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GOVERNMENT SERIES Energy: Natural Gas The Production and Use of Natural Gas, Natural Gas Imports

GOVERNMENT SERIES

GOVERNMENT SERIES Energy: Natural Gas The Production and Use of Natural Gas, Natural Gas Imports and

Energy:

Natural Gas

The Production and Use of Natural Gas, Natural Gas Imports and Exports, EPAct Project, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals and Infrastructure Security, Underground Working Gas Storage, Fischer-Tropsch Fuels from Coal, Natural Gas, and Biomass, Gas Hydrates, Gas Shales, Hydraulic Fracturing, Alaska Natural Gas Pipelines

Compiled by TheCapitol.Net

Gas, and Biomass, Gas Hydrates, Gas Shales, Hydraulic Fracturing, Alaska Natural Gas Pipelines Compiled by TheCapitol.Net
GOVERNMENT SERIES Energy: Natural Gas The Production and Use of Natural Gas, Natural Gas Imports
GOVERNMENT SERIES Energy: Natural Gas The Production and Use of Natural Gas, Natural Gas Imports

GOVERNMENT SERIES

Energy:

Natural Gas

The Production and Use of Natural Gas, Natural Gas Imports and Exports, EPAct Project, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals and Infrastructure Security, Underground Working Gas Storage, Fischer-Tropsch Fuels from Coal, Natural Gas, and Biomass, Gas Hydrates, Gas Shales, Hydraulic Fracturing, Alaska Natural Gas Pipelines

Compiled by TheCapitol.Net

Authors: Gene Whitney, Carl E. Behrens, Carol Glover, William F. Hederman, Anthony Andrews, Peter Folger, Marc Humphries, Claudia Copeland, Mary Tiemann, Robert Meltz, Cynthia Brougher, Jeffrey Logan, Henry A. Waxman, Edward J. Markey, Stephen Cooney, Robert Pirog, Paul W. Parfomak, Adam Vann, Salvatore Lazzari, Brent D. Yacobucci, and Stan Mark Kaplan

Stephen Cooney, Robert Pirog, Paul W. Parfomak, Adam Vann, Salvatore Lazzari, Brent D. Yacobucci, and Stan
Stephen Cooney, Robert Pirog, Paul W. Parfomak, Adam Vann, Salvatore Lazzari, Brent D. Yacobucci, and Stan

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v 1

Energy: Natural Gas, softbound:

ISBN: 158733-189-6 ISBN 13: 978-1-58733-189-3

Summary Table of Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction
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xxv
Chapter 1:
“Energy Facts: Onshore Federal Lands,” Bureau of
Land Management, U.S. Department of Interior, 2005
1
Chapter 2:
“Natural Gas Explained,” Energy Information
Administration, U.S. Department of Energy
13
Chapter 3:
“U.S. Fossil Fuel Resources: Terminology, Reporting,
and Summary,” by Gene Whitney, Carl E. Behrens, and Carol
Glover, CRS Report for Congress R40872, October 28, 2009
31
Chapter 4:
“High Natural Gas Prices: The Basics,” Federal Energy
Regulatory Commission (FERC), February 1, 2006
61
Chapter 5:
“Natural Gas Markets: An Overview of 2008,” by William F.
Hederman, CRS Report for Congress R40487, March 31, 2009
65
Chapter 6:
“Natural Gas Markets: Overview and Policy Issues,”
by William F. Hederman, CRS Report for
Congress
RL34508, May
23,
2008
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89
Chapter 7:
“EPAct Project: Valuing Domestically Produced Natural
Gas and Oil, Final Report,” National Energy Technology
Laboratory (NETL), December 31, 2008
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109
Chapter 8:
“Unconventional Gas Shales: Development, Technology, and
Policy Issues,” by Anthony Andrews, Peter Folger, Marc Humphries,
Claudia Copeland, Mary Tiemann, Robert Meltz, and Cynthia Brougher,
CRS Report for
Congress R40894, October 30, 2009
223
Chapter 9:
“Gas Hydrates: Resource and Hazard,” by Peter Folger,
CRS Report for
Congress RS22990, January 23,
2010
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277

Chapter 10:

“Fischer-Tropsch Fuels from Coal, Natural Gas, and Biomass:

Background and Policy,” by Anthony Andrews and Jeffrey Logan,

CRS Report

for Congress RL34133, March 27, 2008

 

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287

Chapter 11:

“Examining the Potential Impact of Hydraulic Fracturing,” House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Letter from Chairman Henry A. Waxman and Subcommittee Chairman Edward J. Markey, February 18, 2010

 

321

Chapter 12:

“Natural Gas Processing: The Crucial Link Between Natural Gas

 

Production and Its Transportation to Market,” Energy Information

 

Administration, U.S.

