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Diplomacy Notes:
LIBYA: History
The Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution[33] was a 2011 armed conflict in the North African country ofLibya, fought
between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.[34][35] The war was preceded by protests
in Benghazi beginning on Tuesday, 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security forces that fired on the crowd. [36] The protests escalated
into a rebellion that spread across the country,[37] with the forces opposing Gaddafi establishing an interim governing body, the National
Transitional Council.
The United Nations Security Council passed an initial resolution on 26 February, freezing the assets of Gaddafi and his inner circle and restricting
their travel, and referred the matter to the International Criminal Court for investigation.[38] In early March, Gaddafi's forces rallied, pushed
eastwards and re-took several coastal cities before reaching Benghazi. A further U.N. resolution authorised member states to establish and enforce
a no-fly zone over Libya, and to use "all necessary measures" to prevent attacks on civilians. [39] The Gaddafi government then announced a
ceasefire, but failed to uphold it,[40] though it then accused rebels of violating the ceasefire when they continued to fight as well. [41] Throughout the
conflict, rebels rejected government offers of a ceasefire and efforts by the African Union to end the fighting because the plans set forth did not
include the removal of Gaddafi.[42]
In August, rebel forces launched an offensive on the government-held coast of Libya, taking back territory lost months before and
ultimately capturing the capital city of Tripoli,[43] while Gaddafi evaded capture and loyalists engaged in a rearguard campaign. [44] On 16
September 2011, the National Transitional Council was recognised by the United Nations as the legal representative of Libya, replacing
the Gaddafi government. Muammar Gaddafi remained at large until 20 October 2011, when he was captured and killedattempting to escape
from Sirte.[45] The National Transitional Council "declared the liberation of Libya" and the official end of the war on 23 October 2011. [46]
In the aftermath of the civil war, a low-level insurgency by former Gaddafi loyalists continued. There have been various disagreements and strife
between local militia and tribes, including 23 January 2012 fighting in the former Gaddafi stronghold of Bani Walid, leading to an alternative
town council being established and later recognized by the NTC. [47][48] A much greater issue has been the role of militias which fought in the civil
war and their role in the new Libya. Some have refused to disarm and cooperation with the NTC has been strained, leading to demonstrations
against militias and government action to disband such groups or integrate them into the Libyan military. [49]
No fly zone over Libya: What does that mean?

Col. Muammar Gaddafi is using fighter jets to attack rebels and civilian crowd opposing him.

Air-attack gives him tremendous advantage because rebels cannot fight back, They dont have that kind of sophisticated weaponry.

So America, France and other nations are in opinion of declaring a No Fly zone over Libya.

If America declares No fly zone over Libya that will mean that if any Libyan fight-jets fly over Libyan air-space, Americans
will shoot it down.
What is Indias stand on No-fly zone issue?

India opposed this idea in UN security council. India also opposes any use of force against Gaddafi.
Col. Gaddafi never supported India as for the issue of Kashmir, but he supported the theory that Kashmir must be an independent state separate
from india and pakistan also he has always been supporting pakistan and this reminds me of a cricket stadium called gadaffi stadium in
India objects the no fly zone also india is silent because a lot of indians are working in libya and still to be evacuated. Also the crude is also
imported form that same country.
Because of defunct NAM and unsolved Kashmir issue, Government of India always fears this :

If we agree on any international intervention in any trouble area, then Pakistanis and Chinese will also demand and justify the international
intervention in Kashmir and Arunanchal Pradesh. So better treat any troubled issue (Myanmar, Egypt, Libya) as their domestic-problem, and not
get very enthusiastic about it.
This is the same reason, why many experts are (and were) afraid that India will never be able to utilize its (non permanent or permanent) UN
security council seat to provide a World leadership. Because India always runs away from taking a stand due to Kashmir and Arunanchal Pradesh.
Operation Safe Homecoming
An operation launched by India to evacuate its nationals, who were fleeing from the 2011 Libyan uprising
Strait of Hormuz & oil blockade
What is a Strait?

A narrow body of water that joins two larger bodies of water

Strait of Hormuz is a narrow waterway between Iran and the Oman

It links the Persian Gulf with the Arabian Sea.

Almost One third of worlds oil supply comes through this Strait.

Narrowest point of this Strait if 54 kms wide.

Why the Strait of Hormuz is in news?

There are talks of US imposing fresh sanctions on Iran oil industry.

The West is concerned that Tehran might be planning to build nuclear weapons under the cover of its civil nuclear program.

Iran has threatened to block oil deliveries through the Straits of Hormuz if sanctions are imposed.

U.S. has deployed the Fifth naval Fleet to prevent any such blockade.

Meanwhile,EU states have reached an agreement in principle to ban Irans oil exports.

Consultations are continuing, but diplomats say the ban could come into force by January 30.

Such rumor-mongering and drama is going to increase the oil-barrel price in future.
India in this drama

Iran is the fourth-largest oil producer in the world

India is Irans second largest client after China and absorbs about 20 percent of its crude exports.

India imports more than 300,000 barrels a day of crude oil from Iran.

India pays about $1 billion every month to Iran via Turkey.

Obama signed a Bill into law late last month, empowering U.S. authorities to impose penalties on foreign banks dealing with the Central
Bank of Iran to settle oil import payments.

India fears that Turkey might come under the US pressure after a fresh round of sanctions are imposed on Iran.

So, India is exploring all options to find a way out to make oil payments to Iran. (Critical at the time of State elections, a petrol-price
increase could reverse the prospects of ruling partys victory!)

Sir Creek Boundary dispute between India Pakistan : History and Future

Sir Creek is a 96-km strip of water that is disputed between India and Pakistan in the Rann of Kutch marshlands. The creek, which opens into the
Arabian Sea, divides the Kutch region of Gujarat and the Sindh province of Pakistan. Harami Nala is a marshy, sluggish and shallow water
channel, spread over 500 sq km in Kutch, in the Sir Creek region, where both Indian and Pakistani fishermen sail to catch the prized variety of
fishes, and at times get caught by the Costal guards of either country and spend years in Jail.
India US Love-Hate relationship
Why is US unhappy with INDIA

Barack Obama tried to appoint an envoy to meddle in the Kashmir issue, he skipped it after India protested.

Initially He tried to improve one-on-one relations with China while keeping India out of picture.

He talks about heavy taxation on American firms that are outsourcing work to India.

He has taken no concrete action to include India as a permanent member of UN Security Council, merely doing lip-service.

He wants to make peace and secret-deals with Good Talibans so that USA troops can exit from Afghanistan pretty soon but Krisha
didnt like it.

NATO forces are leaving Afghanistan by 2014, and India fears that Afghanistan will again become a Talibanized client of Pakistan.

David Headly case: US spy agencies knew about 26/11 attack in advance but they did not warn India and kept mum.

There are also allegations that American companies are financing certain NGOs, to stir up agitations against Nuke plants that are
running on machinery supplied by France and Russia. Mohan had hinted about this, during an interview but then did not have the guts
to openly name the culprits and take action against them.
Why is US unhappy with INDIA

Nuclear liability law. If an American firm supplies defective equipment to nuclear facility in India and if disaster happens, that firm will
have to pay heavy fines.

American companies lost the tender to supply 126 fighter jets worth $10 billion USD to India. The contract was awarded to Frances
Dassault Aviation for their Rafael fightjet, which is to serve Indian Airforce as medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA). It was
India's biggest ever defence contract.

India has not stopped importing crude-oil from USA's arch-enemy Iran.

During the democratic uprising in Middle East**, India did not fully and vociferously backup every move of USA. Indian Government
was almost silent on bloodshed in Syria and Libya because of our workers living there.
Why does USA want to strengthen relations with India?

USA's relationships with Pakistan's are collapsed after the case of CIA Agent Ramond Davis, killing of Laden, Death of Pakistani soldiers
in a drone attacks and subsequent closing of NATO supply lines by Pakistani Government.

Initially, President Obama tried to improve relations with China, but it hasnt worked out well.

India's bilateral trade with China= $74 billion in 2011

India's bilateral trade with the USA= $58 billion in 2011

Therefore, USA wants to increase the trade with India and surpass China.
What is Middle East?

Arabian Peninsula = Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait.

Middle East = ^Arabian Peninsula + Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Iran, and Iraq.

But According to some definitions, Turkey, Afghanistan, Libya, Sudan, Cyprus, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco are also considered to be
part of Middle East.
What is QRSAM?

Quick reaction surface to air missile

At present, Indian air force has an outdated Russian Kvadrat system so we want to buy new surface-to-air missiles. Needless to say,
USA is interested in this tender.

Patriot surface-to-air missile system belongs to the American military. It was first used during the 1991 war in the Persian Gulf to knock
down Iraqi Scud missiles.

Maitri missile project is a next-generation quick-reaction Surface-to-Air Missile (QRSAM) with a lethal hundred per cent kill probability
under development
Dornier transport aircraft

Technically known as Dornier Do-228 , these aircrafts are used as light transport or personnel carrier

They will be procured from Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)

HAL manufacturs this aircraft, under license from M/s. Dornier GmbH Company of Germany.

We already have 41 such aircrafts and buying additional 14.


India and Middle East : Present and Future Foreign Policy
Indian and CARICOM (Caribbean Community and Commons Market) for GS Mains Paper II
India and ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) for UPSC GS Mains Paper 2

Arab Spring : Reasons and Future

The massive popular movement in Middle East region, known as Arab Spring, is as significant as the fall of Berlin Wall.
The common denominator is that The entire region seeks.

Transformation of ruling political structures and processes.


Fundamental reforms in governance.


Social equity and emancipation of poor classes.


Desire for better opportunities in education, development and employment.

Final conclusions

The area will remain destabilized over a long period.

Long disputes over political structures and processes.

The chances of democracy are dim

future of transitional Government = uncertain

possibility of polarization of religious conservatism

Anti-US and anti-West outlook in the region.

Shia-Sunni rivalry will aggravate

Role of Internet and social networking site will be significant.

It will create a ripple that will force the autocratic regimes to introduce reforms.

The government will have to focus on better governance, more social, political and economic development.

India and Group of 20 (G20) Summits (F.M, Central Bank Gvnrs, Emp & Labr Mstrs)

Group of 20, An international body created in 1999

It provides a forum for strategic economic communication between industrialized (1 st world) and developing countries.(3rd world)

19 Countries + 1 EU = 20s group

IMF and World Bank also participate.

Countries are represented by finance ministers and central bank governors

EU is represented by the European Central Bank and a rotating council presidency.

The chair rotates annually among the members and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries.

NON Proliferation Treaty :
Aims at nonproliferation of the nuclear weapons and aimed at disarmament of weapons. Separation of the civil and military nuclear programs
and put the civil nuclear operations under the direct supervision of IAEA for an indefinite period of time.
After indias affirmation regarding the indo-US nucear deal, the NSG has agreed to the supply of the nuclear fuel to India.In return india has to
oblige the conditions applicable in the NPT.
JIMEX 12: Indo-Japan Joint Naval Exercise : Meaning Significance

Joint exercise ever between the two navies in the sphere of Maritime Security Cooperation.

These include Humanitarian Aid & Disaster Relief (HADR) operations and Visit, Board, Search and Seizure (VBSS) drills, which form a
part of Anti-Piracy operations.

The Indian navy is also seeking greater interoperability with the maritime forces of its smaller neighbours like Sri Lanka and the
Maldives and such Indian Ocean partners as Seychelles and the Maldives, to counter China's Strings of Pearl Strategy, under which China
is constructing naval bases around the Indian Ocean, to encircle India (and possibly cut India's crude oil supply, and naval-trade with
other nations in case of a war).

String of Pearls (China)

refers to the network of Chinese military and commercial facilities and relationships along its sea lines of communication, which extend from
the Chinese mainland to Port Sudan. The sea lines run through several major maritime choke points such as the Strait of Mandeb, the Strait of
Malacca, the Strait of Hormuz and the Lombok Strait, as well as other strategic maritime centers in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh,
the Maldives and Somalia. The term has never been used by official Chinese government sources, although it's often used in the Indian media. [2]

Territorial disputes in the South China Sea


Maritime boundary in the Gulf of Tonkin between Vietnam and China [1]

2. Maritime boundary along the Vietnamese coast between Vietnam, China, and Taiwan
3. Maritime boundary in the waters north of the Natuna Islands between Indonesia, China, and Taiwan [2]

4. Maritime boundary north of Borneo between Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Malaysia and Brunei
5. Islands in the southern reaches of the South China Sea, including the Spratly Islands by Vietnam, Malaysia, The Philippines, Taiwan, and
6. Maritime boundary off the coast of central Philippines and Luzon between the Philippines, China, and Taiwan
7. Islands in the northern reaches of the South China Sea, including the Paracel Islands between Vietnam, China, and Taiwan
8. Maritime boundary in the Luzon Strait between the Philippines and Taiwan, including islands
9. The nine-dash area claimed by China which covers most of the South China sea and overlaps EEZ of Brunei, Malaysia, Philippine and
he Ministry of Geological Resources and Mining of the People's Republic of China estimate that the South China Sea may contain 17.7 billion tons
of crude oil (compared to Kuwait with 13 billion tons). In the years following the announcement by the ministry, the claims regarding the South
China Sea islands intensified.[3] However, other sources claim that the proven reserve of oil in the South China Sea may only be 7.5 billion barrels,
or about 1.1 billion tons.[4] According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)'s profile of the South China Sea region, a U.S.
Geological Survey estimate puts the region's discovered and undiscovered oil reserves at 28 billion barrels, as opposed to a Chinese figure of 213
billion barrels.[5] The same EIA report also points to the wide variety of natural gas resource estimations, ranging from 900 trillion cubic feet (25.5
trillion cubic meters) to 2 quadrillion cubic feet (56.6 trillion cubic meters).
What is Phu Kanh basin?

Its a potential crude oil source, in the South coast of Vietnam.

In 2006, Vietnam had awarded two exploration blocks 127 and 128 in Phu Kanh basin to ONGC Videsh.

Vietnaam says all these blocks fall in our Exclusive Economic Zone and are in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the
Law of Sea (UNCLOS).

But China says no, these blocks belong to us. And China has started a process to auction these oil fields.

OVL = ONGC Videsh Ltd (OVL).

Petrovietnam = State oil co of Vietnaam. It had contracted OVL to explore the oil field in South China sea. (but china had been opposing
it since the beginning)

Anyways, few months back, OVL had decided to exit because its surveys had not shown much promise for any big deposits of crude oil.
Soon after, Petrovietnam had approached OVL with fresh terms and conditions, which allowed OVL two more years for exploration.

The offer, which is still under discussions.

Relations between the ONGC and PetroVietnam date back to the 1980s, and ONGC is not the only multinational company interested in
tapping offshore exploration opportunities in Vietnam, two facts that make China very nervous and hence to ward them off, China has
started the process to sell these blocks. Thus creating the crisis.

Why does Russia support Syria and Prez Assad?

Syria buys arms and ammunition worth 700$ million per year from Russia.

In Syrias Port city of Tartus, Russia has its only military base in Mediterranean Sea.

There are an estimated 30,000 Russian citizens living in Syria, most women and children.

If Russia started actively supporting USA and world community against Syria, then President Assad and his goons might start killing
innocent Russian and in such scenario, Russia doesnt have evacuation plans for its diospora.

S-5: Veto reforms in UNSC

Misuse of Veto Power.

Theyve been misusing their Veto power for personal aims, since a long time.
In the spring 2012, Russias and Chinas used their veto-power to prevent UN Security council from passing resolutions criticizing the Syrian
government for the human rights violation.
Reforms in UNSC

Regular consultations between members and nonmembers of the council;


Greater role for nations that contribute troops for UN peacekeeping missions in africa etc.


Political restrictions of the use of the veto.


Permanent members should explain their reasons for resorting to a veto,


Permanent Members shouldnt use their Veto power in following cases


and in cases of genocide


other serious violations of human rights / international humanitarian law

International Criminal Court (ICC)

ICC is an independent international organisation, and is not part of the United Nations system.
What is Rome Statute?

1998: 120 States adopted the Rome Statute, the legal basis for establishing the permanent International Criminal Court. (USA has not
ratified it- reasons given at bottom portion of this article.)

The Rome Statute provides two things

1. ICC

2. Trust Fund for Victims.

To prosecute those responsible for



crimes against humanity

war crimes committed anywhere in the world.

It is a court of last resort, intervening only when national authorities cannot or will not prosecute.
What is International court of Justice?

International Court of Justice (sometimes called the World Court) is the organ of United Nations.

It rules on disputes between governments. It cannot prosecute individuals. While ICC can prosecute individuals.
Punishment powers of ICC?

The Court cannot impose a death sentence.

The maximum sentence is 30 years.

However, in extreme cases, the Court may impose a term of life imprisonment.

Convicted persons serve their prison sentences in a State designated by the Court from a list of States which have indicated to the Court
their willingness to accept convicted persons.
any time limits on cases?

The ICC court has no retrospective jurisdiction it can deal only with crimes committed after 1 July 2002 when the 1998 Rome Statute
came into force.

court has automatic jurisdiction only for crimes committed on the territory of a state which has ratified the treaty; or by a citizen of such
a state; or when the United Nations Security Council refers a case to it.
What kind of cases is the court pursuing?


All of the cases currently open are in Africa prompting some African leaders to say it is biased.

highest profile person to be brought to the ICC is Ivory Coast's former President Laurent Gbagbo.
Wanted Criminals by ICC

Joseph Kony

Sudanese President Omar


leader of Uganda's rebel movement, the Lord's Resistance Army, which is active in Uganda, Congo and

He is charged with crimes against humanity and war crimes, including abduction of thousands of
children and forcing them to kill their own parents.

He remains at large and refuses to sign a peace deal until the ICC arrest warrant is revoked.

outstanding arrest warrant against the first against a serving head of state.

How does ICC get criminals arrested?

ICC has no police force of its own to track down and arrest suspects.

Instead it must rely on national police services to make arrests and seek their transfer to The Hague.

Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir remains at liberty, with several ICC signatory countries refusing to co-operate in his arrest.
How does the ICC system work?

prosecutor begins an investigation if a case is referred either by the UN Security Council or by a ratifying state.

He or she can also take independent action, but prosecutions have to be approved by a panel of judges.

Both the prosecutor and the judges are elected by the states taking part in the court

Each state has a right to nominate one candidate for election as a judge.
Who has agreed to co-operate with the court?

Rome Treaty has been ratified by 121 states so far, meaning they therefore bound themselves to co-operate.

Only one Arab state has ratified so far Jordan.

Why USA doesnt sign the treaty?

During negotiations, the US argued that its soldiers might be the subject of politically motivated or frivolous prosecutions.

Various safeguards were introduced, and Bill Clinton did eventually sign the treaty in one of his last acts as president but it was never
ratified by Congress.

However, the Bush administration was adamantly opposed to the court and to any dilution of US sovereignty in criminal justice.

US threatened to pull its troops out of the UN force in Bosnia unless they were given immunity from prosecution by the ICC.

Some have not even signed the treaty, such as China, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Turkey.


Others have signed but remain dubious and have not ratified, for example, Egypt, Iran, Israel and Russia.

TAPI Gas pipeline : Meaning, Importance, Significance for India and its neighbours
What is TAPI Pipeline?

A 1680 km pipeline from Turkmenistan Afghanistan Pakistan India (TAPI)

Itll become operational by 2018.

It will carry 90 million metric standard cubic meters a day for a 30 year period.

India has to pay a transit fee to Pakistan and Afghanistan as the pipeline passes through these nations.
Route of this piepline

The pipeline starts from the Dauletabad Oil fields in Turkmenistan and will move into Afghanistan along a highway running from Herat
to Kandahar and it will then enter Pakistan via Quetta, Multan and from there to Fazilka (located at the Indo-Pak border) in India.
What does Turkmenistan gain from this?

Turkmenistan holds 4 percent of the gas reserves of the world. It only exports gas to Russia, but with the TAPI pipeline, it will be able to
diversify its exports to nations like India, Pakistan etc.

Turkmenistan will earn a lot of revenue by exporting gas through the pipeline
What does Pakistan Gain?

Moreover the potential extension of the pipeline to the Gwadar Port in Pakistan will enable Pakistan to export gas to several countries.
What does Afghanistan Gain?

Afghanistan will earn transit fees as the pipeline passes through the country.
What is in for India?

India will benefit a lot as it will receive 38 million standard cubic meters of gas per day improving Indias energy security.

New opportunities to the development of gas and engineering industries of the countries involved in the project.

The project will also help to foster regional connectivity between the countries involved, thus resulting in regional integration.
Whatre the Obstacles to TAPI pipeline


Regional instability, especially in the AF-PAK region continues to haunt the pipeline. The planned route of the 1800 km pipeline will pass
through 735 km of southern and western Afghanistan, regions which are hotbeds of terrorism. Moreover with the proposed withdrawal of
NATO (especially US) forces from Afghanistan, the ability of Afghanistan to maintain its security comes into question.


The pipeline will also pass through Pakistans southwestern Balochistan Province, a region suffering from separatist and sectarian
violence for the past 9 years. Moreover poorly guarded oil/gas pipelines in the region have been favourite targets of ethnic Baluch
separatists fighting the Pakistan army.


Any unexpected rupture in Indo-Pakistan relationships can put the TAPI project into jeopardy.


A lot of money is needed to finance this project. The cost of the project is estimated to be 12 billion Dollars. Asian Development Bank has
already provided a few million Dollars as technical assistance, however more money is required to finance this costly project, which is
difficult to get as foreign investors (MNCs, oil companies) are wary of investing in the AF-PAK region.
What is the Response of the US to TAPI project?

The US supports this project because it will be a good alternative to a proposed Indo-Pakistan-Iranian pipeline (IPI), which has been
stalled for quiet some time due to pressure from the US against going through with the deal, moreover gas can be used as an alternative
to petrol, so perhaps it will lessen Indias dependence on oil and in turn reduce its oil imports.

Moreover it will help US in isolating Iran.

What is Ione Kipgenii?

It is the new species of Orchid spotted in Manipur.

It is named after Manipurs former horticulture minister Haokholet Kipgen.

Centre for Orchid Gene Conservation of Eastern Himalayan Region, = works under the Department of Science and Technology. This
centre is responsible for finding this new species.

[Diplomacy] Siachen Glacier Dispute between India and Pakistan
Why is Siachen Glacier important?

The Siachen glacier is considered to be the largest single source of fresh water on the Indian subcontinent.


It is located in the Karakoram range


Siachen is the source of the Nubra River that eventually feeds the mighty Indus the major water source that irrigates the Punjab
plains in Pakistan.


Siachen is near the Karakoram pass, forming almost a triangle with India, China and territory occupied by Pakistan touching the


How did the disagreement over the glacier start?


India and Pakistan have a disputed border in Jammu and Kashmir, most of it delineated as the Line of Control (LoC) with troop
positions on either side.


While most positions were delineated as per the 1972 Shimla agreement, the boundary line was specified to only a point called NJ 9842,
till the area from where Siachen starts.


The agreement stated that after this point, the boundary would proceed north to the glaciers without specifying which nation would
have control over which area.


The matter remained non-controversial until the 1980s when the Indian Army discovered that Pakistan was issuing permission to
foreign expeditions to trek in Siachen. Indian intelligence agencies found out that Pakistan army under orders from General Zia was
planning to conduct a military operation to capture Siachen, from their supplier of High Altitude mountain warfare gear provider in
London, (as Pakistan had placed orders for Arctic gear from the same supplier) Thus the Indian army launched Operation
Meghdoot and Indian troops belonged to the Kumaon Regiment were air-lifted and moved into the glacier.


Where do the two sides disagree?


Indias stance is that the LoC runs from point NJ 9842 along the watersheds formed by the Saltoro ridge that puts the entire Siachen
glacier within Indian territory.


Pakistan claims that the line joins point NJ 9842 with the Karakoram pass that lies towards the northeast, putting Siachen within its


The ground position now is that the Indian Army controls the entire Saltoro ridge. There is no presence of Pakistani troops on the
Siachen glacier. In fact, the nearest Pakistani locations are on the lower reaches of the Saltoro ridge.

How much does India control today?


As India managed to get the upper hand, it currently controls all heights along the glacier on the Saltoro ridge and uses the glacier as a
logistics base.


Since 2007, India has been promoting treks and expeditions by civilians and foreigners in the vicinity of the glacier to reaffirm its claim
on the region.


The Army has given permission to several groups of mountaineers to climb peaks in the Eastern Karakoram range that adjoins the
glacier. The Army also holds a civilian Siachen expedition every year and will in the future invite even foreigners to trek up the glacier.

Where do negotiations stand?


A year after India took over the glacier in 1984, talks started.


After 13 rounds, both sides are now in agreement that the Siachen glacier should be demilitarised.


The disagreement is on how this withdrawal of troops will take place. The Indian position is that both nations should jointly demarcate
the current troop positions in the region. This would involve an exhaustive process to determine and delineate current troops positions
both on the ground and on a map. After this demarcation or authentication of troop positions, India believes, troops can be moved back
to pre-1984 positions and the border issue can be solved with dialogue.


Pakistan agrees that the issue should be resolved with talks but is strongly against a demarcation of troop positions.


Pakistan believes that any joint demarcation or authentication of troops positions can be used as a claim by India for future talks to
resolve the matter. It insists instead on a mutual withdrawal of troops to pre-1984 deployments for talks to begin.


India, however, has hardened its stance for authentication of troops positions after the 1999 Kargil conflict in which insurgents
supported by the Pakistani Army occupied critical locations along the LoC.


India wants a demarcation so that it can take military action, if necessary, should Pakistan stealthily occupy troops positions even after
vacating these as per the demilitarisation plan.

What is the way forward?
A number of suggestions have been made on how the problem can be resolved, including

declaring the area a peace park,


joint patrolling of the region


International peacekeeping force being deployed in the region.

However, the Indian Army stand, which is backed by the government, is very strict on the point of authentication of troop positions.
The argument is that a demarcation will not take anything away from Pakistan on the negotiating table as current troop positions is a hard, cold
Marking the positions on a map, the Army believes, will facilitate a comfortable withdrawal of troops from both sides.
Pakistan, on the other hand, believes Indias occupation of the glacier is illegal and hence cannot be authenticated jointly by both sides, lest it get
India and CELAC: Community of Latin American and Caribbean States
What is CELAC?

Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) is a newly formed regional group comprising 33 countries of Latin America
and the Caribbean region (LAC) region.

All the 33 names are not worth memorizing but important fact is: while Mexico is part of CELAC despite being in North American
Continent, theUSA is not a part of CELAC. Why? Because Latin American nations dont like or want the Imperialist USA in their
gang particularly Venezuela and Bolivia.

Geographically speaking, USA is not part Latin America but the same USA (and France and UK) were also part of South East Asia Treaty
Organization (SEATO) despite not being in South East Asia. So dont tick answers in MCQs based on guesswork about automatic
membership or non-membership by geographical location.


Why in news?

Because in Aug 2012, India is hosting the first CELAC Foreign Ministers summit.

This is one of the steps towards having a dialogue mechanism similar to the India-Africa forum summit.

Dimwit Huge Chavez addresses the opening ceremony of CELAC.
Indias Relations with CELAC region

Indias trade with the CELAC region is over $25 billion in 2011 and

Indias cumulative investments are estimated to be $16 billion mostly in hydrocarbons, minerals, agriculture, pharma and IT.

Although India enjoys friendly and warm relations with all CELAC countries and a shared understanding on the values of democracy,
freedom, equality and justice [hahaha]

our approach to this region has been admittedly slow, due to of distance, poor connectivity and language constraints.

And there exists a vast untapped potential for mutually beneficial cooperation in various sectors.


[Diplomacy] Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and India

Introduction: What is SCO?

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

Intergovernmental organization, consisting of certain of Central Asian countries.

Founded in 2001 in Shanghai.

What does SCO do?

For Mutual cooperation to fight again terrorism, separatism and extremism in Central Asia

So they help each other in the matters of military cooperation, intelligence sharing, counterterrorism, and joint military exercises for
example Peace Mission 2012 was held in Tajikistan. About 2,000 members of the security forces of the member countries participated
Member States















Dialogue Partners










Sri Lanka








Central Asia: Political Map

Our Foreign Minister SM Krishna (lolz), earlier said that India wants to become a full time member of SCO. Russian Government welcomed this
move, and China did not oppose.
Should India become a full time member of SCO?
Arguments against joining SCO
Pakistan sponsored Terror companies

China has been trying to use the security mechanism of the SCO for dealing with organisations which are perceived as posing a threat to
Beijing and the Central Asian Republics,

BUT it does not look upon anti-India organizations sponsored by Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence, or the Afghan Taliban or the
Haqqani Network such as the Lashkar-e-Tayiba the Jaish-e-Mohammad, the Harkt-ul-Jihad-al-Islami and the Harkat-ulMujahideen, as coming within the ambit of the SCO security mechanism.

There would be very little compatibility between our internal security concerns and interests and those of China and Pakistan and it
could be counter-productive for us to participate in this mechanism.

Moreover, our internal security strategy is based on the principle that except in border areas, the police should be the weapon of first
resort and the army the weapon of last resort for internal security (i.e. Naxalites, secessionists in North East and J/K.) But The SCO
mechanism operates on the principle that the army should be the weapon of first resort with the police playing only a supportive role.
[although I think thats a better idea given our cops lack the morale and equipment to deal with internal security troubles.]
China the Cyber bully

The internal security co-operation mechanism of the SCO is now proposed to be extended to the area of cyber security. But The main
threats to our cyber security will arise from China. It will not be in our interest to participate in any connectivity and inter-operability
mechanism relating to cyber security with China!
Arguments in favor of joining SCO


Indian interest in International North-South Transport Corridor (connects Mumbai in India, Bandra Abbas port in Iran and another port
known as Bandar Anzali in northern Iran on the Caspian Sea coast- from Indian perspective, this route is shorter than the existing Suez
Canal and the Mediterranean Sea). This route will help India to bypass Pakistan to reach Central Asia.

India is looking for energy cooperation in the region TAPI strategic link in its extended neighborhood and South Asia. (already discussed
in earlier article)

SCO is promising alternative regional platform to discuss the rapidly changing Afghan situation [because UNO is heavily dominated by
USA, and in UNSC, India doesnt enjoy Veto power]

[Diplomacy] Senkaku/Diaoyu islands Conflict between Japan and China
What is Senkaku/Diaoyu islands:

Eight uninhabited islands and rocks in question lie in the East China Sea. They have a total area of about 7 sq km and lie northeast of

These group of islands are known as the Senkaku islands in Japan and theDiaoyu islands in China.

Both Japan and China claim ownership of these islands.

They matter because they are close to strategically important shipping lanes, offer rich fishing grounds and are thought to contain oil

Right now, the islands are controlled by Japan.

What is Japan's claim?

After World War II Japan renounced claims to a number of territories and islands including Taiwan in the 1951 Treaty of San

But under the treaty the Nansei Shoto islands came under US trusteeship and were then returned to Japan in 1971.

Japan says that Senkaku islands are part of the Nansei Shoto islands and hence they also belong to Japan.

Besides, China raised no objections to the San Francisco deal. but only since the 1970s, when the issue of oil resources in the area
emerged, that Chinese and Taiwanese authorities began pressing their claims.

Senkaku/Diaoyu islands
What is China's claim?

These Islands have been part of its territory since ancient times, serving as important fishing grounds administered by the province of

Taiwan was ceded to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895, after the Sino-Japanese war.

When Taiwan was returned in the Treaty of San Francisco, China says the islands as part of it should also have been returned.
Conflict in recent times

In 2010, Japan seized a Chinese trawler that collided with two coast guard vessels near to the islands, sparking a serious diplomatic row.
Small anti-Japanese protests were held in several cities in China. However, in the end, Japan released the entire crew of the trawler
first the 14-member crew and then the captain, several days later.

August 2012: a group of Pro-China activists sailed to the islands from Hong Kong, with seven landing on one island. All 14 on board,
including journalists and crew members, have been detained by Japanese authorities.

Durfar Conflict & South Sudan Independence: Timeline, Players, Similarities and differences
What is Sudan?

Area wise the largest nation of Africa.

But in 2011, South Sudan became an independent nation, so now the largest country of Africa= Algeria.
Background: Durfur and South Sudan

Carefully Observe the location of Durfar, South Sudan and neighbor African nations

Sudan achieved independence from the British in 1956.

But since the beginning, Sudan has been ruled from Khartoum by a small group of predominantly Arab elites hailing principally from the
Nile River valley in central Sudan.


Rather than working to develop Sudans economy, empower people in the peripheries of the country, and pull its citizens out of poverty,
these elites have hoarded wealth and power for themselves

Southern Sudan and Darfur each belong to this historically marginalized periphery. Successive governments in Khartoum have
either ignored these regions or sought to suppress them militarily.

As a result, southern Sudan and Darfur are two of the poorest, most war-torn, and most underdeveloped places on Earth.

In both situations, rebel groups arose to fight for greater political control and increased access to the resources controlled by ruling elites
in Khartoum.

And in both situations the government in Khartoum responded by arming and training ethnically-based militias and granting them
impunity to murder, rape, forcibly displace, and loot property from civilians the government accuses of supporting the rebellion.
Reasons for Conflict


What is the

Started in

Rebels fighting
against Omar
Al Bashir?

Durfur conflict

South Sudan independence movement

Western Sudan

Common sense.

the root of the problem is tension over land and

grazing rights between the mostly nomadic
Arabs vs the tribal Africans from the Fur,
Massaleet and Zaghawa communities.

Violence started in 2003 and continuing.

Root of the problem Is, South Sudan feels the

Government in North Sudan is just taking away
money from all natural (oil n gas) resources from
South yet not doing any Development in the region.

There has been bitterness since the 1962, at times

ceasefires and peace agreements.

2005 rebels and Government signed peace deal.

Finally in 2011, South Sudan gained independence.

Sudan Liberation Army (SLA).

Sudanese Peoples Liberation Movement (SPLM)

Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)

Dinka tribes.

Players in Durfur conflict


A typical Janjaweed goon usually rides horse and wants to kill some innocent Dufur Refugees



Government headed by President Omar Al Bashir.

