Chapter 14

Data Preparation
True/False Questions
1. The data preparation process begins after the fieldwork is done.
(False, moderate, page 402)
2. The data-preparation process is guided by the preliminary plan of data that was
formulated in the research design phase.
(True, moderate, page 402)
3. The initial step in questionnaire checking involves a check of all questionnaires for
completeness and interviewing quality.
(True, easy, page 403)
4. If quotas or cell group sizes have not been met, additional interviews should be
conducted in the underrepresented cells before the data are edited.
(True, moderate, page 403)
5. At the editing stage, the researcher makes a preliminary check for consistency.
(True, moderate, page 403)
6. Unsatisfactory respondents may differ from satisfactory respondents in systematic
ways and the decision to designate a respondent as unsatisfactory may be subjective.
Both of these factors bias the results.
(True, moderate, page 404)
7. When entering respondent data into a spreadsheet, each column contains the data for
one respondent.
(False, easy, page 404)
8. The following codes should be included for each respondent: project code,
interviewer code, date and time codes, category codes, and validation code.
(False, moderate, page 405)
9. If possible, standard codes should be used for missing data.
(True, easy, page 405)
10. The missing value codes should be distinct from the codes assigned to the legitimate
responses.
(True, easy, page 405)
11. A codebook contains coding instructions and the necessary information about
variables in the data set. It guides the coders in their work and helps the researcher to
properly identify and locate the variables.
(True, easy, page 407)
180

(True. moderate. particularly if the proportion of missing responses is more than 10 percent. The effect of weighting is to increase or to decrease the number of cases in the sample that possess certain characteristics. EXCEL. Data cleaning includes consistency checks and treatment of missing responses. page 413) 181 . (True. Given the time and cost constraints. Missing responses represent values of a variable that are unknown.12. The selection of data-transcription method is guided by the type of interviewing method used and the availability of equipment. page 410) 19. moderate. page 413) 23. Square root and log transformations are seldom used in the respecification of variables. The value 1. (False.0 represents the weighted case. Responses can be logically inconsistent. moderate. pages 410) 16. SAS. (False. (False. easy. page 410) 20. (True. easy. (True. (False. Computer packages like SPSS. moderate. The checks at this stage are less extensive than the checks made during editing. easy. moderate. (True. All extreme values result from errors and point to problems with the data. difficult. (True. (True. as well as the fact that experienced keypunch operators are quite accurate. and MINITAB can be programmed to identify out-of-range values for each variable and print related code information to make it easy to check each variable systematically for out-of-range values. page 411) 21. either because respondents provided ambiguous answers or their answers were not properly recorded. (False. page 407) 14. moderate. Treatment of missing responses poses problems. page 410) 17. moderate. page 411) 22. page 410) 18. moderate. it is sufficient to verify only 15-25 percent of the data entered by keypunching. page 409) 15. The purpose of respecification is to create variables that are consistent with the objectives of the study. page 407) 13.

page 414) 30. The use of dummy variables refers to a respecification procedure using variables that take on only two values. Univariate techniques can be classified based on whether the data are metric or nonmetric. (True. Only one technique is appropriate for analyzing the data from a given project. easy. (False. page 414) 32. easy. page 416) 34. (True. the data was transformed by subtracting the mean value from each response in an effort provide a more accurate idea of the relative importance of the data. (False. page 413) 29. moderate. (False. from each score and divide by the standard error. only K – 1 dummy variables are needed because only K – 1 categories are independent. moderate. we first subtract the mean. Dummy variables are used to respecify categorical variables.X )/s. moderate. easy. difficult. X . page 413) 25. (True. moderate. sX . (True. To standardize a scale Xi. usually 0 or 1. easy. page 416) 182 . An important variable respecification procedure involves the use of dummy variables. difficult. Statistical techniques can be classified as univariate or multivariate. (True. page 416) 36. When respecifying a categorical variable with K categories.24. page 413) 27. Nonmetric data are measured on an interval or ratio scale. (True. In the Health Care Services example given in your text. The general rule for respecifying categorical variables with K categories is that K + 1 dummy variables are needed. (False. easy. (True. page 416) 33. page 413) 26. Standardized zi scores can be obtained as: zi = (X . moderate. (False. moderate. page 416) 35. Metric data are measured on a nominal or ordinal scale. (True. page 414) 31. page 413) 28.

