belt by turning the wing nut.) 2. Repeat the experiment with other angle and take the reading. Repeat the experiment with other angle and take the reading. 4. 7.) 2. (Do not open the door using the bottom right end as it may break the acrylic cover. Close the safety acrylic door. 3. Open the safety door. 7. (Make sure the weight is in 6kg) 6. Apply the load to belt by turning the wing nut. 3 . Insert the spring scale screw strut into the inner side hole of the screw strut holder. Place the spring scale to the spring scale holder at 45°. 3. Take the reading at the other spring scale. Close the safety acrylic door. 8. Tighten it with wing nut. 5. Tighten it with wing nut.2: To determine the belt friction coefficient for V-belt 1.1: To determine the belt friction coefficient for Flat-belt 1. Place the spring scale to the spring scale holder at 60°. Open the safety door. 4.

34551 ×1 03 5.9747 × 10-3 165 70 60 0.0 RESULTS 5.1892 1.14 × 10-3 65 60 0.0800 -1.1542 -1.2877 -1.1542 -1.1542 9.2392 × 10-3 4 .3440 × 10-3 135 80 60 0. μs 60 -0.2231 -1.9532 × 10-3 165 75 60 0.0513 1.1 Flat Belt Contac t angle ᵦ(°) Spring scale Spring scale T1(N) T2(N) 45 57 75 ln (T2/T1) Coefficient of static friction.6294 × 10-3 70 60 0.5 60 0.8020 × 10-3 135 75 60 0.0800 1.5.8844 × 10-3 105 70 60 0.μs 60 0.2 V-belt Contact angle ᵦ(°) Spring scale Spring scale T1(N) T2(N) 45 65 75 ln (T2/T1) Coefficient of static friction.0670 × 10-3 105 72.2231 2.

flat belts require significantly higher pretensioning in order to transmit a certain torque without slippage. most often parallel.6. They consist of a tensioning section of multiple layers of endlessly wound. This mean that V-belt is better than the flat belt as V-belt will lower the chances of slip occur. or to track relative movement. For both flat belt and Vbelt. In a two pulley system. The friction force increases with the amount of wrap about a surface and makes it so the tension in the belt can be different at both ends of the belt. so that the direction of the driven shaft is reversed. Graph one shows graph of coefficient of static friction versus contact angle for flat-belt. such as a belt wrapped around a bollard. there is a significant of increasing of coefficient of static friction to the contact angle. Belt friction is a term describing the friction forces between a belt and a surface. while graph two shows graph of coefficient of static friction versus contact angle for V-belt. Comparing both graph. their constant value of T1 and T2 are equal to 60N.0 DISCUSSION/EVALUATION 6. As can be seen from the graph of flat belt. This especially applies to large transmission ratios and thereby low angles of contact. This helps a designer of such a rig to know how many times the belt or rope must be wrapped around the pulley to prevent it from slipping. Mountain climbers and sailing crews demonstrate a standard knowledge of belt friction when accomplishing basic tasks. Belt friction can be modeled by the Belt friction equation. 5 . the belt can either drive the pulleys normally in one direction or the belt may be crossed. the theoretical tension acting on the belt or rope calculated by the belt friction equation can be compared to the maximum tension the belt can support.1 DISCUSSION Belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically. In practice. Belts may be used as a source of motion. When one end of the belt is being pulled only part of this force is transmitted to the other end wrapped about a surface. Belts are looped over pulleys and may have a twist between the pulleys. Meanwhile. As a source of motion. to transmit power efficiently. and the shafts need not be parallel. In comparison to V-belts. you can see that flat belt have higher coefficient than V-Belt. This experiment conducted to study the belt friction coefficient for V-belt and flat belt. V-belts are characterized by their trapezium shaped (v-shaped) cross-section. the graph of V-belt fluctuated up and down from 40º to 175º contact angle. a conveyor belt is one application where the belt is adapted to carry a load continuously between two points. The experimental results obtained are plotted in two different graphs.

These advantages include low bearing load and reliable operation even in the case of small angles of contact. The V-belt is less efficient in comparison with the flat belt. 6 .The fact that high standard forces between pulleys and belts occur at low pretension offers advantages for the V-belt. as it is restricted by the high amount of flexing required.