Department of Energy, January 2006

 

333

Chapter 13:

“Alaska Natural Gas Pipelines: Interaction of the Natural Gas and Steel Markets,” by Stephen Cooney and Robert Pirog, CRS Report for Congress RL33716, March 28, 2007

 

345

Chapter 14:

“The Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline: Status and Current Policy Issues,” by William F. Hederman, CRS Report for Congress RL34671, September 12, 2008

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381

Chapter 15:

“Expansion of the U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network:

 

Additions in 2008 and Projects through 2011,” Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, September 2009

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399

Chapter 16:

“Estimates of Peak Underground Working Gas Storage

 

Capacity in the United States, 2009 Update,” Energy

 

Information

Administration, U.S. Department of Energy

 

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417

Chapter 17:

“Russian Oil and Gas Challenges,” by Robert Pirog,

 

CRS Report for Congress RL33212, June 20,

2007

 

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423

Chapter 18:

“What Role does Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Play as an Energy Source for the United States?” Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, December 11, 2009

 

445

Chapter 19:

“Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Infrastructure Security:

Issues for Congress,” by Paul W. Parfomak, CRS Report for Congress RL32073, May 13, 2008

 

447

Chapter 20:

“Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals: Siting, Safety, and Regulation,” by Paul W. Parfomak and Adam Vann,

 

CRS Report for Congress RL32205,

December 14, 2009

 

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479

Chapter 21:

“Oil and Gas Tax Subsidies: Current Status and Analysis,” by Salvatore Lazzari, CRS Report for Congress RL33763,

 

February

27,

2007

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513

Chapter 22:

“Royalty Relief for U.S. Deepwater Oil and Gas Leases,” by Marc Humprhies, CRS Report for Congress RS22567, February 4, 2009

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537

Chapter 23:

“Natural Gas Passenger Vehicles: Availability, Cost, and Performance,” by Brent D. Yacobucci, CRS Report for Congress RS22971, February 3, 2010

 

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547

Chapter 24:

“Displacing Coal with Generation from Existing Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants,” by Stan Mark Kaplan, CRS Report for Congress R41027, January 19, 2010

 

557

Chapter 25:

Natural Gas STAR Program, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, November 2009

 

591

Chapter 26:

Resources

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TheCapitol.Net

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Chapter 27:

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597

Table of Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction
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xxv
Chapter 1:
“Energy Facts: Onshore Federal Lands,” Bureau of
Land Management, U.S. Department of Interior, 2005
1
Oil and Gas
Oil and Gas Activities, BLM Public Land Statistics, FY 2004
Oil and Gas Sales and Revenues, MMS Mineral Review, FY 2004
Oil and Gas Activity over Five-Year Period, BLM Public Land Statistics, FY 2004
Coal
Federal Coal Leases, BLM Public Land Statistics, FY 2004
Coal Sales and Revenues, MMS Mineral Review, FY 2004
Geothermal
Geothermal Activities, BLM Public Land Statistics, FY 2004
Geothermal Revenues, MMS Mineral Review, FY 2004
Geothermal Revenues from Hot Water or Direct Use, MMS Mineral Review, FY 2004
Geothermal Leases, BLM Public Land Statistics, FY 2004
Wind
Rights of Way
Number of Existing Righst of Way, BLM Public Land Statistics, FY 2004
Solar
Biomass
Hydropower
Oil Shale
Uranium/Nuclear
Tar Sands
US Energy Consumption by Energy Source: 2000 Actual and EIA Forecast for 2025
Chapter 2:
“Natural Gas Explained,” Energy Information
Administration, U.S. Department
of
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13

How Was Natural Gas Formed?

How Do We Get Natural Gas?

Natural Gas Statistics

Delivery and Storage of Natural Gas—Basics Natural Gas Is Often Stored Before It Is Delivered Natural Gas Can Also Be Stored and Transported as a Liquid

Natural Gas Pipelines—Basics What Makes Up This Transportation Network? How Did This Transmission and Distribution Network Become So Large?

Liquefied Natural Gas—Basics What Is LNG?

Natural Gas Imports and Exports—Basics Pipeline Imports of Natural Gas are Mostly from Canada Imports of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Are Mostly from Trinidad and Tobago Most Natural Gas Exports Go to Mexico and Canada

How Much Natural Gas is Left—Basics Underground Reservoirs Hold Oil and Gas What Are Proved Reserves? How Much Natural Gas Reserves Are in the United States? What Are Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Resources?

Use of Natural Gas—Basics Natural Gas Is a Major Energy Source for the United States How Natural Gas Is Used Where Natural Gas Is Used

Natural Gas Prices—Basics Average Natural Gas Prices in the United States How Can Residential Customers Reduce Their Natural Gas Bills?

Factors Affecting Natural Gas Prices—Basics Domestic Supply and Prices Can Be Cyclical Severe Weather Can Disrupt Production Pipeline Imports from Canada Are the Second Largest Source of Supply Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Imports May Increase Strong Economic Growth Can Drive Up Natural Gas Demand and Prices Winter Weather Strongly Influences Residential and Commercial Demand Hot Summer Weather Can Increase Power Plant Demand for Gas Natural Gas Supplies Held in Storage Play a Key Role in Meeting Peak Demand Oil Prices Can Influence Natural Gas Prices

Natural Gas and the Environment—Basics Natural Gas Use Contributes to Air Pollution Technology Helps Reduce Drilling’s “Footprint”

Natural Gas Customer Choice Programs—Basics How Choice Programs Work Choice Enrollment Reached a New High in 2008

Chapter 3:

“U.S. Fossil Fuel Resources: Terminology, Reporting, and Summary,” by Gene Whitney, Carl E. Behrens, and Carol Glover, CRS Report for Congress R40872, October 28, 2009