the number of samples is determined based on how the data are treated for the purpose of analysis. page 416) 38. moderate. In order to perform individual-level analysis enough data must be obtained from each individual to allow analysis at the individual level. editing b. page 419) 44. page 419) 45. moderate. moderate. (False. page 417) 40.37. easy. easy. moderate. (True. data cleaning (b. Pancultural and cross-cultural analysis are types of cultural unit analysis. Multivariate technique can be classified as dependence techniques or interdependence techniques. (True. page 417) 41. The major technique for examining variable interdependence is factor analysis. When using univariate techniques. and differences in variance should be assessed. page 416) 39. (True. page 402) 183 . (True. page 418) Multiple Choice Questions 46. moderate. Ethical issues that arise during the data preparation and analysis step of marketing research process pertain mainly to the researcher. moderate. differences in means. Within-country analysis is also referred to as intercultural analysis. (False. not based on how the data were collected. differences in distribution. transcribing d. In interdependence techniques. pages 418-419) 42. (True. moderate. select a sampling technique c. easy. Which of the following is not a step in the data-preparation process? a. When doing international research. the variables are classified as dependent or independent. (False. page 419) 43. (True.

d. discarding unsatisfactory responses d. page 403) 184 . questionnaire checking d. page 403) 49. pages 403) 48. or encourage the respondent to become involved. The returned questionnaire is physically incomplete. b. Parts of the questionnaire may be incomplete. coding b. The questionnaire is answered by someone who does not qualify for participation. more than likely you are participating in the _____ step of the data-preparation process. returning to the field to get better data b. The _____ step of the data-preparation process consists of screening questionnaires to identify illegible. page 403) 50. classifying and counting questionnaires accordingly c. inconsistent. Unsatisfactory responses uncovered in the editing stage of the data-preparation process are commonly handled by doing any of the following except: a. moderate. motivate. moderate. data cleaning c. If you discover that a respondent has consistently checked the same response on a series of scales or that skip patterns were not followed on a questionnaire. discarding unsatisfactory responses d. returning to the field to get better data b. incomplete. c. All of the above are done to handle unsatisfactory responses. coding b. a. assigning missing values c. (d. Which of the reasons below is not one of those reasons? a. moderate. The questionnaire does not uplift. (d.47. A questionnaire returned from the field may be unacceptable for several reasons. questionnaire checking d. a. editing (c. editing (d. assigning missing values (a. or ambiguous responses. moderate. Which treatment of unsatisfactory responses is particularly attractive for business and industrial marketing surveys where the sample sizes are small and the respondents are easily identifiable? a. page 403) 51. moderate. data cleaning c.

returning to the field to get better data b. assigning missing values (d. Coding b. A code in which the number of records for each respondent are the same. record code (b. _____ is the assignment of a code to represent a specific response to a specific question along with the data record and column position that code will occupy. page 404) 55.. Data cleaning c. difficult. (c. (2) the proportion of unsatisfactory responses for each of these respondents is small. classifying and counting questionnaires accordingly c. product usage characteristics). category code d. easy. a. moderate. is a _____. a. assigning missing values (c. fixed-field code c. Questionnaire checking d. The general guidelines for coding unstructured questions and questionnaires in general include all of the following except: a. Answers should be abbreviated as much as possible. discarding unsatisfactory responses d. demographics. discarding unsatisfactory responses d. page 405) 56.g.52. page 403) 54. difficult. moderate. pages 406-407) 185 . page 403) 53. Editing (a. respondent code b. d. Which treatment of unsatisfactory responses is desirable if (1) the unsatisfactory respondents do not differ from satisfactory respondents in obvious ways (e. Data should be coded to retain as much detail as possible. Which treatment of unsatisfactory responses is desirable if (1) the number of respondents with unsatisfactory responses is small. or (3) responses on key variables are missing? a. b. (2) the proportion of unsatisfactory responses for each of these respondents is large. returning to the field to get better data b. classifying and counting questionnaires accordingly c. c. or (3) the variables with unsatisfactory responses are not the key variables? a. Category codes should be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. and the same data appear in the same columns for all respondents. Category codes should be assigned for critical issues even if no one has mentioned them.