Junjaweed Militias these are the Arab goons tolerated,
supported, funded and armed by the North Sudanese
Government (Omar al Bashir)

These are the Tribal Africans, following either Christianity or


Sudan Liberation Army (SLA). Earlier Minni

Minnawi was the main guy here but just like the Mafia
Movies of Bollywood, the SLA is now broken into various


Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)

These Arab gunmen petrol on horses, with AK-47 and

murder, rape and loot any innocent tribal African villagers in
the Durfur region.
In return, the Tribal Rebels also kill the innocent Sunni
Muslims villagers.

Players in South Sudan Independence Struggle

Northern Government

headed by President Omar Al Bashir.

Murahaleen Arab Militia.

They also murder, rape and loot any innocent tribal

Southern Rebels


Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA), earlier headed by

John Garang but he was killed in plane crash so Salva Kiir
Mayardiit became the main boss. Now he is the President of
South Sudan.


Dinka Tribes


Africans in the South Sudan region.

Theyre worse than the Junjaweed for Murahaleen goons

kidnap Southern Tribals and sell them in North as
Slaves for domestic labor or fieldwork in the north.

Arrest Warrent against Omar Al Bashir

following rebel attacks, (North) Sudanese Government mobilized the self-defence

militias (including the Janjaweed)

Whole villages have been sacked and razed to the ground by armed groups called
Janjaweed. Women are raped. Men are lined up and shot. Survivors are warned never to
return to their sacked villages. All these things do with impunity without any attempt by
the government to stop or punish them. Eye witness accounts say the janjaweed are
actually armed and equipped by government. The government denies this.

Omar Al Bashir is themain villian in

both conflicts

International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague issued an arrest warrant against Omar Al Bashir in 2008. (but he is not
yet arrested, why? we already discussed about that in earlier article. CLICK ME)


South Sudan

Fighting is still going on. The innocent villagers are hiding

in the UN Refugee camps

but they cannot venture out in jungles to collect firewood or

start farming or go back to their respective villages, because
the Junjaweed militia petrol those territories.

In 2005, the North Government and South rebels signed a

peace agreement, under which they were to hold a
referendum in within 6 years to determine the fate of
Southern parts.

The referendum was held in January 2011, and the Southern

people voted in favor of creating a new nation.

Thus South Sudan was created in July 2011 and it was

admitted as 193rd Member of UN.

North Vs South Sudan


North Sudan

South Sudan



Jungle and swamps


Arabic speaking muslims

Africans, following either Christianity or tribal religions.

Salva Kiir Mayardit

Omar Al Bashir


Capital city






Indias response
Predictable. Although we recognized South Sudan as a sovereign nation, on the very same day when it was formed, but India never
openly condemns any villains in UN assembly or in press conference- be it Omar Al Bashir or Bashar Al Assad, because if we do, it gives prompt
chance to Pakistan to raise human rights violation in Kashmir. So our Official line is
These are internal matters of respective countries and we urge both sides to resolve the matters peacefully through dialogues

Delaram Zaranj Highway, Chabahar Port: India-Iran-Afghanistan trade relations
Earlier we saw TAPI Pipeline issue, involving India-Afghanistan. (click Me if you didnt)
Here comes a new topic on India-Afghanistan (+Iran).

Afghanistan is a land-locked country. Most of its international trade is done through Pakistani sea-ports.

Therefore, India wished to connect to Afghanistan via an alternative route (through Iran).

So, In 2003 a trilateral agreement was signed among India, Iran and Afghanistan.

Under this agreement


Iran was to build a highway from Chabahar (a Port City of Iran) upto Afghanistan border.

India was to build a road connecting Delaram (border city of Afghanistan) to Zaranj (Capital of Nimruz province of Afghanistan)

India wanted to develop port @Chabahar (Iran) to do trading with Afghanistan, bypassing Pakistan.
Delaram-Zaranj Highway

DelaramZaranj Highway, also known as Route 606.

Length about 200km

It connects Delaram (border city of Afghanistan) to Zaranj (Capital of Nimruz province of Afghanistan).

India totally financed this project. (about 600 crore rupees).

Border Roads Organization (BRO) of India, has constructed this highway.

Construction started in 2005, and in 2009 the road was opened for public use.

During the construction of this highway,Taliban killed about 130 workers, including 4 Indians from BRO.

So far, all the roadway construction is finished.

India wished to access both Afghanistan and other central Asian nations (like Turkmenistan), through this Chabahar port, But the Chabahar port
is not yet fully developed to handle the huge cargo to and from India.
All these years, India was requesting Iran to allow them to do some port Development on this port.
Why Iran allowed Indian Investment?


In the early 2012, US put sanction against Iran Oil export, i.e. if any country imports
crude oil from Iran, then that countrys bank (through which payments are made to
Iran) will not be allowed to do transections in USA.

Because of this sanction, most of the nations stopped importing oil from Iran, except
some big ones like India and China, but India too felt the heat of US diplomatic
pressure and agreed to cut down oil imports from Iran.

Port city of Chabahar (Iran)

Majority of Irans nation income comes from Oil export, so, theyre also feeling the heat. They want money, so, Iranian Government has now
allowed India do invest upto $100 million in the Chabahar Port Development project.
Whats Indias Problem?
Well, now Indian Government fears that doing any investment in Iran= USA will be annoyed.
So, India wants two things

Afghanistan must make a commitment that it will do trading through this Iranian port. (otherwise the whole project will be
economically unviable). Because there is a good chance, Afghanistan may not do any trading at all, with pressure from US and Pakistan.


Afghanistan should sign a triparitate MoU with Iran and India, make it look like Afghanistan badly wants this project for the
Development of its own economy and we (Indians) are just helping in rebuilding the Afghanistan.

But Afghanistan has changed the tone now, theyre not saying anything about the project (may be under secret US pressure.) Theyre not keen on
signing any such agreement or MoU or statement.
In short, Indias problem is how to calibrate the political signal it sends out at a time when the West is focused on making economic sanctions
work effectively against Iran, especially when Afghanistan too has been reluctant given the issues involved.

Mohan talking with Karzai

16th NAM summit

16th NAM summit will be held in Iran, during August 30-31.

Mohan is going to visit this summit and will try to negotiate something with the Presidents of Iran and Afghanistan to sign up some new
MoU kinda document.

Joseph Koni, Lords Resistance Army, Uganda Child Soldiers
Lords Resistance Army

The Lords Resistance Army is a rebel group led by leader Joseph Kony.

The group originated in Northern Uganda as a movement to fight for the rights of the Acholi people.

The group has been fighting the Ugandan army for years and has been driven out of Uganda and is now scattered across Congo, Central
African Republic and Southern Sudan, where it conducts brutal attacks

Spread of LRA activity = Uganda, Congo, South Sudan, CAR.


1980 Holy Spirit Movement- The Lords Resistance Army (LRA) came to life as the Holy Spirit Movement in the early 1980s by a
woman called Alice Lakwena who claimed that the Holy Spirit had ordered her to overthrow the Ugandan govt because of the atrocities it
commits against the Acholi people. The Acholis live in Northern Uganda.

A large number of Acholi people flocked to Alice Lakwena, they had a lot of grudge against the Ugandan govt, the Holy Spirit Movement
gathered momentum however a battle fought between the movement and the Ugandan army resulted in its defeat and exile of Alice
Lakwena from Uganda to Kenya.

Thus in this time of turmoil for the movement, a man named Joseph Kony, claiming to be the cousin of Alice Lakwena took over as leader
of the movement and renamed it as the Lords Resistance Army (LRA).

1987 LRA Insurgeny- The Lords Resistance Army started armed insurgency activity in 1987


2002 Operation Iron Fist- In 2002, the Ugandan government launched Operation Iron Fist (with cooperation with the Sudanese
government, relations between both the countries had improved) against the LRA. This led the LRA to move into remote regions of
northern Uganda

2005 ICC issues warrants against Kony and his 4 commanders- In 2005 the International Criminal Court issued warrants
against 5LRA commanders, including Kony

2006 Indictment of Kony by ICC- In 2006 Joseph Kony was indicted by the International Criminal Court for various war crimes,
like abductions, killings, rape etc. In 2006 a second truce is agreed by both the sides (LRA and Ugandan govt) mediated by the Southern

2008 Juba Peace Talks and resumption of insurgency- Kony refuses to sign a permanent truce under the Juba Peace talk
because the ICC warrants have not be withdrawn against him. Thus LRA resumes its violent activities. The LRA starts abducting
children from not only Uganda but also South Sudan, Congo and the Central African Republic. Thus the
militaries/militias of Uganda, South Sudan and Congo launch Operation Lightening Thunder against the LRA.

2011 Involvement of US forces- United States dispatched 100 military advisors to Central Africa
Joseph Koni and his atrocities

The LRA under Konys command has been accused of abducting children and turning them into vicious child soldiers. Most of these
children are abducted from various villages, those who do not cooperate with LRA has either killed or mutilated. The able bodied
children are taken away and used as soldiers, weapons carriers, cooks, porters and even sex slaves.

Numerous attempts have been launched to reach a peace agreement with the LRA, but Kony has thwarted such attempts, however the
Ugandan Army claims that it has weakened the LRA significantly. However the LRA has spread its tentacles to Congo where the
MONUSCO is under-staffed and has had problems to contain it.

The International Criminal Court has issued arrest warrants against Joseph Kony and his men but he has not been arrested till now.

Moreover 100 US Special Forces operatives are aiding and advising the armies of 4 African nations which are pursuing the LRA.
Kony 2012 Viral Campaign on Youtube

In March 2012, a 30 minute documentary called Kony 2012, based on Joseph Kony was released. The documentary was directed by film
maker Jason Russell. Jason Russell made the documentary for the campaign group Invisible Children Inc.

The documentary went viral in March 2012 and became popular amongst millions of people around the world.

It was viewed on video sharing sites like You Tube, Vimeo. The documentary was the result of the effort of the charity and campaign
group, Invisible Children. Invisible Children has been putting in enormous effort to get Kony arrested.


Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC): suspension of Syria, Rohingyas, Jammu n Kashmir
Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

is an international organization consisting of 57 member states.

Established in 1969, to safeguard the interests and ensure the progress and well-being of Muslims.
Why is it in News?

King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, called up an emergency summit of OIC in mid-August 2012, in the city of Mecca.

This is only the fourth time in the history of OIC, that an emergency summit has been called.

Why? Official reason: to address the urgent agenda of the deepening divisions within and between Muslim majority states.

Unofficial reason: put pressure on Syrian Government to stop massacring the people.
Two main outcomes of OIC summit
On Rohingyas

OIC condemned the violence against the Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar.

OIC also released 14-point resolution to pressurise the Myanmarese government to stop the widespread discrimination and
administrative hostility being faced by Rohingya Muslims..

King Abdulla ordered assistance of $50 million to the Rohingyas.

Although Myanmar Government maintains that the violence in the Rakhine state has anything to do with race or religion, has avoided a
political confrontation with the OIC and other leading Islamic nations.
On Syrian Unrest


More than 10,000 protestors have been massacred so far, by President Bashar Al-Assads troops.

OIC has suspended Syrias membership on 15th August 2012.

This was done to send message to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad that OIC members will not accept the regime killing its people.

Although Iran (an OIC member) rejected the proposal saying : suspension of Syrias membership does not really resolve the issue and is
not in line with the OIC charter but majority of OIC members voted in favor of Syrias removal.
The pot calling the kettle black

While OIC calls for protecting the rights of the Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar, the OIC itself is having trouble securing the rights of
Muslim minorities and even majorities within its own member states. For example:

OIC member

Ruled by

Minority populations problem

Saudi Arabia


Shias complain about the lack of access to government jobs and full religious freedoms.



Shia majority has unhappy with them because of the misrule and underdevelopment.

Why India is not a member of OIC?

India has second largest population of Muslims in the world [Indonesia is first], yet we are not a member of OIC, Why?

In 1969, the first ever Islamic Summit Conference held Rabat [Capital of Morocco]

At that time, Pakistan was the largest Muslim country in the world.

And, Pakistani President Gen Yahya Khan had threatened to boycott the summit, if India was allowed membership.


For OIC it would have been a diplomatic disaster and death knell to the organization, if the worlds then largest Muslim country walked

So, King Hassan of Jordan, in his capacity as the chairman of Islamic Conference has decided to withdraw the invitation extended to
Indians and bar the Indian delegation from entering Morocco.

Thus, India couldnt get admitted to OIC.

Sidenote: India is an Observer state in OIC, while China and USA are not even observer states.
India and OIC: Problem area

Over the years, under Pakistani influence, OIC communiqu (a letter issued to press after the summit) used to equate Kashmir issue with
Palestine, and refered to Jammu and Kashmir as an occupied territory.

and Kashmiri separatists were also invited to attend the summits.

But now it appears that Pakistans influence at the OIC is fading.

In this latest OIC summit (Aug-2012), for the first time since 1995, Pakistan could not muster an invitation for All Party Hurriyat
Conference. But problem is far from over.
Jammu and Kashmir = Free country

In the Final Communique at OIC Summit 2012, the it was mentioned that
The Summit affirms its solidarity and full support for Sudan, Somalia, Afghanistan and Jammu and Kashmir, Iraq, Yemen, Ivory Coast, the
Union of Comoros and the Republic of Turkish-Cyprus in addressing the challenges facing these countries.
Indian Government officially opposed this statement and said
This is erroneous and factually incorrect mention about an integral part of India by the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

Syrian Unrest explained, Assads Friends and Foes, Kofi Annas Peace plan
What is the difference between Shia and Sunni Muslims?

Both Shia and Sunni agree on the fundamentals of Islam and share the same Holy Book (The Quran), but Differences originate from the
question of who would succeed the Prophet Muhammad as leader of the Muslim community after his death.



They chose Abu Bakr, a close Companion of the Prophet Muhammad,

as the Caliph (politico-social leader) of Muslim community.

They wanted Prophet Muhammads son-in-law Ali to be appointed

as Caliph (politico-social leader) of Muslim community.



Syria and its Neighbours

Damascus =Syrias capital

Aleppo =Syrias largest city.

President Assad Family

Bashar al-Assads father ruled Syria for nearly 30 years and died in 2000.

From 2000 to this date, Bashar Al Assad is the President of Syria.

al-Assad family is Alawite, a small branch of Shia Muslims.

But nearly 75% of Syrias population is Sunni Muslims.

Bashar has filled key positions in his government with either his family members or the Alawite Minority Muslims.

Combined with rampant corruption, inflation, unemployment, Syria was sitting on a volcano about to erupt.
Syrian Unrest

In January 2011, revolution in Tunisia marked the start of the so-called Arab Spring.


In March 2011, violence broke out in Daraa, Syria, after a group of children and teenagers were arrested for writing political graffiti.
Dozens of people were killed when security forces cracked down on protesters.

Demonstrators soon called for al-Assad to leave office, following in the footsteps of Egypts Hosni Mubarak and Tunisias Zine el Abidine
Ben Ali.

Al-Assad promised to make changes, and he lifted the countrys state-of-emergency law, which for 48 years gave the regime the power to
detain anyone without charge and hold them indefinitely.

But just four days after the emergency law was lifted in April 2011, the Syrian regime sent thousands of troops into Daraa for a wide-scale

Since then, the violence has only increased, spreading throughout the country and becoming a full-fledged civil war between the regime
and an armed resistance. More than 10,000 citizen had been killed by Assads Military crackdown.

Who supports Assad and why?


Why they support Assad?


Because ruled by Shia


Because it is a Shia Militant group cum Political party based in Lebanon.


Has a naval port and large diaspora. [we already discussed that in detail, earlier Click ME]


Has massive investments in Syria, in energy sector [oil,gas etc.].

Assad has given major defense contracts to China. [missile Development etc]

Chinese Government doesnt want Chinese protestors to replay the same events at home, demanding freedom of speech


and democracy.

It doesnt want America to dominate over this region.

Who is against Assad and why?


Why against Assad?

Junta of

Common sense.


because ruled by Sunnis.


Same as above.


Syria has been actively supporting Hamas and Hezbollah while sharing a border with Israel.

If America could somehow install a friendly regime (new President), then itd help it gain absolute hegemony
(domination) over the Middle East and further isolate Iran.

Reaction of the world

United States and many of its Western allies have imposed economic sanctions against Syria, condemning al-Assad and demanding that
he leave power.

But they have not persuaded the U.N. Security Council [UNSC] to do the same.

China and Russia two of Syrias commercial partners have vetoed several proposed resolutions on Syria in the UNSC.

OIC has suspended Syrias membership.

Saudi and Bahrain are providing weapons to the Syrian rebels.

Kofi Annan peace plan for Syria

Also known as six-point peace plan for Syria

February 2012, Kofi Annan was appointed as the joint U.N.-Arab League special envoy to Syria to settle down the Syrian crisis.

March 2012, he submitted 6-point peace plan to UN

According to this plan, Assad would ceasefire and withdraw the troops and crackdown. Then Government and rebels would do talks,
negotiation, allow more Sunnis in parliament. Foreign Reporters would be allowed to do news-coverage etc.etc.etc. but it didnt
materialize because
Houla massacre


it is a region in Syria, where 100+ civilians were killed in May 2012.

Syrian government alleged that Al-Qaeda terrorist groups were responsible for the killings

while Houla residents and opposition groups allege Syrian militarys hand behind the incident.
Why Kofi Annans Mission failed?

After this Houla massacre, the Rebels started attacking Government establishments again, and thus providing convenient excuse to
President Assad to continue mass-murdering innocent civilians, again.

Kofi got frustrated and resigned from the envoy job after working for around 6 months. [From February to August 2012] and he gave
following reasons why he couldnt solve Syrian crisis

1. Syrian governments intransigence [stubbornness]

2. the growing militancy of Syrian rebels [as long as they use violence, Assad gets convinient excuse to use military]

3. Divided Security Council [UNSC] that failed to forcefully back his effort. Since Kofi took on the job, Russia and China have twice used
their veto power to block strong Western- and Arab-backed action against President Bashar Assads regime.

U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said he accepted Kofis resignation with deep regret, adding that the hell search for successor to
Kofi, who will stay on until Aug. 31. 2012
UN General Assembly

Has 193 members.

In August 2012, it passed the resolution that denounced Syrias crackdown on its people and demanded that the country lockdown its
chemical and biological weapons.

India abstained from this voting.

Indias problem

India needs Saudi Arab for energy security and for keeping pressure on Pakistan over Kashmir and terror issues.

At the same time, India cant ignore the strategic significance of Iran for its regional policy towards Afghanistan, Pakistan and Central
Asia. [recall the Chahbahar port article.]

Overall, India has signaled its broad support for the Arab League and its positions on Syria.

But India is reluctant to back any externally induced regime change in Syria.

National Security: Naresh Chandra Task Force recommendations
Why this Task Force?


It was setup by Mohan in 2011, and gave the report in 2012 (somewhere in August)

to review the current the national security system

to suggest measures to strengthen the national security apparatus.

Naresh Chandra is a retired IAS and rest of the team has diplomats, defense experts, RAW, IB,
army, navy officers etc.

Naresh Chandra

Recommendations of Naresh Chandra Task Force on National security

[not exhaustive]

On the Enemies of India

On China

China will become militarily more assertive and nationalistic as its economic and military power grows.

China will continue to utilize Pakistan as part of its grand strategy for containing India in a South Asian box.

United states will become more circumspect and accommodating in dealing with China.


Therefore India should shift focus of national security strategy from Pakistan to China.

Army be given management of Sino-Indian borders and India should become more assertive in dealing with China.
On Pakistan

Pakistani military hasnot given up the use of radical Islamic groups to promote terrorism in both India and Afghanistan

biggest concern is Pakistans ambition to use Afghanistan for strategic depth.

India should spare no effort, politically, diplomatically, economically and through military assistance to ensure that Pakistani efforts to
convert Afghanistan into an extremist run, pliant and client state are frustrated.
On Naxalites
Secret Talks

government give up its pre-condition of cessation of violence for opening talks with Naxalites.

Instead, Government should try to secretly reach the pro-talks elements within the top Naxal leadership and tell them that the
government will not be cowed down by their acts of violence and that dialogue is the best option to redress their grievances.

Even if the peace efforts do not lead to solution, itll lead to confusion and division within the pro-talk and anti-talk elements in
Naxal leadership.

Even during the talks and negotiations, the Area domination will have to continue and forces must keep track of the Maoist elements who
come overground for the talks. [because in 2004 a short-lived ceasefire-cum-talks between the Andhra Pradesh establishment and CPI
(Maoist) was conveniently used by the naxalites to regroup and rearm themselves.]
More army presence in Naxal areas

Army should not involve in direct combat with naxals but army should establish more training institutes in Naxal areas.

And then, from those traninig institutes, army should reach out to the tribals residing in surrounding villages by offering them facilities
like schools, medical care and potable drinking water. This may help in eroding the support base of the Naxalites.

Army training schools proposed in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Maharashtra will help train the central paramilitary forces
engaged in counter-Naxal duties in jungle warfare.
Make More Institutions
Advanced Projects Agency (APA)

to undertake high-risk futuristic military research.

The head of APA will act as Scientific Advisor to Defense Minister. [scientific advisor to the Raksha Mantri (SA to RM).]

APA will be assisted by


UGC (University Grants Commission)

CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)

BARC ( Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

TIFR (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research)


Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.

APA would fund research in institutions like IITs, universities and private laboratories.

APA will not be involved with DRDO

DRDO must assume responsibility for managing the DRDOs laboratories and research centres and ensuring the on-time delivery of
projects undertaken there.
Bureau of politico-military affairs

Defence ministry should set up a bureau of politico-military affairs

this Bureau would be liaison with the ministry of external affairs (MEA) on issues and actions having foreign policy applications

ministry of external affairs (MEA) should not work in isolation from other ministries, particularly with respect to securing access to
strategic materials, hydrocarbons etc.
Defense university and Think Tank

establish a National defense University (NDU)

create a separate think-tank on internal security.

A sub-group on defense technology, comprising representatives of DRDO, military, private sector, academia, military and other
FDI in defense

Right now only 26%

Need to increase it to 49%

So that we can manufacture items in India, using the latest technologies already developed by foreign entities.
Get more Staff [Personnel]

Amend the Prevention of Corruption Act to reassure honest officers that theyll not be harassed for making defence equipment

Induct more foreign language experts into the intelligence and security agencies.

Allow more cross-postings between Service HQ (Army, Navy, Airforce) and Ministry of Defence

The ministry of external affairs (MEA) doesnt have enough diplomats to anticipate, analyze and act on contemporary challenges

quality of new recruits (through UPSC) is often uneven


(for example UPSC topper Alok Ranjan Jha became IFS but allegedly got drunk and misbehaved with Air India staff in New
York and thus he was recalled. Some other IFS officers showing their mardaangi by beating up wives and maids and appearing
in newspaper headlines every now and then.)


several recruits refuse to join the MEA.

It requires huge time and effort to train new IFS officers and making them proficient in English and other foreign languages.
[IFS training takes around 3 years, while IAS/IPS training done in about 2 years]

Therefore, Ministry of External Affairs should accept officials from civil services and armed forces on short duration (five years)
deputations rather than solely relying on UPSC.

Indian embassies and missions, which are required to play a key role in issues such as acquisition of raw materials, hydrocarbons, should
be staffed with consultants with the requisite technical and technological background.
Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee (CoSC)

Need COSC to keep an eye on China and Pak

He will have a fixed tenure of two years and will be rotated among the three services (Army, Navy, Airforce).

Hell be in charge of making net assessment about the strengths and weaknesses of Indias adversariesChina and Pakistanin a holistic

Currently, the three services make their individual assessments [about China and Pak], which remains buried in files that never see the
light of the day.
Special Forces

a separate command structure under the chairman chiefs of staff committee.

These special force will be dealing with foreign backed proxy wars and combat search and rescue operation or handling hostage crisis.
[something like US NAVY SEALS that killed Bin Laden.]

ADDU declaration in SAARC Summit
What is SAARC?

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

established 1985


HQ: Kathmandu
Members of SAARC

finally one map in google search doesnt include Kashmir in Pakistan

8 Members
















Sri Lanka

9 Observors






European Union










South Korea


United States

It seems United States is an observer in pretty much every organization, but do you recall any organization(s), where USA is not a observer?

What is ADDU declaration?

Addu is the second largest city of Mamldives (capital is Male), where 17th SAARC conference was held. (September 2011)

Theme of this Addu summit : Building Bridges.

The leaders of SAARC Nations, issued a 20-points declaration here, which is known as Addu Declaration.

By the way, the 18th Summit will be held in Kathmandu, Nepal in 2013.

In short, Addu declaration means

We (the SAARC leaders) will do this, this and this- total 20 things
Out of the 20 points of ADDU declaration, Here are the important (and easy to remember) points.

South Asian Free Trade Area or SAFTA is an agreement reached at the 12th SAARC summit in Islamabad, Pakistan [2004].

SAFTA is to reduce customs duties of all traded goods to zero by the year 2016.

ADDU says well intensify efforts to fully and effectively implement SAFTA


SAARC Finance Ministers will work for greater flow of financial capital and intra-regional long-term investment.
Trade fair

To hold the Twelfth SAARC Trade Fair + SAARC Travel and Tourism Fair in Kulhudhuffushi, Maldives in 2012.

Try for Regional Railways Agreement

Should do a demonstration run of a container train (Bangladesh India Nepal).


work on the Indian Ocean Cargo and Passenger Ferry Service

this will revolutionise movement of people and goods within the region.

timely implementation of the Thimphu Statement on Climate Change.

Energy Cooperation and the Study on the Regional Power Exchange Concept as also the work related to SAARC Market for Electricity.

appropriate percentage of national income should go towards the respective countries renewable energy investments
Food security

Work on SAARC Food Bank.

This Food Bank will supplement national efforts to provide food security to the people of the region.

root out terrorism, taking into account its linkages with illegal trafficking in narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and small arms

Make coordinated and concerted efforts to combat terrorism [good joke, given that Pakistan is also in SAARC]

Ratify of the SAARC Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters.


Cooperate to combat maritime piracy in the region.


empowerment of women and gender equality in the region

Work on the Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution


Mutual recognition of academic and professional degrees. [So, IIPM degree, which is not recognized by UGC, will it be recognized in
Pakistan, perhaps!?]

Establishment of long-term linkages among universities, research institutions and think-tanks in the region.

convene a Regional Conference on Media to consider deepening collaboration in the region.

decide which day to celebrate as SAARC Media day.

Mock Question

Which of the following statements are true?


Addu is the capital of Maldives.


SAARC has 7 members.


All the countries sharing physical borders with India, except China, are members of SAARC.


Secretariat of SAARC is in Thimpu.


Only one member of SAARC is an island nation.


SAARC summit of 2013 will be held in New Delhi.



Addu Declaration (2 marker, 20 words)


Write a note on Addu declaration (12 marks, 120 words)

Connect Central Asia Policy: Meaning, Features, Significance for India
What is Central Asia?
It is made up of five nations













Collectively theyre known as Central Asian Republics (CAR)

also known as the underbelly of Eurasia

Central Asia (Political)

Why is Central Asia important for India?

rich resource of hydrocarbons and minerals.

lies on the old silk route connecting China and South Asia to West Asia and Europe.

So we can setup factories in CAR, we can directly launch our products in EU (decreasing the transportation cost).
Indias problem in Central Asia?

Central Asia has huge reserves of hydrocarbon and Minerals.

But we are unable to get them because of Transportation problems


through Afghanistan : problem region is unstable due to Talibans.


through Iran: problem- itll annoy Americans. (recall the Chabahar port article)

The Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) and Iran-Pakistan-India(IPI) pipelines projects are not moving smoothly due to
Pakistan and Afghanistan.

There are three key locations from which we can access the Central Asia


Chahabar and Bandar Abbas ports in Iran


Hajigak/Bamiyan in Afghanistan


Bandar Anzali on the Caspian Sea.

What has China done in Central Asia?

China has already built roads, railways and pipelines across this resource-rich region.

Oil pipelines from the Caspian Sea across Kazakhstan

gas pipeline from Turkmenistan via Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan,

deep-sea port of Gwadar in Pakistan

China is exploiting the Siberian timber, Mongolian iron ore, Kazakh oil, Turkmen natural gas and Afghan copper through this
transportation network.
What is Connect Central Asia Policy?

India has launched this Connect Central Asia Policy to


Tap the natural resources (oil,gas,iron-ore etc) of Central Asia.

Counter the hegemony (domination) of China in this region.

This policy was formally declared at Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) by our Minister of State (External Affairs) in June 2012.

Under this policy, well do following things

Meet and Greet



Well build strong political relations with these nations via the exchange of high level visits. Example

Their Presidents/ PMs coming to India and Mohan doing the reverse.

Inviting their Presidents as chief guests on our 26 th Jan. parades.)

Mohan will continue to interact with Central Asian leaders, closely both in bilateral and multilateral fora. i.e SCO, Eurasian Economic
Community (EEC), Custom Union, UN etc.
Fire and kill

Well strengthen our strategic and security cooperation with this countries.

Military training, joint research, counter-terrorism coordination and close consultations on Afghanistan.
Trade and Prosper

Proposed a Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement

Kazakhstan, have almost limitless reserves of iron ore and coal, as well as abundant cheap electricity. India can help set up several
medium size steel rolling mills, producing its requirement of specific products.

Right now, due to absence of a viable banking infrastructure in the Central Asian region, we are unable to do much trade and investment.
So, Indian banks will be setting up branches here.


International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC)


It is a joint venture between Iran, India, Russia and Azerbaijan

It will connect India to Central Asia through Iran via rail, road and ship network.

International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC)

Teach and Heal

Well help set up a Central Asian University in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) to impart world class education in areas like IT, management,
philosophy and languages.

Well set up a Central Asian e-network with its hub in India, to deliver, tele-education and tele-medicine connectivity, linking all the
five Central Asian States.

Well be setting up civil hospitals/clinics in Central Asia.

Fly and Film

Well improve air connectivity with those countries. (lolz perhaps via Air India!)

Central Asian countries could emerge as attractive holiday destinations for tourists and even for the Indian film industry which likes to
depict exotic foreign locales in its films.

We will encourage regular exchanges of scholars, academics, civil society and youth delegations to gain deeper insights into each others


Rajnikanth might shoot his next movie in Tajikistan, but if weve Rajnikanth on our side then we shouldnt be worried about Chinese Hegemony
over Central Asia in the

Nuclear Security Summit at Seoul: Outcomes, Indias contribution
What is nuclear security?
Nuclear security is a series of preemptive measures to

Prevent nuclear crime (smuggling of nuke materials, nuke-terrorism)


Prevent nuclear accidents (at Nuke power plants such as Chernobyl and Fukushima)
Why Nuclear Security Summit?

Nuclear terrorism cannot be addressed by a single nation- international cooperation is necessary.

First Nuclear Security Summit, was held in Washington in 2010.

Second Nuke security Summit was held in Seoul (South Korea) in 2012.

53 countries including the P5 nations (nuclear weapons states) and states not party to the NPT, such as India, Pakistan, and

UN, IAEA, and EU


Third Nuke Security summit will be held in Netherlands in 2014.

Seoul Communiqu

After the second nuke summit @Seoul in 2012, the participants agreed to do this- total 11 things.
Here are the important ones
Goodbye HEU and welcome LEU


Highly enriched uranium (HEU) is used in nuke reactors and medical field but it can be used for making nuke bombs.

Therefore, every nation should switch to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel.

More talking

Well encourage the participation of industry, academia, the media, NGOs and other civil actors in the discussions on nuclear security.

Well host the next Nuclear Security Summit in the Netherlands

More funding

Well make voluntary contributions to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund.

This money will be spent to help the poor countries to upgrade their HEU plants into LEU plants and improve their security.

Mohan said Ill give 1 million dollars in it.

More Policing

Well increase the physical protection of nuclear facilities

Well increase the protection of nuclear materials and radioactive sources during transport

Well prevent the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials

Well enhance the emergency response capabilities in the case of radiological accidents

Well share information on persons involved in nuke smuggling via INTERPOL

Well Build nuclear forensics capacity to identify the source of illicitly trafficked nuclear materials

Well enhance cyber security at nuclear facilities and Increase the protection of sensitive nuclear security-related information
More cleaning

Well improve the management of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes.

Radioactive materials are widely used in industrial, medical, research, agricultural purpose their security is just as important to
prevent and recover lost, stolen or orphaned sources.

Otherwise, even the decayed and discarded nuke material can be used to make dirty bombs.
Indias commitment to Nuke Security



Weve donated one million US dollars to the Nuclear Security Fund of International Atomic Energy Agency.


We are a member of the IAEA Commission on Nuclear Safety Standards


We are participant in the IAEAs Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB), it disseminates information on confirmed reports about illicit
trafficking and other unauthorized activities and events involving nuclear material.


We also cooperate with the Interpols Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism Prevention Unit and the World Customs Organization.


We enacted the Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Act, 2005


We are taking steps to minimize of use of HEU and upgrading our nuke plants accordingly. We have recently developed an Advanced
Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) that uses LEU fuel.


We aim to establish an independent Nuclear Safety Regulatory Authority which will enhance oversight of nuclear security in India. (bill
in parliament)


We are party to

International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism


Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material



Kyoto Protocol, Carbon Trading, Copenhagen Accord: Meaning, Explained

What is Rio Summit/ Earth Summit ?

It was a United nations summit, held in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in 1992.

It led to creation of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

What is the UNFCCC?

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

Created because of the Rio Summit/ Earth Summit of 1992.

It is an international treaty for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Nearly every country on Earth is a party to the UNFCCC.

What is Conference of the Parties (COP)?

The nations, whove signed UNFCCC convention, meet every year to discuss climate change strategy.

These meetings are called Conference of the Parties (COP)

The first COP (COP 1) was held in Berlin.

Third COP (COP 3) held in Kyoto, Japan. It was here the famous Kyoto Protocol came in to existence.

2011: COP held in Durban, S.Africa.

2012: COP will be held in Doha, Qatar in November 2012 (so it becomes important topic for next prelims!)
What is Kyoto Protocol?

1997: third meeting of UNFCC nation (also known as Conference of Parties/COP3),

In this meeting Kyoto Protocol was created.

Kyoto protocol wants the Industrialised nations to reduce their green house gas emission by around 5.2% by 2012. (measured against
1990 levels)

Before dwelling much into Kyoto, some important terms.

What is common but differentiated responsibilities?

The developed countries such as US,UK have already polluted the atmosphere with greenhouse gases (GHGs) through industrialization.
So theyre the one who created/started global warming and all the mess.

While Developing countries (India and Brazil) have started polluting the world only recently.

