1.

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Objective

2.0

To determine the coefficient of friction between belt and pulley.
To differentiate the efficiency between V-belt and flat-belt.
Introduction

Belt is flexible ban which is in power transmission. It is able to transfer the power from one
point to the other points with minimum power loss. The belt is able to work smoothly and
quietly even without the requirement of lubrication. The earliest belt used in the world was
the flat belt. In flat belt, only the bottom part of the belt is in contact with the pulley surface.
The disadvantage of flat belt is that the flat belt pulley needs to be carefully aligned to
prevent the belt from slipping. In order to solve the problem encountered by the flat belt, Vbelt is introduced. Normally, the V-belt is placed on the groove of a pulley. In V-belt, both
sides of the belt are in contact with the pulley groove. This can prevent or minimize the
chances of the belt from slipping.
Flat belts require significantly higher pre-tensioning in order to transmit a certain
torque without slippage. This especially applies to large transmission ratios and thereby low
angles of contact. Tension pulleys with defined contact pressure are recommended in cases of
this kind to reduce the transverse force. V-belts are characterized by their trapezium shaped
(v-shaped) cross-section. They consist of a tensioning section of multiple layers of endlessly
wound polyester fibre cord threads, the core which is made of a high-quality rubber mixture
and the enclosure which is made of rubberized cotton or synthetic fabric. Depending on the
intended use, different designs are used.Flat belts are not advisable for high outputs at high
speeds.
This experiment is done to determine the coefficient of friction between belt and
pulley. The factors to be discussed are the use of belt and the angle of contact between belt
and pulley. Two types of belt used in this experiment are a flat belt and V-shaped belt. This
experiment was initiated by placing a fixed weight of 1.48 kg mass at one end of a flat belt.
The value is recorded as tension, T1. The other end of spring was placed at angles of 45° to
165°. A nylon rope was attached on the rim of the pulley clockwise and end freely suspended
with a weight of value which is W. The weight of the lead pulley is taken when the pulley
starts to rotate at constant velocity. Then the tension, T2 is obtained by subtracting the total
value W from T1. The ratio of T1/T2 is taken and the value of ln (T1/T2) is calculated. A
1

3. wing nut and safety door 2 .0 Equipment & Material Spring scale. spring scale holder. pulley with different grooves. angle display. spring scale with screw strut. belt holder. screw strut holder.graph of ln (T1/T2) against contact angle was plotted to find the coefficient of sliding friction between belt and pulley.

Place the spring scale to the spring scale holder at 45°. Apply the load to belt by turning the wing nut. 4. 3 . Repeat the experiment with other angle and take the reading.1: To determine the belt friction coefficient for Flat-belt 1. Insert the spring scale screw strut into the inner side hole of the screw strut holder. 3.4. 4. 8. 4. Take the reading at the other spring scale. Place the spring scale to the spring scale holder at 60°.) 2.) 2. Apply the load to belt by turning the wing nut. 8. Insert the spring scale screw strut into the inner side hole of the screw strut holder. 3. 7. Close the safety acrylic door. Tighten it with wing nut. 5. (Make sure the weight is in 6kg) 6. Place the spring scale to the spring scale holder at 45°. 5.0 Procedure 4. Take the reading at the other spring scale.2: To determine the belt friction coefficient for V-belt 1. Tighten it with wing nut. Open the safety door. Repeat the experiment with other angle and take the reading. 7. (Make sure the weight is in 6kg) 6. Open the safety door. Place the spring scale to the spring scale holder at 60°. (Do not open the door using the bottom right end as it may break the acrylic cover. (Do not open the door using the bottom right end as it may break the acrylic cover. Close the safety acrylic door.

1542 -1.3440 × 10-3 135 80 60 0.5 60 0.9532 × 10-3 165 75 60 0.9747 × 10-3 165 70 60 0.0800 1.0670 × 10-3 105 72. μs 60 -0.6294 × 10-3 70 60 0.2877 -1.2231 2.14 × 10-3 65 60 0.2 V-belt Contact angle ᵦ(°) Spring scale Spring scale T1(N) T2(N) 45 65 75 ln (T2/T1) Coefficient of static friction.1892 1.8020 × 10-3 135 75 60 0.34551 ×1 03 5.5.0800 -1.0 RESULTS 5.8844 × 10-3 105 70 60 0.2231 -1.1542 -1.μs 60 0.0513 1.1542 9.2392 × 10-3 4 .1 Flat Belt Contac t angle ᵦ(°) Spring scale Spring scale T1(N) T2(N) 45 57 75 ln (T2/T1) Coefficient of static friction.