CATI or CAPI b. Editing data c. page 407) 58. page 407) 59. a.57. The responses are recorded directly into the computer using a sensing device. Data Cleaning (c. CATI or CAPI b. record number b. a. CAPI d. Transcribing data d. Computerized sensory systems c. CATI b. _____ involves direct machine reading of the codes and simultaneous transcription. mark sense forms c. CATI or CAPI b. Optical scanning (d. variable name (b. instructions for coding d. Optical scanning (b. Coding data b. _____ require responses to be recorded with a special pencil in a pre-designated area coded for that response. a. a. page 407) 186 . _____ utilizes questions that appear on a computerized gridpad. page 407) 61. both a and c are correct (d. Mark sense forms d. Computerized sensory systems c. Mark sense forms d. Computerized sensory systems c. moderate. If the data have been collected via _____. moderate. moderate. moderate. A codebook generally contains all of the following information except: a. Mark sense forms d. page 407) 62. a. category number c. or directly into computers by keypunching. transcribing data is unnecessary because the data are entered directly into the computer. _____ involves transferring the coded data from the questionnaires or coding sheets onto disks or magnetic tapes. moderate. Optical scanning (c. page 407) 60. moderate.

Where in the data-preparation process might any out-of-range data be caught? a. 7. he/she is using which option for the treatment of missing values? a. assuming that 9 has been designated for missing values. 6. 7.63. returning to the field c. data cleaning d. page 410) 66. and 8 are out of range. consistency checks b. moderate. moderate. Which of the following is not an option available for the treatment of missing values? a. substitute a neutral value (c. coding b. substitute a neutral value b. casewise deletion c. pages 409-410) 65. substitute an imputed response d. substitute an imputed response d. and 8 are out of range. data values of 0. 6. moderate. casewise deletion c. both a and c are correct (a. page 410) 67. Where in the data cleaning process might any out-of-range data be caught? a. treatment of missing responses d. data values of 0. moderate. assuming that 9 has been designated for missing values. statistically adjusting the data (c. easy. substitute an imputed response d. page 410) 187 . returning to the field b. returning to the field b. casewise deletion c. Which option for the treatment of missing values involves the researcher using the respondents’ pattern of responses to calculate a suitable response to the missing questions? a. pages 409-410) 64. If the researcher uses the mean response for the missing value. Respondents have been asked to express their degree of agreement with a series of lifestyle statements on a 1-to-5 scale. Respondents have been asked to express their degree of agreement with a series of lifestyle statements on a 1-to-5 scale. substitute a neutral value (d. transcribing c. returning to the field (d.

0 to medium users.0 to heavy users. heavy users (d. to create new variables that are composites of several other variables b. moderate. light users c. Which option for the treatment of missing values involves cases. easy. nonusers b. page 411) 70. a. page 411) 69. pairwise deletion d. which group’s opinion has greater importance? a. substitute a neutral value (b. variable respecification c. If in conducting a study to determine what modifications should be made on an existing product and the researcher assigns weights of 4. casewise deletion c. 2.68. You would use weighting under which circumstance? a. In _____. moderate. easy. none of the above (b. returning to the field b. page 411) 188 . page 411) 71. each case or respondent in the database is assigned a weight to reflect its importance relative to other cases or respondents. page 411) 72. to compare attitudinal scores measured on a seven-point semantic differential scale with lifestyle or image scores measured on a five-point Likert scale d.0 to light users. or respondents. medium users d. standardization b. 3. to adjust the sample so that greater importance is attached to respondents with certain characteristics c.0 to nonusers. with any missing responses being discarded from the analysis? a. returning to the field b. Which option for the treatment of missing values involves the researcher using only cases or respondents with complete responses for each calculation? a. weighting (d. casewise deletion c. pairwise deletion d. and 1. easy. scale transformation d. substitute a neutral value (c.

Variable respecification c. moderate. dichotomous (c. page 413) 74. a. moderate. page 414) You would use scale transformation under which circumstance? a. Weighting (c. Variable respecification c. difficult. Weighting (b. to adjust the sample so that greater importance is attached to respondents with certain characteristics c. none of the above (c.73. to compare attitudinal scores measured on a seven-point semantic differential scale with lifestyle or image scores measured on a five-point Likert scale d. 77. Dummy variables are also called all of the names below except: a. quantitative d. none of the above (a. Standardization b. to compare attitudinal scores measured on a seven-point semantic differential scale with lifestyle or image scores measured on a five-point Likert scale d. to adjust the sample so that greater importance is attached to respondents with certain characteristics c. binary b. to create new variables that are composites of several other variables b. Scale transformation d. to create new variables that are composites of several other variables b. _____ involves the transformation of data to create variables or modify existing variables. 75. Standardization b. 76. page 413) You would use variable respecification under which circumstance? a. a. moderate. page 414) 189 . Scale transformation d. page 413) _____ involves a manipulation of scale values to ensure comparability with other scales or otherwise make the data suitable for analysis. moderate. instrumental c.