Therefore, the developing countries such as India, Brazil should share less of the burden of lowering overall emissions.

And Developed countries (US,UK) should bear more responsibility in fixing this global warming mess etc. because theyre the one more
responsible for it.


So, while it is the Common responsibility of every nation of this world, to reduce Green house gas emission, but there should be some
difference between the responsibility given to developed countries and developing countries.

Kyoto Protocol follows that principle and assigns separate responsibilities to the countries.

Annex means some elaboration/detail given at the end of a book/treaty.



List of industrialized countries and economies in transition: US, France, Japan etc.

These countries had pledged to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000.

A sub-group of Annex 1 Countries, these Annex II countries are required to give financial assistance and technology to
the developing countries (non-Annex countries).

Developing countries like India, Brazil, China.

They donot have compulsory binding targets to reduce green house gas emission, although they are encouraged to do it.

Annex I

Annex II


It gives the list of 6 Green House gases that are responsible for the whole problem

Annex A


Carbon dioxide (CO2);


Methane (CH4);


Nitrous oxide (N2O);


Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs);


Perfluorocarbons (PFCs); and


Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)

This gives the Annex I countries (Developed countries) compulsory binding targets to reduce green house gas emission.

For example USA is required to cut down its emission by 7%

Annex B

Back to Kyoto Protocol

Ok, so far we learned that

In Earth Summit, Rio De Janero, Brazil, they formed a treaty called UNFCCC

The UNFCCC gangsters meets every year, there is item song, gun-firing, consumption of desi-liquor and deliberations on how to fix the
global warming problem and these meetings are called Conference of Parties COP.


In third such COP meeting @Kyoto, Japan, they come up with an idea under which

Developed nations like US, will compulsorily reduce their green house gas (GHG) emission by 2012.

Developing nations like India, should reduce GHG emission but not compulsory.

Although various countries signed Kyoto Protocol in 1997, it did not came into force immediately.

Kyoto protocol came into force only after required number of Annex 1 Countries ratified it.

So this was achieved only in 2005.

Thus, Kyoto although signed in 1997, came into force in 2005.

Kyoto protocol: How does it actually work?

Suppose Abdul, Bhide and Champak (ABC) goto a Gujarati dining hall. This hall serves only fixed dish i.e. 1 sabji, 4 roti,dal and rice.
And each dish costs Rs.50. If you want more roti then youll have to pay extra 5 rupees per roti.

Now Champak is an old man so he cannot eat all the 4 rotis served in his plate. He eats only two rotis.

On the other hand, Abdul and Bhide are quite hungry, so they want more, they take 1-1 roti each from Champaks plate and agree to pay
5-5 rupees to him.

Another example: You know how broadband internet billing works= there are plans for example 2GB plan for Rs.500 That means as long
as you download music, movies etc. worth less than or equal to 2GB then youll get bill of Rs.500 but if you download more files above
2GB quota, then company will charge you Rs.1 per MB of extra download.

Similarly, Under Kyoto Protocol, each Annex-B country is given emission target quota (Kyoto Units).

For example, for the year 2009, Australias allowed quota was 2,957,579,143 Kyoto units. (each unit is equivalent to 1 ton of carbon

Now, as long as Australia emits that much green house gas= no problem.

So first of all, Australian Government should do all steps to make sure it doesnt cross that quota for example

Making compulsory anti-pollution laws: for example a Tire making company with daily output of 200 tires must not emit more
than 200 tonnes of green house gas per year.

Promoting solar energy, reducing tax on solar cells, wind mill equipments etc.

If a family buys second car then it will have to pay higher tax (just like Chinas one child policy but with cars!)

if a kid is found bunking his college lecture and loitering on his motorbike then hell be fined for polluting the environment.

But even after all these measures, if Australia wants to emit more green house gas, then it will have to buy additional quota or units from
another country. Kyoto Protocol allows three mechanisms to do so
#1 Emissions Trading / Carbon Trading

Suppose two Annex B parties are Japan and Australia.

Japan was given quota of 100 units

And Australia was given quota of 200 units.


But Austrialian Government is unable to maintain this limit and Australia emits 210 units of green house gas, in given year.

On the other side, Japanese Government takes very strong steps to control emission and hence they only emit 90 units of Green House
gas. So it has spare 10 Kyoto Units.

Now, under Emission trading system, Australia can buy this 10 spare kyoto units from Japan and thus remain within its limit.

In real life scenario, each annex B country makes law giving fixed quota to the companies.

Suppose steel factory cannot emit more than 1 ton of Green house gas

Tire company cannot emit more than 2 tonnes of green house gas.

So if tire company owner buys superfine machinaries that produce less gas so he has some spare credit/quota (say 1 ton)

While Steel factory emits more than its allowed quota (suppose it was allowed 2 tonnes but emitted 3 tonnes)

Then the steel company can pay the tire company and get a certificate that weve purchase 1 ton quota from this xyz tire
company. This Is the essence of Carbon Trading.

Here are some charts to understand it better. But the text in below image is hard to read (because the original images were in low
quality). Solution =just hold down Ctrl Key on your keyboard and move your mouse-wheel upwards and itll zoom the image.


#2 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

Suppose Annex B country Australia is given emission quota of 200 units, but it emits 210 units of green house gas.

But Australia can finance a solar power project in some village of India (Non-Annex or developing Country) and get certificate that the
solar plant led to reduction of 10 units of green house gas. In this way, Australia will remain in its quota/limit.

Similarly, suppose Australian Government has passed a law that a steel production company with output of 200 tonnes of steel per a day,
must not emit more than 10 units of green house gas in a year.

But this company wants to produce more steel, then its green house gas emission has increased to 11 units. (1 more unit above
the quota)

So this company can also do some solar-projects in India, Brazil etc. and get a certificate that it has led to reduction of 1 unit of
GHG emission. = problem solved.
#3 Joint Implementation (JI)


This is identical to CDM.

In CDM, Australia can do good project in a non-Annex country (developing country) e.g. India.

In Joint Implementation, Australia can do the good project in another Annex B country e.g. Japan to meet the quota.
Why USA did not ratify Kyoto Protocol?

US President George W Bush refused to ratify Kyoto protocol saying that it would gravely damage the US economy.

for example a US steel company would need to either buy Carbon Credits from another company or invest in some projects in a
developing country), while an Indian or Chinese Steel company has no such obligation so their cost of production = low, hence they can
sell their products @lower MRP = US steel company will loose customers.

So US Government feels is that the treaty is fatally flawed, because it does not require developing countries (especially India and China)
to commit to emissions reductions.

After President Bush, President Obama too, didnt ratify Kyoto protocol for the same reason. (plus we should also understand that the
powerful US industrialist lobby may stop election funds to a candidate, if he is in favor of Kyoto protocol, so USA is unlikely to ratify
Kyoto or any such future protocols that are legally binding!)
Canada Quits Kyoto protocol

In 2011, Canada, become the first country to quit the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, saying the 1997 accord was handicapped
because top green house emitters like the United States and China not covered by it. (Because USA has refused to ratify the treaty and
China being an Annex II country has no compulsory responsibility to cut down emission.)
What is the Copenhagen Accord?

Recall that UNFCCC countries meet every year and it is called Conference of Parties (COP).

15th such meeting was held @Copenhagen, Denmark = COP15

In the meeting, the BASIC blocBrazil, South Africa, India and Chinaand the U.S., came up with a political agreement.

This agreement is known as the Copenhagen Accord.

It says all countries should pledge to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emission but all of the pledges made under the Copenhagen Accord
are voluntary; There are no binding obligations placed on these pledges by the UNFCCC or any other international body.

UNFCCC acknowledged the Copenhagen Accord and has assisted in collecting the GHG reduction pledges of various countries.

Copenhagen Accord also lays the groundwork for financial commitments from developed countries (US,UK) to developing countries
(India,Brazil etc) for climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts.
Important Players in climate change

The First commitment period of Kyoto will end in 2012.

Thats why, the next meeting (COP18, Doha, Qatar in Nov2012) becomes very critical.

So nowadays UNECC nations are trying to form factions (small gangs) to discuss what should be their stand in that meeting?

either extend commitments under Kyoto or

create a successor of Kyoto Protocol: a post-2012 international climate treaty.

United States


China is the world leader in total annual Green House Gas emissions

U.S. is second.

EU is third.

United States is the only Annex I country that has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol.

In line with the Copenhagen Accord, the U.S. has pledged a 17% reduction in GHG emissions, against a 2005 baseline, by 2020. (but this
is not legally binding).

As we saw earlier, US is not in favour of any legally binding commitments. Besides, Obama has to face election in November.
BASIC Countries

Brazil, South Africa, India and China,

this group includes the worlds major emerging economies and some of its largest emitters

together, the group accounts for around 30% of global GHG emissions.

BASIC countries, along with the US, were the authors of the Copenhagen Accord and will continue to be some of the most influential
players in the negotiations.

All of the BASIC countries have ratified the Kyoto Protocol.

But theyre not under any binding obligation to meet a specified target. (because these countries are not part of Annex B countries of
Kyoto Protocol).

Under the Copenhagen Accord, China and India have pledged to reduce their carbon intensitythe amount of GHG emissions per unit
GDPby 40-45% and 20-25%, respectively, against 2005 levels by 2020. (again not legally binding).

BASIC countries recently met in Brazil in September 2012, and declared their intentions (what they want in COP meeting @Doha, Qatar
in Nov.2012):

rich countries should take on more of a burden to reduce emissions because of their historical contribution to global warming.


new agreement should respect the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities,


new Kyoto commitment period should start on January 1, 2013

European Union (EU)

EU is a Party to both the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol.

EU is the 3rd largest GHG polluter, accounting for about 12% of global emissions

EU states have ratified Kyoto.

Alliance of Small Island State (AOSIS)

Not really a player, these are the future victims if green house gas emission is not reduced.

AOSIS is an team of 43 small island and low-lying coastal countries (Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba etc.)

More green house gas = rise in global temperature = ice melts= sea level rise =many of these areas to become uninhabitable.


RIO +20 Summit: Meaning, Outcomes and Indias Stand at RIO +20, Sustainable Development
What is Rio+20?

The Earth Summit was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992. Therefore it is also known as RIO Summit. (Recall the Kyoto Protocol
article CLICK ME)


Rio+20 the short name for the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development.


It took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 2012


Since there is twenty years of gap (2012-1992) between these two summits, the latest RIO Summit is nicknamed RIO +20
What was the objective of RIO+20?

By this conference UN wanted to bring together governments, international institutions and major (NGO) groups to agree on a range of smart
measures for

poverty reduction


clean energy


Sustainable development. And this Sustainble Development has three pillers


economic development,


social development


environmental protection.
What is sustainable development?


You might have seen one ad in which a kid and his dad are sitting in the car. Theyre waiting for the green light but dad has kept the car
engine on. The kid says when I grow up, Ill open a bicycle repair shop, because the way youre using petrol, there wont be any left for
future generation.


Sustainable Development is reverse of that.


Sustainable development means, meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs.


Rio 20: 2 Themes

Official discussions will focus on two main themes

How to build a green economy to achieve sustainable development


How to lift people out of poverty, including support for developing countries for taking green path for development.
Rio 20: Seven priority areas


Why important?

Economic recession has taken a toll on jobs

There will be over 500 million job seekers over the next 10 years.

There is need to create more Green jobs= jobs in agriculture, industry, services and administration that can save the


Energy is essential for jobs security, climate change, food production or increasing incomes. (poverty reduction)


Cities are hubs for ideas, commerce, culture, science, productivity, social development and much more.





Cities have enabled people to advance socially and economically.

But Common city challenges include congestion, lack of basic services, poor hygiene and sanitation, unsafe drinking

Climate change is putting even more pressure on food security.

On earth there will be additional 2 billion people by 2050.

Right now, our soils, freshwater, oceans, forests and biodiversity are being rapidly degraded to increase the food

So Rio 20 is the place to rethink how we grow, share and consume our food.

There is sufficient fresh water on the planet.

But due to bad economics or poor infrastructure, every year millions of people, most of them children, die from
diseases associated with inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene

Water scarcity, poor water quality and inadequate sanitation negatively impact food security, livelihood choices and
educational opportunities for poor families across the world

Drought afflicts some of the worlds poorest countries, worsening hunger and malnutrition.

By 2050, at least one in four people is likely to live in a country affected by chronic or recurring shortages of fresh

Our rainwater, drinking water, weather, climate, coastlines, much of our food, and even the oxygen in the air we
breathe, are all ultimately provided and regulated by the sea.

Oceans and seas have been vital conduits for trade and transportation. Careful management of this essential global
resource is a key feature of a sustainable future

Disasters are caused by earthquakes, floods, droughts, hurricanes, tsunamis etc.

They have devastating impacts on people, environments and economies.

Smart choices help us recover from disasters, while poor choices make us more vulnerable.

These choices relate to how we grow our food, where and how we build our homes, how our financial system works,
what we teach in schools and more. Therefore RIO 20 aims to change the way these choices are made.



Rio 20: Indias stand

No commitment (unlike Salman Khan)

India does not want legally binding commitments or targets for sustainable development. [We want something like Copenhagen
Accord. Recall Kyoto Protocol Article]


WTO subsidy
WTO comes into the RIO 20 picture because international trade is important for sustainable Development and poverty removal.
WTO was discussed a long time ago CLICK ME
Anyways, idea/problem/crux is this

WTO wants that there should be free flow of goods and services between nations, without heavy taxes/import duty etc. things.


But USA gives heavy subsidies to its farmers, so they can grow and sell cotton and corn very cheaply. So if there is a totally free system,
US can flood its agro products in India, and our farmers cannot compete. India doesnt like this and wants protection.

So Technically speaking ,

India wants For a fair and equitable global trade regime to achieve development.

India wants export subsidies for agricultural products (by US/EU etc big players) to be curbed.

Similarly, India wants removal of non-tariff barriers affecting labour intensive exports from developing countries.

And enforcement of the special and differential treatment provisions of the WTO.

Apart from that, India also wants need for greater representation of developing countries, in the Bretton Woods Institutions (IMF, World Bank).
Give us the damn secret technology!


Most environment-friendly/green technologies are with the developed countries.

RIO 20 should facilitate the transfer of these technologies from developed countries (US) to developing countries (India) on concessional
terms (i.e. @reasonable price).

India also wants Early operationalization of the Nagoya Protocol (for Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of
Benefits Arising from their Utilization (ABS))

creation of a Sustainable Development Fund for providing finances to the developing countries.

In short, India wants adequate flow of resources and technologies to developing countries.
Green stimulus packages

Just like the Governments round the world, India is also promoting public and private investment in sectors like renewable energy, forest
conservation and water management.

Indian Government has been investing and improving the urban mass transportation, railways, public water supply and sanitation, and
common facilities for pollution control and waste management, forest quality, watershed development, conservation and sustainable use
of biodiversity
Dont lecture us in Subsidy

in practice governments of developing countries give subsidies in merit goods for e.g. food, public health, drinking water and primary
education and agriculture etc.

For example cheap diesel and electricity to farmers, concessional bus and railway passes for students, kerosene and ration to poor people
and so on.

India says that these subsidies should be left to the sovereign rights of the States as per national policies and circumstance. (and RIO 20
or any other international conference shouldnt put any limit, target or legal commitment on it.)
Dont lecture us on Eco-tax reform

It is based on the polluter pays principle i.e., the polluter pays the cost of environmental damage he imposes on the society.

The eco tax reform initiated in India includes tax exemptions and lower taxes for certain environment -friendly goods.

But India feel there is no one size fits all solution on eco-tax reforms and so RIO 20 shouldnt lecture on this (or impose commitments)

And Sustainable development is a much larger canvas than merely addressing the environmental issues.
Youll not decide our Sectoral priorities

Example of sectoral priorities= poverty eradication, afforestation, watershed development in dry lands, rural connectivity, mass
transport, protecting biodiversity, clean water, rural connectivity, creation of post-harvest management facilities, rural renewable energy
systems and so on.

India feels that Sectoral priorities are a matter of national choice, based on the stage of development, national circumstances, domestic
resource availability, and external support both technical and financial.

So RIO 20 shouldnt lecture that you should first give priority to mass transport and then to land degradation. And you should allot xyz
% of your GDP in this sector etc.

To sum, what India wants is Principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities. (Explained in Kyoto article.)
Ok, so far we saw RIO 20 is all about sustainable Development and poverty removal. We also saw India wants (to be more precise, we saw what
India doesnt want through RIO like summits!).

Anyways the leaders of various Nations etc met in Rio De Janeiro in June 2012.
From my earlier articles, youre already aware how these summits are conducted.

Rio 20: Outcome of the summit


The primary result of the conference was the nonbinding document titled The Future We Want


Under this 49 paged document, the nations agreed on 283 topics.


It is all lawyer-ish, diplomatic, verbose thing. Similar to Presidents speech before 26 th January and PMs speech from Red Ford on
15th AugustWe acknowledge this, we reaffirm our commitment to thatand blah blah blah. Just like the pack of Cheetos/potato
chips- the plastic bag looks very big and voluminous but nutritional value is close to zero.

Anyways, here are the important (and easy to remember) points. You dont have to mug all of them, but they should serve well as fodder material
whenever youre faced with essay/ interview questions on sustainable development.
The Nations participating in RIO 20 summit, agreed on following things.

We urge Parties to the UNFCCC and Parties to the Kyoto Protocol to fully implement their commitments


We reaffirm the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. (similar in Kyoto)


Well explore alternatives to GDP as a measure of wealth that take environmental and social factors into account.

Well phase out fossil fuel subsidies.

We agree that Eradicating poverty is the greatest global challenge facing the world today and it is essential for sustainable development.

We reaffirm our commitment to fully implement following conventions/protocols (and or take follow up action on them)


Agenda 21 = it is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regards to sustainable development.
It is a product of the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992.


Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)


Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)


United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)


Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)


United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)


Convention on Biological Diversity


Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources


CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)


Basel Convention, the Rotterdam Convention and the Stockholm Convention. (Related to Chemical and Waste disposal)


Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)


United Nations Convention against Corruption.


Information and communication technology (ICT) is important for the flow of information between governments and the public. So well
work toward improved access to ICT, especially broad-band network and services, and bridge the digital divide.

Well strengthen UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and give it more voluntary fund (money).

We encourage each country to consider the implementation of green economy policies

We decide to establish a universal intergovernmental high level political forum: This forum will provide political leadership,
guidance, and recommendations for sustainable development.

Well improve Public Mass transport system (bus, railway) with clean fuels and vehicles for efficient movement of people and goods,
particularly from in rural areas. Because environmentally sound, safe and affordable transportation is important for sustainable

In cities, well try for affordable housing, clean drinking water and sanitation; healthy air quality; generation of decent jobs; and
improved urban planning and slum upgrading.

Well try to provide universal health coverage.

Well strengthen our fight against communicable diseases like AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, polio and other


Well strengthen our national policies for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) like cancers, heart attack,
high BP and diabetes.

We recognize that reducing water and chemical pollution leads to positive effects on health.

We commit to reduce maternal and child mortality, and to improve the health of women, men, youth and children

Well encourage family planning because it is essential for womens health and advancing gender equality.

We recognize the importance of job creation

We call on countries to enhance infrastructure investment

we support national efforts to provide new job opportunities to the poor in both rural and urban areas

workers should have access to education, skills, healthcare, social security, fundamental rights ,occupational safety and health.

Well promote and protect the human rights and fundamental freedom of all migrants regardless of the migration status

We therefore commit to protect, and restore, the health, productivity of oceans and marine ecosystems.

We are committed to United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), provides the legal framework for the conservation
and the sustainable use of the oceans.

We recognize the importance of the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction.

Well take initiatives to fix ocean acidification and the impacts of climate change on marine and coastal ecosystems.

Well take action against illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing activities.

Health of oceans and marine biodiversity are negatively affected by marine pollution, including marine debris like plastic, organic
pollutants, heavy metals, and nitrogen-based compounds, from a number of marine and land-based sources, including shipping and land

We commit to take action to reduce the incidence and impacts of such pollution on marine ecosystems.

We note that sea level rise and coastal erosion are serious threats for many coastal regions and islands particularly in developing
countries and, in this regard, we call on the international cooperation.

Well help small island developing States (SIDS) in fixing coastal erosion under Barbados Programme of Action and Mauritius Strategy
for Implementation.

10 Well help Least developed countries (L.D.C) in mass transport and energy infrastructure.

Well establish early warning systems as part of effective disaster risk to reduce economic and social damages


well launch the Green Climate Fund. Itll help technology development and transfer and capacity-building in developing countries

Well encourage investment in sustainable tourism, eco -tourism and cultural tourism,

Well fight illicit trafficking in wildlife (under CITES)

Well fight Desertification, land degradation and drought.


Mountain ecosystems play a crucial role in providing water resources to a large portion of the worlds population. But Mountain
Ecosystem is in threat due to climate change, deforestation and forest degradation, land use change, land degradation, and natural
disasters; and mountain glaciers around the world are retreating and getting thinner. So well try to fix it.
Chemical waste

Well make national polices on sound management of chemicals and waste- such as electronic waste and plastics

We are committed to chemicals and waste conventions, namely the Basel Convention, the Rotterdam Convention and the Stockholm

We reduce, reuse and recycle waste (3Rs) the electronic waste and plastics

Well phase-out of ozone depleting substances (ODS) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)


minerals and metals make a major contribution to the world economy and modern societies.

governments need strong capacities to develop, manage, and regulate their mining industries in the interest of sustainable development.

Well prevent the illicit financial flows from mining activities.


Well enhance agricultural research, training and education to improve agricultural productivity

Well take microcredit initiatives for the poor.

We underline the need to address floods, droughts, and water scarcity.


Women have a vital role to play in achieving sustainable development. we resolve to promote gender equality and womens
empowerment and to ensure their full and effective participation in sustainable development policies, programmes and decision-making
at all levels

Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)

we commit to creating an enabling environment for improving the situation of women and girls everywhere, particularly in rural areas
and ethnic minorities.

We invite donors, international organizations like the UN to support gender equality and womens empowerment projects in developing

Well promote Sustainable Development awareness among youth, for non-formal education.

Millenium Development goals will expire in 2015. So Well form a group to create new set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

This open working group shall be constituted with full involvement of relevant stakeholders and (bogus) civil society and scientific

These Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) should be action-oriented, concise and easy to communicate, limited in number,

These Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) should be universally applicable to all countries while taking into account different
national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities. (Just like INDIA wanted)


We should also bear in mind that there is no one-size-fits-all formula that will guarantee development effectiveness. The specific
situation of each country needs to be fully considered. (Just like INDIA wanted)

We reiterate our support for South-South cooperation. [means exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge between developing

We also recognize that South-South cooperation complements rather than substitutes for North-South cooperation.

Well fight corruption and illicit financial flows at both the national and international levels because it vital for poverty eradication, the
fight against hunger and sustainable development.

Well fully implement the United Nations Convention against Corruption.

International Trade

We urge the Members of the WTO to conclude the Doha Development Agenda.

We also urge them to addressing important issues affecting international trade, such as, trade distorting subsidies and trade in
environmental goods and services. (JUST LIKE India WANTED)

Compiled from various newspaper columns.

Main Points

RIO+20 outcome has been severely criticised for being devoid of any goals or action. It has been dubbed Rio minus 20 or The future
we dont want.

RIO +20 did not deliver legally binding commitments, just forming more groups and stating, repeating and and rephrasing the obvious.

Ban Ki Moo said in the summit:

old model for economic development and social advancement is broken. Let us not forget the scarcest resource of all: time. We are running out
of time. We no longer have the luxury to defer difficult decisions.
(i.e. WTO, Kyoto, everywhere nations donot agree on some tangible goals. Hence more and more committees are formed and discussions are
held rather that actually doing something solid.)
From US / Western point of view
India and China are trillion dollar nations (GDP wise) and yet they always play the developing nation poor people victim card and oppose legally
binding commitments. They can and should take more initiatives given their power economies.
Mohan did not roar in RIO 20

India has the edge to contribute globally, especially in the areas of decentralised energy access, mobile telephony, distant healthcare
delivery, e-governance and digital information services.

(AND YET) Ive not heard Indias voice here at all. It seems we are happy with the situation and want the status quo to be maintained.

We are losing our leadership edge.

India has to stop hiding behind the poor. India will continue to be one of the most promising economies for the next 30 years. India
should wake up to seize the opportunity and try to be a real world leader.

International Summits will never work

All the much-hyped global summits on environmental policy have fallen short of expectations.

As a result, many ecologists, activists, and business leaders believe that progress on environmental issues must be made locally with the
private sector, without counting on the help of international accords.
Mock Questions

Which of the following statements are correct?


Sustainable development means, meeting the needs of the future generation without compromising the ability of current generation to
meet its own needs.


The Rio 20 is held to initiate reform in Bretton Woods Institutions and UN security council.


Rio de Janeiro is the capital of Brazil.


Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in South America.


TB is an example non-communicable disease.

Descriptive Questions

Write a 50 words note on following (5 marks each)


Sustainable Development




Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)


Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)


United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)


Nagoya Protocol

Write in 150 Words (15 marks)


What is Sustainable Development. Briefly highlight some initiatives taken by Government of India, to achieve it.


Major Outcomes of RIO +20


Evaluate Indias position at RIO +20

Write an Essay (1500+ words)


The Future we want.


The Future we dont want.


The Way forward: Sustainable Development or Economic reforms?


Sustainable development is a much larger canvas than environmental protection.


What do you understand by South-South cooperation? Can you cite a few examples?


What is sustainable Development? Are you aware of any such projects in your State?


What is the role of District Collector in achieving sustainable Development?


If you were to form the SDG (Sustainable Development Goals), what will be in your list?

Liancourt Rocks/ Takeshima/ Dokdo Islets Dispute Between Japan and South Korea
Whare are The Takeshima or Dokdo Islets?

These islets are located in the Sea of Japan and are a bone of contention between Japan and South Korea.

They are 210 kilometers across the water from Japan and South Korea and are only 19 hectares in area.

These islets are called the Liancourt Rocks in the West, Takeshima in in Japan and Dokdo in South Korea .

Background History

Japanese occupied Korea during Second World War and withdrew from Korea after its defeat, which led to the signing of the 1951 treaty
with the Allied Powers, under which Japan relinquished most of the Korean territory.

But Japan argues that under the 1951 peace treaty, the Takeshima or Dokdo islets were exempt from the deal.

However South Korea does not accept the Japanese contention; it treats the islets as a part of its territory.

This is the reason why the South Korean government in 1952, took control of the islets. Thus Dokdo is currently under South Korean
control, which is termed illegal by the Japanese government.

In August 2012 Lee Myung Bak became the First S.Korean President to visit these disputed islets. This escalated the tension between two


The South Korean government also wants to build a naval base on the Ulleung Islands, near the Dokdo islets, in order to fortify the area
around Dokdo.

There is also a dispute regarding the naming of the sea surrounding these islets. South Korea refers to the sea as the East Sea, whereas
Japan refers it as the Sea of Japan.
Reasons for the dispute


The islands are located in the Sea of Japan, which has valuable fishing


The seabed of the area contains vast, untapped reserves of gas hydrates.


South Korea views these islets symbols of a lingering colonial vendetta with
Japan which occupied Korea for a long time.


Thus the bitter memories of a Japanese occupation and a newfound

economic prosperity and technological prowess have combined to give birth
to this aggressiveness amongst the South Koreans.


Moreover Lee Myung Bak will step down as President in December, before
leaving office, he wants to rake up the nationalist sentiments in order to
improve the chances of his partys presidential candidate.

American angle


Both the countries matter a lot to the United States.

Their enmity can adversely affect Americas standing in the East Asia.

Japan and South Korea are Americas most important strategic allies in Asia.

Cooperation between Japan and South Korea and in turn with the U.S. is essential in
keeping North Korea in check.

How to solve this problem

Both should file a case of arbitration by the International Court of Justice (ICJ), Hague.

Japan is ready to go to the ICJ but South Korea has refused. The South Koreans feel, the islets are theirs and approaching the ICJ for
arbitration will only contradict the claim made by them.

For the South Koreans Dokdo is an emblem of their independence from Japanese colonial rule therefore the South Koreans are
emotional about these islets.

However the Korean government will have to control the emotional outbursts of its politicians and citizens in order to assuage tensions
between both the nations.

Russia-Pakistan: Growing Ties
Why India is unhappy with Russia?

Recently India-Russia defence minister-level talks were scheduled @Delhi.

But the meeting was postponed after Russian Defence Minister didnot come.

At the same time, Pakistani Army Chief Gen Ashfaq Parvez Kayani visited Moscow, thus causing Indian Government to conclude that
Russian Defence Minister had stayed back to meet Gen.Kiyani and discuss weapon-deals with him.

Apart from this, another bitter issue in Indo-Russian relationship = the Gorshkov aircraft carrier. Because Russia has failed to deliver it
on time and demanding more money for repairing and upgrading it.
Why Russia is unhappy with India?

Earlier, Russia used to be the sole military hardware supplier for Indian Government. But nowadays, Russia faces competition in Indias
arms bazaar from the US, Europe and Israel.

Recently India was going to buy ammunition for Russian made ZU-23mm Anti-aircraft guns from a Bulgarian Company. But Russia had
sent a message to India that Bulgaria doesnt have the permission from Russia, to export such ammunition to third country.

Hence this move (of Russian Defense minister skipping the meeting in India), is seen as a message from Russia to India that As a
customer, if youve the right to choose, then we can also explore our options as a seller (i.e. we can sell arms to Pakistan!)


Why Pakistan is eager to be friend of Russia?

Pakistan wants Russian cooperation to upgrade its military hardware, including Mi-17 helicopters and T-80UD tanks.

Pakistan also wants to exchange military-to-military exchanges with Russia

Why Pakistan is important for Russia?

For decades now, Russias South Asia policy had focused on cultivating a special relationship with India and keeping Pakistan at arms

But nowadays, Russias main concern is narcotics smuggling through Afghanistan, growing religious extremism and Chinas growing
influence among Central Asian Nations, including Afghanistan. [Recall that Central Asia has huge reserves of minerals, therefore India is
also interested in Central Asia- through Connect Central Asia Policy (Click ME).]

Many in Russian Government believe that Pakistani Army provides the best lever to effectively influence Afghanistans Government.

Russia wants Pakistan to award the work of building its section of the Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline to Russian energy company Gazprom.
[Although Gazprom had wanted Pakistani Government to award this contract without bidding, but Pakistan is reluctant to do so.
Therefore there is some bitterness in relationship.]

US plans to end its combat role in in Afghanistan after 2014. And As America retreats from Afghanistan, China seeks to expand its
influence in Kabul, and hence Russia wants to protect its interests. Therefore Russia needs Pakistani armys cooperation.
Why Pakistan is important for World Powers?

Pakistan has always had great strategic value for major powers (US, China, Russia) because of its geopolitical location at the crossroads
of Central Asia and the Gulf,


This is especially true when it comes to Afghanistan.

Pakistan remains the principal external determinant of Afghanistans future, because of its long and open border with Afghanistanwhether it is economic interests (Chinese/Russia) or military invasion (USs war on terrorism).

Therefore, any major power with interests in Afghanistan must necessarily engage Pakistan.
Why Indias fear is misplaced?

Some Indian Foreign policy experts believe that Russia has found a new ally Pakistan.

But this does not necessarily mean Russia would want to give up its special relationship with India.

Russias softness towards Pakistan has just begun and it is unlikely to acquire any alarming dimension in the near future.

And regarding the fears of Russia selling weapons to Pakistanwell, Russia is not unaware that Indias arms market is much bigger and
Pakistan does not have the financial resources (lolz) to become an attractive customer like India.
What should India do?

Russia is still a dependable ally and the range of its assistance from sharing knowledge for the indigenous Arihant nuclear missile
submarine project, the leasing of theChakra nuclear attack submarine and first rights on the new fifth generation fighter aircraft
cannot be ignored.

When circumstances change and interests are redefined, great powers have no hesitation in recasting their foreign policies. There is no
room here for sentimentalism.

So, Rather than protesting Russias or any other great nations engagement with Pakistan, We must focus on strengthening our own
ability to influence the developments in Afghanistan.

Indo-China Power equation, factors and the future ahead
Similarities: India & China

In the 1950s, India and China were weak developing countries.

Today, China is the worlds second-largest economy and India is in the top ten.

Both have nuclear weapons + huge military.

But there are many factors, which put these two nations on unequal grounds:
Factor against India

Chinas GDP is higher

Source: World Bank database and

In 1970, India had a higher GDP than China, But Today, Chinas GDP is four times that of Indias, and the ratio is still increasing.

By almost any measure, China is more developed than India. Because In addition to its GDP, only a small percent of Chinas people live
in poverty,

China has made a far greater effort to educate its citizens than India.

The access to electricity and the Internet are all higher in China.

Statistical projections suggest that Chinas GDP, could equal that of the US by 2030.

While India just tried to be ahead of Pakistan in term of Defense technology, China has sought to counter the United States military
power. Thats why China has made greater investments in military power, both conventional (Tanks and missiles) and unconventional
(cyber attacks).

US is facing economic downturn and unemployment. Therefore Obama administration has reduced the defense expenditure.

Right now, China has unquestioned military superiority over India and if situation continues to be bad in USAs economy then Chinese
military will become even more advanced and high tech than USAs.

Apart from these things, China is a permanent member of UN security council (UNSC) and thus enjoys the veto power.

China has a major voice in the international system, especially in economic and financial matters- compared to India

All of these make China a formidable antagonist for India, if the status quo is maintained.

Proxy aggression

China tilts towards Pakistan in its dispute with India over Kashmir. China has supported the rebel movements in Indias Northeast and
red corridor.

China is assertive (and at times aggressive) about its claim on the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh.

Chinese military deployments across the disputed border are much, much greater than Indias.
Pakistani Angle

Pakistan is Indias permanent security headache.

Pakistan has long received Chinese support, ensuring that Indias attention is diverted away from China.

Pakistan is providing China with a friendly route to the Energy rich Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf.
Control over Border Regions

China has an ambitious forward policy towards controlling Tibet and Xinjiang.

While India prefers to maintain status quo for issues on Kashmir and North East.


China has done an impressive job promoting economic integration and infrastructure both in Tibet and Xinjiang

India has failed to bring economic prosperity, internal security and reasonable governance in Kashmir and North East.