31

Introduction

Characteristics of Fossil Fuels

Terminology Proved Reserves and Undiscovered Resources The Importance of Terminology: The Example of the Bakken Formation

Conventional Versus Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas Deposits

Authoritative Data Sources for U.S. Fossil Fuel Reserves and Resources

U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Reserves and Resources Proved Reserves Undiscovered Oil and Natural Gas Resources Sub-Economic Oil and Natural Gas Resources Shale Oil Shale Gas Methane Hydrates Heavy Oil

U.S. Coal Reserves and Resources

Expressing Fossil Fuels as Barrels of Oil Equivalent (BOE)

A Brief Overview of Global Fossil Fuel Resources

U.S. Production and Consumption of Oil, Natural Gas, and Coal Key Terms Used in Oil Statistics

Figure 1. The Resource Pyramid Concept

Figure 2. Resource Pyramid for U.S. Oil

Table 1. Onshore U.S. Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids

Table 2. Offshore U.S. Oil and Natural Gas

Table 3. Total U.S. Endowment of Technically Recoverable Oil and Natural Gas

Table 4. U.S. fossil fuel reserves and resources expressed as BOE

Table 5. Total Fossil Fuel Reserves of Selected Nations

Table 6. Reserves of Fossil Fuels Plus Technically Recoverable Undiscovered Oil and Natural Gas

Table 7. United States Annual Consumption of Oil, Natural Gas, and Coal

Appendix. Definition of Terms

Chapter 4:

“High Natural Gas Prices: The Basics,” Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), February 1, 2006

61

Chapter 5:

“Natural Gas Markets: An Overview of 2008,” by William F. Hederman, CRS Report for Congress R40487, March 31, 2009

65

Introduction

Background

Market Conditions Prices An Anomalous Price Pattern Consumption

Supply

Market Trends Strong Production Seasonality

Gas-for-Power Use Industrial Gas Use Global LNG Trade Infrastructure Progress

Forecasts

Uncertainties

Weather

Oil Prices

Economy

Conclusion

Figure 1. U.S. Natural Gas Wholesale Price Overview

Figure 2. U.S. End Use Price Overview

Figure 3. Estimated Recoverable Natural Gas for Select Shale Basins

Figure 4. Monthly Natural Gas Consumption: Total and Electric Power Use

Figure 5. Comparison of Natural Gas and Competing Oil Product Prices

Figure A-1. Henry Hub and EIA Citygate Prices (1995-2008)

Table 1. U.S. Natural Gas Consumption Overview

Table 2. U.S. Natural Gas Supply Overview

Table 3. Lower-48 LNG Overview

Table 4. Infrastructure Completed in 2007

Table 5. Infrastructure Completed in 2008

Table A-1. U.S. Natural Gas Wholesale Price Overview

Table A-2. U.S. Natural Gas Wholesale Price Overview

Table A-3. U.S. End Use Price Overview

Table A-4. U.S. End Use Price Overview

Table A-5. Selected Natural Gas Market Regional Prices

Table A-6. Consumption of Natural Gas

Table A-7. Heating and Cooling Degree Days

Table A-8. Supply of Natural Gas

Appendix A. Selected Statistics

Appendix B. Acronyms

Chapter 6:

“Natural Gas Markets: Overview and Policy Issues,” by William F. Hederman, CRS Report for Congress RL34508, May 23, 2008

Introduction

Background

Market Conditions

Prices

Consumption

Supply

89

Market Trends Seasonality Increasing Gas-for-Power Use Industrial Gas Use Rebound Global LNG Trade Infrastructure Progress

Forecasts

Uncertainties

Weather

Oil Prices

Economy

Recent Developments

Conclusion

Appendix

Figure 1. Monthly Natural Gas Consumption: Total and Electric Power Use

Figure 2. Comparison of Natural Gas and Competing Oil Product Prices

Table 1. U.S. Natural Gas Wholesale Price Overview

Table 2. U.S. Retail Price overview

Table 3. U.S. Natural Gas Consumption Overview

Table 4. U.S. Natural Gas Supply Overview

Table 5. Lower-48 LNG Overview

Table 6. Infrastructure Complete in 2007

Table A1. Selected Natural Gas Market Statistics Prices

Table A2. Consumption

Table A3. Supply

Table A4. Infrastructure Projects into Service in 2007

Chapter 7:

“EPAct Project: Valuing Domestically Produced Natural Gas and Oil, Final Report,” National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), December 31, 2008