(c. Dependence techniques c. paired data (c. moderate. Standardization is the process of correcting data to reduce them to the same scale by subtracting the sample mean and dividing by the standard error. Univariate techniques (c. page 416) 81. Multivariate techniques d. Dependence techniques c. metric data b. a. independent data c. b. nonmetric data d. moderate. moderate. metric data b. Data that are interval or ratio in nature are _____. Which statement is not true about standardization? a. a. a. The standardized scale will have a mean of zero and a standard deviation of 1. _____ are suitable for analyzing data when there are two or more measurements of each element and the variables are analyzed simultaneously. Data derived from a nominal or ordinal scale are _____. Interdependence techniques b. independent data c. d. a. nonmetric data d. paired data (a. _____ are appropriate when there is a single measurement of each element in the sample. page 414) 79. page 416) 190 . Multivariate techniques d. or there are several measurements of each element but each variable is analyzed in isolation. Univariate techniques (d. Standardization allows the researcher to compare variables that have been measured using different types of scales. c. page 416) 80. page 416) 82. Standardization is the process of correcting data to reduce them to the same scale by subtracting the sample mean and dividing by the standard deviation.78. Interdependence techniques b. moderate. moderate.

83. moderate. metric data b.g. a. two. e. page 416) 85. or more than two samples are involved c. a and b are correct (d. whether one. a. a. when there is (are) _____ the z test and the t test can be used. paired b. whether interdependence techniques or dependence techniques are to be used d. for the purpose of analysis. two independent samples c. a. nonmetric data d. whether the data are metric or nonmetric b. moderate. more than two independent samples d. a and b are correct (d. page 416) 86. paired (b. independent (c. are generally treated as _____ samples while the samples are _____ when the data for the two samples relate to the same group of respondents. one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) can be used. The samples are _____ if they are drawn randomly from different populations. nonmetric data d. metric. a. paired (d. For metric data. males and females. only one sample b.. metric data b. difficult. page 416) 88. difficult. a. independent. independent. For metric data. page 416) 87. paired d. When utilizing univariate techniques. independent c. The samples are _____ when the data for the two samples relate to the same group of respondents. two independent samples c. independent c. two or more related samples (c. Univariate techniques can be classified based on _____. data pertaining to different groups of respondents. more than two independent samples d. metric c. difficult. moderate. when there is (are) _____. paired. page 416) 191 . only one sample b. page 416) 84.

or more samples are involved c. moderate. difficult. two independent samples c. and K-W one-way ANOVA tests can be used. a and b are correct (c. _____ are statistical techniques that attempt to group data based on underlying similarity. two independent samples c. No distinction is made as to which variables are dependent and which are independent. only one sample b. Multivariate techniques can be classified based on _____. Dependence techniques c. a. difficult. Median. For nonmetric data. Multivariate techniques d. whether interdependence techniques or dependence techniques are to be used d. moderate. a. more than two dependent samples d. page 416) 92. difficult. more than two dependent samples d.89. a. page 416) 98. the paired t test can be used. a. Univariate techniques (a. two or more related samples (d. page 416) 97. McNemar. a. two. _____ are appropriate when one or more variables can be identified as dependent variables and the remaining as independent variables. two or more related samples (d. a. only one sample b. two independent samples c. whether one. Multivariate techniques d. when there is (are)_____. page 416) 90. Interdependence techniques b. difficult. chi-square. and thus allow for interpretation of the data structures. page 416) 91. sign. two or more related samples (b. only one sample b. Univariate techniques (b. For metric data. KS. when there is (are)_____. For nonmetric data. Interdependence techniques b. when there is (are) _____. and Wilcoxon tests can be used. page 417) 192 . Dependence techniques c. more than two independent samples d. Mann-Whitney. whether the data are metric or nonmetric b.