In fact Delhi is struggling to provide, 50 years later, basic road connectivity to its frontier regions.
Cyber Warfare

In Information and Technology, India has a globally competitive industry and a deep pool of talent.

But it has not been used for notorious purposes like China does :hacking gmail accounts of Dalai Lama and foreign ambassadors, hacking
and deleting websites of Tibetian activists etc.

Cyber warfare, communication blockade, internet censorship (in an event of war), Chinese capacity are better than ours.
Factors against China
#1: Enemy of Enemy is our friend

Chinese relations with the US have entered a difficult phase.

China is engaged in maritime territorial disputes with Japan [Recall the earlier article on Senkaku/Diaoyu islands, CLICK ME]

Chinas maritime claims in the South China Sea have caused deep resentment in Vietnam, the Philippines, Brunei and so on.

And with all these countries, we have good bilateral relations.

Therefore, the present international power play is arguably to Indias advantage.

#2: Chinas vulnerability in Indian Ocean

Chinas goods and oil cargos pass through Indian Ocean, over which over Navy has formidable presence. (Observe Strait of Malacca in
above map).

Therefore, unless China is 100% sure of a full military and psychological victory over India, it would have no use for a military attack.

And hence the possibilities of a Chinese offensive in the high Himalayas are considered remote.

Besides, the increased Indo-China trade and economic relations are a deterrent to belligerence (Aggressiveness) because those who trade
heavily do not usually trade blows.
#3: Indias Soft Power

India has a history of largely positive relations with Himalayan neighbours, the central Asian states and Russia (the two notable
exceptions of China and Pakistan).

China, by contrast, has a history of border disputes and outright war with many of its continental neighbours, from Russia to Vietnam.

The growth nationalism in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. Theyre becoming more assertive when dealing with China.

Therefore, Chinas access to the Pacific and Indian Oceans, is blocked by a network of democracies from Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan
to the Philippines, Indonesia, and Singapore.


Indias rise, by contrast, is not perceived as a threat by other east and southeast Asian states.
#4: Military technology

India has no offensive capacity (or doctrine) while China has ample ability to go on the offensive as it showed in 1962.

But the Chinese also know that Indias defensive capacity along the border is more than adequate.

Precision strike weapons (guided missiles etc) cost US $500,000 a round in 1990. They cost $10,000 or less today.

It means the price of precision strike weapons has been coming down, and their reliability, range and damage-power has been increasing.

During war, Use of such Precision strike weapons favor countries with defensive strategies (India).
#5: Indias economic position

Economic growth is easier when you are catching up to richer countries. Because there is a world of foreign technology and business
practices for you to acquire and use to increase your productivity rapidly.

But After a few decades of catching up, you have taken advantage of most foreign know-how. At that point, economic growth would
require you to invent your own technology.

This means slower growth in productivity

China is perhaps 25 years ahead of India in its economic development, which means that it is 25 years closer to hitting these limits.

So Indias potential rate of growth going forward is higher.

When we combine this with demography, it is possible for Indias GDP to overtake China in the future.
#6: Demographic dividend

Within a few decades, the Chinese labour force will shrink (because of their one child policy) and thus Chinas internal consumer demand
= reduced..

supply of young Chinese people in rural areas who can move into manufacturing jobs = reduced

Thus Chinas GDP will start declining.

But India faces no such demographic crunches.

If we pour more money in vocational skill training, then well have a young, productive and growing labour force = higher GDP in future.
Food for thought

It is said that in the coming years, China will replace US as the world super power. However last major power transition from Britain to
the US (After World War II) helped India achieve independence.

So lets consider for a moment, what will happen to India, If and when there is power transition from US to China
China as Worlds Superpower

After the death of the Dalai Lama, China could pressure for India to shut down all Tibetan political activity in India and to force the
Tibetan government-in-exile into further exile outside India.

Tibetan refugees in India would be asked to take Indian citizenship or to leave India.


Unlike the 1962 war, a future military clash may not be restricted to land warfare at the border instead, we may see a more dispersed
set of strikes with precision weapons that disable Indian capabilities as well as cyber attacks.

China would also be likely to bring to bear financial pressure on India, using economic warfare levers via high levels of investment and

China could armtwist/buy the Politically and Financially weak regimes surrounding India (Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Nepal) and
build permanent military bases there. Just like US did in Middle East and Central Asia.

Similarly, China could soon enjoy a permanent and relatively inexpensive naval presence in the Indian Ocean via naval bases in Sri
Lanka, Pakistan, Maldives etc.

And then, China might end up controlling Tawang, which Chinese officials currently refer to as part of south Tibet (along with the rest
of Arunachal Pradesh)

If in future, another 26/11 terror attack happens in india, and India decides to launch military strike against Pakistan, then China would
be in a position to pressure India into an unfavourable settlement or ceasefire.

China would then silence Indian free speech on internet and in international platforms (UN etc), via combination of diplomatic and
economic pressure, and Chinese cyber Attacks.

Ultimately, it might result in a kind of Finlandisation of India, according to which Indian leaders would make regular pilgrimages
(visits) to China to co-ordinate and seek approval of Chinese leaders, on all major international questions even at the cost of Indian
national interests.

Well then Good grief, China is not the world power! But then the question is:
What should India do to counter China?

When we invest money in military or medical research or child education, itd determine what capabilities we will have 20 years hence.
But unfortunately the current political environment: policies are oriented more towards short term electoral benefits.

The foremost task for India is to maximise its potential national power by maximising its economic growth & demographic dividend,
reducing poverty, enhancing social peace and securing international peace.

Adopt an anti-access, area denial strategy in Tibet, where China is dependent on a limited number of roads, rail lines and runways.

India should cooperate more actively with other Asian countries to make it harder for Chinese naval power to operate in the Indian

India must fix its cyber vulnerabilities, Government websites and communication system this is a problem more in need of attention
than large sums of money (by the standards of military spending).

Compared with Indias, Chinese military hardware costs are lower because they typically involve domestic production. Therefore, India
should increase the spending on Research and Development for Domestic production of military hardwares.

Chinese military strategic doctrine emphasises speed and surprise and thus Indian counter doctrine should emphasise paranoia and

Tactically speaking a mountainous border is good terrain to Indian army to defend, but it still leaves room for strategic surprises for
instance, a Chinese attack through Bhutan.

Ideally, Indias military should constantly think through such novel scenarios and fine tune the deployment accordingly.

We must of course engage, economically and culturally with China to better our relationships.


But Chinas geopolitical interests are fundamentally adversarial to Indias. China is a nation with definite views on the international order
and border Issues, which will prevent it from becoming Indias most trusted ally.

The gap between Chinese and Indian power is much less than previous decades, but there is no room for complacency.

Moreover, the costs of adopting preventive measures are much lower than the costs of inviting Chinese aggression by failing to compete.

Therefore, it would be irresponsible for India not to take steps to ensure that China thinks twice before challenging the status quo in
Update: Contribution from Mr. Vijay Ravi Srikanth
Bitterness in Indo-China relations because


Recent evidence to understand Chinas aggression :denial of visas to kashmiris and residents of Arunachal stating that they are integral
parts of china(given special type of visas).


South china sea dispute(recently warned against India- Vietnams oil exploration pact).


China Voiced against our Presidents visit to Arunachal.


Rapidly developing infrastructure and Highways at Borders and new deployments(photographic evidence from NASAs satellites).


increasing ties with Pakistan(Chashma nuclear reactors, Paksat launching, string of pearls policy) f.Indias ship has been taken into its
custody and released soon after some questionnaire saying that We had violated the international maritime laws in south China
sea(India denied ) f.constructing dam with no prior consultation with India on Brahmaputra in Tibet(Zangmu project).


g.negotiations started with Bhutan and Nepal regarding strengthening of ties and military bases.
China is facing internal problems


no democracy, nearly a million protests in previous year, strict laws of inheritence- growing dissatisfaction, resurgent movements and
separatist movements(Uyghurs, Xinziang, Shanghai, Taiwan).


a million protests is not a simple issue as any protest is nothing but a simple and visible tip of ice berg- i mean a great amount of
dissatisfaction among country can concentrate on external issues without improving internal problems.


recent India China developments- joint consultative mechanism, SHADE(shared Deconfliction- first military development of its kind
between India and China)


Indias recent developments in military issues Dassault Raffale deal, INS sahyadri, Shiwalik, Satpura, Agni 5, Arihant(nuclear),INS
Vikramaditya , Ins vikrant(under construction) and pacts like GLONASS, process initiated to launch one more new naval base at
Kolkata(preparedness towards Chinas string of pearls policy. regular military exercises-with France and Germany, exercise in
Rajastan.many others malabar exercises(all these happened in recent past- a year)


chinas one child policy may show a negative impact on its future but it is only up to 2 to 3 decades. After that it would be more
advantageous to it.


our missiles and nuclear power may deter war but once the war is broken out, out of unforeseen accidents it causes huge losses to us.


Today India- China trade value is nearly $70 billion. so huge. and so it is a crucial time to diversify our markets to avoid dependence on
China by strengthening our economy.(otherwise it can create inflation in our country during war times because of huge mismatch in
bilateral trade balance)


It is time to strengthen our systems to cope up the situation. we have to focus on long term issues also(education, research, diplomacy,
new markets and trade.)


Durand Line, Baluchistan, Gwadar Port: India,Pakistan,Afghanistan,Iranian interests
What Is Durand Line?

The 2,600 km border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.


This line is named after Sir Mortimer Durand, the Foreign Secretary of then undivided British India. He negotiated this border with the
King of Afghanistan.


At the end of 19th Century, the Power of Afghani king had declined so he had no choice but to accept it.


Fast forward to 1947, India-Pakistan gain independence. But Afghans refuse to recognize Durand line as the international border
between Pakistan and Afghanistan.


In 1947, at the UN General Assembly meeting, Afghanistan even cast a vote against the admission of Pakistan to the United Nations.

Why is Durand Line in news?

Recently, a top US diplomat said that Durand Line constitutes the international border between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

This has annoyed the Afghan Government.

International Stand on Durand Line


Durand Line does not have any legitimacy.We reject the statement made by USA.


Durand Line between Pakistan and Afghanistan is a closed and settled issue.


For gaining support of Pakistanis during Cold war, US sided with them on Durand Line issue.



United Nations

After above controversy, US said Our policy on this (Durand Line) has not changed.

Silent on the issue.

Although this silence is widely interpreted as supporting Pakistans position.

The Durand Line question has not yet formally reached the United Nations,

otherwise, UN could play a major role in settling the disputes between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Indias stand on Durand Line

It may be worthwhile for India to signal that we do not necessarily recognize the Durand Line.

Why? Because, to this date, the relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan are characterized by rivalry, suspicion and resentment.

The primary cause of this hostility rests in the Durand Line Agreement. India can use it to deepen friendship with Afghanistan, by taking
their side on Durand issue.

But Indian Foreign policy prefers to stay away from all political risks, therefore very unlikely.
Baluchistan and Taliban angle


Baluchistan is one of the four provinces of Pakistan.

It is the largest province by area, but smallest by population.

On August 11, 1947, the British acceded control of Baluchistan to the King of Baluchistan,

Mohd. Ali Jinnah tried to persuade the Baluch king to join Pakistan, but the Baluch parliament refused it.

So the Pakistani Army invaded Baluchistan in 1948, and took control of everything. (they tried to do same in Kashmir during 1947, but
couldnt succeed.)

Anyways, later on the Baluch people started independence movement against Pakistani rule, leading to insurgency, armed struggle.
It is still going on. (and every once in a while, Pakistan accuses Indian agency RAW for supporting those Baluch rebels)
But how does Baluchistan issue connect with Durand Line?
If there is a strong and assertive Government in Afghanistan, following things can happen

Afghan Government takes very assertive and aggressive stance. (just like China over Tibet issue).


Afghan armed forces may launch some campaign to reclaim the territory.


Afghan intelligence service may start funding and training Baluch insurgents to create more trouble for Pakistan. (just like ISI +LeT=
trouble 4 India)

Therefore, Pakistan wants a weak, destabilized, puppet government in Afghanistan to prevent above nightmares from happening. Thats why, ISI
has been providing shelter for members of Al-Qaeda and Taliban In Baluchistan area. It serves two purpose

Taliban commits acts of terrorism within Afghanistan = keeps President Hamid Karzais Government occupied with domestic trouble.


Baluch rebels and Talibans belong to two separate Ethnic groups. So Presence of Taliban in the region assure that they keep infighting to
dominate the region. (Both of them finance operations using kidnaping, ransom, toll-tax, etc. So, if two companies operating in same
territory, there will be struggle for gaining those economic resources.)
Gwadar Port = Pakistan + China

Pakistani Government has built a port @Gwadar, in Baluchistan coast, with the help of Chinese engineering expertise.

Gwadar project is trouble for India, because of following reasons

Around One third of worlds oil supply comes through the Strait of Hormuz. (Recall the Hormuz oil blockade article click ME)


Gwadar is located only 180 nautical miles from the Strait of Hormuz.

This port would enable Pakistan take control over the world energy jugular and destroy Indian tankers (in case of war).

Earlier, All Pakistani Naval ships were concentrated @Karanchi port. Indian Navy could easily attack them and block Pakistani trade.

But now with Gwadar port, Pakistani navy could spread out its ships, thus preventing Indian navy from destroying all assets once.
(Gwadar port is 450 km further away from Indian Border than Karachi Port.)

The Baluch rebels are opposing Gwadar port.

They say Gwadar Port hasnot lead to any economic Development in the region, all the port-jobs are given to the migrants from Punjab
and Sindh province. There have been reports of rebels attacking Chinese engineers and workers. (and Pakistan claiming that RAW had
hand in it).

Gwadar Port= Strings of Pearl?

Gwadar port a part of String of Pearls strategy of Chinese where theyve got hold of strategic ports in Gwadar, Bangladesh, SriLanka,
Burma, Thailand, Combodia, and South China Sea etc.

On a world map, these ports form of string (of pearls) which may form as Chinese line of defense to control oil movement.

Although China has always denied that Gwadar will ever be used by Chinese military.

Publicly China has always called it a civilian port of Pakistan.

Chabahar Port= India + Iran

Iran is barely 72 km away from Gwadar port.

Iran feels that Gwadar port (Pakistan) will take business away from Iranian ports.

Therefore, in competition to Gwadar, Iran has developed its own port called Chabahar with the help of India. We already discussed this
in earlier article (click me )

India also built a road to connect this Iranian port with Afghanistan. (Deleram Zaranj)


This will provide India the shortest route to Central Asian markets and will be a counter balance to Chinese influence in Gwadar.
Food for thought

Copy pasting some interviews from Baluch Leaders

Islamabad has always claimed that the Baluch resistance is been backed by India. But thats just fake propaganda from Pakistani state
media in order to show the world that the Baluch are proxies. India is not supporting us.

Baluchs are basically secular, by their culture, by their tradition, by their historical background, so the Pakistani regime is trying to
Talibanise the Baluch society. Just where I am right now, the ISI the Pakistani secret service has set up two religious militant groups
against the Baluch national struggle. They have formed these groups in the name of Islam but their real aim is to crush the Baluch
freedom movement.

The Taliban are basically Pakistani military without uniform. They started beheading westerners after 9/11 but we were being beheaded
by these religious butchers long ago. We have told the International community about the evil plans of the ISI the Pakistani secret
services but our plea has been stubbornly ignored.

An independent Baluchistan would not only be good for us but also for the rest of the world. As we are secular people we would not allow
extremism coming from Pakistan, Iran or Afghanistan.

Pakistans Prime Minister Yousuf Gillani has even spoken about conducting a referendum in Baluchistan but, tell me, when the French,
the English, etc pulled out from their colonies, was there any referendum at all? Were also a colony so Pakistan should leave without any
Mock Questions

Which of the following statements are correct?


Durand Line separates India from Afghanistan.


38th Parallel separates North Korea and South Korea.


49th Parallel is the boundary between USA and Canada.


Gwadar port is located in the Arabian Sea.

Mains (GS paper II)


Critically examine the Strategic interests of India, in and around the Strait of Hormuz. (20 marks)


Assess the turbulent situation in Baluchistan. (10 marks)


For India, What are the security and strategic implications of Gwadar Port? (10 marks)


Do you think we should help Baluchistan gain independence, like we did to Bangladesh in 1971?


Apart from Bangladesh, do you know names of any other countries that gained independence with the help of foreign powers?


If Baluchistan gains independence, what will be its implication on the International Power equations?


Japan Sagar/ East Sea Controversy, and functions of Survey of India
What is Surveyor General of India?

Survey of India =Indias official map-making agency.

under the Department of Science & Technology

HQ= Dehra Dun

Officers are appointed through Indian Engineering Services Examination conducted by UPSC.

Their main boss = Surveyor General of India.



Acts as adviser to the Government of India on all survey matters.


Produces Geographical maps and Aeronautical Charts.


Demarcates the External Boundaries of India.


Advice on the demarcation of inter-state boundaries.


Predicts tides at various ports.


Publishes Tide Table one year in advance to support navigational activities.


Certifies maps published by private publishers.


Surveys for Developmental Projects.


Research and Development in Digital Mapping.

What is Sea of Japan/East Sea?

A marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean

It is bordered by Japan, North Korea, Russia and South Korea.


Japan Sagar controversy?

Survey of India, has omitted naming this sea/water body in its English version, though the Hindi one calls the area Japan Sagar on its

Japan has protested against this.

In case you wonder, what is there in a name, well recall the earlier article Liancourt Rocks/ Takeshima/ Dokdo Islets Dispute Between
Japan and South Korea (Click Me)

Sea of Japan has valuable fishing grounds.

The seabed of the area contains vast, untapped reserves of gas hydrates.

So it is not just about a name but about the money involved as well.
Arguments: Japan vs S.Korea


United Nations recognised Sea of


term Sea of Japan came to be used while Korea was under Japanese rule (around WW2),

otherwise originally, this water body was called Sea of Korea or East Sea.

The term used by UN Secretariat to refer to a place, does not in any way constitute an official

Japan as the standard geographical
term in March 2004.

position or policy.

But the governments of the US, the UK,

France, Germany and China also use the
name Sea of Japan!

Ya but governments of these countries have officially stated that naming the sea area between the
Korea and Japan should be settled by agreement among the countries concerned.

The International Hydrographic Organisation (IHO) Resolution provides that if two or

more countries share a given geographical feature for which they cannot agree on a
common name, each of the names should be used to refer to that geographical feature.

So if you want to use the term Sea of Japan, you must simultaneously call it East Sea.

Indias Stand on Sea of Japan

Ministry of External Affairs clarified on the issue, As far as India is concerned, there is no change in our policy. Name of that water body
is Sea of Japan.

But at the same time, Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) is unlikely to pursue the matter with the Survey of India. (however Japanese
Embassy would take up the issue to Surveyor General).
Food for thought

India can hardly claim that Japan is over-reacting when it is so quick to take umbrage over cartographical errors, deliberate and
otherwise, related to its territories. (Maps showing Azad Kashmir or Arunanchal Pradesh shown in China).

It is not uncommon for countries to fight their battles over disputed territories by proxy, through maps. But sometimes maps can solve as
many problems as they create.

Recall the earlier article on Senkaku/Diaoyu islands (China vs Japan) click ME

At the height of that dispute between China and Japan over islands in the East China Sea, Apples new mapping software presented a
novel solution: duplication.

It simply showed two sets of the islands appearing next to each other one for Japan and one for China!
Mock Questions

Which of the following statements are correct?


Sea of Japan is bordered by Japan, North Korea, Russia, China and South Korea.


Survey General of India, is responsible for predicting tides at ports and preparing tide-tables for navigational purposes.


Surveyor General of India, falls under the jurisdiction of Ministry of Earth Sciences.


Anthropological Survey of India is a premier research organisation under the Ministry of Culture


Botanical Survey of India (BSI) is the apex research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture.


Survey of India (5 marks)


International Hydrographic Organisation (IHO) (5 marks)


Discuss Indo-Japan relations, in the light of DMIC, NPT and Sea of Japan. (25 marks)


Wars of nations are fought to change maps. But wars of poverty are fought to map change.


Maps can solve as many problems as they create.

Fifth Generation Aircrafts, Shenyang J-31: Meaning, Implications
What is Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA)?

Microsoft has various generations of operating systems: Win95, XP, Vista, Win7 and Win8- Similarly aircraft too have generations.

Fourth Generation = Those developed from 1980s onwards.

5th generation=2005 onwards

5th Generation aircraft is very hard to be detected using radars (Stealth technology).

They carry more firepower, speed, advanced computer systems, compared to previous generations.
Owners of Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA)?



F-22: in service since 2005.F-35 still under development.

Still under development



J-20 (Chengdu)


J-31 (Shenyang)

It is unknown if the J-31 is meant to be a competitor to the J-20 stealth fighter or a complement to it.


Sukhoi PAK FA (T-50)= Still under development.


Sukhoi/HAL FGFA= Still under development


Lolz but they might just buy F-35 using US donation money. And some reports say theyre collaborating with China in J-** project.

What is Shenyang J-31 (F60)?

It is the Fifth Generation Chinese Stealth Fighter jet. Currently, under development.

Tests are successful, but its not combat-ready yet.


Other nicknames: Gyrfalcon, Falcon Eagle.

Why in News? Because in Nov. 2012, the Ex-President of India Dr.Kalam went to China.

He was supposed to visit Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC), this company is developing the J-31.

But later, Chinese authorities canceled his visit to that company.

Some experts believe that Chinese Government wanted to avoid exposure of J-31 to Indias top defence and aviation specialist, Dr.

Afterall he was closely connected with top Indian bodies like the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian
Space Research Organisation (ISRO)!
Implications on USA?

J-31 shows that China has ambitions to become the premier military power.

US militarys performance in the 1991 Gulf War shook the Chinese army out of its Stalinist mindset, and they began modernization.

For instance, Chinas modern submarine fleet, its emerging navy, its huge ballistic missile arsenal and hundreds of modern combat
aircraft = deterrent for USA.

It doesnt mean China could defeat USA forces in a conflict; the balance has not yet tilted quite that far, but the costs of victory for the
USA would now be far higher than in the days before Chinas modernisation.

Now China can inflict a great deal of pain in such a conflict, probably more than the US would be willing to sustain to defend Taiwan or
Limiations of Chinese Forces

China still has very little ability to project military force more than a few hundred kilometres beyond its shores. (String of Pearls not in
full force yet.)

Much of Chinas indigenous military technology remains of poorer quality and performance than that of Russia or USA.

There are of course exceptions to this judgement: China has a handful of nuclear-armed ballistic missiles with global reach, and it is
developing cyber warfare capabilities that know no geographical limits.
Implications on South Asia?

Apart from Nuclear missiles, the second most powerful weapons system for long distance deployment = an aircraft carrier.

America has 11 super-carriers. No other nation even comes close to that kind of capability, yet.

But If China were to deploy more than one air-craft carrier with high-performance stealth fighters like the J-31 in the neighbourhood
(Indian Ocean, South China Ocean, Sea of Japan etc), then it can coerce neighbors (Japan, Vietnam India, Taiwan) in disputes, then
USA would prefer not to get involved.
Implications on India?
Dassault Rafale

In early 2012, India bought Dassault Rafale jets from France. (Cost: about $ 10 billion)

It is a medium multi-role combat aircraft (MMRCA).


But still it is a fourth-generation aircraft= cannot match Fifth Generation Chinese J-31 aircraft in a combat.

Same goes for Tejas, it is fourth Generation and still under development.

This is fifth generation aircraft.

Jointly developed by India-Russia.

Problem: rising cost (about $30 billion), India had to cut down order from 200 to 144.

Unlikely to be combat ready before 2020. (given Russias laziness, as shown in Gorshkov deal.)

Overall, $40 billion dollars stuck in above two aircraft. So, right now we dont have any spare cash left, to buy a readymade Fifth Generation
aircraft such as F-22/F-35 from USA, just to deter China.

Israel, Palestine, Hamas, Gaza-strip, West Bank, PLO: Conflict, Origin, Explained
Geography: Israel, Palestine, Gaza

Any discussion on this topic is useless, unless and until you know the map of region like the back of your hand.


A patch of land between Israel and Jordan.


City located within Palestine region, it is the sacred place for Christians, Muslims and Jews.Jerusalem is the Capital of Israel,
(although not recognized by some countries).

Tel Aviv

Second largest city after Jerusalem.


Name of Israels parliament.


Spy agency of Israel. Just like CIA of USA.

What is imperialism?

When a country establishes its economic and political dominance over other nations- it is known as imperialism.


There are many ways to achieve imperialism: one of them is colonialism- that is what Britishers did in India and Africa. Colonialism
means practice of acquiring colonies by conquest (war) or purchase or any other thuggery and making them dependent on your home
country (UK).

After end of Second World War, most of the colonies achieved independence. But nowadays the powerful nations such as US and China,
colonize poor countries via providing financial aids, weapons to kill opposing sects/tribes, installing puppet regime etc. this is known
as Neo-Colonialism.
Why imperialism and colonialism?


For getting free labourers to work cotton gins. (slave trade)


To establish monopoly of trade over with given country (e.g. Indias silk and spices)


The Industrial Revolution led to factories, mass production but still you needed raw material. Colonies supplied that raw material
(cotton, coal, iron ore and other minerals).


Colonies also gave new customers for your finished factorymade products. (because local handicraft artisan get destroyed due to heavy
taxation, so juntaa has no option other than buying your machine and products.)
Rise of Germany

Between 1800 and 1900, majority of Asia and Africa had been colonized. Britain and France were main players here.

Earlier, Germany was made up of small princely states. It was Otto von Bismarck, who unified them and created the modern German
empire. Our Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is often called Bismarck of India for this reason.

But the challenges that Sardar Patel faced, were tougher, both in size and complexity than of Bismarcks.

Anyways, after the unification, Germany transformed into an economic powerhouse.

By 1914, Germanys iron ore, steel production =higher than France + Germany. Germany had entered the shipping trade in a big way.
Similarly Italy too was rising.

France and Britain didnt like it- not one bit.

For them, Germany = A serious economic threat to their status and their colonies.

USA had not yet become supercop, superpower of the world. On July 4, 1776, it declared independence from Britain. But
the Northern and Southern States of USA, had opposing idea about abolition of black slavery. That led to their internal Civil War from
1861 to 1865. So, USA was busy with its domestic troubles.
First World War and Palestine

The superficial reason for First World War (1914-1918) = Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, but actually it was this rivalry between
nations for economic reasons and control over colonies. The world was divided into two gangs

Allied power (won)

Central Powers (lost)















Russia (October revolution- Lenin in power, Withdrew from war)




Japan +some misc. nations


Ottoman Empire (led to Khilafat movement in India)

Prior to First World war, the Jerusalem and surrounding Palestine region was under the control of Ottoman Turks.

But as you can see from above table, they had sided with Central Powers (Germany) in First World War.

During the course of First world war, British army captured Jerusalem and put this Palestine region under military administration.

This created resentment among the Native Arabs residing in Palestine. Especially after the Jewish people started immigrating here, due
to the oppression by Hitler.
The Treaty of Versailles (1919)

After the war, the Allied nations held a conference in Versailles, near Paris in France.
The Allied nations (US,UK,France) forced Germany to sign this treaty else face another military invasion. So Germany had to sign this
humuliating treaty under which

The coal mines of Germany were transferred to France


Germany cannot maintain an army bigger than one lakh troops.


Germany cannot build airforce or submarines.


Colonies of Germany, were taken over and distributed among the Allied nations.


Germany had to pay $65 crore as war-reparation to these Allied Nations. (Compensation for injury).

The German economy had already collapsed due to heavy loss of man and material during World War I.

The treaty of Versailles only added insult to this injury.

During this time, German Government resorted to printing more currency. (Name of German currency=Mark)

That led to hyper-inflation (because truck load of paper-cash on one side but not truckload of potatoes on the other side).

So paper currency lost its value. Check this photo: A German woman burns currency, because its paper was cheaper fuel than coal!


This is Hyperinflation!
Result of Hyper-inflation

A loaf of bread that cost 20,000 marks in the morning would cost 5,000,000 marks by nightfall.


Restaurant prices went up while customers were eating.


It took 4.2 trillion German marks to buy a single American dollar!


A lifetime of savings would no longer buy even a railway ticket!


Pensions planned for a lifetime were wiped out completely.

Rise of Hitler

During these hard times, Hitler used to attract German crowds with his charismatic and fierce speeches.

He wanted Germany to withdraw from Treaty of Versailles.

He identified Jew as the enemy responsible for all of Germanys ills.

His argument: Jews own big business, big banks, big department stores, and big labour. And Jews have been profiteering during First
World War, during the Treaty of Versailles, during this hyper-inflation. So, theyre leading happy life at our expense. Jews are basically
responsible for anything and everything that is bad in Germany.

German public and war veterans were already distressed by the hyperinflation and unemployment- So many of them started worshiping
Hitler as their savior.


1933, Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. Within a week, He dismissed all Jews from civil services.

Now in power, Hitler started economic reconstruction of Germany on one hand and simultaneously the racial purification on the other
His main policies/beliefs were following


One party rule: all the opposition leaders killed, jailed or expelled from Germany.


Complete ban on Communist activities, Trade unions and Labour strikes. This was done to increase industrial output and make Germany


He openly defied treaty of Versailles, by increasing troops in the army, construction of submarines, aircrafts etc.


He made friendship pacts with unhappy nations from the Allied gang: Italy and Russia.


He decided to unify all German-speaking areas of Europe.

Eugenics, Jews

Eugenics means selective breeding of humans.

Hitlers opinion: World is divided into Aryan (pure blood/Germans) and Non-Aryans (including Jews, Gypsies and other minorities in

The Non-Aryan are polluting human race with their inferior quality genes and bloodline. So, under Hitlers rule, following
laws/policies/rules were created:


Forced sterilization (vasectomy) of Jews, people suffering from disability, diseases etc.


To increase the birth rate of pure Germans, newly married couples were given loans. And these loans would be forgiven with the birth
of each child.


Marriage or sexual relations between Jews and Germans were prohibited.


Jews given a lower class of citizenship. They were ineligible to apply for most Government jobs, college admissions.


Only racial Germans were entitled to civil and political rights.

When Indian Parents try to find bride with fair white skin for their son, it is also one (stupid) idea indirectly related to Eugenics. Thats why Skin
whitening creams make huge business in India. Eugenics is now making re-entry, indirectly through the research related to designer babies.
Anyways back to the topic:

Under Hitlers laws, Jews could reside in only some specific areas, known as as Ghettos.

Ghettos were enclosed with walls and gates and kept locked at night.

Outside the ghetto, Jews had to wear a yellow colored identifying badge.

More recently, the term ghetto has come to apply to any urban area exclusively settled by a minority group. In the United States,
Mexicans and blacks have been compelled to live in ghettos, by economic and social pressures.


In 1942, Hitler decide to get final solution to the Jewish problem.

All the Jews were rounded up by Secret Police (Gestapo).

The physically fit Jewish men were sent to work in labour camps (to aid German war production during Second World war),

While pregnant women, young children, the elderly, handicapped and sick were killed in gas-chambers.

Holocaust is the term used to describe this mass murder of 60 lakh Jews under Nazi regime from 1941 until 1945.

In many nations of Europe, it is a criminal offense to say that Holocaust did not happen. Some poets, authors, fashion designers and
other self-proclaimed intellectuals cum drug addicts have denied holocaust and run into legal trouble.

Iranian President Ahmedinijad also denied Holocaust, led to big uproar.

What is Anti-Semitism?

Term used to describe the harassment done to Jewish people.

What Hitler did, was one example of Anti-Semitism, but same things were also happening in Russia, Austria as well.
What is Zionism?

What is Zion?=Name of the hill on which the Temple of Jerusalem was located.

Zionism is the term used to describe the Jewish political movement of the late 19th century.

Their Objective= to unite the Jewish diaspora all over world and settle them in Palestine.

They started taking donations from wealthy Jews, helped the Holocaust survivors to migrate to Palestine and surrounding regions.

This movement led to establishment of Israel in 1948.

World War II and Zionism

Recall that after First World War, Palestine region was under British Administration.

Official policy of British = Prevent Jews from settling in Palestine region because it was leading to riots between Jews and native Arabs.

But during the course of World war II, the US army discovered Nazi extermination camps. This created deep sympathy for Jewish people
in USA. The Senators and Congressmen of USA, started lobbying for Zionist cause.

Therefore U.S. President Truman requested British Government to immediatly admit 1 lakh Jewish Holocaust survivors into Palestine,
and unrestricted Jewish immigration in Palestine in future.
Arab Nations

As the second world war came to an end (1945), the neighboring Arab countries began to take a more direct interest in Palestine.

They held a conference in Egypt and made official statement. The gist of their position was


Weve sympathies for the European Jews who suffered under Hitlers dictatorship.


But the issue of European Jewish survivors ought not to be confused with Zionism.


If you (Allied champions:US,UK) allow Jews to settle in Palestine, itll cause great injustice to the Native Arabs and therefore we will
oppose it.
End of World War II, 1945

The Jews that survived holocaust and extermination camps, had no home of their own- everything was destroyed in the war. The Zionists
helped them immigrate and settle in Palestine.

But the Palestinian Arabs decided that no more Jews should arrive and that Palestine should achieve independence as an Arab state. (in
1946 there were 12 lakh Arabs and 7 lakh Jews in Palestine). There was rioting and violence everywhere, from both sides.

The area was still under British administration. But during this time, Britain lacked the money, political will and military force to
maintain hard control over its colonies.

In Feb 1947, Britishers were busy negotiating independence of India. They were also eager to decrease costly military presence in

So British Government decided to handover the Palestine question to United Nations.

UN resolution on Palestine

In late 1947, The United nations General Assembly passed a resolution: This Palestine region be partitioned into an Arab State and a
Jewish state, and Jerusalem will become an International centre. (something like Chandigarh between Punjab and Haryana). Check the


Arab nations opposed this resolution.

The Zionists welcomed the partition proposal because it recognized a Jewish state and because it allotted more than half of (west-ofJordan) Palestine to them.

Soon after the UN resolution, rioting and civil war broke out in Palestine, between the native Arab and Jews. You can imagine the
hardship of people- similar to partition of India-Pakistan.
Birth of Israel, 1948

As the civil war, rioting, murder, loot, plunder, assassinations spread, on 14 th May 1948, the Last British high commissioner left Palestine.

Immediately, the Zionist leaders declared Israel a free Nation. Within a few hours, USA also recognized Israel as a nation.