For both flat belt and Vbelt. flat belts require significantly higher pretensioning in order to transmit a certain torque without slippage. This mean that V-belt is better than the flat belt as V-belt will lower the chances of slip occur. Graph one shows graph of coefficient of static friction versus contact angle for flat-belt. Meanwhile. their constant value of T1 and T2 are equal to 60N. the theoretical tension acting on the belt or rope calculated by the belt friction equation can be compared to the maximum tension the belt can support. Belt friction can be modeled by the Belt friction equation.6. In a two pulley system. This especially applies to large transmission ratios and thereby low angles of contact.0 DISCUSSION/EVALUATION 6. or to track relative movement. such as a belt wrapped around a bollard. so that the direction of the driven shaft is reversed. and the shafts need not be parallel. there is a significant of increasing of coefficient of static friction to the contact angle. As can be seen from the graph of flat belt.1 DISCUSSION Belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically. most often parallel. you can see that flat belt have higher coefficient than V-Belt. Belts are looped over pulleys and may have a twist between the pulleys. When one end of the belt is being pulled only part of this force is transmitted to the other end wrapped about a surface. V-belts are characterized by their trapezium shaped (v-shaped) cross-section. a conveyor belt is one application where the belt is adapted to carry a load continuously between two points. the belt can either drive the pulleys normally in one direction or the belt may be crossed. They consist of a tensioning section of multiple layers of endlessly wound. Mountain climbers and sailing crews demonstrate a standard knowledge of belt friction when accomplishing basic tasks. to transmit power efficiently. Belts may be used as a source of motion. As a source of motion. while graph two shows graph of coefficient of static friction versus contact angle for V-belt. Comparing both graph. 5 . The experimental results obtained are plotted in two different graphs. This experiment conducted to study the belt friction coefficient for V-belt and flat belt. the graph of V-belt fluctuated up and down from 40º to 175º contact angle. Belt friction is a term describing the friction forces between a belt and a surface. In comparison to V-belts. This helps a designer of such a rig to know how many times the belt or rope must be wrapped around the pulley to prevent it from slipping. The friction force increases with the amount of wrap about a surface and makes it so the tension in the belt can be different at both ends of the belt. In practice.

6 . The V-belt is less efficient in comparison with the flat belt. as it is restricted by the high amount of flexing required.The fact that high standard forces between pulleys and belts occur at low pretension offers advantages for the V-belt. These advantages include low bearing load and reliable operation even in the case of small angles of contact.

1 Plot the 2 graphs: Coefficient of static friction. 7 . the curve show the relation between coefficient of static friction and contact angle are fluctuate. the value of coefficient of static friction also increase. As the value of contact angle increases. μs vs Contact Angle β for flat-belt. Based on the graph of coefficient of static friction vs contact angle for V belt. This means that the coefficient of static friction increase or decrease are not depends on the increase or decrease contact angle. Graph 1: Flat belt Graph 2: V-belt 7.2 When the coefficient of static friction will be equal to zero for flat belt? Based on the graph. the curve show the relation between coefficient of static friction and contact angle are inversely proportional. Based on the graph coefficient of static friction vs contact angle for flat belt. the coefficient of static friction will be equal to zero when the value of contact angle decreases if the flat belt is contact to the overall surface of circumferences of pulley.7. a) The relation between coefficient of static friction vs contact angle for flat belt. Enhanced coefficient of friction. Therefore no tension on the belt and the rotation of the pulley does not occur. Therefore the enhancement of the value coefficient of static friction depends on the value of contact angle.0 QUESTIONS 7. b) The relation between coefficient of static friction vs contact angle for V-belt. μs vs Contact Angle β for V-belt Graph attached at Appendices. 7.3 Give relation between coefficient of static friction for flat belt and V belt.