when there is _____. interobject similarity (d. Cross-cultural analysis b. when there is _____. page 417) 98. page 419) 193 . Pancultural analysis d. a. difficult. more than one dependent variable d. one dependent variable c. regression. For multivariate statistical techniques. page 417) 96. when there is _____. factor analysis can be used. interobject similarity (c. a. two-group discriminant analysis. _____ is within-country analysis of international data. moderate. page 419) 100. multivariate analysis of variance and covariance and canonical correlation. variable interdependence b. difficult. more than one dependent variable d. Pancultural analysis d. one dependent variable c. analysis of variance and covariance. _____ requires that the data from each respondent be analyzed separately. more than one dependent variable d. Cross-cultural analysis b. Intracultural analysis (d. interobject similarity (a. and multiple discriminant analysis can be used. a.95. moderate. and conjoint analysis can be used. Individual-level analysis c. cross-tabulation. difficult. a. variable interdependence b. interobject similarity (b. one dependent variable c. page 417) 97. when there is _____. one dependent variable c. cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling can be used. For multivariate statistical techniques. Intracultural analysis (b. variable interdependence b. more than one dependent variable d. variable interdependence b. page 417) 99. For multivariate statistical techniques. For multivariate statistical techniques. difficult. a. Individual-level analysis c. a.

moderate. Researchers should try to get some idea about the quality of the data. moderate. Cross-cultural analysis b. Intracultural analysis (d. Individual-level analysis c. Pancultural analysis d. (d. Intracultural analysis (a. c. a. moderate. Cross-cultural analysis b. The objective is to gain an understanding of the relationships and patterns existing in each country or cultural unit. page 419) 102. d. Pancultural analysis d. page 419) 103. a. Cross-cultural analysis b. Pancultural analysis d. Discarding respondents after analyzing the data raises ethical concerns. Pancultural analysis d. Cross-cultural analysis b. The objective of this level of analysis is to assess the comparability of findings from one country to another. b. The data can be aggregated for each country and these aggregate statistics analyzed. Any departure from the assumptions underlying the statistical techniques used to analyze the data raises ethical concerns. Intracultural analysis (a. Intracultural analysis (c. page 419) 104. All of the above statements are true.101. 419. Individual-level analysis c. moderate. _____ is also known as across-countries analysis. page 419) 105. _____ is similar to that conducted in domestic marketing research. _____ is also known as across-countries analysis. Individual-level analysis c. a. a. 420) 194 . The data of all the respondents can be pooled and analyzed. page. Individual-level analysis c. Which statement is true concerning ethical issues concerned with data preparation? a. moderate.

a single column is sufficient. Example responses follow. Answer A single column is sufficient to code a structured question with a single response if there are less than nine possible responses. page 402) 107. and transcribing the data. Data preparation should begin as soon as the first batch of questionnaires is received from the field. Often. Write an example question and its associated coding for (1) a structured question with a single response with less than nine possible choices and (2) a structured question that permits multiple responses. while the fieldwork is still going on.Yes 2. Answer The data-preparation process is shown in Figure 14. Because only one response is allowed and there are only two possible responses (1 or 2). 163. This is followed by editing. (difficult. In questions that permit a large number of responses. the record number has been omitted. regular checking. On record #9. page 406) 195 . a “Yes” response is coded 1 and a “No” response 2. The student should provide his/her own examples. Since there is only one record per respondent. The researcher should then select an appropriate data analysis strategy. Column 164 will receive a 0. The entire process is guided by the preliminary plan of data analysis that was formulated in the research design phase. The data are cleaned and a treatment for missing responses prescribed. The final data analysis strategy differs from the preliminary plan of data analysis due to the information and insights gained since the preliminary plan was formulated. a 1 will be entered in the column numbers 162. The first step is to check for acceptable questionnaires. Thus if any problems are detected. suppose a respondent checked regular savings. The numbers in parentheses indicate that the code assigned will appear on the first record for this respondent in column 54. Do you have a currently valid passport? 1. (moderate. statistical adjustment of the data may be necessary to make them representative of the population of interest. and now accounts. Give a brief overview of the data-preparation process. and 165. coding. No (1/54) For this question. Which accounts do you now have at this bank? (“X” as many as apply) Regular savings account _ (162) Regular checking account _ (163) Mortgage _ (164) Now account _ (165) In this example. the fieldwork can be modified to incorporate corrective action.1. each possible response option should be assigned a separate column.Essay Questions 106.