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109

Executive Summary

Section 1:0 Objective, Scope, and Key Assumptions of the Impact Analysis Project

1.1 Objective

1.2 Scope

1.3 Design Parameters and Assumptions

Section 2.0 Comparison to Other Production Impact Studies

Section 3.0 Model Evaluation and Selection

3.1 Model Review

3.2 The Input-Output Model and Accounting Framework

Section 4.0 Definitions of Regions Used in the Model

Section 5.0 Model Data Sources

Section 6.0 Regional and National Table Construction Methodology

6.1 Input-Output Model Obtained from IMPLAN

6.2 Table Editing Procedure

6.2.1 Import Substitution Impacts

6.2.2 Construction Impacts

6.3 International Trade Feedback Effects

Section 7.0 Spreadsheet Model Construction

7.1 Calculations

7.1.1 Regional Information

7.1.2 Production Results

7.1.3 Impact on Supply Allocation

7.1.4 Calculating Increased Regional Industry Output and Reduced Import Payments

7.1.5 Construction Cost Results

7.2 Results Presentation

7.3 Other Model Tabs

Section 8.0 User Instructions

Section 9.0 Scenario and Results Analysis

9.1 Scenarios

9.1.1 The Baseline

9.1.2 The Counterfactual

9.2 Model Analysis Results

9.2.1 Region 1 (Marcellus Shale)—Standardized Production Increase

9.2.2 Region 1 (Marcellus Shale)—Scenario Analysis

9.2.3 Region 2 (Bakken Shale)—Standardized Production Increase

9.2.4 Region 2 (Bakken Shale)—Scenario Analysis

9.2.5 Region 3 (Barnett Shale)—Standardized Production Increase

9.2.6 Region 3 (Barnett Shale)—Scenario Analysis

9.2.7 Region 4 (Greater Green River/Jonah Field/Pinedale Anticline)—

Standardized Production Increase

9.2.8 Region 4 (Greater Green River/Jonah Field/Pinedale Anticline)—Scenario Analysis

9.2.9 Region 5 (California)—Standardized Production Increase

9.2.10 Region 5 (California)—Scenario Analysis

9.2.11 Region 6 (U.S. Lower 48)—Standardized Production Increase

9.2.12 Region 6 (U.S. Lower 48)—Scenario Analysis

9.3 Comparison to Other Studies

Appendix A: The Input-Output Model Methodological Basis Transactions Table Technical Coefficients Open or Closed Model Strengths Weaknesses Geographical Scale RPC Method

Data Requirements Applications

Appendix B: Assessment of Tax Impact Estimation

Appendix C: Industry Aggregation Schema

Appendix D: Acronyms

Appendix E: Glossary

References

Chapter 8:

“Unconventional Gas Shales: Development, Technology, and Policy Issues,” by Anthony Andrews, Peter Folger, Marc Humphries, Claudia Copeland, Mary Tiemann, Robert Meltz, and Cynthia Brougher, CRS Report for Congress R40894, October 30, 2009

223

Background

Unconventional Gas Shale Resources in the United States Barnett Shale Formation Natural Gas Resource Potential Southwest Regional Gas Supply and Demand Groundwater Resource Issues Marcellus Shale Formation Natural Gas Resource Potential Northeast Regional Natural Gas Supply and Demand Groundwater Resource Issues

Drilling and Development Technology Drilling Well Construction and Casing Hydraulic Fracturing Fracturing Fluids Hydraulic Fracture Process Fracture Geometry Fracturing Risks to Groundwater

Leasing Issues for Gas Development New York Pennsylvania West Virginia State Summary Lease Audit (Product Valuation and Verification) Severance Taxes Federal Land Leasing and Restrictions to Leasing

Federal and State Laws and Regulations Affecting Gas Shale Development Surface Water Quality Protection Other Surface Water Quality Issues Groundwater Quality Protection Safe Drinking Water Act Authority

Underground Injection of Waste Fluids State Water Quality Laws State Water Supply Management

Congressional Interest

For Further Reading

Chapter 9:

“Gas Hydrates: Resource and Hazard,” by Peter Folger,

CRS Report for

Congress RS22990, January 23,

2010

 

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277

Gas Hydrate Resources Gas Hydrates on the North Slope, Alaska Gas Hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrates Along Continental Margins

 

Gas Hydrate Hazards

Gas Hydrate Research and Development

Figure 1. Gas Hydrate Assessment Area, North Slope, Alaska

Figure 2. Gas Hydrate Reservoir Pyramid

Chapter 10:

“Fischer-Tropsch Fuels from Coal, Natural Gas, and Biomass:

 

Background and Policy,” by Anthony Andrews and Jeffrey Logan,

 

CRS Report

for Congress RL34133, March 27, 2008

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287

Introduction

Synthetic Fuel Technology Bergius Direct Liquefaction Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Comparing Fischer-Tropsch Products to Conventional Petroleum Distillates Octane Cetane Sulfur Exhaust Emissions

Synthetic Fuel Plants Germany’s Synthetic Fuel Program U.S. Synthetic Fuel Program Sasol Coal-to-Liquids Plants Shell Bintulu Gas-to-Liquids Plant Oryx Gas-to-Liquids Plant Syntroleum Catoosa Demonstration Facility U.S. Air Force Coal-to-Liquids Initiative China’s Coal-to-Liquids Program Choren Industries National Energy Technology Laboratory Study Baard Energy Coal-to-Liquids Plant Comparing Efficiencies Greenhouse Gas—CO2

Policy History Authorizations Under the Energy Policy Act Additional Tax Incentives Defense Related Authorizations and Appropriations Bills Introduced in the 110th Congress Additional Tax Incentives

Policy Considerations

Appendix

Figure 1. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

Figure 2. Conceptual Fischer-Tropsch Plant

Figure 3. Iso-octane vs N-octane

Figure 4. Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Expanded Renewable and Alternative Fuels Use