In the upcoming days, the Arab nations: Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt sent their armies but were defeated by Israeli forces. (this is
known as First Israel-Arab War)

West Bank

Recall that UN General Assembly had favored the partition of Palestine region into an Arab State and a Jewish state.

While Jewish State (Israel) came into existence, but there was no Palestine Arab State because Palestinian Arabs were not organized,
unlike Zionists, they lacked the money and gun power of their own. They relied on the armies sent by Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt, to
fight for their cause.

The problem was: What to do with Jerusalem city?

After The First Israel-Arab war, the Jerusalem city and surrounding was divided between Israel (West) and Jordan (East).

West Bank is the region on the west side of Jordan River.

From 1950 to 1967 it was ruled by Jordan.

But Israel captured it in 1967s war (also known as 6 Days war, or Third Israel-Arab war).
Gaza Strip and Palestinian Refugees

Again recall that UN General Assembly had favored the partition of Palestine region into an Arab State and a Jewish state.

Under that resolution, UN General Assembly had said that Gaza strip will be given to Arab State. (observe the map).

After Israel became an independent nation (1948), the Arabs from Tel-Aviv and other parts of Israel/Palestine region, had started
migrating to this Gaza strip, to save themselves from riots and looting.


These are called Palestinian (Arab) refugees.

During the first Israel-Arab war, the Egyptian army had captured Gaza strip. But In 1967s war, Israel re-captured Gaza Strip.

But The Egyptian government did not consider Gaza Strip as a part of Egypt and did not allow those refugees to become Egyptian citizens
or to migrate to Egypt or to other Arab countries. (their side of border was opened in 2011)

On the other side, Israel did not allow these refugees to return to their former homes.

So these refugees are stuck from both the sides, live in poverty and food aids from United Nations.

Ever since, there is rioting and violent street clashes between Gazas Palestinians (refugees/Hamas) and occupying Israeli troops.
Yasser Arafat and PLO, 1964

So far, the Palestinian Arabs were relying on outside support (Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon), but later realized they had to get
themselves organized to fight for their own cause. Thus came Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).

Soon, Yasser Arafat became the leader of PLO.

PLO launched guerrilla war against Israel during the 1960s to 1980s from its camps in Jordan.

But later on PLO got into power-struggle with Jordanian King, and were expelled from there. So PLO shifted their base to Lebanon.

1982, Israel launched military attack on Lebanon to destroy the PLO camps.

Ultimately Yasser Arafat concluded that military fight with Israel = useless and futile.

So, He decided to accept the earlier UN resolution (recall: UN wanted Palestine region to be divided between a Jewish State and an Arab

He proposed, Our PLO is the Government-in-exile. Were representing that Arab State envisioned under UN resolution. We recognize
Israel as the Jewish state, we accept their right to exist. Now give us our land, Gaza Strip and West Bank.
Hamas, 1987

Theyre political-militant organization stationed in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. They run their own schools, charities, clinics, and
schools in these areas.

They get money and weapons from tunnels through Egypt-Gaza border.


They want to destroy Israel and the create an Islamic state in Palestine.

The Difference between Hamas and PLO = both started as militant movements for Palestinian Arabs But PLO has (almost) ceased
violence while Hamas continues to remain armed and dangerous.
Oslo Accords, 1993

After many rounds of talks, Israeli Government and Yasser Arafats PLO entered into peace agreement, according to which

Israel and PLO will formally recognize eachothers right to exist.


A new Palestine authority (PA) will be formed, itll have elected Arab representatives.


Israel will gradually handover the administration of Gaza strip and West Bank, to this Palestine Authority (PA).

But Hamas was opposed to Oslo accords.

Palestine Authority (PA)

It was formed under the Oslo Accord.

Elections were held, Yasser Arafats Fatah party won majority seats and he became the first President of Palestine Authority (PA).

Israel withdrew its military from Gaza strip, and handed over the civil functions (police, municipality etc) to this Palestine Authority.

Yasser Arafat died. (2004)

Yasser Arafats Fatah Party was defeated by the Hamas Party, in 2006s election for Palestine Authority,

Hamas and Fatah eventually formed a coalition government, but there was violence and power struggle between these two camps.

Ultimately, Hamas got control of the Gaza Strip, while Fatah took control of the West Bank.
Gaza Blockade, 2007

In 2007, Gaza strip was under Hamas rule. The acts of terrorism continued.

Israel declared them as a hostile entity and approved sanctions against Gaza strip- including electricity cuts, heavily restricted imports,
and border closures.

Hamas retaliated by launching rockets at Israeli cities.

So, Israel started military invasion on the Gaza, mainly to destroy those tunnels through which Hamas gets rockets and other weapons.


In this clash, more than 1,000 were killed. Finally Israel and Hamas declared a unilateral cease-fire.

Since then Gaza strip is in control of Hamas but Israel has blocked the whole area with huge wall.
Mavi Marmara incident, 2010

Some NGOs, Peace workers wanted to deliver food, other humanitarian aid and construction materials to Gaza refugees.

They came by sea using a ship named Mavi Marmara, wanted to land on Gaza strip But were intercepted by Israeli military.

Each side accused other one for starting trouble. Led to much uproar about human rights violation.

This was asked in UPSCs General Studies (Mains) 2010 paper.

Gilad Shalit

Israeli soldier, abducted by Hamas during a raid in 2006.

They kept him as a hostage for five years and returned him to Israel for the release of 1,000 Palestinian prisoners, in 2011.
Summary of the issue


Originally, Palestine was under control of Ottoman empire, but British captured it during first world war.


In the inter-war years, facing the Antisemitism in Germany and Russia, the Jews started Zionist movement to create
a separation nation for them in Palestine. But the native Palestinian Arabs opposed it.


After second world war, British Government referred the matter to United Nations.


United Nations, passed a resolution that Palestine will be divided into a Jewish State and an Arab State. And Gaza strip will be given to
the Arab State.


When Britisher left the area, Jews declared their own nation Israel, but Arabs of Palestine couldnt declare their own nation.


The neighboring Arab nations (Jordan, Syria, Egypt, Lebanon) sent their armies, leading to Israel-Arab wars. In the end, Israel won and
captured Gaza Strip and West Bank.


Two resistance movement started against Israel: (1) Yasser Arafat (PLO) (2) Hamas.


PLO entered into peace with Israel under Oslo Accords, while Hamas continued the path of terrorism and suicide bombers.


A Palestine Authority (PA) was created and Israel handed over the civilian administration of Gaza and West bank to this PA.

10. Initially Yasser Arafats Fatah party used to win elections to Palestine Authority (PA) and all was going good.
11. But Hamas party won 2007s election. So, Israel started blockade of Gaza strip. Both went into military conflicts with sporadic ceasefires
and fighting every now and then.
12. The current Israel-Hamas conflict being one of them. Hamas wants Israel to lift Economic blockade of Gaza and Israel wants Hamas to
stop its militant movement and arms-smuggling through tunnels.
13. Indias position (yes you guessed it right): both sides should exercise restrain and settle the matter via peaceful talks and negotiations.
Indias Stand on Palestine
(this portion is contributed by Mr.Palas Nuwal)


India supports a united, independent, viable, sovereign state of Palestine with East Jerusalem as its capital, living within secured and
recognized borders side by side at peace with Israel.


Congress working committee sent greetings to Palestine and on 27th September first observed Palestine day.


Session of INC adopted a resolution on Palestine and looked forward to the emergence of an Independent democratic state in Palestine
in which Jews rights would be protected. India was the member of UN special committee on Palestine.


India became the first non Arab country to recognize the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) as the sole and legitimate
representative of the Palestine people.


GOI announced in Parliament Indias decision to accord full diplomatic recognition to the PLO office in New Delhi. It was after this
that Yasser Arafat paid a three day visit to India, during which he described India as an eternal friend.


India recognized Palestine as a state. Indian Government has constructed the Palestine embassy building in New Delhi, as a gift of the
people and GOI to the Palestine people.

India also supports Palestine in a variety of tangible ways, including the contribution of millions of dollars as budget support for the
Palestine National Authority and assistance to Palestine in developing its human resources through Indias technical cooperation

For the entire archive of Diplomacy and International Relations (IR) related articles, visit:
1. Which of the following not correctly matched?










2. What is the correct order of these water bodies from North to South: Red Sea, Black Sea, and Dead Sea.

Black > Red > Dead


Dead > Black > Red


Black > Dead> Red

3. Which of the following countries dont share land border with Israel?


Jordan and Egypt


Lebanon and Jordan


Saudi and Iran


Egypt and Lebanon

4. Find correct Statement

1. Gulf of Aquaba is linked with Red Sea
2. Gulf of Suez is linked with Red Sea

Only 1


Only 2





5. Which of the following is not a member-state of United Nations:

1) Palestine, 2) South Sudan 3) Kosovo

Only 1 and 3


Only 2 and 3


Only 1 and 3


All of them

East Asia Summit, Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), Nalanda Project, Issues, Challanges India-China-US
Who are EAS Members?


All 10 ASEAN members

Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam


6 Regional partners

China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand.

2 Superpowers

US, Russia (from 2011 onwards)

Total Members of East Asia Summit=


Both East Asia Summit EAS (7th) and ASEAN-India (10th) summit were held @ Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Nov-2012).
What are EAS priority areas?








Disaster Management


Pandemics+Health (Malaria this year)


What is Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)?

An Asia-wide free trade agreement .

This agreement will bind the 10 nations of the ASEAN, + 6 regional partners into a massive framework for economic integration.

10 ASEAN nations

6 regional partners




















South Korea








New Zealand



10. Vietnam

Why is RCEP important?

RCEP would be the largest regional trading arrangement in the world so far.

Itll combined market population of more than 3 billion people and a combined GDP of about 20 trillion dollars.

A successful RCEP would significantly boost global trade and investment for India as well.
Mohans Address to 7th East Asia Summit


Indias security + prosperity = vitally linked to the Asia Pacific region.


East Asia Summit can help create a large economic community.


We welcome the launch of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) negotiations.


We want to increase commerce, contact and cooperation (CCC) with the region


We must quickly implement the EAS Declaration on ASEAN Connectivity.


We support EAS Declaration on Malaria Control


cooperation in natural disaster Management.


Framework for Earthquake Risk Management in New Delhi.


We want your support in Nalanda University project.

What is EAS Declaration on ASEAN connectivity?

It seek cooperation between ASEAN and its EAS partners on physical, institutional and people-to-people connectivity,


For education, human resource development, innovation and entrepreneurship, cultural exchanges and tourism.
What is Nalanda University Project?

Nalanda was a renowned Buddhist centre of learning, in Ancient India. It taught students in medicine, mathematics, astronomy and

The Modern Day Nalanda Univ. project = brain child of Dr.Kalam. and was endorsed by East Asia Summit members.

2010: Indian parliament passed an Act to rebuild the university.

Aim: to attract thousands of the finest teachers and students from around the globe, just as the university did centuries ago.

2012: Nobel laureate economist Amartya Sen was appointed first Chancellor of this univ.

first two schools on ecology and environment and historical studies will start in 2014.
What is EAS declaration on Malaria?

Malaria is a wholly preventable and treatable disease. Yet it kills thousands of people in the Asia-Pacific every year.

East Asian leaders have agreed to form an alliance with Pacific nations to


fight against malaria and


Deal with the drug-resistant strains of Malaria.


This is the first Issue @EAS

#1 Maritime Disputes Discussion


China insisted that Diaoyu /Senkaku island conflict (click me), along with its other maritime disputes in the region, should not be
discussed at the East Asia summit

but rather deal with these issues on a bilateral basis (two countries talking to each other).

The Asian countries involved in these disputes have expressed an unwillingness to engage in heated debate over disputes during the EAS
summit, Because of Chinas powerful geopolitical position + their dependence on trade with China.
#2: US-Pacific Free Trade (TPP)

During the EAS summit, Obama discussed a the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) a type of Free Trade Agreement between USA vs
Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore etc.

This is a US invasion on Chinas economic turf.

If signed, the agreement could pose a great challenge to Chinese products.

#3: New Cold War Theater

China is expanding its military clout (through Strings of Pearl + 5 th Generation stealth aircraft, as we saw in earlier article. click ME)

On the other hand, to balance Chinese domination, America is strengthening its traditional military alliances in the region and building
new partnerships.

Thats why, Obama is also making trips to Myanmar and Thailand (in pretext of visiting EAS).

USA is also planning to deploy 60 per cent of its armed forces in the Pacific theater.

In the coming year, For ASEAN, it will be difficult to keep political unity due to Chinas rising power.

The small Asian nations are looking towards the US to balance a rising China. So a new cold war theater is emerging.

The fact that they invited the US itself was a recognition that if you are in a cage with an 800-pound gorilla, you should at least invite
another one into it to provide a balance. (C Raja Mohan)
#4: India, the New NAM

During the Cold War, India was a leading figure in the Non-Aligned Movement of countries that tried to avoid joining the U.S. or the
Soviet Union.

IF China unwilling to make reasonable solutions to settling the border dispute, then you can visualize a scenario where India may be
non-aligned, but it does more things with the U.S.

We want to expand our influence in Asia through so-called Look East Policy. But that opportunity is not without risk.

ASEAN countries want to evolve a Code of Conduct for use of resources of South China Sea in the light of Chinese claims.

In EAS and ASEAN summit, India will have to address the many questions on where India stands in the rapidly deteriorating regional
security environment. And that cannot be done without annoying China. Although, weve already annoyed China.


Weve gone nose-to-nose with China over an oil-drilling pact with Vietnam in the disputed South China Sea


Weve deployed three Brahmos cruise-missile regiments on border with China following a number of Chinese provocations.


Soon, we will recruit 100,000 new soldiers for posting along the same frontier.

Today We are one of the biggest economies and largest militaries in the region.


So, we have the responsibility and opportunity to mitigate great power tensions (US-China) and defuse regional conflicts in Asia.

After all, Indias independent foreign policy was always about shaping a sustainable order in Asia and beyond.
Mock Questions

Q1. Which of the following statements are correct, about the Summits held in 2012?

EAS summit was held in Combodia


ASEAN-India summit was held in Brunei.


Only 1


Only 2





Q2. Which of the following statements are correct?


US and Russia are full time members of East Asia Summit


Pakistan is part of the proposed Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP).


Only 1


Only 2





Q3. Which of the following statements are incorrect?


All members of EAS are members of ASEAN


All members of ASEAN are members of EAS


Only 1


Only 2





Q4. During EAS summit 2012, a declaration was launched to combat a particular disease. What was that disease?







Swine Flu

Q5. Consider these three cities 1) Taipei 2) Hanoi 3) Phnom Penh
Arrange them from North to South






Q6. Match following




Ho Chi Minh City




1a, 2b, 3c,


1a, 2b, 3d


1b, 2c, 3a


1d, 2a ,3c

Q7. Observe this map










Match the numbers with A)Thailand B) Laos C) Vietnam D) Cambodia


1a, 2b, 3c, 4d


1a, 2d, 3c, 4b


1c, 2a, 3b, 4d


1b, 2d, 3b, 4a

General Studies (Mains) Mock Question Paper II
5 markers, 50 words


EAS declaration on Malaria


EAS declaration on ASEAN connectivity


Nalanda Univ. Project

Big questions


Discuss Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) 10m


Examine the areas of cooperation between India and East Asian nations. 10m


India at East Asia Summit: opportunities and Challenges ahead. 25m

Maldives Coup: Reasons, Implications, Nasheed, Prologue to GMR Issue explained
Why is Maldives important for India?

Maldives is an island country of about 1,200 small coral islands, roughly 600km away from Indian mainland.

Because of its geographical location, Maldives forms a vital cog in the geopolitics of the Indian Ocean.
Against China

Almost all the cargo vessels have to pass through this region. Therefore, During Indo-China war, If you want to control the supply lines in
Indian Ocean, you must have a base in the Maldives.

Apart from Maldives, Diego Garcia and Seychelles are other important strategic locations in the Western Indian Ocean.

India needs strong allies in the neighborhood to ensure the Indian Ocean does not become a Chinese lake in the long run.

For this, cooperation from Maldives=essential.

Against Pakistan

Maldives could serve as a potential launch pad for terrorists targeting India.

There are intel reports that Lashkar-e-Toiba is trying to setup base in Maldives and to use it as weapons storehouse. From Maldives they
aim to transport men and weapons to Kerala, and from there to rest of India.

because Post-26/11, Indian Navy and coast-guard has tightened the security around coastal areas of Mumbai, Gulf of Cambay etc. so very
hard to transport men and material directly from those areas.


Brief History of Maldives

For long, Maldives was run by local Muslim kings.

The British government had promised them military protection and non-interference in local administration in exchange for an annual
tribute (cash).

So, prior to independence, Maldives was similar to an Indian princely state.

In the mid-60s, Britishers left. Maldives became a republic (i.e. rule of people and not rule of kings.)

In late 70s, Maumoon Abdul Gayoom became the President of Maldives.

He continued as President for 30-years, winning six consecutive elections without any opposition!

so you can imagine that he regularly used police and military to crush down opposition parties. He also gave all the Government jobs to
his loyal supporters.

Parliament of Maldives= known as Peoples Majlis.

Official language= Dhivehi

Operation Cactus 1988

In 1988, a group of Maldivian businessmen and political leaders tried to seize power, with the help of mercenaries.


But Indian Government sent troops to restor order, and helped Maumoon Gayoom continue as President.

This is known as Operation Cactus.

Entry of Mohd.Nasheed, 2004

From 2004 onwards, Mohamed Nasheed started protests against the mis-rule of Gayoom.

Finally in 2008, Gayoom gave up power and Mohd. Nasheed became the first democratically elected President of Maldives.

Once he held a cabinet meeting underwater to highlight the dangers of rising sea levels.
Economic Problems

GDP of Maldives= 2 billion dollars.

Almost 70% of Maldives GDP comes from Tourism, airport and allied activities.

2004: Tsunami came and badly affected tourism.

2007 onwards: Bad economic situation in USA and Europe = less tourists coming for vacation.

Maldives has population around 3 lakh and almost all of them are Sunni Muslims.

Islam is the state religion of Maldives. Open Practice of any other religion is forbidden.

Government of Maldives follows a special type of tourism policy.

The islands are separated into uninhabited islands vs inhabited islands (of local Muslim population.)

The tourist resorts are opened in the uninhabited islands.

Tourists are allowed to consume alcohol, loiter around in bikini etc. in these uninhabited resort islands.

But ^these activities are banned in the inhabited islands, to preserve the local Islamic traditions.

So ground reality = a foreign tourist will come to Male Airport, tour operator will take him to the resort-islands via speed boats or
chartered planes.

Recently, President Nasheed was planning to open new tourist resorts on inhabited islands, because of two reasons


To Increase competition among resort owners.


To weaken the powerful local businessmen/political lobby associated with the Tourism business.


To Increase tax collection.

His opposition parties tried to portray this as an un-Islamic act of Nasheed and fuel public anger.


Coup against Nasheed, 2012

After becoming President, Mohd.Nasheed had ordered judicial inquires against corruption and scandals done by Ex-President Gayoom
and his gangsters.

In January 2012, President Nasheed ordered arrest of chief justice of the Maldives on charges that Chief Justice was blocking cases
against Ex-President Gayoom and his gangsters.

Opposition parties took this opportunity to conduct protests and riots against Nasheed.

Policemen also supported the rioters.

Ultimately Nasheed resigned in Feb 2012 and handed over power to his Vice President Mohd.Waheed.

Thus Waheed became the President of Maldives. He has promised to hold Free and fair election somewhere in early 2013.

There are two version of what happened behind the curtains.

Pro-Mohd.Nasheed version of coup-story
Tourist Resort Owners plotted everything!

Maldives is a tourism economy but after global recession post 2007, the tourists were declining.

That lead to food inflation and unemployment.

So, Nasheed decided to impose more taxes on rich tourist resort owners and use that cash to run MNREGAs.

These rich businessmen got angry and they financed the protests to get rid of Nasheed.
Waheed plotted the whole damn thing!

The radical Islamic groups of Maldives, do not like the reformist and modern outlook of Nasheed.

So they helped Vice-President Waheed to grab the power, to create a fundamentalist Islamist government

The new President Waheed said hed include Islamic parties in his new cabinet, because they are part of our society and cant be


It proves that Vice President Waheed was hand in glove with these radical elements and he secreted plotted all these protests, to become
Pakistan plotted everything!

During the Anti-Nasheed protests, many historical Buddhist and Hindu relics at the Maldives National Museum were destroyed.

This suggest that protests were handiwork of radical Muslim outfits who aim to Talibanize Maldives.

Earlier President Nasheed used to send lists to Indian intelligence agencies, about Maldivian students studying in India, who were
suspected radicals.

Based in these intelligence inputs, India found out that many fundamentalist Maldivian groups were sending terror recruits in the garb of
students to India, who would later smuggle themselves into Pakistan for training.

Nasheed had also agreed to far-reaching defense arrangements with India after 26/11.

Thus radical Islamists of Maldives and ISI stirred up the protests against him.
China plotted everything!

The top police and military officers of Maldives are in pockets of China.

And Since Nasheed is very close to Indian political establishment, China secretly plotted this coup to get rid of him (part of strings of
pearls theory).

The police and security forces joined with anti-government protesters under the guise of defending Islam.

And they warned Nasheed you must resign, else well shoot your supporters on sight. (or at least thats what Nasheed told the media.)
Anti-Nasheed version of Coup-Story
No Taliban angle

The Sunni Muslims of Maldives have liberal and modern outlook.

Nasheed is intentionally spreading of the stories of possible Talibanization, to make USA and India feel worried and support him
instead of the opposition parties.

At best, this whole event can be termed as power struggle between Nasheed and Waheed.

Both of them have tried to use religion for their individual power ambitions. (Nasheed making stories of Talibanization to win support of
India and USA while Waheed seeking support of radical groups in the name of tourist resorts etc.)

Maldives is a tourism economy and it has been badly affected by Global Economic recession. There is widespread unemployment and
huge food inflation.

But President Nasheed has been unable to tackle this Issues and hence public protests against his rule. To suggest that everything is
handiwork of China, Pakistan, ISI and radicals would be an over-simplification.

Holding Public office and leading street demonstrations require different hats. (Thats why Jholachhap NGOs cannot be allowed to run

Nasheed was good at holding dharnaa-pradarshan against Gayoom, but after becoming the President, Nasheed did not grow in office
and his style was quite un-presidential and autocratic.


He did not try to have smooth consultation with opposition parties. He hasnt spoken with leader of opposition for 6 months.

He was overconfident that India would support him in any coup/political crisis just like we did to Gayoom in Operation Cactus, 1988.

Therefore he was careless about the brewing opposition.

Nasheed= Drunk with power

In 2010, he ordered police to arrest the Deputy speaker of parliament.

But Police did not follow his order (because Supreme court had termed Nasheeds order illegal).

Then Nasheed used army to arrest that Deputy Speaker. Hence there is lot of bitterness between (judiciary+police) vs Nasheed since

After Nasheed resigned from Presidency, his supporters destroyed police stations, court houses throughout the island. So he is not
different from his opponents who use violence to achieve their goals.
Indias Stand on Maldives crisis

After the Male Coup, At first Indian Governments stand was


Well treat the matter as an internal issue of Maldives, to be sorted out by themselves.


We recognize the newly sworn in President Waheed as the Head of Maldives.


We are prepared to work with whoever is legitimately in power Maldives.

But then, Pro-Nasheed supporters also started protests and rioting. Nasheed has blamed India for not supporting him during critical time and
wrongly diagnosing the problem. So India sent a special envoy to assess the ground realities.
Experts have divided opinion on Indias approach to Maldivian coup.
Opinion #1: India did bad

Prevention was better than cure. India should have quietly used its goodwill with the politicians in Maldives, to avert the crisis when it
was slowly building up.

Ex-President Nasheed had been sensitive to Indias commercial and strategic interests, has taken Indias relations with Maldives to new

Ex-President Nasheed stands for democracy, religious moderation and human rights that are strongly cherished by India.

Ex-President Nasheed, enjoys huge popular support even after being ousted by Waheed.

Therefore, by siding with Waheeds gang, India has lost considerable goodwill and isolated itself in the eyes of Maldivian people.

India should have actively supported Nasheed during the crisis just like it did to Gayoom in Operation Cactus.

But India supported Waheed, because in recent years, Indian foreign policymaking has become hostage to woolly-headed thinking
about peace, multi-lateralism, cooperation, aversion to even slightest risk.

The results have been disastrous.

Waheeds Government ended Indian Company GMRs airport contract because of Chinese lobbying. (GMR issue will be discussed in a
separate article later.)


It proves that India has totally failed to meet the Maldivian challenge.

This will hurt our vital national interests in Indian Ocean and embolden our rivals (China, Pak) in the region.
Opinion #2: India did good

India has done right thing by not repeating Operation Cactus and not actively intervening in the Maldivian crisis. Reasons are following


Maldivian political space is bitterly polarised, and Constitutional institutions like the judiciary and election commission have lost their


Therefore, if India had used some strong arm-tactics (sending military etc) to keep Nasheed in power, even then, the whole crisis would
have repeated again in a few months.


Democracies are notoriously unstable and messy in the beginning. They require patience and commitment.


So Maldives democracy should be allowed to evolve by itself, without interference from external powers, including India.
India-Maldives cooperation

Over the years, India has signed many agreements with Maldives under which

Foreign trawlers from Indonesia etc. do massive fishing in Maldivian waters, illegally.


Maldives lacks a powerful navy to combat them and hence seeks Indias cooperation.


India will set up a network of radars across the Maldives islands. These radars will be linked to the Indian coastal command. This will
help us keep track of movements of pirates, illegal fishing trawlers etc in the region.


Establishing an air force station to carry surveillance flights.


building a military hospital in Male, police training academy


giving admission to Maldivian students in Indian univ.


India also bought 100 million dollar worth bonds of Maldivian Government to give them financial help.


+ bilateral intelligence sharing, capacity building, cooperation in climate change, sustainable Development (desi-liquor) and other usual
diplomatic stuff.
Male vs Mali coup

Please donot confuse these two coups.

Male Coup

Mali Coup


Male is the capital city of Maldives

Mali is a landlocked country in Northwestern Africa.

Happened in

Feb 2012

March 2012


President Nasheed

Prime Minister Diarra.

Mock Questions

Q1. Which of the following is incorrectly matched?







Only 3


Only 1 and 2


Only 2 and 3



Q2. Which of the following is/are an Island Nation?










Only 1 and 2


Only 2 and 3


Only 2, 3 and 4


All of them

Q3. Which of the following is correct?


Atoll is a coral island


Archipelago is a group of islands


Only 1


Only 2









Q4. which of the following is incorrect

Official language of Bhutan is Dzongkha


Official language of Maldives is Dhivehi


Only 1


Only 2





Q5. Incorrect match






Black Tornedo



Goa, Daman, Diu




Critically evaluate Indias response to Maldivian political crisis and its future implications. (20m)


Discuss the strategic importance of Maldives for India (15m)


Write a note on India-Maldives Defense and maritime cooperation. (10m)



India has done the right thing by not repeating Operation Cactus in Maldives. Do you agree with this statement? Yes/No. Justify your


Apart from Maldives, which other countries in South East Asia have faced coups in Past?


Can you recall any example of coups from Ancient or Medieval Indian History?


Why were coups successful in Pakistan?


Reasons why coups donot happen in India?


For a coup to be successful, what are the pre-requisites?


WCIT Conference Dubai, ITU: Why failed, Internet Censorship, ICANN, DNS explained
What is ITU?

ITU =International Telecommunication Union.

United Nations specialized agency

Deals with for information and communication technologies ICTs.

HQ = Geneva, Switzerland

Membership: Both Nations and Private Players.

However ITU allows only its member nations to vote. Private organizations can participate in its proceedings by paying a large annual fee
but cannot propose amendments or vote.
What does ITU do?


Radio spectrum allocation


Satellite Orbit Allocation


Standards for Voice, video compression, TV signals etc. (Similar to that IUPAC chemical formulas).


Bridge the digital divide. (internet connectivity in schools/villages of poor nations etc).
Why Conference in Dubai?

The current Internet, satellite, telephone, television systems run according to International Telecommunication Regulations (ITRs) made
in Melbourne Conference in the late 80s.

But after that, so much progress in telecom and internet.

So there was need to review and update those those Regulations.

Besides the World leaders were feeling thirsty for desi liquor and wanted to agonize UPSC aspirants with one more current-affairs topic,
so they decided to hold a conference in Dubai, in December 2012.

Official name of this conference: World Conference on International Telecommunications (WCIT).

But this conference was a fiasco. Before going into that aspect, lets understand a side-topic
How does Internet work?


click to enlarge

Before mobile phones, we had to keep telephone diary at home. E.g. U letter->UPSC->011-23385271 (or memorize that number in your

But now thanks to mobile phones, era of telephone diaries is gone.

We dont need to remember any number, just save them in your mobile for once, then just select UPSC and your mobiles software will
automatically dial that number.

Websites also work on a similar principle.

Websites are hosted on servers.

Each server has unique IP Address.

Suppose there is some anti-China or pro-Tibet website, with its server in USA, IP address 420.420.420.420.

But there are crores of websites on internet, each with such special numbers (IP Addresses.)

A human user cannot remember all those numbers. So here domain name system (DNS) helps us.

Suppose Domain name of that Anti-China website is i-hatechina dot com.

Now, there is one ICANN organization. It maintains root-directories, similar to those telephone directories, they translate DNS into IP

for example i-hatechina dot com=>420.420.420.420, and send you to the correct website.
Why do Russia China hate ICANN?

Continuing the same example, Chinese Government doesnt want people to view this i-hatechina dot comwebsite.


So theyll will order China based internet service providers (ISPs) to block content.

Although some Chinese people can still try access that website via proxies.

Besides, if youre not in China, you can view the website anyways- from France, US, Sweden etc. anywhere in the world.

Because there exists a root-directory with ICANN, and it says 420.420.420.420=i-hatechina dot com

But if Chinese Government could edit the root-directory, and remove the address 420.420.420.420=i-hatechina dot com, then no
matter where you are and which proxy technique you use, you can never access that website.

But still that doesnt explain why Russia-China (and other countries) hate ICANN?

Well, ICANN is not a United Nations body.

It is a non governmental Organization located in California, USA.

It falls under the legal jurisdiction of USA (and not of United Nations).

But if some XYZ UN agency was controlling DNS, IP Address, root-directory, and this organization has 10 nations in its governing
council. Russia/China can bribe or bully 6 of them and get a vote or resolution passed in their favour to edit root-directories.

On the other hand, USA wants to keep Status-quo, with ICANN.

Because USA can still control ICANN under national laws. Theyre passing SOPA, PIPA laws that will empower USA Government
agencies to edit root-directories to combat piracy and enforce intellectual property rights.
What is ICANN?

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

Functions of ICANN

Deals with


Internet Protocol (IP) address


Domain Name System (DNS)


Top level domains (.com, etc)

Doesnot deal with


Internet content control


Unsolicited commercial email (spam)


Data protection, data-theft


Financial transactions (online banking, paypal


Now coming back to the original topic.

ITU held a conference in Dubai, to make a new global treaty on how to handle International voice, data and video traffic.
Why did WCIT Conference fail?


Because the delegates of U.S., UK, Australia and Canada happily consumed desi liquor but when it came to signing the treaty, they simply
refused and walked out of the conference.

India also refused to sign treaty, but didnt walk out of the conference, perhaps because our delegates wanted to drink more free booze
before the party was over.

Why USA opposed the ITU treaty?

United States says we cannot sign these international telecommunication regulations (ITRs) in their current form. Because of following
#1: Internet Governance

During the conference, some members (Russia,China) made proposals seeking government control over Internet naming and addressing
functions. (DNS, IP address. Already explained above.)

They also want to inspect and censor incoming and outgoing Internet traffic on the premise of monitoring criminal behavior, filtering
spam, or protecting national security.

We (USA) believe these issues cannot be legitimately handled in this conference. ITU is a telecommunication related organization, and
internet governance is outside the scope and functions of this organization.
Official reasons given


A bureaucratic body like UN or ITU cannot efficiently control Critical Internet resources.


Governments lack the expertise to keep pace with rapid technological challenges.


USA wants to protect freedom of speech on Internet(!)

Unofficial reasons


The Corporate giants have spent truckload of cash in lobbying to US senators and Government to ensure that status quo is maintained
regarding Internet (California based ICANN should oversee the DNS, IP etc. And the matter should not be given to ITU or UN)


Otherwise USA itself is no place for free speech! They want to arrest wikileaks founder Julian Assange. And they have also prohibited
American banks from processing any donations made to Wikileaks. So, This is like replay of Indias dual-standards on Airport
development fee (from previous GMR-Male Controversy article).


Plus, USA is making Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and Protect IP Act (PIPA) which are, in broad sense, anti-free-speech laws.

Anyways, first reason = USA wants to protect freedom of speech. Moving to second reason
#2: Network Security

During the Dubai conference, some members wanted the treaty to handle matters of network security, virus, hacking etc.

USA says: ITU cannot address security issues. It cannot make any practical improvements on security.
#3: Spam

Some members wanted that ITU should have control over Spam.

But USA is against this. Because spam is a form of content.

When ITU starts controlling spam, later it can start controlling other contents: political, religious and cultural newsletters and mails etc.
So again We (USA) want to protect the freedom of Speech.

Google company is also against ITU treaty.

Google Companys Stand

At Dubai conference, The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is bringing together regulators from around the world to renegotiate a decades-old communications treaty.

But we oppose it for following reasons:

Free internet necessary

The Internet empowers everyoneanyone can speak, create, learn and share.

Today, more than two billion people are onlineabout a third of the planet.

But Not all governments around the world support a free and open Internet.

Russia, Iran, Cuba, China etc. block and control access to the Internet for their citizens.
Governments are trying to control Internet

Now, via ITU conference @Dubai, Some of these governments (Russia, China) are trying to use a closed-door meeting to regulate the
Internet even more strictly.

While delegates from those nations enjoy the voting powers but the IT Engineers, companies, and people that build and use the web have
no vote during these ITU treaty negotiations!

Some proposals could allow governments to censor legitimate speech, or even allow them to cut off Internet access.

So ITR= Anti-free speech.

Other proposals would require YouTube, Facebook, and Skype to pay new taxes to reach people across borders. Then internetservices could become expensive, and less people can access it. (Particularly Africa, Latin America, Asia).