V belt is able to transmit more power than flat belt to transmit more power if both are operating in the same angular speed due to wedging action in the grooves. 2 μR+ T cos δθ δθ −( T +δT ) cos =0 2 2 For small angle of δθ. Thus total frictional force = 2(μR) = 2μR. sin δθ δθ −( T +δT ) sin =0 2 2 δθ δθ ≈ 2 2 8 . 7. more power transmission can be produced.5 Derive equation of coefficient of static friction.7. there are two normal reactions so that the radial reaction is equal to 2R sin α. cos δθ ≈1 2 δT =2 μR Resolving the forces radially. μs for V-Belt by taking normal Fy  0 Fx  0 force and .4 Which belt is able to transmit more power if both are operating in the same angular speed. In case of a V-belt. V-belts need little adjustments and transmit more power. limiting ratio of tensions is higher and thus. ω? Explain your answer. Owing to wedging action. without slip as compared to flat belt. Resolving the forces tangentially. 2 Rsinα−T sin As δθ is small.

2 Rsinα−T δθ δθ −T =0 2 2 R= Tδθ 2 sinα Or From (iii) and (iv).6 What are the advantages and disadvantages using flat belt? a) Advantages using flat belt i. iv. and pulling out from the grooves. Energy savings A long service life of belts and pulleys Less down time and high productivity 9 . Does not require grooves ii. v. Minimizing the energy loss and wear from the belt wedging in iii. T1 θ dT μdθ ∫ T =∫ sin α T 0 2 log e T1 μθ = T 2 sin α Or T 1 μθ /sin α =e T2 7. δT ¿2μ Tδθ 2sin α δT μδθ = T sin α or Intergrating between proper limits.

Not as durable as flat belts iv.7 What are the advantages and disadvantages using v-belt? a) Advantages using v-belt i. Positive drive as slip between belt and pulley is negligible ii. Can be easily installed and removed. bearing life failure to track properly since they tend to climb towards the higher side of the pulley 7. Cannot be used for large centre distances ii. manifold. high belt tension required to transmit power often shortens ii. Multiple V-belt drive increases the power transmission vii. Due to wedging action in the grooves. is higher and thus. bottom. b) Disadvantages using flat belt i. b) Disadvantages using v-belt i. Construction of pulley is not simple iii. more power transmission. May be operated in either direction with tight sight at the top or viii. Operation is smooth and quite iv.vi. High velocity ratio up to 10 can be obtained v. Costlier as compared to flat belts 10 . Low noise generation from a smooth belt operation vii. Can be installed simply and securely. limiting ratio of tensions vi. No joint troubles as V-belts are made endless iii.

0 CONCLUSION As conclusion. we can conclude that there is a significant of increasing of coefficient of static friction to the contact angle for flat belt and for v-belt there is fluctuated up and down contact angle. The high standard forces between pulleys and belts occur at low pretension offers low bearing load and reliable operation in the small angles of contact. By comparing for both type of belt.8. We can say that V-belt is better than the flat belt as V-belt will have lower the chances of slip occur. Based on the graph of coefficient of static friction versus contact angle for v-belt and the graph of coefficient of static friction versus contact angle for flat-belt. 11 . as it is restricted by the high amount of flexing required. our objective which is to determine the coefficient of friction between belt and pulley and to differentiate the efficiency between v-belt and flat-belt was achieved. the flat-belt have higher coefficient than v-belt. the V-belt is less efficient in comparison with the flat belt. Therefore.

(436-438) 3. Beer. McGraw-Hill Co.. Ltd.I. Ferdinand P. Russell Johnston. Static and Dynamics. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa Pustaka. R. Mekanik Kejuruteraan Statik. 12 .. E. 2. 12th Edition in S.C. New York. (1989).9.D. International Edition 1996. Unit (2010). Vector Mechanics for Engineers. Engineering Mechanics: Statics. Wan Abu Bakr Wan Abas Ph. Jr.0 REFERENCES 1. Hibbeler. Person Education South Asia Pte.

10.0 APPENDICES Figure 1 V-belt Figure 2Flat Belt 13 .

Graph 1 : Flat Belt 14 .

Graph 2: V-Belt 15 .