Table 1. Comparative Merits and Drawbacks of Fischer-Tropsch

Table 2. Comparative Efficiencies of Processes Converting Coal, Gas, and Biomass to Liquid Fuels

Table 3. DOD Synthetic Fuel Projects

Table A1. Energy Consumed by Refining in 2005

Chapter 11:

“Examining the Potential Impact of Hydraulic Fracturing,” House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Letter from Chairman Henry A. Waxman and Subcommittee Chairman Edward J. Markey, February 18, 2010

321

Executive Summary

Background The Promise of Developing Unconventional Natural Gas Supplies Concerns about Hydraulic Fracturing EPA’s Recent Work on Hydraulic Fracturing

The Oversight Committee Investigation Halliburton BJ Services Schlumberger

The Need for Additional Investigation

The Committee’s Letters

Chapter 12:

“Natural Gas Processing: The Crucial Link Between Natural Gas Production and Its Transportation to Market,” Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, January 2006

333

Introduction

Pipeline-Quality Natural Gas

Figure 1. Generalized Natural Gas Processing Schematic

Background

Stages in the Production of Pipeline-Quality Natural Gas and NGLs

Other Key Byproducts of Natural Gas Processing

National Overview

Table 1. Natural Gas Processing Plant Capacity in the Lower 48 States, 1995 and 2004

Figure 2. Concentrations of Natural Gas Processing Plants, 2004

Shift in Installation Patterns

Figure 3. Major Changes in Proved Natural Gas Reserves, 1995 to 2004

Table 2. Major Lower 48 Natural Gas Producing 1 States and Federal Offshore

Impact of Restructuring

Natural Gas Processing Cost Recovery

Outlook and Potential

Chapter 13:

“Alaska Natural Gas Pipelines: Interaction of the Natural Gas and Steel Markets,” by Stephen Cooney and Robert Pirog, CRS Report for Congress RL33716, March 28, 2007

345

Introduction

Northern Natural Gas Pipelines: Issues and Alternatives Bringing North Slope Gas to Market An Untapped Resource Congressional Support for an Alaskan Gas Pipeline No Gas Pipeline Is Started in Alaska The Northern Route and Mackenzie Delta Gas The Liquefied Natural Gas Option Financing the Pipeline under Federal Legislation State-Level Pipeline Negotiations in Alaska: A New Governor and a New Approach Progress on Canada’s Mackenzie Pipeline Project

Evaluating an Alaskan Pipeline Investment Project Pipeline Returns Pipeline Costs Risk Factors

Market Conditions in the Natural Gas Markets Long Run Natural Gas Markets: EIA’s Projections Recent History of Natural Gas Markets Consumption Production and Imports Natural Gas Reserves Natural Gas Prices Uncertainties Short Term Market Conditions

The Impact of Steel Prices and Availability The Reversal in Steel Prices North American Large Pipe Production Capacity The ExxonMobil High-Strength Pipeline Steel Project

Conclusion

Figure 1. Alaska Oil and Gas Pipelines

Figure 2: U.S. Natural Gas Price, Consumption and Production Indexes

Figure 3. Prices for Large-Diameter Steel Pipe and Plate

Table 1: Overview of U.S. Natural Gas Market

Chapter 14:

“The Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline: Status and Current Policy Issues,” by William F. Hederman, CRS
“The Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline: Status and Current
Policy Issues,” by William F. Hederman, CRS Report
for Congress RL34671, September 12, 2008
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381
Introduction
Historical Overview
Recent Developments
Alaska’s Selection Process
Applications
Recent Reports
Current Status of AGIA
Policy Issues
Energy Supply
Open Access to the Pipeline
Project Risk Management and Sharing
Diligent Development
International Issues
Alaska Economic Development
Environmental Effects
Conclusion
Figure 1. Alaska Oil and Gas Pipelines
Table 1. Selected Dates from Alaska Natural Gas Development
Chapter 15:
“Expansion of the U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network:
Additions in 2008 and Projects through 2011,” Energy Information
Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, September 2009
399

Highlights

National Overview

Table 1. Thirty Largest U.S. Intersate Natural Gas Pipeline Systems, 2008

Table 2. Recent and Proposed Regional Natural Gas Pipeline Additions and Expansions, 2009–2011

Regional Overview

Table 3. Natural Gas Pipeline Construction Projects Completed in 2008, Central Region

Table 4. Natural Gas Pipeline Construction Projects Completed in 2008, Midwest Region

Table 5. Natural Gas Pipeline Construction Projects Completed in 2008, Northeast Region

Table 6. Natural Gas Pipeline Construction Projects Completed in 2008, Southeast Region

Table 7. Natural Gas Pipeline Construction Projects Completed in 2008, Southwest Region

Table 8. Natural Gas Pipeline Construction Projects Completed in 2008, Western Region

Observations and Outlook

Chapter 16:

“Estimates of Peak Underground Working Gas Storage

Capacity in the United States, 2009 Update,” Energy

Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy . . . . . . . . .
Information
Administration, U.S. Department of Energy
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417
Methodology
Regional and National Estimates of Gas Storage Capacity
Table 1. Estimates of Natural Gas Storage Capacity and Historical
Maximum Storage Volumes April 2008 and April 2009
Figure 1. Aggregate Volume Reported by Storage Fields that Attained their Highest
Level of Working Gas in the Months, September 2006 through April 2009
Conclusion
Chapter 17:
“Russian Oil and Gas Challenges,” by Robert Pirog,
CRS Report for Congress RL33212, June 20,
2007
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423
Oil and Gas Reserves and Production
Exports
Petroleum
Natural Gas
Energy Policy
Major Proposed New or Expanded Pipelines
Implications for the United States
Figure 1. Russia
Figure 2. Druzhba and Adria Oil Pipelines
Figure 3. Selected Northwestern Oil Pipelines
Figure 4. Proposed Bosporus Bypass Options
Figure 5. Proposed Far East Oil Pipelines
Figure 6. Natural Gas Pipelines to Europe
Table 1. Oil and Natural Gas Reserves and Production
Chapter 18:
“What Role does Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Play as an
Energy Source for the United States?” Energy Information
Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, December 11, 2009
445
Chapter 19:
“Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Infrastructure Security:
Issues for Congress,” by Paul W. Parfomak,
CRS Report for Congress RL32073, May 13, 2008
447

Introduction Scope and Limitations

Background What is LNG? Expectations for U.S. LNG Growth

Overview of U.S. LNG Infrastructure LNG Tanker Ships LNG Marine Terminals LNG Peak Shaving Plants

LNG Risks and Vulnerabilities Physical Hazards of LNG Safety Record of LNG LNG Security Risks LNG Tanker Vulnerability

Federal LNG Security Initiatives Security Activities of Federal Maritime Agencies U.S. Coast Guard Maritime Administration Federal Pipeline and Chemical Security Agencies Office of Pipeline Safety Transportation Security Administration Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Department of Homeland Security Federal Interagency Cooperation in LNG Security Industry Initiatives for Land-Based LNG Security

Key Policy Issues in LNG Security Public Costs of LNG Marine Security Uncertainty About LNG Threats Foreign vs. U.S. LNG Tankers and Crews

Conclusions

Figure 1. Average U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price ($/Mcf)

Figure 2. Approved LNG Terminals in North America

Chapter 20:

“Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals: Siting, Safety, and Regulation,” by Paul W. Parfomak and Adam Vann, CRS Report for Congress RL32205, December 14, 2009

Introduction Issues Facing Congress Scope and Limitations

Background What Is LNG and Where Does It Come From? Expectations for U.S. LNG Import Growth Proposed LNG Import Terminals in the United States

Potential Safety Hazards from LNG Terminals Physical Hazards of LNG Pool Fires Flammable Vapor Clouds Other Safety Hazards

479

Terrorism Hazards Safety Record of LNG LNG Hazard Models Hazards vs. Risks LNG Terminal Safety in Perspective Other Hazardous Materials Civil and Criminal Liability

Regulation of Onshore LNG Siting Department of Transportation Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) FERC-DOT Jurisdictional Issues U.S. Coast Guard National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) State Regulatory Roles Federal-State Jurisdictional Conflicts

Key Policy Issues “Exclusive” Federal Siting Authority Regional Siting Approach “Remote” Siting of LNG Terminals Other Statutes that May Influence LNG Terminal Siting Terror Attractiveness Public Costs of LNG Marine Security Other Issues Conducting More Safety Research Developer Employee Disclosure Reducing LNG Demand

Conclusion

Figure 1. Approved LNG Terminals in North America

Table 1. Recent LNG Hazard Studies

Appendix. Offshore LNG Terminal Regulation

Chapter 21:

“Oil and Gas Tax Subsidies: Current Status and Analysis,” by Salvatore Lazzari, CRS Report for Congress RL33763,

February

27,

2007

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513

Action in the 110th Congress

Background

Policy Context and Analysis

Oil and Gas Tax Provisions in EPACT05 and their Revenue Effects Amortization of Geological and Geophysical Expenditures Determination of Independent Producer Status for Purposes of the Oil Depletion Deduction Natural Gas Distribution Lines Treated as 15-Year Property Temporary Expensing for Equipment Used in Oil Refining

Arbitrage Rules Not To Apply to Prepayments for Natural Gas Natural Gas Gathering Lines Treated as Seven-Year Property Pass Through to Owners of Deduction for Capital Costs Incurred by Small Refiner Cooperatives in Complying with EPA Sulfur Regulations Modification and Extension of Credit for Producing Fuel from a Nonconventional Source for Facilities Producing Coke or Coke Gas Revenue Effects Tax Increases

Other Oil and Gas Tax Subsidies Other Oil and Gas Tax Subsidies

General Tax Provisions that May Benefit the Oil and Gas Industry

Table 1. Energy Tax Provisions in the Energy Tax Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-58):

11-Year Estimated Revenue Loss, by Type of Incentive

Table 2. Special Tax Incentives Targeted for the Oil and Gas Industry and Estimated Revenue Losses, FY2006

Chapter 22:

“Royalty Relief for U.S. Deepwater Oil and Gas Leases,” by Marc Humprhies, CRS Report for
“Royalty Relief for U.S. Deepwater Oil and Gas Leases,”
by Marc Humprhies, CRS Report for Congress RS22567,
February 4, 2009
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537
Introduction
OCS Leasing System
Royalty Relief
Deepwater Development
Congressional Concerns
Legislative Actions
Table 1. Minimum Royalty Suspension Volumes Per Lease
Table 2. Deepwater Proved Reserves and Resources
Chapter 23:
“Natural Gas Passenger Vehicles: Availability,
Cost, and Performance,” by Brent D. Yacobucci,
CRS Report for
Congress
RS22971, February 3, 2010
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547

Introduction

Current Market

Life-Cycle Cost Issues

Other Potential Benefits and Costs

NGV Conversions

Legislation

Conclusion

Chapter 24:

“Displacing Coal with Generation from Existing Natural Gas-Fired Power Plants,” by Stan Mark Kaplan, CRS Report for Congress R41027, January 19, 2010

557

Introduction Purpose and Organization Issues Not Considered in the Report

Background on Gas-Fired Generation and Capacity Capacity Trends Factors Supporting the Boom in Gas-Fired Plant Construction Technology Natural Gas Prices Carbon Dioxide Emissions Electric Power Industry Restructuring and Overbuilding

Coal Displacement Feasibility Issues Estimates of Displaceable Coal-Fired Generation and Emissions Transmission System Factors Isolation of the Interconnections Limited Long-Distance Transmission Capacity Transmission System Congestion Power Plant Proximity Analysis System Dispatch Factors Natural Gas Supply and Price Natural Gas Transportation and Storage

Policy Considerations

Figure 1. Net Change in Generating Capacity by Energy Source, 1990 to 2007

Figure 2. Shares of Total Generating Capacity by Energy Source, 1989 and 2007

Figure 3. Henry Hub Cash Spot Price for Natural Gas

Figure 4. Location of Large Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Conterminous States

Figure 5. Location of Large NGCC Power Plants in the Conterminous States

Figure 6. United States Power System Interconnections

Figure 7. Coal Plants with Hypothetical Generation Displaced by a NGCC Plant Within 10 Miles

Figure 8. Coal Plants with Hypothetical Generation Displaced by a NGCC Plant Within 25 Miles

Figure 9. Monthly Capacity Factors in 2007 for Study Group Coal and NGCC Plants

Figure 10. Hourly Coal and Combined Cycle Generation at Plant Barry

Figure A-1. Elements of the Electric Power System

Figure A-2. Illustrative Daily Load Curve

Figure B-1. Schematic of a Combined Cycle Power Plant

Table 1. Growth in Generating Capacity, 1990–2007

Table 2. Utilization of Study Group NGCC Plants, 2007

Table 3. Approximation of the Maximum Displaceable Coal-Fired Generation, Based on 2007 Data

Table 4. Approximation of Maximum Displaceable CO2 Emitted by Coal-Fired Generators, Based on 2007 Data

Table 5. Hypothetical Estimates of the Displacement of Coal Generation and Emissions by Existing NGCC Plants Based on Proximity

Table 6. Illustrative Estimates of Increased Natural Gas Demand For Coal Displacement Compared to Total National Demand

Table 7. Illustrative Estimates of Increased Natural Gas Demand Relative to Electric Power Demand, Based on 2007 Data

Appendix A. Background on the Electric Power System

Appendix B. Combined Cycle Technology

Chapter 25:

Natural Gas STAR Program, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, November 2009

 

591

Why is Reducing Methane Emissions Important?

 

What are the Benefits to Participating in Natural Gas STAR?

 

How Does the Natural Gas STAR Program Work?

 

Chapter 26:

 

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Live Training

 

Capitol Learning Audio Courses TM

 

Chapter 27:

 

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Associations, Coalitions, News

Books

Video and Movies

Introduction

Energy: Natural Gas

The Production and Use of Natural Gas, Natural Gas Imports and Exports, EPAct Project, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals and Infrastructure Security, Underground Working Gas Storage, Fischer-Tropsch Fuels from Coal, Natural Gas, and Biomass, Gas Hydrates, Gas Shales, Hydraulic Fracturing, Alaska Natural Gas Pipelines

The main ingredient in natural gas is methane, a gas (or compound) composed of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. Millions of years ago, the remains of plants and animals (diatoms) decayed and built up in thick layers. This decayed matter from plants and animals is called organic material— it was once alive. Over time, the sand and silt changed to rock, covered the organic material, and trapped it beneath the rock. Pressure and heat changed some of this organic material into coal, some into oil (petroleum), and some into natural gas—tiny bubbles of odorless gas.

Discussions of U.S. and global energy supply refer to oil, natural gas, and coal using several terms that may be unfamiliar to some. The terms used to describe different types of fossil fuels have technically precise definitions, and misunderstanding or misuse of these terms may lead to errors and confusion in estimating energy available or making comparisons among fuels, regions, or nations.

For oil and natural gas, a major distinction in measuring quantities of energy commodities is made between proved reserves and undiscovered resources.

Proved reserves are those amounts of oil, natural gas, or coal that have been discovered and defined, typically by drilling wells or other exploratory measures, and which can be economically recovered. In the United States, proved reserves are typically measured by private companies, who report their findings to the Securities and Exchange Commission because they are considered capital assets.