To sum up, the Anti-Arguments are

ITUs treaty will lead to state censorship and regulation of the internet.


Internet policy should not be determined by Governments but by citizens, communities, private sector and civil society. (bottom up
approach rather than top-down)
Indias Stand on ITU treaty

India has not signed the ITR in its current form, saying:

We donot want ITU to govern Internet.

We donot want ITU to control traffic and content of Internet.

We have only favoured the inclusion of Internet matters related to availability and security of telecom services.

The new International Telecommunication Regulations (ITRs) should reflect the current global realities and the dynamics of the Internet

therefore, We want to undertake necessary consultations at home before announcing our final decision.

By the way, some websites say India signed WCIT treaty but that information is not correct.

A website named medianama incorrectly published report India has signed treaty, then many other websites copied that article. So
google throws up search result India signed treaty, however two days back Medianama issued apology about its incorrect report.


ITU held WCIT-2012 conference in Dubai.


Aim= To create a global treaty on how to handle international voice, video and data traffic.




Why? Because USA, Canada, India, Australia etc. refused to sign, (mainly) over disagreement on how to control internet.

Putin Visit, KudanKulam, GLONASS, 13th India Russia Annual Summit: Issues, Outcomes

13th India Russia Annual Summit was held @New Delhi and attended by Russian President Vladimir Putin. (Dec 2012)

Important because this year marks the 65th anniversary of Indo-Russia Diplomatic relations.
Problem areas in Indo-Russia
Why is Russia Unhappy?


Russia used to be key defense supplier to India, but recently India has diversified its suppliers (from Europe, Israel etc).


Lost bid of Frances Dassault Rafale.


2G scam: Indian Supreme Court canceled license of Siestema company. Russian Government owns ~17% stakes in Siestema.

Why is India unhappy?

Russia trying to improve relation with PAK. (already discussed how Russian Defense minister did not come to India but visited
Pakistan. click me)


Delayed delivery of Admiral Gorshkov (Vikramaditya) Aircraft carrier + Russia demanding more cash for it.


Few years back, ONGC Videsh bought a Russian Company Imperial energy. We want Russian Government to decrease the export duty on
this company.
Putins Wishes in Delhi visit?


USA has gained heavy clout in Libya=> From now on, most of defense and nuke energy contracts of Libya will be awared to American
Companies. So Putin wants more deals with India to make up for the business-loss.


Indias support (or atleast non-pro-USA stand) on Syria.


Putin is blackmailing Mohan that if you want tax-holiday for OVL (ONGC Videsh) in Russia, then you must restore 2G licenses of
Siestema.Mohan says Im helpless it is court-matter. (for more on 2G scam, click me)

Business n Trade

Bilateral trade between

Worth billion USD


More than 50



Putin-Mohan agreed to take steps to increase the bilateral trade to 20 billion US Dollars by 2015.

Untapped sectors in Indo-Russia Business










Information technology


Civil aviation


Telecommunications (problem= siestema

license canceled in 2g)




Food processing

Progress during Putins Visit:


Weve asked inter-governmental and business level groups to recommend

specific steps for increasing bilateral trade and investment flows in these
untapped sectors.


SBI India + Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF)= 2bn dollar joint


TCS (India) signed deals with Russian firm Navigation Information Systems
(NIS) for software Development etc.


Elder Pharma (India) signed deal with Russian co.

10. Innovation and services

Energy: Nuke


Putin had signed Roadmap for cooperation in the nuclear energy sector with Mohan


Agreements updated.

Russia will build 1 nuke plant in India, every year for next 18 years.

Cost of Each plant=2.5 billion USD.

Capacity of Each plant = 1000 MW.

Thus, By 2030 approx 20% of Indias electricity output come from Russian plants.
Kudankulam Nuke plant


In Tiruneveli district of TN

Developed by Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) + Russia Collaboration.

Capacity 1000 MW x 2 plants

For other plants of India, observe this map: click ME

Kudankulam: Problems

Centre vs State

People vs Government

Jayalalitha says when power plants are constructed in

Andhra, they get to use the entire electricity.
Same rule should be applied for powerplants
constructed in Tamilnadu.
But from Kudankulam, about 250MW electricity will be
given to Kerala, despite the fact that Tamilnadu itself
needs 2000MW.

Public protest against Kudankulam plant in the wake of

Fukushima disaster.

Mohan says Jholachhap NGOs financed by American companies,

are playing mischief. Otherwise Kudankulam is way better and
safer than Fukushima.

Kudankulam: Progress

Unit 1

Construction Complete.Power generation will start soon.

Unit 2

Will be finished next year.

3 and 4

In progress.Putin wants them to be out of Civil Nuke Liability law or India should pay higher price.

Kudankulam: Civil Nuke Liability


Agreement between India-Russia for construction of Kudankulam plant Unit #1 and #2.


Indian Parliament passed Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act.

It allows the nuclear operator the right to demand compensation from a supplier in case faulty equipment causes an
accident at a nuclear power plant.

Government has kept Kudankulam Unit #1 and #2 outside the purview of nuke liability act, saying they were being constructed before passing of
that Act.
Now we are planning to install two more units here (#3 and #4),
but we want them under the nuke liability act. (so, if disaster happens due to faulty Russian equipment, we can demand money from them.)


This is wrong yaar! If #1 and #2 are outside Nuke liability then #3 and #4 should also be exempted.


Sorry cant help.

If I make an exemption for you, then America and France will demand the same treatment. Ultimately no plant will come under
Nuke liability act!


Alright then.
If you want to build #3 and #4 with our help, AND you want them under Nuke liability then give us twice the money we had agreed
earlier. (so I can use that money to buy insurance cover from third party to pay up for the disaster.)

Energy: Oil and Gas

Before Putins Visit

During visit


ONGC Videsh currently owns a 20 per cent interest in the

Sakhalin-I project in Far East Russia.


Agreement for mutual investments and joint projects in

third countries.


GAIL India made contract to buy LNG from GAZPROM.


We want capacity expansion of Sakhalin-II project.


OVL and Russian co. made deal to explore Magadan-2 and

Magadan-3 blocks in the Okhotsk sea in eastern Russia


Also ONGC keen on Sakhalin-III and other new projects

in Siberia, Arctic Shelf and Far East Russia.

Defense: Indo-Russia
Fifth generation aircraft Development, already discussed in old articles click ME.
During the summit India gave orders to buy

Sukhoi Su-30 fighter jets


Mil Mi-17 Military Helicopters

Science Tech: Indo-Russia
What is GLONASS?

Global Navigation Satellite System.

Glonass is a Russian space-based system with many satellites.

It provides location and time information anywhere in the planet,

use= military, civil and commercial

Glonass is an alternative to the U.S.-controlled Global Positioning System (GPS).

Why India wants GLONASS Access?

During Iraq Invasion, America had blocked GPS signals to Iraq and then inserted misleading GPS signals into Iraqi missiles and air

Because of this, Iraq could not attack American defense forces with deadly accuracy.

India should be prepared to meet aggression by any developed country, including the U.S.A. Hence over-reliance on GPS= bad. Need to
put some eggs in GLONASS basket.
GLONASS: Military use?


GLONASS navigation system will allow Indian missiles, to strike within half a metre of distant targets= very accurate.


GLONASS fitted on Nuclear submarine Chakra= killer combo.

Civilian use

Commercial use

iPhone 4S mobile supports both GPS and GLONASS.

You can use it to know distance covered during jogging etc.

Finding shortest possible route during travel

Keep track of your school-buses, transport trucks etc.

Mohan-Putin signed agreement for use of GLONASS.

SnT #2: Joint research centres

Establishment of India-Russia Joint Science and Technology Centers in India and Russia,

To develop technology

To commercialize that technology.





On Afghanistan
India and Russia want Afghanistan to be free from

External interference (of PAK+China)


Extremism+ Terrorism


Drug trafficking.

Weve agreed to work together in Afghanistan to achieve ^these.


Already Cooperating








Trade And Investment


Science And Technology







During Putins visit

Weve reviewed and updated the agreements.

Apart from that,


Russia has supported Indias entry as a full member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Already Discussed click ME


Russia has reaffirmed that India as one of the most deserving and strongest candidate for the permanent member of the expanded UN
Security Council.
No Joint Press Conference=Problem?

Usually after a summit is over, the leaders of Both Nation hold a joint press conference.

But this time, after 13th India-Russia annual Summit, no join press conference was held.

Critiques say this proves India-Russia friendship is going through difficult times.

But it is not true, because

Putin was on tight schedule.


Putin has broken his back in Judo practice, cant stand or sit for long.


Mohan was afraid that during Joint Press conference, reporters would ask him uncomfortable questions on Delhi-Gangrape + demolition
of only Hindu temple in Russia.

Therefore Joint press conference was avoided.



Mohan checks the bill



Price ($ Billion)

Sukhoi Su-30 fighter jets



Mi-17 Military Helicopters



Nuke plant




50 billion

Mohan: There seems to be a mistake in the calculation. Total should be 47.9 billion dollars.
Putin: sorry mate, I dont keep chillar just like Delhis rickshaw-walls. Figure rounded off to next 50s and 100s.
Mohan: But how am I going to justify this expense-mismatch in Government account books? CAG will rip me apart!
Putin: Chillx, just show it as bill for serving Desi Liquor to delegates and foreign journalists during this Summit.
Mohan: oh yes, then itll be a legit expense under diplomatic protocols. Indeed whaat an idea sir-ji
Mock questions
Q1. find the Wrong match













Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)


Write a brief note on 13th India Russia Annual Summit (10m)


Discuss Indo-Russia nuclear cooperation. (12m)


Analyse emerging trends in Indo-Russia relationship with special reference to business and investment. (15m)


WIPO Treaty for Visually Challenged, Patent vs Copyright difference explained
What is WIPO?

WIPO= World Intellectual Property Organization

UN agency

HQ: Geneva, Switzerland

Function of WIPO?

I can protect my house, my property, savings from others without stealing, can even defend my borders through national defense, but
this intellectual property like my creations- a book, a logo, a design for a car engine = difficult to protect, anyone can copy, example china
well known for its reverse engineering capabilities. So what do I do? WIPO comes in here.

Its member-states respect and protect each others intellectual properties in the forms of copyrights, trademarks, patents etc. and thereby
preventing illegal copying.
What is this agreement?

The treaty to facilitate access to published works aims at producing accessible books for visually impaired, blind people and
people with reading disabilities, removing hurdles of copyright provisions [explained below].

Agreement not yet signed but is slated for discussion and signing in early June 2013 at Morocco.
Why treaty for Visually Challanged?

According to WHO, global visually impaired population= ~285 million, of these ~19 million children.

Amongst the disabled, visually impaired people are the most affected, need special kind of books = Braille, large printing etc.


Without taking in to account of this section of population we can neither achieve universal education [ one of the Millennium
Development Goals under UN] at international level nor grow at desired pace [8% GDP growth] at national level.


Now copyright laws universally impose certain restrictions on production of books. There is basically a difference between patents and
copyrights which necessitates such treaty to bypass restrictions:
Difference: Patents vs. Copyrights?



Patent gives the designer complete rights

over the idea in whichever form it is used.

Copyrights on the other hand given for a work in particular form like a
book, an audio and only that exact reproduction, example cut and paste of
text falls under its ambit.

It requires compulsory registration.

Does not require a registration, once the work is created it is a property of

the author.

Patent rights are thus usually given for a

brief period say 20 years.

The rights are given for the entire lifetime of the author and extend for
50 years even after the death of the producer.


And so as we see, if we need to reproduce a book for these differently abled people we need permissions from the author. i.e. There are
copyright restrictions on reproducing accessible books. [Accessible books= books which provides comfortable and easy
reading to visually impaired persons].

Further import of accessible books=prohibited. Also Indigenous manufacture= expensive for developing countries, lack of funds. Further
books manufactured in developed countries can be used still more efficiently.

Thus to meet the above needs, the UN agency decided to sign a treaty whose features include:
Salient features of the Agreement:

Hereafter no need to get permission from the copyright holder to produce special books for visually impaired.

Also these books can be moved across borders without any restrictions amongst signatory members.

National governments have to take care that the books are used exclusively by targeted beneficiaries [Visually impaired in our case] and
respect the rights of copyright holder at all instants.

So what if some XYZ corporate house uses this agreement to bypass copyright restrictions?

The agreement requires each country to recognize authorized entities for the purpose and to create an international database with names
of such organizations which is shared with other members.
Positive Implications:


Rather than giving freebies like free bus pass which no one helps them redeem, this way of empowerment helps them develop selfconfidence.


Leak proof= no diversion of money, beneficiaries directly benefited.


Helps achieve the so called Millennium development goals, rise in GDP [contribution from this section of our society also].


Fulfilling right to equality under article 14= equal access to education and educational resources.
[Yearbook] educating visually challenged

Now at the national level efforts so far towards educating visually challenged:

At elementary level Sarva shiksha abhyan aims at providing inclusive elementary education for children under the age of 14 years.

At Secondary level a dedicated program for educating the disabled has been formulated:

Inclusive Education for disabled at secondary stage

Centrally sponsored scheme started in 2009.

All disabled children [age group of 14+-18+] completing 8 years of elementary education is given assistance to complete 4 years of
secondary education:

Assistance to access educational materials, aids, transport allowance for motion disabled, reader allowance for visually impaired, access
to teacher etc.

Central assistance of Rs. 3000/annum/child topped by state assistance of Rs.600/annum/child is provided.

Girls provided special focus= a stipend of Rs.200/month.

Implemented by state government agencies and can involve NGOs as well.


Nepal Logjam (Part 1 of 3): Civil War, Peace-Deal, Constitutional deadlock, Frequent change of Prime Ministers
During British-Raj
There was alliance agreement between British and Nepal King. Under which:

British Indian Army will recruit Gurkha soldiers from Nepal.

Nepal King will accept British guidance on foreign policy matters.

The British will protect Nepalese Kings against both foreign and domestic enemies and will not interfere in the internal matters /
domestic affairs of Nepal.

1947: British withdraw from India.

Nepal King has no external source of support anymore.

Now the Anti-King forces led by Nepali Congress (NC) party, launched a revolution in 1950.

King accepted settlement, Constitution drafted, general elections held.

From 60s to 90s

The Nepali Congress (NC) party won majority, and formed the Government.

But there was frequent power struggle between the PM and the King.

In early 60s, the King dismissed the parliament, banned all political parties.

He passed a new Constitution- Now crown became the real source of authority.

This system continued for years, but in 1990 there was huge uprising and protests by people. (this is known as First Jan Andolan.)

Finally, King accepts multiparty parliamentary system.

New election is held, new Constitution is written.

The 90s system

It was more or less the same as British monarchy.

King remained the head of state.

King appointed the leader of the majority party in the lower house as Prime minister.

If there was no clear majority, King appointed a leader who enjoyed support of majority coalitional partners.
1996-2006: Civil War

From outside Nepal looks like a tourist economy but most of the tourism is confined to Katmandu valley only.

Because other places in Nepal dont have much infrastructure (hotels, good roads, electricity, communication etc.)


Governments policies hardly upgraded the socio-economic status of rural people.

Most of the foreign aid for poor, was chowed down by corrupt politicians and bureaucrats.

Ethnic division was becoming sharp. (Madeshis vs higher caste Brahman+Chhetris).

While the 1990s Constitution provided for multi-party system, elections etc. But still the political power rested in the hands of elites,
noble families of Nepali Congress (NC) etc.

These socio-economic issues led to rise of Maoists elements.

Finally in 1996, they started armed struggle against the popularly elected Nepali Government+ King.

Their Peoples liberation Army took control over many rural and remote parts of Nepal, started seizing properties of rich peasants,
holding kangaroo courts, murder, abduction, etc.etc.etc. you get the picture.

Maoists demanded following


Abolish Monarchy.


Frame a new Constitution for Nepal.


Create a system of directly elected President.


Divide Nepal into provinces according to ethnic lines.


Redraw relations with India. (regarding border, trade, water sharing etc.)
Indias Nepal Policy: 2005

Since the beginning, India had supported Monarchy in Nepal, for two reasons

To prevent Nepali + Indian Maoists forming alliance.


Nepali Maoists wanted Nepal to become a secural country but certain section in Indian Political establishement wanted Nepal to
continue as the only Hindu Kingdom.

But then Nepali Maoists, headed by Prachanda, contacted Indian Government.

They assured, Support us and we promise not to create any trouble for India.

Indian authorities made assessment of the situation in Nepal, and concluded that


Most Nepalese people were against Monarchy and King Gyanendra.


Maoists had sizable presence in Nepal.


If we dont support them, China will. And then we stand to lose. (for example, in future, when Maoist Government is formed, theyll give
all contracts to Chinese companies.)


If we dont support them, theyll shelter Indian Maoists, further creating trouble for us.


So better lets help them get integrated into mainstream politics and democracy of Nepal. Then Nepali Maoists will be of no more trouble
to us.

Under this assessment, India made a new Foreign Policy for Nepal in 2005. It involved

Stop supporting the Monarchy and Nepals Royal family.


Befriend the Maoists.


Bring Maoists and pro-democracy forces together in Nepal


Help establish democracy in Nepal.

At the end of this series, well see Why Indias Nepal policy=#EPICFAIL.

Anyways, back to the topic,

The time is 1996-2006.

There is a civil war going on between Royal Nepalese Army vs. Maoists.

India and UN try to mediate peace.


The king takes direct control over Government, and dissolves parliament on the ground that popularly PM and parliament has failed
curb Maoist menace.

Lot of unrest and agitations by people, against King Gyanendra. (This is dubbed as Second Jan Andolan/Loktantra

King Gyanendra succumbs to pressure and restores the parliament.


Now the (restored) Nepalese Parliament passes a law that


King is no longer the supreme commander of Army. (that means. Army will work as per directions of PM and will not take orders of the
King. This will facilitate peace deal with Maoists.)


Declared Nepal a secular country, (no longer a Hindu Kingdom.)

Finally at the end of 2006, Maoists sign a Comprehensive peace accord with Nepal Government, under which

Signing of Peace Agreement between Government (L) and Maoists (R). (Nov.2006)

Maoists and Nepalese army will stop operations against each other. Theyll stop new recruitment.


Temporary Cantonments will be established.


The Maoist combatants will stay in these cantonments.


Both the Maoists and the Nepalese army will lock equal amounts of their arms in UN-monitored containers.


Government of Nepal will provide food, ration and salary to these Maoist rebels residing in Cantonments.


King will no longer enjoy his former political rights. His property will be nationalized.


In long term, these Maoist rebels will be either inducted in regular army, or theyll have option to accept financial assistance and lead a
regular life.

In short, Maoists will stop violence, join mainstream.

Ok so far,


Constitution provided for multiparty system. (king appoints PM from the majority party etc.)


Civil war between Nepalese army vs Maoists.


Peace accord.


The interim constitution of 2007.

It replaced the previous 1990s Constitution.

A Constituent Assembly(CA) was elected as per this interim Constitution.

This CA had to draft and deliver the new constitution. (by May 2010)

Then a new parliament will be elected as per the new constitution

Thus, elections are held under Interim Constitution.

And the Maoist party also participates in these elections.

But nobody gets absolute majority.

This leads to coalition governments.

Main Political Parties



Important persons


Pushpa Kamal Dahal aka Prachanda


Baburam Bhattarai



Mohan Baidya Kiran


Madhav Nepal

Nepali Congress (NC)

Sushil Koirala.



Constituent Assembly(CA)
Recall how Indian Constitution was made?

Constituent Assembly (CA) was created. (as envisaged in Cabinet Mission Plan).

It was made up of elected representatives + nominated members from princely states.

First meeting of Constituent Assembly (CA).

Muslim league boycotts and demands for separate Pakistan.

India becomes an Independent country.

Constituent Assembly (CA) becomes a sovereign-body with dual functions


Carry out legislative functions (like a parliament.)


Draft Constitution of India. (like a Constituent assembly).

The Constitution making process goes on.

Lengthy Debates, discussions.

Finally Constitution adopted on 26th November 1949.

First General elections held, according to the provision of new Constitution of India.

Nov 1946

December 1946




So basically

Constituent assembly has to deliver result. (=Constitution).


And then fresh elections must be held according to that new Constitution.

Now the question is
Why is there a political crisis/logjam/turmoil in Nepal?

Because their Constituent assembly (CA) has not delivered the result (=Constitution).


So President of Nepal has dissolved the Constituent assembly (CA) and removed the Prime Minister.


But President also asked the Prime Minister to continue as a caretaker Prime Minister.


Problem: This Caretaker Prime minister is not holding fresh elections.

Next question: why has Nepal Constituent Assembly failed to deliver result (=Constitution)?
Why No Constitution?
The Constituent Assembly has failed to deliver a new Constitution for Nepal, because there is severe disagreement among various political parties.
#1: Presidential system vs Parliamentary system


Maoist Party

We propose that Nepals future executive structure should be like this: President directly elected by people.
And hell have the ultimate powers.

There will be a Prime minister, elected by members of parliament. But hell just hang around without much

This will help, because in present system, no party is getting clear majority, so there is lot of political instability.

And coalition Governments usually dont work well.

Oh come on!! It is obvious that youre proposing this to make Prachanda the Dictator of Nepal.

We dont agree with this form of governance.

We propose the system similar to India= MPs will be elected by people. The leader of majority party will become

At the same time, there will be a Ceremonial President with a certain powers.

This will be good for democracy because no single organ will have absolute powers.

In short we want Parliamentary system of governance.

Ya if Parliamentary system provides for effective checks and balances then what about Indira Gandhis rule
during 70s and the emergency??

How was that not a dictatorship?

We dont accept this stupid proposal.

Other parties

Maoist Party

Everybody starts shouting.


Beth Jaayiye, Beth Jaayiye. Kripyaa Shaant Ho Jaayiye. (sit down, sit down, please calm down.)

So, first disagreement is what should be the form of government.

#2: Federation on Ethnic lines

Maoist and Madhesi Parties

Other parties(Nepali
Congress(NC), UML)

We want Nepal to be subdivided into provinces.

These provinces/states should be drawn based on ethnic lines. E.g. separate state for Madhesi people
in areas where theyve majority. And so on

We dont agree with this.


Over the years, there has been lot of internal migration in Nepal.

Similarly, there are marriages between many castes, so the social-demography is changing.

In this light, separate states based on ethnicity/caste = not good for unity of Nepal.

Besides, our vote bank consists of upper caste Hindus (Brahman, Chhetri etc.) and theyre opposed
to this system since they dont have clear majority in any area.

Beth Jaayiye, Beth Jaayiye. Kripyaa Shaant Ho Jaayiye.

Everybody starts shouting. (again)


(sit down, sit down, please calm down.)

So, second disagreement is Basis of Federation.

There are other disagreements over appointment of judges, whether judiciary should be completely autonomous or responsible to
legislature, election process etc.

Over the years, they have not been able to sort out these differences in the Constituent assembly (CA).
Taarikh pe Taarikh

Constituent assembly (CA) was formed in 2008.

Original term: they were to deliver Constitution by May 2010.

They Failed to deliver Constitution due to ^above disagreements.

The term extended to August 2011.

Again failed to deliver Constitution.

The term extended to November 2011.

Again failed to deliver Constitution.

Term extended to May 2012.

Now Supreme Court got angry, and passed the order whether CA delivers a Constitution or not, it must be dissolved in May 2012.
Ok wait, lets recap


New Constitution that provided for multiparty system. (king appoints PM from the majority party etc.)


Civil war between Nepalese army vs Maoists.




Peace accord.

The interim constitution of 2007.

It replaced the previous 1990s Constitution.

Election of Constituent Assembly.(CA)

This to be elected would draft and deliver the new constitution, and a new parliament would be elected as recommended
by the new constitution

CA fails to deliver Constitution. It keeps giving itself extension after extension.

In the meantime, Prime Minister is changed four times during 2008 to 2011! How and why?

Pushpa Kamals Prachand Dhamaal

Prachanda is the chief of Maoist party. (Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (CPN).)

His original aim: overthrow the State by violent means. (a.k.a. the traditional Maoist way, just like how Indian Maoists want to
overthrow the State by 2050.)


He waged Civil war between 1996-2006.

Ultimately He had to sign peace accord and agree to join democracy.

In 2008s election, his party won many seats.

He became the Prime Minister of Nepal.

Ram Baran Yadav of Nepali Congress (NC) became the President.

Since Prachanda couldnt overthrow the state via traditional Maoist methods (=violence), He decided to go for plan B.
Prachandas Plan B?


Initially 6500 of the Ex-Maoist Combatants were to be recruited in Army.


Prachanda raised the demand to induct 9000 Maoist combatants in the army.


^This will led to significant presence of Maoist in the regular army=> army cannot create much trouble in future. (say for example, if US
or India supported King to return and there was another political crisis).


Prachandas Maoist party will push for a new Constitution that has directly elected President. (so no worries of coalition politics.)


Similarly they demanded Judiciary must be accountable to legislature (and not autonomous like it is in India.)

So ultimately Prachandas aim was to have a governance system where he could be the main boss and other organs of the State (army, judiciary,
legislature) remain weak, just like President Hugo Chaves in Venezuela or Putin in Russia.
But Prachandas otherwise awesome plan was cut short in 2009.

Because in 2009, Prachanda decided to replace the Army chief.

So Prime Minister Prachanda asked President Ram Baran Yadav to sign the order for removal of Army Chief.

Problem: President Ram Baran Yadav refused to sign the letter. (reports say India had put pressure on him, not to replace the army


Prachanda bites the dust. He resigns from Prime ministers post because President did not agree to his demand for removal of Army


Madhav Nepal of UML party becomes the new Prime Minister of Nepal.
Madhav Nepals lack of Dhamaal

From 2009-11, Madhav Nepal is the Prime minister of Nepal.

But Prachanda did not like that he had to give up the PM post.

So he starts agitations, Bandh, protests, rioting, dharnaa, pradarshan against Madhav Nepal.


Anti Madhav rally: Maoist supporters (Prachandas Party) Demanding resignation of PM Madhav Nepal

Madhav Nepal resigns without doing much Dhamaal.

Now Jhala Nath Khanal becomes new PM, but he too is no match for Prachandas Dhamaal and resigns in August 2011.

Finally Baburam Bhattarai (of Prachandas own Maoist party) becomes new Prime Minister.

And Baburam continues to be the Prime minister of Nepal ever since then.

Nepal Logjam (Part 2 of 3): Merger of Maoists with Army, Anti-India Campaign, Why Elections are not held
Nepal logjam is a three part article series. Make sure youve read previous parts, before proceeding further.


1 of 3


Click ME

Indias Nepal Policy (2005)


3 of 3

Why CA cant deliver a new Constitution for Nepal.

Why four Prime ministers have changed in Nepal between 2008 to 2011.

Chinese presence in Nepal

how and why Indias Nepal Policy (2005)=#epicfail.

Click Me

Rehab of Maoist Combatants

After the ceasefire and peace accord, around 20,000 Maoist combatants had been living in the temporary Cantonments. (many of them
are child-soldiers).

they have deposited their weapons to UN-supervised containers.

6500 of them were to be absorbed in army. (disregarding educational/age requirements).

Rest of the Maoist combatants were promised a financial package of 5 to 8 lakh Nepali rupees, each. So they can go back to their
village/families and start their lives again with business, farming whatever.

But then Prachanda and Baburam started demading, we want 9000 Maoist combatants to be inducted in army.

The Army was against this move, fearing such large influx of Maoists inside army, will break its politically neutral character. (+most of
them were not meeting the have the age/educational/physical std. criteria.)

Nepali Maoists in UN Cantonment (Photo: Mikel Dunham)

Problem areas in Maoist Army merger


While Prachanda demands 9000 Maoists to be recruited in Army but the Ground reality= barely 3000 Maoist rebels actually wanted to
join the army.

Rest of them are uncomfortable working with their former enemy (army), with whom they had fought for more than 10 years.

Most of them are tired of the revolution, they prefer to accept cash, go back home, enjoy family life.

Most of them are not comfortable with the rigorous training and discipline of regular army.

Some of the senior Maoist rebels, want to be absorbed as Colonel, Brigadier and other higher posts.

But in most cases, Army is reluctant to give them such higher ranks, given their old age and low education.

At the end of 2012, barely 1500 Maoists joined the army.

Others accepted ca$h, deposited weapons and left for home.

Maoist MNREGA scam

In the Indian villages, Sarpanch and Patwaari create fake-job cards and withdraw MNREGA money.

In Nepal, the Maoists had submitted their weapons to UN-Containers and they were living in temporary cantonments.

They were given food, ration and salary according to their ranks. (This money was from aid given by UN, EU, Germany etc. donors).

Problem: Many of the Maoists left the camp. Yet money is withdrawn in their name.

Similarly fake id cards were created and money was siphoned off in ghost accounts.

The CAG of Nepal says total 1.5 billion Nepali rupees have been paid to fake combatants as monthly salary and food allowance by the

Prachanda and his favored Maoist commanders are running this Maoist-MNREGAscam.

Prachanda has made truckload of cash out of this game, bought expensive watches, , race-horses, SUV cars, luxury apartments, iphone5

This has created deep resentment and internal fighting among the Maoist rank and file.
Trouble in Cantonment

In several camps, the Maoist combatants started rioting, saying that Pro-Prachanda commanders are making truckload of cash through
fake-ID cards (Maoist-MNREGAscam.).

Prime Minister Bhattarai (of Maoist party) had to call in army to stop these riots.

These has further increased the bitterness among Maoist-cadres, because Bhattarai called up their old enemy (army) for help!

After this incident, Prachanda had to install metal-detectors at his home, because those angry rebels planning to attack him!
Power struggle within Maoist Party

The hierarchy of Maoist party is like this:


Prachanda @Top.


Mohan Baidya Kiran + Baburam Bhattarai (Present Prime Minister) as second in line.

Babu is like our Mohan. He doesnt have many supporters in the party. (or perhaps thats the reason Prachanda made him PM!)
Kiran on the other hand, has sizable following in the Maoist-party. Both hate eachother.

Mohan Baidya

Youve made Bhattarai the Prime minister . He is making truckload of ca$h, I hate him.


Ya but he is more acceptable to international players, including India and USA. So let him stay there for a while.


Whatever dude. Just tell me whats your next plan.


Well, I want new Constitution to have powerful President directly elected by people.

So that I can become the Main Boss of Nepal.





Bhattarai is only there to keep the seat warm for me.

Problem is other political parties are not in favor of Presidential system of government!

Dude, those parties never support you to establish this Presidential system!

So, I suggest we leave this Constituent assembly and again start violent agitation just like the good ol Maoist!

Ill fully support you in that.

Only one condition : get rid of Baburam Bhattarai. Because I hate that guy.

Sorry bro, not possible.

If we start violent struggle again, well lose support of India and the international community.

Besides, most of our Maoist brethren in Cantonments have accepted ca$h, deposited their weapons and left for
their homes. Itll be hard to mobilize people again for a new round of armed struggle.

Then you leave me no choice.

Ill make my own new party.
Adios suckers.

Kirans makes new Party

Many of Maoist cadres and mid-level leaders, are also disillusioned with Prachanda and Baburam, particularly because they are making
truckload of cash via corruption (including Maoist MNREGA).

So, when Kiran left the party, around 1/3rd of cadres from Prachandas original Maoist party also joined Kirans party.


Kiran-faction splits from Prachandas Party (Photo Mikel Dunham)

Now Kirans stand is following:
Against Prachanda

Prachanda and Bhattarai are Red Traitors.(Gaddaar)

Prachanda is swindling billions of rupees meant for combatants in different cantonments. (=Maoist MNREGA scam)
Against Baburam Bhattarai

Babu has sold our country to India by signing the Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (BIPPA) agreement.

Babu has given contract of upgrading Nepalese airports, to an Indian company without inviting bids.

Only the Army, judiciary and police are legitimate state apparatus. I dont recognise the legitimacy of the President Ram Baran Yadav or
Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai.
Peoples Constitution

Prachanda and Babu are responsible for not delivering Peoples Constitution.

President Ram Baran Yadav only consults the big four political parties. He doesnt listen to the small parties concerns.

We want an all sides-round table conference to decide the future of Nepal and draft Constitution for Nepal.

Well not mind going back to the armed struggle, if ^this is not done.
Against India

Kiran has also launched anti-India campaign. He says

India wants to colonise our small country Nepal.

Both Prachanda and Babu are puppets in the hands of Indian Government.

Nepals relations with India must be based on equality, regarding border-disputes, trade and transit rights.

India is trying to culturally invade Nepal via Hindi films and songs.

Therefore, we are banning Hindi films in cinema halls and Hindi songs played on FM radio,

Well prevent vehicles with Indian number plates, including goods carriers, from entering Nepal.
Anti-India stand of Maoists

Please note: Whatever Kiran is saying against India= Nothing new.

During civil war (1996-2006), Prachanda had also said similar Anti-India things.

But India helped him broker peace with Government, so he toned down his opposition.

When Kiran again started agitating against India (ban on Indian films, songs, vehicles), the Nepalese Government (headed by Maoist PM
Baburam Bhattarai), ordered the police to take strict action against these rowdy elements.

Experts believe that Kiran is intentionally doing this Anti-India campaign, with following objectives in his mind

India contacts him, pays him some cash to keep his mouth shut OR


India helps him get a plump ministerial position in Baburams cabinet OR directly makes Kiran the PM.


India starts looking @Kiran as the permanent-alternative to Prachanda/Baburam. Then India will start showering money and support
to him, just like President Obama does to Hamid Karzai in Afghanistan.
Babu vs Prachanda @RIO+20

Recall that Kiran left the party because Prachanda did not remove Babu from PMs post.

But that doesnt mean Babu and Prachanda are best friends like Jai and Veeru.

Most of the time, Babu doesnt do as directed by Prachanda. (Unlike our PM to Madam-ji.)

For example in July 2012, RIO+20 summit was held. (we have already covered that Summit, click me)

Prachanda had ordered Baburam not to attend this RIO+20 summit.

Still Baburam went to the summit.


Because Baburam wanted to meet Indian PM+ Chinese Premier and secure their support, saying Im in charge of Nepal. No need to talk
with other players. Ill get whatever you want. But please dont support others (including Prachanda lolz!)
Crisis: May 2012


So far: The Constituent Assembly of Nepal, is unable to deliver a new Constitution. Because there is severe difference between Maoist
party and other parties.