Sometimes. Answer 1. Yet. are not affected much. This procedure may be appropriate when (1) the sample size is large. Furthermore. Category codes should be assigned for critical issues even if no one has mentioned them. Codes are then developed and assigned to these responses.108. Sophisticated statistical procedures have been developed to calculate imputed values for missing responses. If the mean is substituted for the missing value. Different calculations in an analysis may be based on different sample sizes. Pairwise Deletion. Then the researcher lists 50 to 100 responses to an unstructured question to identify the categories suitable for coding. 3. based on previous projects or theoretical considerations. (moderate. pages 410-411) 196 . the mean of the variable remains unchanged and other statistics. 4. this must wait until the completed questionnaires are received. Answer Respondents’ verbatim responses are recorded on the questionnaire. Although this approach has some merit. the logic of substituting a mean value (say 4) for respondents who. Because many respondents may have some missing responses. Casewise Deletion. If so. Substitute a Neutral Value. pages 406-407) 109. might have used either high ratings (6 or 7) or low ratings (1 or 2) is questionable. missing responses should be kept to a minimum. Once codes are developed. Category codes should be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. particularly when the responses are not missing at random and the variables are related. the researcher can develop the codes before beginning fieldwork. Data should be coded to retain as much detail as possible. if they had answered. this procedure can produce results that are unappealing or even infeasible. Discuss the procedures for coding unstructured or open-ended questions. Hence. casewise deletion could seriously bias the results. and (3) the variables are not highly related. Usually. because it is costly and time consuming to collect data. the coders should be trained to assign the correct codes to the verbatim responses. Throwing away large amounts of data is undesirable. this approach could result in a small sample. Substitute an Imputed Response. The researcher should carefully consider the implications of the various procedures before selecting a particular method for the treatment of nonresponse. Discuss the pros and cons of the various options for the treatment of missing responses. (difficult. 2. such as correlations. The different procedures for the treatment of missing responses may yield different results. respondents with missing responses could differ from respondents with complete responses in systematic ways. This approach requires considerable effort and can introduce serious bias. (2) there are few missing responses.

The selection of a data analysis strategy must begin with a consideration of the earlier steps in the process: problem definition (Step I). each case or respondent in the database is assigned a weight to reflect its importance relative to other cases or respondents. the researcher’s background and philosophy affect the choice of a data analysis strategy. Scale transformation involves a manipulation of scale values to ensure comparability with other scales or otherwise make the data suitable for analysis. 413-414) 111. Discuss how the researcher should go about selecting a data analysis strategy (Figure 14. It is also important to take into account the properties of the statistical techniques. Researchers differ in their willingness to make assumptions about the variables and their underlying populations. properties of statistical techniques. and research design (Step III). including advanced statistical methods. pages 411. (moderate. Some statistical techniques are appropriate for examining differences in variables. Changes may be necessary in light of additional information generated in subsequent stages of the research process. The measurement scales used exert a strong influence on the choice of statistical techniques and. The experienced. the research design may favor certain techniques. (difficult. Weighting is most widely used to make the sample data more representative of a target population. pages 414-416) 197 . Researchers who are conservative about making assumptions will limit their choice of techniques to distribution-free methods. development of an approach (Step II). The next step is to consider the known characteristics of the data. and others for making predictions. particularly their purpose and underlying assumptions. Answer In weighting. Variable respecification involves the transformation of data to create new variables or modify existing variables. The purpose of respecification is to create new variables that are consistent with the objectives of the study. others for assessing the magnitudes of the relationships between variables. statistically trained researcher will employ a range of techniques. Answer The selection of a data analysis strategy should be based on the earlier steps of the marketing research process.5). and the background and philosophy of the researcher. List the procedures for statistically adjusting data and briefly discuss the uses for each.110. Finally. and some techniques can withstand violations of the underlying assumptions better than others. The preliminary plan of data analysis prepared as part of the research design should be used as a springboard. known characteristics of the data. The techniques also involve different assumptions.

concentrating instead upon the degree of relationships (correlations or covariances) among these phenomena. Answer Multivariate techniques differ from univariate techniques in that they shift the focus away from the levels (averages) and distributions (variances) of the phenomena. page 416) 198 . Explain the difference between univariate and multivariate techniques.112. (moderate.