In addition to the volumes of proved reserves are deposits of oil and gas that have not yet been discovered, and those are called undiscovered resources. The term has a specific meaning:

undiscovered resources are amounts of oil and gas estimated to exist in unexplored areas. If they are considered to be recoverable using existing production technologies, they are referred to as undiscovered technically recoverable resources (UTRR). In-place resources are intended to represent all of the oil, natural gas, or coal contained in a formation or basin without regard to technical or economic recoverability.

Natural gas provided about 22% of U.S. energy requirements in 2007. It will continue to be a major element of the overall U.S. energy market for the foreseeable future. Given its environmental advantages, it will likely maintain an important market share in the growing electricity generation applications, along with other clean power sources.

In 2008, the United States natural gas market experienced a tumultuous year, and market forces appeared to guide consumers, producers and investors through rapidly changing circumstances. Natural gas continues to be a major fuel supply for the United States, supplying about 24% of total energy in 2008.

In the past, the oil and gas industry considered gas locked in tight, impermeable shale uneconomical to produce. However, advances in directional well drilling and reservoir stimulation have dramatically increased gas production from unconventional shales. The United States Geological Survey estimates that 200 trillion cubic feet of natural gas may be technically recoverable from these shales. Recent high natural gas prices have also stimulated interest in developing gas shales. Although natural gas prices fell dramatically in 2009, there is an expectation that the demand for natural gas will increase. Developing these shales comes with some controversy, though.

The hydraulic fracturing treatments used to stimulate gas production from shale have stirred environmental concerns over excessive water consumption, drinking water well contamination, and surface water contamination from both drilling activities and fracturing fluid disposal.

Solid gas hydrates are a potentially huge resource of natural gas for the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated that there are about 85 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of technically recoverable gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The Minerals Management Service estimated a mean value of 21,000 TCF of in-place gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico. By comparison, total U.S. natural gas consumption is about 23 TCF annually.

As the price of crude oil sets a record high, liquid transportation fuels synthesized from coal, natural gas, and biomass are proposed as one solution to reducing dependency on imported petroleum and strained refinery capacity. The technology to do so developed from processes that directly and indirectly convert coal into liquid fuel.

As Congress seeks to address energy security issues, the increasing importation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is also a matter deserving careful attention. In 2007, LNG imports reached a record high and plans are to increase this fuel source.

Links to Internet resources are available on the book's web site at < www.TCNNat u ralGas .com>.

Chapter 1: Energy Facts: Onshore Federal Lands

U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Mangagement ENERGY FACTS Onshore Federal Lands U.S.
U.S. Department of the Interior
Bureau of Land Mangagement
ENERGY FACTS
Onshore Federal Lands
U.S. Department of the Interior
Bureau of Land Mangagement

Goverment Series: Energy: Natural Gas

The Bureau of Land Management manages over 261 million acres of surface land and 700
The Bureau of Land Management manages over 261 million acres of
surface land and 700 million acres of subsurface mineral estate, most
being in the western states, including Alaska. Its multiple-use mission
is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the public lands,
including energy and mineral development that helps meet the nation’s
energy needs. The Bureau plays a critical role in facilitating the
development of energy resources such as oil and gas, coal, geothermal,
hydropower, solar, wind, and biomass in its implementation of the
President’s National Energy Policy. The Bureau is also the leasing agent
for all energy minerals on all Federal lands, and as trustee, manages
mineral development on over 56 million acres of Indian lands.

Chapter 1: Energy Facts: Onshore Federal Lands

 
  OIL andGAS  

OIL andGAS

 

• Provides 62 percent of nation’s energy and almost 100 percent of its transportation fuels

 

-Accounts for about 7.5 percent of total natural gas production in the United States

 

• Onshore Federal oil production– 5% of total domestic production

• One billion cubic feet (BCF) of natural gas supplies

• Onshore Federal gas production– 11% of total domestic production

 

approximately 3.9 million households

• Estimated 60 billion barrels of oil nationwide on all lands potentially recoverable through enhanced oil recovery projects

• U.S. consumption of natural gas (2001) – 22,190 billion cubic feet

• Petroleum consumption (2001) – 19,649,000 barrels per day

• Coal bed natural gas or CBNG (included in the production figures below); found associated with coal and recovered by removing water in coal beds, which lowers hydrostatic pressure in the coal, thus allowing the gas to escape

• U.S. energy consumption:

 

oil – 40%; natural gas – 25%

• About 19% of total U.S. generating capacity of 724 billion kWh from oil and gas (2000)

 

• Total oil sales volume produced (FY 2003) from onshore Federal

 

• Coal bed natural gas- In conterminous U.S., estimated resources at 700 trillion cubic feet (TCF); about 100 TCF economically recoverable with existing technology -Technically recoverable CBNG at 30 (TCF) (mean) in six Rocky Mountain provinces

 

lands = 600 trillion Btus

• Total gas sales volume produced (FY 2003) from onshore Federal lands = 2.2 quadrillion Btus

O N S H O R E

F E D E R A L

 

 

 

 

 

L A N D S

ENERGY FACTS

   
 
 

 

1

Goverment Series: Energy: Natural Gas

 

 
 

 

L A N D S

F E D E R A L

O N S H O R E