Right now Baburam Bhattarai of Maoist Party is the Prime Minister.

And Supreme Court had ordered that Constituent Assembly will be dissolved in May 2012. (=Baburam will cease to be Prime minister
and new election must be held.)

But Baburam Bhattarai plays a new trick: He passes a resolution to extend Constituent Assemblys life by 3 more months.

This goes against the order of Supreme Court.

So, President Ram Baran Yadav starts taking legal opinion on what to do next.

The legal-experts advice him to remove this Baburam Bhattarai and call for new elections.

Finally President Ram Baran Yadav removed Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai from his post, but asked him to continue as a caretaker
till an alternative arrangement is made.
Why Election not held?

So far,

2008 Elections were held for CA.


CA had to deliver Constitution.(by 2010)


But it did not deliver result.


May 2012: President Ram Baran Yadav dissolves the CA, as per Supreme Court order.


President also removes Baburam as PM, but asks him to continue as caretaker prime minister, until new arrangements are made.

Baburam to public

Ill work as the caretaker PM.Well hold general elections on November 2012 for new CA.Then Ill handover powers to
newly elected PM.

But hows that possible?



First problem: The interim constitution of 2007 doesnt have any provision for repeat elections!


Second problem: all of the Election Commissioners are retiring in October 2012. And new election
Commissioners cannot be appointed without approval of Full-fledged PM+Opposition
leader+Speaker+Chief Justice.


Whats your point?


Youre not a Full PM, your just a caretaker PM.




So, you cannot appoint new Election Commissioners, because you are just a caretaker Prime minister!


It means after October 2012, there will be no election Commissioners, then how are you going to hold
elections in November 2012??


Oh well, then Im the luckiest guy alive!

Ill continue being caretaker PM forever!
And though there is no parliament in session. I will continue ruling over this country via ordinances.

President Ram Baran


Damn it. This is ridiculous!Now I ask the political parties to elect a new PM through consensus within a week.
(November 2012)


Lolz well see.

The political parties, fail to reach consensus. So Baburam continues being a caretaker PM.

President Ram Baran Yadav extends the deadline. Makes a trip to New Delhi. (December 2012)

But India didnt give any open support. So he returns empty handed.

Now caretaker Prime Minister Baburam says well hold election somewhere in April-May 2013!

In the meantime, he is behaving like a full-fledged Prime minister, and has been taking major decisions on hydel projects, foreign
investment and promotions of security officials, besides loaning private companies huge sums of money from national deposit schemes.

Bhattarai feels the absence of a parliament grants him immunity from wider scrutiny and accountability.
Baburams next move

So far: CA failed to deliver result.

President dissolved CA, removed Baburam as PM but asked him to continue as a caretaker PM.

Baburam promised to hold elections in Nov 2012.

But elections are not held in November 2012.

Baburam and Prachanda (Maoist party) are trying to gather support of other political party by saying following things:

Since weve failed to deliver result (Constitution), the UN, India etc. wont trust us much. And if King Gyanendra tries to make some
move, who knows, India might even support him!


So, if you dont support us, then King Gyanendra and monarchy will return. And hell take the whole pie by himself. Weve an enemy in
common (King) so support us.


Nepals public is angry with every political party. So, even if there is election, nobody is going to get clear majority. So why waste
truckload of cash in election campaigns? So, Instead of that, lets do following

We pass a new resolution to revive the existing Constituent Assembly.

To hell with President, if he opposes, well remove him by passing another resolution!

On the other hand, Nepali Congress (NC) party, is also working to make a second front. What theyve in mind is something like: get support of
non-leftist forces, Army, upper caste organizations, accept ceremonial monarchy, and get Sushil Koirala elected as Prime Minister.


Nepal Logjam (Part 3 of 3): Chinese presence, Anti-India sentiments, how & why Indias policy failed
Nepal logjam is a three part article series. Make sure youve read previous parts, before proceeding further.


1 of

2 of

3 of



Indias Nepal Policy (2005)

Why CA cant deliver a new Constitution for Nepal.

Why four Prime ministers have changed in Nepal between 2008 to 2011.

Internal disputes within Maoist Party. How Kiran made his separate party and now continues AntiIndia campaign in Nepal.

Why Elections are not held in Nepal

Chinese presence in Nepal

how and why Indias Nepal Policy (2005)=#epicfail.

Click ME

Click ME

Discussed in this

Chinese Influence

However in the late 80s, King of Nepal decided to buy weapons from China.

India responded by putting trade-embargo on Nepal. This completely paralyzed the Nepalese economy.

Thus, Royal+Political establishment in Nepal learned the lesson ki India se pangaa =bahut mahengaa.(If we annoy India, itll be very
costly for us!)

So, the Nepal King cancelled weapons deal with China and maintained a bit of distance from Chinese authorities.

But ever since the abolition of Monarchy, China is building strong relations with Nepal.
Lumbini Special Development Zone

Lumbini, about 50 km from Indias border.

It is a pilgrim place for Buddhists and Hindus.

Asia Pacific Exchange and Cooperation Foundation (APECF)= NGO backed by Chinese Government.

APECF has signed deal with Nepalese Government to Development this area. (Project worth $3 billion.)


This has upset India, because we wanted to develop this tourist city on our own.


China is upgrading an existing airport in the tourist city of Pokhara

China is building four major roads along the Nepal-Tibet border and four dry ports for Nepal.

China is setting up a training academy for the Armed Police Force,

China gives annual financial assistance to Nepalese paramilitary forces and the Civil Police.

China has given billions of Nepali rupees as soft loan.

Nepals stand on Tibet = We recognize Tibet as Chinas integral part. (One China policy)

When Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visited Nepal, the Baburams Government made elaborate arrangements to make
sure no Free-Tibet activist ruined the visit.






USA banned the Nepali Maoist party as a terrorist organization.

September 2012

US has taken their name off the list of terrorist organizations.

This is seen as a move to become friendly with the Nepalese Government (presently headed by Maoist party) and prevent absolute domination of
either China or India in this country. Anyways, back to the point:
Murderers are free

Supreme Court of Nepal, convicted a Maoist MP for murder.

But since he belongs to PM Baburam Bhattarais party, the Government isnot doing anything.

In fact Prime Minister asked the President to pardon that fellow!

The Speaker of Nepalese Lok Sabha did not disqualify the said Murderer MP even after court-conviction.

This has eroded Bhattarais image in local crowd + among international players.(UN, India etc.)
Human rights are selective

Amnesty International and other human rights groups say that Nepals Government (led by Maoists) is not prosecuting their own
leaders for genocide and crimes against humanity.

PM Bhattarai has unilaterally withdrawn human rights violation cases, including those of murder and abductions, against his party
leaders and cadre.


It seems the international community has chosen to shut its eyes to the atrocities committed by the Maoists, in the name of getting
politically stable Nepal.

On the other hand, some Nepalese Army officials are being prosecuted for Human rights violation during civil war. This is creating
bitterness between Army and Government.
UN Mission to Nepal (UNMIN)

To assist the peace process

To manage the arms and armies of the Maoist party (after they joined democratic process in 2006)

2010: UNMIN left Nepal.

UNMIN has been accused of being Pro-Maoist, when it came to handling human rights violation.

(2011) Nepals ranks around 150 in the Transparency International, so you get the idea of how things roll in Nepal.

The officers from Irrigation department complained to Prime minister that Irrigation minister doesnt pass any project unless bribes are
paid to him in advance.

Similarly bureaucrats from almost every department have openly alleged that ministers demand huge bribes for transfers, promotions
and plum postings.

Elections to local bodies have not been conducted in the past decade.

Asian Development Bank and the World Bank reports show heavy corruption in poverty removal programs done at national and local
Reservation in Army Jobs

One of the Coalition partners of Maoist Government = the United Democratic Madhesi Front (UDMF) aka Madhesi party.

@Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai,


provide for reservation of 3,000 posts in Army for Madhesis and create a separate regiment for them, else well pull off
support from this coalition.


Ok ok, I agree.

Army Chief

But I wont agree.

The Nepal army will recruit anyone fulfilling the prescribed eligibility criteria.
We have never discriminated against anyone in the past.


Ok ok. I back off.

So, ultimately this move did not materialize but it angered the other Hindu castes (Brahman, Chhetri etc.).
Ethnic Unrest


Maoist party wants to divide Nepal on Ethnic lines. (besides, their coalition partner Madesi party is blackmailing them to create separate
province for Madesi people.)

But other Hindu castes are against this move.

Particularly Brahman and Chhetris (=30% per cent of the total population).

So they also started bandh and agitations. They donot want provinces to be created on ethnicity.

Such Bandh and agitations have badly affected tourism and income of people.
Anger against UN and International Community

UN, Swiss and Norwegian Government had given money to certain Nepali NGOs and Organizations that claimed to work for poverty

But ground reality, all the money was only used for particular castes and groups.

This has further annoyed the Upper caste organizations.

They started agitating against UN and other donor agencies.

Finally UN representatives gave statement We had given money only for poverty alleviation. If that money has been used for
promoting caste and ethnic hatred, we regret it.
Land transfer

During the Civil War (1996-2006), the Maoists held their Kangaroo courts and took away land from rich farmers in rural areas and
distributed it among their own cadres.

Under the Peace accord, such land was to be returned to original owners.

But Prime Minister Bhattarai (of Maoist party) has instructed the revenue department to legalize such land transfers= Maoist cadres will
continue possessing the land.

This is brewing more tension among villagers.

The Priest Appointment

According to age old tradition, only Indian Brahmin were appointed as head priest in Kathmandus Pashupatinath temple.

But when Prachanda became Prime minister, he appointed a Nepali Brahmin as the head priest of the temple.

This led to massive protests by the Hindu community in Nepal.

2012: Nepal Government makes a new law to restore appointment process. (=only Dravid Shaivite Brahman community from the
Trilinga* area of India can become Bhatt/Priest in that temple.

*Trilinga= a territory that comprises parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu
Why Anti-India sentiment in Nepal?

In the above points, you saw how and why common Nepalese people are unhappy with the things.

The rule of Maoist Government has brought nothing but corruption, ethnic tension, economic problems.


Many Nepalese people have started thinking, This Maoist led Government is bad and India has supported them to power.= India is the
bad guy.

(Just like how common Afghan people would feel against America, for supporting that corrupt Karzai regime.)

On the other hand, the regressive forces in Nepal, also hate India for not supporting Former king Gyanendra and the Monarchy, during
and after the civil war.
Regressive forces

Recall that Maoists did not return the land to the original owners. So there is bitterness in certain population sections of villages.(rich,
well-to-do farmers etc.)

Similarly the demand of ethnic states for Madhesi etc. are not acceptable to other Hindu castes (Brahman, Chhetri etc.)

2012: The former king Gyanendra starts making visits to various districts of Nepal.

Large number of people greet him. There is lot of slogan shouting in his favor. Thousands of people come to see him and hear his

It proves that many people are still in favor of the old traditional monarchy. (unlike Indian calculation that lead to change of Nepal policy
in 2005.)

And this section of Nepalese want the things to return to old system.

These forces are labelled as Regressive forces (Regressive=returning to a former less advanced state.)

Right now theyre fragmented, (dont have a special political party to champion their cause.)

But who knows, in long term, King and or his family or someone else might start political party.

This is making Prachanda and the Maoist party bit nervous. Because public who initially supported them are now disillusioned.

Until now, Prachanda used to run propaganda that Royal family has stashed truckload of cash in Swiss bank accounts.

But recently the Swiss authorities told that Royal family of Nepal had no account in any Swiss bank. This has further emboldened the
regressive forces.

So Prachanda is trying scare-tactics in his speeches to woo his traditional vote-bank, look if you dont support us. These regressive
forces will come back and make your life hell like.
Change of Indias Stand

Recently, Indias External Affairs Minister Salman Khurshids said, India has no particular likes or dislikes for any force in Nepal.

Meaning well work with anyone in Nepal as long as it serves our national-interest. (it proves that We want to correct our earlier mistake
of supporting the Maoists.)

This statement of Khurshid has made Prachanda and Baburam really nervous.

They fear India might play some dirty-trick behind the scene, and support these regressive forces/King/Nepali Congress(NC) etc. or
even worst: support Kiran, who totally hates both of them!
Criticism of Indias Nepal Policy


Under Maoist regime in Nepal, Chinese presence has increased. (compared to previous Monarchy).


India gained an ally (Nepali Maoists) but India lost goodwill of Common Nepalese people.+ Plus there is new guy to deal with: Kiran and
his anti-India campaign.

Ofcourse, in politics and diplomacy you cannot keep everyone happy. But

Prachandas control over Maoist party has declined. (Recall how Kiran left his party with almost 1/3 of the cadres.)


Many of the remaining Maoist cadres and smalltime party leaders are unhappy with Prachanda and Baburams corruption and lavish


Most of the Maoists combatants have deposited their weapons to army, accepted cash and left for their villages.

This means:

Prachanda doesnt have the political clout like before.


Prachanda doesnt have the power of violence anymore. (He cannot start another civil war now. Weapons deposited, Maoists combatants
left for home.)

The romance period with Maoism is over. Public is angry and unhappy.

In next election, Maoist partys seats will decline.

Even Baburam and Prachanda dont have much friendship with eachother= in future, there may be even more splits in the Maoist party.

So in the coming days, Prachanda will not be the dominant figure in Nepal.

This means, he will not be of much use to either India or China.

So, ultimately India wasted time and money supporting the wrong team for 6 years.
In return we got bad publicity among Nepalese people that we (Indians) are responsible for their crisis: both financial and

And now India will have to repeat making friends exercise with whoever becomes the new king maker in Nepal.

Therefore, when President Ram Baran Yadav visited India in December 2012, Indian establishment did not offer him any open support.

Right now we are in wait n watch mode to see who emerges as the main player.


For the list of all previous articles on [Diplomacy], visit

Indian Ocean Rim Association (IOR-ARC): 12th Summit, Gurgaon Communique, Highlights
What is IOR-ARC?

Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation

Established in 1997
Importance of Indian Ocean rim?

Indian Ocean is vital for the transportation of oil and conduct of other forms of global trade.

>97 per cent of Indias international trade by volume passes through Indian Ocean.

Indian Ocean rim region = rich precious minerals, metals and other natural resources, marine resources and energy.


20 full time Members

6 Dialogue partners
























USA (latest added 2012)







10. Mozambique
11. Oman
12. Seychelles


13. Singapore
14. South Africa
15. Sri Lanka
16. Tanzania
17. Thailand
18. UAE
19. Yemen.
20. Comoros (latest added in 2012)

China is not a member, just dialogue partner. Although theyre interested in becoming full time member.

Some books mention Ocean Rim got only 19 members=outdated information. Because Comoros was recently added as 20 th member.



Global issues

Human resources

We want cooperation( =coordinate the Stand in WTO, Kyoto etc.)

Liberalize trade (=reduce customs duty)

Increase flow of goods, services, investment, and technology.

Take common positions in the international fora on issues of mutual interest (=Coordinate stand in
UN, G20, Kyoto etc.)

coordinate Science-Tech research (via specialized universities, institutes of member countries)

cultural exchange programs and other boring stuff.

Why IOA-ARC is important?


Because it was established in 1997. Therefore, 2012 marks

15th anniversary year.

Whenever something/somebodys birth/death anniversary is in

multiple of five, it is important for UPSC!

Secondly, their 12th summit was held in Gurgaon, India in Nov.2012.

Gurgaon Communiqu /Declaration (2012)

When a summit/conference is over, the official statement is issued that weve agreed to do this, this and this)

Such press statement is called Communiqu.

In Gurgaon summit, member nations agreed to work on following 6 priority areas

6- Priority areas



maritime security -piracy

disaster reduction

Freedom of navigation in Indian Ocean

Safety and security of sea lanes in Indian ocean

Share best practices in coastal security

Coordination search and rescue operation

Hold workshop to share experience on disaster Management of cyclones, monsoon floods


Oil spills: joint training

Working group on trade-investment

Will hold a workshop customs (duty) harmonization and trade policy

Closer interaction with other regional org. Such as African union

Strive for Blue-economy

Regulation of fishing activates in coast waters

Harvest fish stocks in sustainable manner (=no fishing during breeding season etc.)

Combating illegal fishing and damaging fishing techniques. (e.g. Use of very fine nets)

Between universities and academies of member-states

Cross-fertilization of ideas between the Academic and Business Forums


fisheries Management

S&T-academic cooperation

tourism-cultural exchanges


They also agreed that

Well continue economic cooperation @regional level

Well aim for sustained growth + balanced Development

Weare adding Comoros added as 20th member


Weare adding USA as our 6th dialogue partner

Well hold next meeting in Australia in 2013.

What is blue economy?

Blue Economy concept emerged at Rio+20 Conference.

seeks to integrate ocean-environment-ecology issues into economic frameworks. Sustainable use of marine and coastal resources.

Reducing over-fishing.

Stop destructive fishing practices.

Stop illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing.

Protect coral reefs.

Combat climate change.

Combat ocean acidification.


Littoral= relating to a coastal or shore region

e.g. IOR-ARC is an organization of littoral countries in Indian ocean.

Mock questions

Q1. Which of the following is correct about Indian Ocean Rim association (IOA-ARC)?

It has member-states from two continents only: Asia and Africa.


12th summit of IOA-ARC was held at New Delhi, India.


Iran is not a member of Indian Ocean rim association.


Only 3


Only 1 and 2


Onlly 1 and 3


None of them.

Q2.find Wrong match



Mozambique Channel

Island nation in Pacific ocean

Between Madagascar and Mozambique






Q3. Correct order of islands from North to South in the atlas


Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar


Madagascar, Comoros, Seychelles


Comoros, Seychelles, Madagascar


None of above.

Q4. Which of the following is correct about Blue Economy?


It is a term associated with Socialist countries, having features of both red (communist) and green (capitalist) economies.


It is a term associated with Economic unions and track blocs such as EU, NAFTA etc.


It is a term associated with protection and sustainable use of maritime resources.


None of above.


Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (5 marks)


Suggest measures to combat ocean acidification and coral reefs destruction. What are the measures initiated by Government in this


Discuss the 12th summit of Indian Ocean Rim association (12m).

Mali Crisis, Taureg rebels, French Troops, Algeria Hostages: Background, implications explained
What is Mali?

Landlocked country in West Africa

Capital: Bamako.

Got independence from France in 1960

Players in this crisis?



What do they want?


They want to impose Islamic law across Mali


Ansar Dine


Same. They earn ca$h by kidnapping westerners and drug-traffic. Theyre

the richest among all rebels.


Earlier they wanted to create a separate nation for Tureg people, but now
they just want autonomy.

Mali Government

French Government




doesnt have enough firepower to match rebels.

Sent troops because it Malis official army is ill-equipped to fight the rebels.

Who are the Tuareg?

Tuareg areas

Nomadic people who live in Sahara and Sahel regions of Libya, Algeria, Niger, Burkina Faso and Mali.

In medieval times, they used to run Camel caravans across Sahara- trading gold, spices, salts and dates.

Sometimes called the Blue People because they mostly wear dark blue / indigo colored traditional garments.
What is their problem?

We reside in Northen Mali.

While capital city = Bambako = located in South.

Government sits there and does nothing for our development.

Were light skinned. And all good positions in Government and bureaucracy manned by black people.

We are not getting any jobs, education etc.


Villages getting displaced due to mining activities, and the subsequent land-degradation =bad for our farms, cattle.

So Tuareg people had been rebelling against the South since a long time.
Gaddafi Angle: 2011

Colonel Gaddafi (of Libya) had been hiring Tuareg tribesmen in his army.

2011=Uprising in Libya, Colonel Gaddafi gets killed.

So these Tuareg tribesmen (from Libyan army) formed their own new rebel group called MNLA.

They took possession of powerful weapons, surface-to-air missiles etc. from Gaddafis fallen army and decided to come back home.

They came back home (Northern Mali) and started fighting against the Mali Government. (+Other Islamic militants were also active in
the region so they got help.)
Azawad: Jan-April 2012

From January 2012 onwards, there is heavy fighting between rebels and Mali army, in the Northern areas of Mali.

But the army did not have powerful weapons. so They had to flee.

Thus MNLA rebels took control of Northern Areas of Mali and declared it a free country called Azawad. (in April 2012)

However, this Azawad country has not been recognized by UN or any powerful country (US/China etc.)
Mali President overthrown: March 2012

So far you know that

Tuareg people = unhappy.

Some of them served in Libyan army but came back home after death of Gaddafi. (+brought heavy weapons.)

These rebels fought against Mali army and threw them out of Northern Mali.

So, now Mali army= unhappy.

Army blamed President Toure for this fiasco.

Why? Because USA was giving truckload of ca$h to President of Mali to fight off the Islamist terror groups.

But this President was just using that money for his personal aiyyaashi (=buying sports cars, Rolex watches, diamond studded iphone1,2,3,4,5, consuming desi liquor and you get the picture.)

Thats why Mali army did not have good weapons, tanks, gadgets to fight with the rebels..

One army officer named Captain Sanogo gathered the soldiers and staged a coup against this President and threw him out. (Although
later this Captain handed over power to next President Traor.)

So right now Mali army is divided into factions one of them supports the old ousted President Toure and wants to bring him back in
Entry of French Troops: Jan 2013


While all this mess was going on, the extremists groups from Northern Mali, started capturing the areas in Central Mali region. (such
as Timbuktu)

New President panicked and called up French President:

New President of Mali

please help us. Our army is ill-equipped, divided into factions.

Weve neither the weapons nor the morale to fight these rebels. So come help us.

French President Francois Hollande

I cannot allow a terrorist state to emerge in Mali.

Ungoverned spaces in Mali could provide a launch-pad for Jihadist attacks in Europe and elsewhere.
But USA, UN or African Union are doing nothing!
So Ill send my own French army to fight against these terror groups.

AQIM (Extremist group)

@French President, buddy youre making a grave mistake.

Now we will retaliate by striking back at the heart of France (Paris). You just wait and watch.

French Offensive in Mali

Although some experts believe France is playing big brother only to get its hands on Gold and Oil reserves of Mali. (similar to USA in Iraq)
Back to Northern Mali

You know that MNLA= Tuareg rebels who previously served in Gadhafis army. They had returned back to Northern Mali.

But their influence in Northern Mali started declining after they ran out of money (spent in fighting against Mali Army, paying salary to
mercenaries and for running propaganda.)

Hence, many of MNLA fighters left the gang and joined other Islamist groups. (like Ansar Dine, AQIM etc)


Why? Because the Islamists are far richer, earning truckload of cash by kidnapping Westerners for ransom and trafficking cocaine,
marijuana and cigarettes.

So right now, AQIM (Islamist group) has control of Northern Areas, while MNLAs grip has declined.

Given this changed power equation, now the MNLA says, We support the French intervention, all we want is autonomy- we dont want
a separate nation for Tuareg people. We are secular, we are not associated with AQIM or other hardcore Islamist groups.
What is AQIM?

Al-Qaida in the Islamic Mahgreb (AQIM)

something like a franchise of Al-Qaida + variety of hardcore groups operating in this region.

It offers a typical mix of jihadist activity + criminality (drugs, weapons trades, kidnapping, ransom etc.)

Implications of Mali Crisis?

#1: Afghanistan of Africa

If Bamako (Official capital of Mali) falls in the hands of Rebels then it would be like a repeat of the Talibans rise in Afghanistan in 1996=
If the extremists take the capital, its game over.

The whole region will become safe-haven for terrorists, drug traffickers, hostage takers (like recall Kandahar episode).

This will further destabilize neighboring countries of Niger and Mauritania.

Therefore, international community must prevent Mali from turning into the Afghanistan of Africa.

#2: Iran wants to play big brother

Iran holds the chair of NAM (Non-Aligned movement).

Iran has offered to play role of negotiator between the Mali Government vs Rebel crisis.

Iran wants to use this opportunity to expose double standards of USA on Syria vs. Mali and to increase influence in this region and
generate good will (by showing that it doesnt support extremist element.).

Irans official statement regarding Mali crisis We are against extremism. But we are also against the (western) interference in the
domestic affairs of countries and military intervention.
#3: African Union (AU)

African union= Secretariat in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

In late January 2013, African Union held a summit to get a solution for Mali crisis.

French wants AU to quickly deploy soldiers. but so far only about 1,000 troops have arrived, and only few of them have taken up front
line positions, where actual fighting is going on (between Rebels and French).

Chad has promised to send 2,000 soldiers and Burundi has confirmed its readiness to join without giving exact number of soldiers.

So this Mali crisis will be an acid test of African Unions ability to tackle regional crisis.
#4: USA

U.S. says, If African Union (AU) sends forces in Mali, well support them with logistics. But we cannot fully engage in Mali until a new
government is elected and the political crisis is solved.

Experts believe President Obama wants to spend his second (and last) term fixing the domestic issues (economic crisis) so Democratic
party can win next Presidential election.

Therefore, he is not much interested in pursuing aggressive foreign policy agenda anymore. Besides America has already burned enough
cash on Iraq and Afghanistan.
Algeria Hostage Crisis

In early January, 2013, France sent its troops to Mali.

Just a few days after that, some Gunmen with al-Qaeda links attacked a gas plant in Algeria.

They took the workers as hostages (including foreign nationals.)

Weve attacked this plant because of following reasons

Gunmen in
Algerian plant


We want French troops to leave Mali ASAP.


Algerian Government has allowed France to use its airspace while bombarding our gangmembers in Mali.


Algerian Government has jailed our esteemed terrorist leaders. They must be freed.

Otherwise well shoot down the hostages and blow up this gas plant.


This is pure ****** man, youve been planning for this attack since last two months, long before French decided to enter



in Mali!
Youre just using French angle to get attention of international media. Otherwise Your main objective is to get ransom
from foreign Governments and to free your terrorist leaders from our jails.
But guess what? Well not agree with your demands.
Climax of Algerian Hostage Crisis

The stand off between terrorists and Algerian forces continued for 4 days.

Algerian Government did not allow foreign special forces (US/UK) to enter or help in this hostage crisis.

Finally Algerian Governments decided to attack those terrorists instead of continuing negotiation with them.

This led to death of 29 militants and 38 civilians, including six British nationals. (=bad publicity and international criticism.)

Later, Algerian Government gave statement, Sorry we made some mistakes in handling this hostage crisis. But when facing terrorists,
its not just words that solve the problem. Action has to be taken! By the way, weve found some evidences that Canadian nationals
were involved in this act of terrorism.
Mock Questions

Q1 Correct Statement

Mauritania is a landlocked country


Mali shares borders Libya and Morocco.


Strait of Gibraltar separates Italy and Morocco.


Only 1 and 2


Only 2 and 3


Only 1 and 3



Q2. Incorrect Match


Located in



Addis Ababa





South Sudan



Q3. Incorrect Match






North and West Africa

East Africa

Central Africa

North Africa


Has Algeria done the right thing by not negotiating with the terrorists? If youre the PM of India and such crisis hostage-happens, what
will you do?


Has France done the right thing by sending its troops in Mali?

11th Pravasi Bharatiya Divas 2013: Highlights, issues, awards
Overview of Indian Diaspora?

Indian Diaspora is second largest in the world after China.

About 25 million people spread across 200+ countries.

5 million of them in gulf region.

Nobel Winner Indian Diaspora




Dr. HarGobind Khorana

S. Chandrasekhar





Venkatarama Ramakrishnan


Remittance= Indian person working abroad, and sends money back to his family in India.

According to World Bank report, the remittances received by India is higher than China. (despite the fact the size of Chinese diospora >>




Remittances in billion dollars (2012)



What is Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (PBD)?

Every 9th January. Since 2003.

Organized by Ministry of Overseas affairs.

This day is celebrated to mark the contribution of Overseas Indian community in the development of India.

It provides an interaction platform for overseas Indians to address their issues and concerns to Indian Government.
Why is PBD celebrated on 9th January?

Because on 9th January 1915, Gandhi returned from India from South Africa.

Note: some websites say Gandhi returned on 7th Jan. but official website of Ministry of Overseas Indian affairs says it was 9 th Jan.
What happens during PBD?

It is usually a three day event (7 to 9 January).

Delegates from various countries participate in seminars, conferences.

Speeches made by by PM, President.

Pravasi Bharatiya Samman Awards given to meritorious people.

This convention also helps in networking among the overseas Indian community. So they can share their experiences in various fields,
make business deals etc.
10th vs 11th: Themes, location, chief-guest


10th (Jan.2012)

11th (Jan.2013)




Global Indian: Inclusive Growth

Engaging diaspora the Indian growth story

Chief guest

Kamla Persad Bissessar (PM of Trinidad and Tobago )

Rajkeswur Purryag (President of Mauritius)

About 2,000 Non-Resident Indian delegates from 44 countries participated in the 11 th CBD.
What did Mohan say?
#1: Invest in India

In last four years, Two financial crisis emerged from the developed world.


2004-10, our GDP growth rate was 8%, but in 2011-12 it has came down to 6.5%.

But we are confident that things will be back on track.

So NRIs, please be partners of Indias growth (=you fellas invest money in India so we can develop).

We need new approaches to address challenges in infrastructure, education, energy, water and agriculture.
#2: Safety for Indians abroad

Indian expatriate community has developed a more global presence.

And in the process, theyve also become more vulnerable to economic crises, conflicts, civil unrest or just senseless hate crimes.

We are concerned about the safety and security of overseas Indians. (in individual hate crimes, and in national crisis such as Arab spring,
Libya etc.)

We want not just physical safety but also social + emotional well-being of Indians living overseas. Therefore:


Weve launched an insurance scheme for workers.


Weve established welfare funds in embassies for distressed Indians.


Weve created mechanisms to help vulnerable women abroad.

#3: Social security Deals

Weve signed four new social security agreements with Finland, Canada, Japan, and Sweden, to provide provide exemption from double
payment of social security.

Very soon well also sign two more agreements with Austria and Portugal

Weve also negotiating such agreements with GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) countries.
#4: Ghadar Stamp


Weve launched this Rs.5 Ghadar Stamp


Well upgrade of the Ghadar memorial in San Francisco into a functional museum and library


Well also install a sculpture in that memorial, to honour Ghadar patriots.

Ghadar Movement stamp released

In 1913, the Punjabis in USA and Canada founded Ghadar Party to liberate India from the British rule.

Prominent leaders of Gadar Party= Sohan Singh Bhakna and Kartar Singh Sarabha.

2013 = 100 years passed since formation of Gadar Party.

Therefore, Mohan released a five rupee stamp during Pravasi Bharatiya Divas to commemorate the Ghadar Movement Centenary

Image on the postal stamp shows a few hands with torches.

Scholars feel this image doesnt relate to the Ghadar movement; the stamp should have been more specific.
What did President Pranab say?

To attract Overseas Indians to invest in India, weve


Allowed QFI to Invest in Indian Capital market.


Foreign Currency Non Resident account Banks (FCNR) scheme.

To help Overseas Indians easily travel in India, weve


Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI) cards

Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) cards

What did Purryag say?

Mauritius President Rajkeswur Purryag, was the chief guest at Pravasi Bharatiya Divas. He said

India wants a permanent seat @ UN Security Council, and we (Mauritius) totally support India for this.

We look forward to
Criticism against Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (PBD)


Leaders and rich NRIs meet for wine-n-dine.

Only lip service.

No concrete action.

So far 11 PBDs have been held, yet following problems are not solved.
#1: Travel problems


Air India doesnt have enough flights.


For NRIs it is very difficult to return home during festival season because All airlines intentionally increase the ticket price. A ticket to
ticket from Dubai to Trivandrum that usually cost Rs 15000 is suddenly increased to Rs.75000!
#2: Voting rights

While Government amended the Act to give voting rights to NRIs. But problem= theyve to come back to India to cast their vote. Now
who has the time and money to do that?

NRIs want online voting facility or some other arrangement like voting at the Indian embassy in their respective country.

But Government is not serious about implementing it. So the whole NRI voting = #EPICFAIL.
#3: Other problems


Colleges charge way too high fees for NRI quota admissions.


For NRIS, the Pravasi Bharatiya registration fees was $250. So participation is limited to only the elites among the NRIs.


Indians languishing in foreign prisons even without trial or after the completion of terms. Yet no legal and financial assistance is given to
them by Indian embassies.


Lack of rehabilitation/finance facilities for those NRIs who returned home after recession in USA and elsewhere.


Gulf returnees are harassed @customs.


plight of the aged and sick parents back home


Psychological problems of the children who grow up without proper affection or guidance of their parents.
Air Kerala

During PBD-2013, the CM of Kerala announced that Kerala Government is planning to setup its own Air Kerala

because Air India gives step-motherly treatment to Kerala workers in Gulf countries. (e.g. not enough flights, very high ticket prices
during vacation and festivals).
Awards: (PBSA)?

Pravasi Bharatiya Samman Award (PBSA) is the highest honour conferred on overseas Indians.

Total 15 awards given.

Two Important names (for exam) are:


Patricia Maria Rozario

Dr. Rasik Vihari Joshi

Contribution to


Sanskrit literature




Why important for


Because she is the only woman among Diaspora

winner of 2013.

Because from 2009-12, no awards were given in literature


Rasik Joshi, Patricia, President Purryag (Left to Right)

Other awardees




President Rajkeswur Purryag


Public Service

Subhash Razdan

Professor Gurusharan Singh Chatwal

Ashok S. Vaswani

T.S. Ravindra Menon





Community service

Dr. Satendra K. Singh

Bava Pandalingal

Gilbert. C. Moutien

New Zealand


Reunion Island



Mohammed R. Karuvanthodi

Ismail E. Ebrahim

Dr. Narendra R.Kumar

Australia-India Society

Saudi Arabia

South Africa


Health care. specializing in otolaryngology (head and neck surgery)

welfare of Indian diaspora.


Indian Doctors Forum

How is a person selected for PBD award?

Indian embassies across the world, send nominations.

If a person won this award previously, he can nominate one person.

All nominations go to the five-member jury. (Appointed by PM.)

Jury decides wholl get award.

Award is presented by the President of India.

Mock questions

Q1. Correct statements


Pravasi Bharati Divas (PBD) is celebrated on 9th January because on this day Gandhi went from India to South Africa.


PBD is organized by Ministry of External Affairs.


Only 1


Only 2





Q2. Incorrect Statements


In terms of diaspora population, China is ahead of India.


In terms of remittances, China is ahead of India.


Only 1


Only 2





Q3. Correct Statement


PBD was started in 2003.