Based on the graph coefficient of static friction vs contact angle for flat belt. a) The relation between coefficient of static friction vs contact angle for flat belt.3 Give relation between coefficient of static friction for flat belt and V belt. μs vs Contact Angle β for V-belt Graph attached at Appendices.0 QUESTIONS 7. Based on the graph of coefficient of static friction vs contact angle for V belt. Therefore the enhancement of the value coefficient of static friction depends on the value of contact angle. 7 . Graph 1: Flat belt Graph 2: V-belt 7. b) The relation between coefficient of static friction vs contact angle for V-belt. the curve show the relation between coefficient of static friction and contact angle are inversely proportional. Enhanced coefficient of friction. As the value of contact angle increases. the curve show the relation between coefficient of static friction and contact angle are fluctuate.7. the coefficient of static friction will be equal to zero when the value of contact angle decreases if the flat belt is contact to the overall surface of circumferences of pulley. the value of coefficient of static friction also increase. μs vs Contact Angle β for flat-belt. Therefore no tension on the belt and the rotation of the pulley does not occur. 7.1 Plot the 2 graphs: Coefficient of static friction.2 When the coefficient of static friction will be equal to zero for flat belt? Based on the graph. This means that the coefficient of static friction increase or decrease are not depends on the increase or decrease contact angle.

μs for V-Belt by taking normal Fy  0 Fx  0 force and . In case of a V-belt. sin δθ δθ −( T +δT ) sin =0 2 2 δθ δθ ≈ 2 2 8 . ω? Explain your answer.5 Derive equation of coefficient of static friction.7. more power transmission can be produced. Resolving the forces tangentially. limiting ratio of tensions is higher and thus. cos δθ ≈1 2 δT =2 μR Resolving the forces radially. V-belts need little adjustments and transmit more power. Owing to wedging action. 7. 2 μR+ T cos δθ δθ −( T +δT ) cos =0 2 2 For small angle of δθ. there are two normal reactions so that the radial reaction is equal to 2R sin α. Thus total frictional force = 2(μR) = 2μR. without slip as compared to flat belt. V belt is able to transmit more power than flat belt to transmit more power if both are operating in the same angular speed due to wedging action in the grooves.4 Which belt is able to transmit more power if both are operating in the same angular speed. 2 Rsinα−T sin As δθ is small.

Does not require grooves ii. and pulling out from the grooves. Energy savings A long service life of belts and pulleys Less down time and high productivity 9 .6 What are the advantages and disadvantages using flat belt? a) Advantages using flat belt i.2 Rsinα−T δθ δθ −T =0 2 2 R= Tδθ 2 sinα Or From (iii) and (iv). iv. v. Minimizing the energy loss and wear from the belt wedging in iii. δT ¿2μ Tδθ 2sin α δT μδθ = T sin α or Intergrating between proper limits. T1 θ dT μdθ ∫ T =∫ sin α T 0 2 log e T1 μθ = T 2 sin α Or T 1 μθ /sin α =e T2 7.

Can be installed simply and securely.7 What are the advantages and disadvantages using v-belt? a) Advantages using v-belt i. May be operated in either direction with tight sight at the top or viii. Due to wedging action in the grooves. manifold. Positive drive as slip between belt and pulley is negligible ii. Costlier as compared to flat belts 10 . Low noise generation from a smooth belt operation vii. No joint troubles as V-belts are made endless iii. bearing life failure to track properly since they tend to climb towards the higher side of the pulley 7. high belt tension required to transmit power often shortens ii. Multiple V-belt drive increases the power transmission vii. bottom. Operation is smooth and quite iv.vi. High velocity ratio up to 10 can be obtained v. b) Disadvantages using flat belt i. limiting ratio of tensions vi. is higher and thus. Not as durable as flat belts iv. Can be easily installed and removed. b) Disadvantages using v-belt i. more power transmission. Cannot be used for large centre distances ii. Construction of pulley is not simple iii.

We can say that V-belt is better than the flat belt as V-belt will have lower the chances of slip occur. the flat-belt have higher coefficient than v-belt. as it is restricted by the high amount of flexing required. 11 .8. the V-belt is less efficient in comparison with the flat belt. Based on the graph of coefficient of static friction versus contact angle for v-belt and the graph of coefficient of static friction versus contact angle for flat-belt.0 CONCLUSION As conclusion. By comparing for both type of belt. The high standard forces between pulleys and belts occur at low pretension offers low bearing load and reliable operation in the small angles of contact. we can conclude that there is a significant of increasing of coefficient of static friction to the contact angle for flat belt and for v-belt there is fluctuated up and down contact angle. Therefore. our objective which is to determine the coefficient of friction between belt and pulley and to differentiate the efficiency between v-belt and flat-belt was achieved.

0 REFERENCES 1. Vector Mechanics for Engineers. (1989). Engineering Mechanics: Statics. McGraw-Hill Co.9. International Edition 1996.D. Mekanik Kejuruteraan Statik. New York. Beer. Unit (2010). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Pustaka. R. 12 . Ltd.I... Person Education South Asia Pte. Wan Abu Bakr Wan Abas Ph. Russell Johnston. Ferdinand P.C. 12th Edition in S. Static and Dynamics. 2. (436-438) 3. Jr. E. Hibbeler.

10.0 APPENDICES Figure 1 V-belt Figure 2Flat Belt 13 .

Graph 1 : Flat Belt 14 .

Graph 2: V-Belt 15 .