2012s PBD was held in Chennai with theme Global Indian: Inclusive Growth.


2013s PBD was held in Kochi with theme Engaging diaspora the Indian growth story.


Only 1 and 2


Only 2 and 3


Only 1 and 3


All of them

Q4. Incorrect Match


Dr. HarGobind Khorana

S. Chandrasekhar

Venkatarama Ramakrishnan


Only 1 and 2


Only 2 and 3


Only 1 and 3


All of them





Write 20 words (2 marks)


Komagata Maru incident


Sohan Singh Bhakna


Kartar Singh Sarabha.


Gadar Party


Patricia Maria Rozario


Dr. Rasik Vihari Joshi


Discuss the role of Ghadarites in the freedom struggle of India. (6m)


Briefly list the problems faced by Overseas Indians and the initiatives taken by Government of India to address them. (15m)


Write a note on the role of Overseas Indians in the growth story of India.(25m)


The sun never sets on the Indian Diaspora.



Do you agree with the criticism that PBD is mere a talking-shop? if yes, what steps should be taken to make this Event more


Suppose Air Kerala is setup. What precautions should be taken to ensure it doesnt become another white elephant like Air India?


Why are the Indians increasingly becoming victims of hate crime? What role can/should Indian Government play to address this

Pakistan: Kishanganga Hydroproject Judgement, Gwadar Port given to China
Indus Water treaty?

Signed between India(Nehru) and Pakistan (Gen.Ayub Khan), in 1960.

It allocates the water in following manner

Eastern Rivers














Remember SRBjit (Sarbjeet=that Indian man in

Pakistani jail).

Remember CJI (Chief justice of India).

This water belongs to India exclusively.

This water belongs to Pakistan.

However, India can make limited use of this water, and build hydro Projects with
certain conditions.

Permanent Indus Commission (PIC)?

Indus Water Treaty provides for this Commission.

It is made up of one Indian + one Pakistani Commissioner.


PIC holds meetings, inspects the projects on these rivers (to make sure neither party is violating anything).

If either party is making or modifying any canal, projects etc. theyve to share data/ information to other party.

Water related issues/disputes should be solved by talks and negotiations.

If talks/negotiations fail, then India / Pakistan can approach a third party neutral expert.
What is the Kishanganga problem?

Kishanganga is a tributary of Jhelum river.

When Kishanganga enters Pakistan, it is called Neelam river.

Now Observe this map:

As you can see, India is building a dam at a place called Gurez. (work done by National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC))

India will divert this water via a 20+ km tunnel for generating electricity.

This tunnel will deliver water to Kishanganga hydroelectric plant (KHEP) @Bonar Nalla and generate about 300+MW electricity.


Pakistan objected to this project.

India refused to stop the project.

So, 2010 Pakistan approaches International Court of Arbitration (ICA) saying that India has violated the Indus water treaty of 1960.

The court gave stay order and stopped India from constructing the project while the case was going on.
Pakistans objections

If India builds a dam on Kishanganga and diverts water then

#1: less electricity for Pak

We are also building a Neelum-Jhelum Hydropower project.

This plant will have electricity generation capacity of almost 1000MW.

But if India builds a dam on Kishanganga (=Neelum) then less water flow for Pakistans side = this projects electricity generation
capacity will be reduced by 150MW.
#2: less water for Pak


Well will receive 15% less water (from our original share of river waters according to Indus Water treaty).


We might not get water at all from Neelum River for about seven to nine months a year! = not good for agriculture.
International Court of Arbitration at The Hague

India was represented by noted legal expert Mr.Fali S Nariman. (2 marker person in news)
Pakistan was represented by Mr. I.M. Notimp4upsc.

After hearing both the side, We order that



India has right to build dam and divert water from River Kishanganga.


BUT India will have to maintain some minimum water flow, for Pakistans use. It means Indian doesnt have right to
FULLY divert water.


Ok how much minimum water flow do we need to maintain for Pakistan?


That well tell you in December 2013. But in the mean time, both of your submit your survey database to us. So we can decide the
minimum flow.
And @Pakistan, you also give data on how much water do you from Kishanganga sorry Neelam, for agriculture/irrigation?




Objection! I suspect that Pakistan will intentionally come up with fake data that they need huge amount of water for irrigation!


It is for us to decide whether data is legit or fake! But submit the data first.
Plus, When both of your submit data, youll be given the opportunity to make objection against other partys data.

To sum up: This is only a partial verdict, and full verdict will come in Dec 2013.
Another Development is Pakistan handed over Gwadar port to China.
Gwadar Port transferred to China

You already know the background and strategic importance of Gwadar port. If not, click me

In Feb 2013, Pakistan and China signed an agreement to hand over control of the strategic Gwadar port on the Arabian Sea to a Chinese
company, According to this agreement,


Gwadar sea port will remain the property of Pakistan.


And the Chinese company will share profits from its operation.

Q1. According to Indus Water treaty, India has exclusive rights over

Beas, Indus, Ravi


Indus, Chenab, Jhelum


Ravi, Satluj, Beas


None of above.

Q2. Which of the following is correct regarding Kishanganga?


It is a tributary of Sutlej river.


In Pakistan, it is known as Neelam.


Only 1


Only 2






Fali S. Nariman (2m)


Kishanganga Project (2m)


Permenent Indus Commission. (5m)


Indus Water treaty (5m)


Write a note on the ongoing Kishanganga Project controversy between India and Pakistan. (15m)

India-UK: David Cameron Visit, Student Visa, Jallianwala, Kohinoor, Agusta Westland

Fodder points: India UK relations

India is among the top five investors in Britain with over 700 Indian companies having set up shop there.

Since 90s, India has following agreements with UK


double taxation avoidance agreement


Bilateral investment promotion and protection agreement

UK Supports Indias full/permanent membership in


Nuclear Suppliers Group


United Nations Security Council (UNSC).

Davids Dilemma

David has to face election in 2015. He needs to do something about his nations failed economy.

Britain faces huge fiscal deficit. There is not enough demand for its goods and services within Europe. (because most EU-states are on
verge of going bankrupt and France, Germany dominating whatever market is left in Europe.)

Hence, Britains economic future lies outside the EU in Asia, Africa and South America.

So, David came to 3-day visit to India, along with big delegation of businessmen.

David Cameron

Conservative Party


Nick Clegg

Liberal Democrats

Deputy PM.

India-UK talks
During his India visit, as per the diplomatic protocol, David met Mohan + Pranab, consumed desi-liquor to provide sustainable livelihood to
liquor mafias of UP+Noida. After the discussion, following deals/discussion were made between India and UK

UK will Investment in infra + energy projects in India.


UK will help developing 1000-kilometer Industrial corridor in the Mumbai-Bangalore region.


MoU for setting up Metro rail network in Mumbai.


India-UK will invest in joint research projects.


British retail giant Tesco is eager to enter multi-brand retail in India.


Vodafone tax case.


David wants to sell fighter jets to India.


David wants to negotiate bilateral Civil Nuclear Agreement.

Joint Cyber taskforce

A proposed joint cyber taskforce of India+UK.


Because David wants to secure the personal information of millions of Britons stored on Indian servers against cyber attacks by
terrorists, criminals and hostile states. (=China).
Agusta Westland inquiry

AgustaWestland is a helicopter manufacturer company in Britain.

In 2010 we signed deal to buy helicopters from Agusta Westland.

But Augusta Westerlands parent company= Finmeccanica= in Italy.

Recently, the chief of Finmeccanica was arrested in Italy on charges that he paid bribes to win contract in India.

David has assured Mohan that his Government is fully help in this investigation.(lolz)
Jallianwala Massacre

Happened on April 13, 1919

Brigadier General Reginald Dyer marched with his troops and opened fire on a crowd without warning or provocation.

Government of India (then in the hands of Britishers), setup Hunter Commission.

Hunter Commission criticized General Reginald Dyer for: a) opening fire without warning, and, b) that he went on firing even when the
crowd had begun to disperse.

General Reginald Dyer had died of natural death.

In 1940, Udham Singh shot dead Michael ODwyer, the governor of Punjab who had praised General Reginald Dyer.
Davids regret

During his India visit, David said, it was deeply shameful event in British history.

He merely expressing regret and did not apologize.

Anyways, this is seen as an attempt to win the Indian voters in UK (before 2015 elections). Indians are the single largest minority in UK:
About 1.5 million.

+ winning goodwill in India (mostly for trade-investment).

And he did not say Sorry because otherwise it might offend his traditional conservative white British vote bank.
Kohinoor Diamond

105 karat diamond, worth around 20 billion dollars.

It was mined in Andhra Pradesh.

Mughal Emperor Shahjahan affixed it on his Peacock Throne.

Persian King Nadir Shah attacked Delhi and took away the Peacock Throne.

Later it came in possession of Ranjit Singh, the king of Punjab -> Queen of England.
Davids refusal


During his India visit, David said Britain will not return the Kohinoon diamond.

Besides, if Britain starts returning the things to original countries then most of its museums and crown-treasury will get empty, after all
they enriched themselves only by stealing, looting and plundering others during the colonial era.

(Counter argument) Kohinoor is more safe in UK than in India. Because thieves broke into Vishwa Bharati museum and stole
Rabindranath Tagores Nobel medal while security personnel were busy watching an Indo-Pak cricket match on TV.

UK would introduce same-day visa services for Indian investors.

Foreign students are important for the economy of UK, Australia. But recently the Indian students have been avoiding UK like hell


Rise in hate crimes.


Economic downturn in Europe, Job opportunities =not good.


UK universities offer one-year Masters degree but it is not recognized by most Indian Government universities (or Government job
Davids promise

To fix this student immigration issue, David did two things


David made promise: no limit on the number of Indian students that can study in British universities, so long as they have a place and
an English-language qualification.


Talked with HR ministry of India (for recognizing UK degrees in India.)



Q1. Find incorrect match


David Cameron


Nick Clegg




Mitt Romney



Only 1,3 and 4


Only 2 and 4


Only 3 and 4


Only 1 and 2.

Q2. Which of the following are correct?

Kohinoor diamond was mined from Panna mines in Madhya Pradesh.


General Reginald Dwyer was responsible for Jallianwala massacre and he was later shot dead by Udham Singh.


Only 1


Only 2




Interview questions


What are your views on this whole issue of demanding apologies for the crimes committed in past?


In ancient and medieval times, India was plundered by foreign countries. And almost all of those countries are in bad shape right now (in
terms of economy). Britain who once was our master, now comes begging for Indian investment and students. Do you believe in Karma
cycle? Or is it just a coincidence?


What Reforms are necessary to attract foreign students in Indian universities? OR to retain Indian students from migrating to
US/Canada/UK/Australia etc?

India-US 4th Strategic Dialogue (part 1 of 3): Defense, Nuclear, Business and Trade
This three article series deals with developments in Indo-US relationship during 2012-13, and outcome of 4 th Strategic dialogue meeting between
Kerry and Salman. (But without going into deep details/analysis of Iran/Afghanistan issue, because theyre too big topics to fit in the

Part 1 of 3

Defense, nuclear, business and trade

Part 2 of 3

Health, education, science-tech, space collaboration

Part 3 of 3

Environment, energy + mock questions

First, the timeline of some landmarks/events in Indo-US relations. Click on following image:

Timeline Indo-US (click to enlarge)
Why Kerry Visit?
Recently, US Secretary of State, John Kerry visited India. Why? Because he was in Afghanistan and decided that abhi idhar tak aaya hu toh
India bhi ho ke chalu, to enjoy some free food and desi liquor. Nope. He came to India in June 2013, because earlier both countries had agreed
to hold Strategic Dialogue meetings every year.


1st strategic dialogue held in US, between Krishna and Clinton


3rd dialogue was held in Washington between Clinton and Krishna.


This was 4th dialogue, held in India, between Kerry and Salman.


5th Dialogue in USA

Hidden Agendas in 4th Dialogue






Ok well work on BIPPA (Bilateral

Investment Protection and Promotion

But In return we want you to further relax

your visa regime for our skilled manpower.

We want preferential access to Indian market, to improve its own


We want you (India) to be on our side in the Iran nuclear issue.

Iran is a valuable friend for us. But weve reduced our

oil imports from Iran. And asked them to abide by
the nonproliferation requirements.

You (Americans) are planning to withdraw

troops from Afghanistan from 2014.

Itll create a vacuum and comeback of

Talibans. And it seems, youre trying to
make peace with Good talibans.

Weve already invested two billion dollars in

development and projects in Afghanistan.

Re-entry of Talibans in Afghani government

= not good. It puts our national security at
risk, recall Kandahar episode.

well about time!

Youve nothing to worry about Afghanistan because


If at all, any peace deal is made, itll be between the High Peace
Council of Afghanistan and the good-talibans who disassociate
themselves from Al Qaeda and from violence, and agreed to
respect Afghani constitution, rights of women and the minorities.


Even after we leave, well still keep a level of a force on the

Afghani soil for antiterrorism and counterterrorism operations.



Be on our side, and well fully support your entry in four

multilateral export control regimes (the Nuclear Suppliers Group,
Missile Technology Control Regime, Australia Group, and


Wassenaar Arrangement).

Once you become members of those gangs, youll have more legit
claim to be a permanent member of UNSC.

And lets also do some chillar agreements on education,

healthcare, sci-tech cooperation, climate change etc. to harass
UPSC aspirants.

Besides weve worlds third largest army,

fourth largest air force, fifth largest navy
and not to mention Nuclear weapons! We
deserve a permanent seat in UNSC.

YES YES YES!! Totally agreed! Nothing in this world

can match the sadistic pleasure of harassing them.

Anyways, in June 2013, Kerry came to India for the strategic dialogue. As per the usual diplomatic protocol: item songs, desi-liquor, sustainable
Here are some of the important developments that took place in 2012-13 + during 4 th dialogue.

Regional forums


United States has became a dialogue partner in Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC). We welcome this


India got Observer status to the Arctic Council. We welcome this.India is a major player in global scientific climate studies and has a
research station in the Arctic.


Well increase engagement in existing regional dialogue mechanisms e.g. East Asia summit, ASEAN regional forum etc.

shared vision for peace and stability in Asia and in the Indian and Pacific Oceans


well intensify India-US engagement in the existing regional dialogue mechanisms viz

East Asia Summit process,


Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum


ASEAN Defense Ministers Meeting Plus

Well consult on issues relating to the region both bilaterally and trilaterally, including in the India-US-Japan and India-US-Afghanistan.
In Afghanistan

We both want Stable, democratic, united, sovereign and prosperous Afghanistan.

Free, fair, transparent and inclusive Presidential and Provincial Council elections in Afghanistan in 2014.

capacity building for Afghan National Security Forces.

socio-economic development, women empowerment in Afghanistan.

Promote private investment and trade, in Afghanistan.

In Iran

President Obama had signed a law, empowering U.S. authorities to impose penalties on foreign banks dealing with the Iran to settle oil
import payments.

This created problem for India because Iran was 2 nd largest supplier of oil after Saudi.

Later in June 2012, Ex-Secretary of State Hilary Clinton gave 6-months exemption to India.

But India had to reduce its oil imports from Iran, subsequently, Iraq became the 2 nd largest supplier of oil to India.


Appreciated the fact that India has reduced its oil imports from Iran.


We have a valuable relationship with Iran, but we have not allowed our friendship with Iran to come in the way of our objective
commitment to nonproliferation and our commitment to the IAEA provisions because of Iran being a signatory to the NPT.Iran has
got a new President now (Hassan Rohani), it remains to be seen what his intentions and inclinations are.

In Africa

Both are working for Open Government Platform (OGPL) in Africa.

OGPL aims to make Governments More Transparent and Accessible

ongoing trilateral cooperation in establishing Open Government Platforms in Ghana and Rwanda.

Eliminating preventable child deaths.

strengthening agriculture management and extension services

Expand food security among important African partners such as Kenya, Liberia, and Malawi.


The defense relationship encompasses military-to-military dialogues, exercises, defense sales, professional military education exchanges, and
practical cooperation.

Defense trade

~9 billion U$D.


Army = yudh abhyas



Navy= P-8I Poseidon


Airforce= C-17 Globemaster III

Training exercises


want to transform defense ties beyond buyer-seller relationships

want technological cooperation for co-development and co-production of defense equipment.

missions to recover the remains of U.S. military personnel from World War II.


training of law enforcement agencies, megacity policing, global supply chain-transportation security


Homeland Security Dialogue


combating counterfeit currency and illicit financial flows


26/11 investigation and prosecution.


2012: US put sanction on top leaders of LeT, many of them involved in 26/11.


Jan, 2013: Headley sentenced to 35 years prison. Although India has demanded Hedleys extradition but no favorable response
from US.


Cyber Security Consultations: between Indias Computers Emergency Response Team (ICERT) and its American counterparts.


Issue: hate crimes against Sikhs (Oak Creek Gurudwara shootings). India asked US government to give more security to Indian religious
places inside America.


Both US and India opposed UN general assembly resolution for abolition of death penalty.

India has updated it SCOMET list, and USA has welcomed it.

SCOMET=Special Chemicals, Organisms, Materials, Equipment, and Technology (SCOMET) list.

These items are capable of dual use industrial and military. If they fall in the hands of terrorists, non-state actors or irresponsible
states (like North Korea), then they could create havoc. Some of the items are prohibited for exports and others are allowed for exports
subject to license and supervision.

US supports Indias full membership in following gangs:


Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)


Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)


Wassenaar Arrangement


Australia Group

Discussion between NPCIL and American cos. to setup nuke plants in Gujarat and Andhra.

Talks between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Indian Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) on a bilateral
information exchange arrangement.

Commitment to the full and timely implementation of the India-US civil nuclear cooperation agreement.


India-US signed civilian nuclear agreement.


Hyde Act passed.


India-US signed 123 agreement. It outlined the terms of nuclear trade between two countries.


IAEA and NSG gave permissions.

Lok Sabha approves civil nuke liability bill.

India signs convention on Supplementary compensation for nuke damages (CSC).



Bilateral trade in goods and services: >$100 billion.

Total two way FDI: ~$30 billion.

We will resume negotiations for Bilateral Investment Treaty/Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement. This will be
Facilitating greater two-way trade and investment, including with respect to goods, services, and skilled professionals.

We will increase engagement in multilateral fora such as the World Trade Organization (WTO). (Although India and US have sharp
differences over the agro-subsidy issue in WTO.)

American Business

this initiative targets Indias booming urban centersProviding Indian entrepreneurs information about trade and
investment opportunities with the United States.To date, the U.S.A has opened 12 American Business Corners in
India from Chandigarh to Thiruvananthapuram and from Surat to Guwahati.


To prevent monopolies and cartelism.MoU on Antitrust between Ministry of Corporate Affairs, and Competition
Commission of India (CCI)) and their American counterparts.Under the MOU, all agencies will inform each other on
their policies and developments in their jurisdictions.


India U.S Aviation Cooperation Program (ACP)


Bilateral investment treaty (BIT) negotiations ongoing since 2008. last round held in June 2012.

This treaty would deepen the bilateral economic relationship and support economic growth and job creation
in both countries


India-U.S. CEO Forumenables a forthright conversation about immediate policy issuesalso dwells into infrastructure
financing, aviation, clean drinking water, and renewable energy.

Commercial Dialogue

For Intellectual Property Rights , sustainable manufacturing practices, and support for small and medium
enterprises, intelligent transportation systems.

Economic and
Financial Partnership

Since 2010, to deepen India U.S. engagement in core economic policy areas.

Local engagement

State-to-State & City Engagement




Over the past year, economic ties at the state and city levels have grown.

For example, Governors of Maryland and Washington led trade missions to India.

Annual ministerial meetings led by the Indian Minister of Finance and the U.S. Treasury Secretary,

They discuss infrastructure finance, anti-money laundering, and combating the financing of terrorism.

PPP for technology-based innovation and entrepreneurship

Special 301:

Patent problems

Trade policy forum

It is an annual report of US authorities, regarding Intellectual property rights, patent etc.

It criticized Indian SC ruling on Novartis patent.

Nexavar controversy:

Bayer Pharma has patented the Anti-cancer drug Nexavar

But Indian government allowed a Hyderabad based firm to manufacture generic version of this drug and sell
it @30 times lower than patented drug.

US authorities have called this a violation of WTO norms.

enables India and the United States to engage on a wide range of policy issues impacting bilateral trade and

So, what is the big picture? Where do these individual pieces fit in the Indo-US relationship? click on following chart to find out.
Mock questions, @the end of part 3 of 3.


Indo-US relationship 2012-13 (click

India-US 4th Strategic Dialogue (part 2 of 3): Science tech, Space, Health care cooperation
Science, technology, and innovation = needed for well-being and economic growth of both US and India.


cloud computing, R&D in ICT, mfg-testing

increasing the role of women in science, technology and engineering

workshops for mentoring and networking of women science professionals in both countries

initiative by USAID and FICCI

to fund grassroot innovations, business incubation via PPP mode.

to solve development problems e.g. education, food security, water, sanitation, maternal & child health.




Indias Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and American agencies are collaborating to develop next generation proton
accelerators and related physics research.


ISRO and NASA will do following things

Cooperation space exploration work, including future missions to the moon and Mars.


Sharing and analysis of data from ISROs OCEANSAT-2 satellite.


ISRO is planning the launch of the Mars Orbiter Mission during October-November 2013. NASA is providing deep space navigation and
tracking support services to ^this Mars mission.


the joint development and launch of a radar satellite. will use a dual frequency (L and S band). will help in earth observation studies.


Monsoon studies using joint ISRO-French Space Agency Megha-Tropiques satellite and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM)
constellation of satellites.


Exchange program for engineers and scientists working in each organization.



Joint Astronomy to Better Understand Our Solar System


A US firm will help implementing a Global Positioning System Aided Geo Augmented Navigation System
(GAGAN) for civil aviation purposes.

Indian Initiative in Gravitational Observations

both sides are working to build a world-class gravitational wave detector in India

Using this, well study gravitational waves form black holes, neutron stars, and supernovas.

This will improve our understanding of the big bang theory.

India has proposed realizing this goal in its Twelfth and future Five-year Frameworks.

Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).

Indias own indigenous satellite navigation system, made up of seven-satellite constellation

Both side agreed for Compatibility-interoperability between the U.S. Global Positioning System and the Indian
Regional Navigation Satellite System.(IRNSS)

It is one of the most powerful telescope in the world

Being setup in the Hawaii.

India is collaborating with US on this project.



Thirty Meter

Public Health


Child deaths

Since 2004, USA has gave >250 million dollars to Indias National AIDS Control Organization (NACO).

Earlier, US, India, Ethiopia and UNICEF made a goal to reducing all preventable child deaths by 2035.

Reproductive, Maternal, Neonatal, Child, and Adolescent Health (RMNCH+A) Roadmap and a national and state
scorecard and dashboard to track progress.

>60 million Indians and >25 million Americans suffer from diabetes.

2012: India-US agreed for conducting cooperative research

to developing a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying diabetes

this will give us innovative solutions to prevent and treat diabetes in future.

MOU in 2010 for setting up Global Disease Detection-India Centre.

The Global Disease Detection-India Centre is now fully operational

And working on food borne diseases, emergency operations, zoonotic diseases, acute encephalitis and disease




Drug Controller General of India and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been collaborating in the area of
training, clinical research, pharmacovigilance, and e-governance.


Human and Avian Influenza and other Emerging Infectious Diseases


disease prevention (HIV, TB, malaria, polio)


maternal and child health


environmental and occupational health


vaccine development


infectious diseases


diabetes, cardiovascular diseases,


eye disease, hearing disorders,


mental health


10. Low-cost medical technologies.

Road injury

National program on (road) injury control.


US, WHO, ICMR and Highway ministry collaborate on this.

New rotavirus vaccine.

AIIMS, Stanford University and many public and private partners from India and America are collaborating on this.
Clinical trials are going on. If successful, this could be recognized as the first entirely new vaccine developed within India in
over 100 years.


Indian scientists from National Centre of Disease Control (NCDC) and the National Institute of Virology, Pune, are being
trained in USA.

So, what is the big picture? Where do these individual pieces fit in the Indo-US relationship? click on following chart to find out.
Mock questions, @the end of part 3 of 3.

Indo-US relationship 2012-13 (click

India-US 4th Strategic Dialogue (part 3 of 3):Education, Environment, Energy cooperation


The United States is the most favored destination for Indian students, with more than 100,000 Indian students pursuing higher studies in the
United States. But the flow of American students coming to India=very low. Both sides agreed to increase it.


direct India-U.S. advanced science and education network has been setup to supporting enormous data
flows between institutions/universities. (terabytes of data in a single download)

This is a PPP project involving Tata Communication.

for students and scholar exchange.

Since 1950, it has benefited thousands of American and Indian students and scholars.

Encourages the US students to come to India for a semester of study.

Theyll be given exposure to Indian culture and economy, corporate companies and interaction with
political representatives, including thetotally awesome legends such as A.Raja.

was announced during the India-U.S. Higher Education Dialogue held in 2012

India-Support for Teacher Education Program (In-STEP)

joint project between USAID and Indian HRD ministry.

to build the capacity of teacher educators in India.

Indian culture ministry signed MoU with New Yorks Museum for cultural exchanges, training and visits
undertaken by museum professionals.

As part of the celebrations of the 150th birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda, a Chair was established in
the University of Chicago

When Mohan 1st visited USA in 2009

Each side committed $5 million each

funds given to selected colleges and universities.

for placements of young India faculty and researchers in U.S. universities. (sponsored by UGC)

University Grants Commission (UGC) of India has finalized guidelines for twinning arrangements between
Indian and foreign educational institutions.

The guidelines will facilitate greater collaboration between Indian and U.S. universities.



Indias Connect India


In-step initiative


Knowledge Initiative

Raman Fellowships



USAs Passport to
India initiative.

For American students coming to India for internship.

Tri-valley university visa scam in USA, 2012

~400 Indian students were duped in this.

TUV scam

Collaborations in Massive Open Online Courses, technology-enabled learning.

Developing Indias vocational training sector through collaboration with U.S. educational institutions.

Establish community colleges in India.

enhance people-to-people connectivity

Higher Education Dialogue. and MoU with AICTE +additional institution-to-institution agreements to be signed on the margins of the
Higher Education Dialogue
Environment related


U.S. companies providing the technology and knowhow for Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water in Indian villages.

In Durban platform under UNFCC, the parties decided work toward a climate change agreement applicable to
all countries from 2020, to be adopted by 2015.

Both India-US resolved to work on Durban Platform: with a protocol and legally binding treaty on all parties.

Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests and USAID initiated a five-year, contract to take Reducing
Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) actions in India.

Short-lived climate pollutants include black carbon, tropospheric ozone, methane, and hydrofluorocarbons

They are called Short-lived because these pollutants have atmospheric lifetimes of only days to a decade and
a half (compared to CO2 which can persist in the atmosphere for millenia.)

India and the U.S. will work together to exchange information on short-lived climate pollutants, including
black carbon.

Durban platform


Short lived Climate


Both sides welcomed the decisions/outcomes of following summits:



Doha/COP-18 (UNFCC)



^click on the names to read full articles on those summits.

Plus, cooperation in

monsoon studies


Integrated Ocean Drilling Program.


climate change adaptation


disaster preparedness


water resources


forest carbon inventory monitoring


clean energy


strategies to achieve low carbon inclusive growth


tropical cyclones,

10. Research on key pelagic fish stocks and harmful algal blooms.


energy =critical for sustaining economic growth and securing prosperity,

India-US Energy Dialogue

Developing smart grid technologies, energy efficient buildings, Air conditioners, solar power, clean energy.



Indian Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy Database (IREEED)

Launched by Indias Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Department of Energy

This is an online repository of Indias central and state government renewable energy and energy efficiency
policies, regulations, and incentive programs.

It provides one stop information to benefit of policy makers, project developers, businesses, and consumers.

India-US Partnership to Advance Clean Energy (PACE).

When Mohan had visited America in 2009.

So far, PACE has mobilized ~ $2 billion to India for clean energy projects.

PACE initiative has financed nearly 40 percent of Indias first 1,000 MW of installed solar energy capacity,

MOU for Cooperation in Gas

To increasing the understanding of the geologic occurrence and the potential of methane production

from natural gas hydrates in India and the United States.

for more on gas hydrates, read article on Economic Survey ch.11, part 1 of 2

U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) signed an agreement to help Essar Oil Limited in further assessing
its coal bed methane license areas for the presence of commercial grade shale deposits.

US established a research house with Coal India on coal mine and coal bed methane.

Coal India is using this facility to explore prospects for commercially viable methane capture systems to both
reduce emissions and recycle methane as an energy source.

This (coal bed methane) will take India to a potential new domestic energy resource offering cleaner alternatives to

For more on coal bed methane read article on Economic Survey ch.11, part 1 of 2

discussed the development of an Asian natural gas market to provide more secure and diversified supplies of
natural gas throughout the region.

directors of Indian PSU refineries to meet with U.S. companies specializing in a range of refinery efficiency upgradation technologies.

USA is also collaborating with Indian oil and gas companies to capture and reuse fugitive methane from gas


Gas hydrates

Coal bed

Gas market




New Silk road


Solar thermal

Americas New Silk Road Strategy links the energy rich Central Asian Republics as Turkmenistan and
Kazakhstan with Bangladesh and South East Asia.

Last year when Hilary visited Mamata, she said Kolkata would become an important hub in this new silk road

In Dec 2012, US-India started initiative for concentrated solar power (CSP).

It converts solar energy into thermal energy (heat). Then heat is used to run steam turbine= electricity produced.

name of project=SERIIUS (Solar energy research initiative of India and US).

So, what is the big picture? Where do these individual pieces fit in the Indo-US relationship? click on following chart to find out.

Indo-US relationship 2012-13 (click to enlarge)

Mock Questions (General Studies Mains Paper II)
Write note on following, 2 marks each

India-US PACE program


Connect India program


Obama Singh knowledge initiative






IREED (for GS3)

12 markers (120 words)


Discuss the development of Indo-US defense ties in the recent years.


Write a note on Indo-US cooperation in space and science research.


Write a note on Indo-US cooperation in health care and medical research.


Give an outline of Indo-US cooperation in climate change with respect to UNFCC and Doha platform.


Write a note on Indo-US cooperation in Environment protection and Energy security.


What are the various consultative mechanisms between India and US to improve and strengthen the trade and investment relationship?
25 markers (250 words)


Examine the areas of cooperation and irritants in the Indo-American relations in recent years.


Write a note on the evolution the strategic partnership between India and US after the collapse of USSR.


Former US ambassador Robert Blackwill was once reported to have said: India wants the US to invest, India wants the US to keep its
markets more open, India wants more Visas for its professional, India wants us to be more helpful on Kashmir and in dealing with
Pakistan, India wants US support for membership of the UN Security Council, India wants this and India wants that. Tell me what
will India give in return? What will be your reply to ambassador Robert Blackwill?


From US point of view, what are the main drivers of the India US relationship?


US India Strategic dialogues offer sound bites, not solid actions. Do you agree/disagree? Give reasons in support of your answer.


American strategic generosity towards India, remains an investment in its own geopolitical well being. Comment.


Write a note on Trilateral relationship among India-US-Japan.


Write a note on Trilateral relationship among India-US-Afghanistan.

India ASEAN 20 years of Dialogue Partnership, FTA in Service Investment, Vision 2020

You know the rule, whenever someone/somethings birth/death anniversary is in the multiple of 10, 15,25then it becomes important
for UPSC. (Whether UPSC will actually ask any question or not, thats a different matter!)

Anyways ASEAN topic becomes important because in the end of 2012, two important developments took place

20th Anniversary of India-ASEAN dialogue.


India-ASEAN FTA in service & investment was signed.

ASEAN: Origin


Recall the Article on Colonization of Asia. We had seen how the British, French and Americans had colonized almost entire South Asia.

After Second World War, most of these colonies attained independence. But they also had internal dispute regarding territories and

The immediate reason for the formation of ASEAN was the Indonesia-Malaysia conflict over the control of Borneo Island.

This conflict + the then ongoing Vietnam War raised fears of increased external involvement in the newly independent states.

They feared that south east region would become a theatre of western vs. communalism ideologies

Hence they decided to form a common platform:


To resolve bilateral issues among themselves


Present a collective front to the world.

1967, five countries signed Bangkok declaration to form the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).


Indonesia (ASEAN HQ is here, in Jakarta)









Today ASEAN has ten members






Musyawarah And Mufakat

As a group, ASEAN follows the principle of ASEAN way. It means following


Musyawarah And Mufakat [deliberation and consensus]


dont use force/confrontation


dont interfere in the internal matters of states


Informal discussion


minimal institutionalization

To achieve the ASEAN way, Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC) was signed.

TAC Treaty
It provides the guiding principles of ASEAN

theyll not interfere in the internal affairs of one another,


theyll not use threat or use of force to settle differences / disputes


theyll settle of differences or disputes by peaceful means,


Theyll effectively cooperate among themselves.


theyll mutually respect each others independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity and national identity


Every State has right lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion,

India had signed TAC treaty with ASEAN in 2003.

ASEAN: Growth


ASEAN regional forum (ARF). already discussed in separate article click me

ASEAN+3 is formed to increase regional integration. This includes







South Korea


Treaty to control haze pollution in South East Asia


ASEAN gets observer status in UNGA (General assembly)


Cebu declaration for energy securities and renewable energy.

Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI)





It is a currency swap agreement among ASEAN +3,

It provides emergency liquidity to those economies during crises.

Asean Human Rights Declaration

21st ASEAN Summit in Phnom Penh Combodia with theme:ASEAN: One Community, One Destiny

22nd ASEAN summit in Brunei, theme: Our People, Our Future Together.

ASEAN community will be setup.


Today ASEAN is a mammoth regional body that covers economic, security, diplomatic, environmental and cultural issues.
ASEAN Community (2015)
Similar to European Union. will be setup in 2015 and will have three pillars

ASEAN Political Security Community


ASEAN Economic Community


ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community

ASEAN the present scene

ASEAN has a mixed record of achievements since its formation.

Good performance


Successfully maintaining peace in the region. e.g. during Thailand and Cambodia conflict over Preah Vihear temple (2011)

Has made comprehensive deals like


ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)

ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Area(ACIA)

Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI)

Aims to setup the ASEAN Economic Community 2015, having a single market and production base.

Not so Good performance


ASEAN Failed to prevent the 1997 financial crisis.


ASEAN has been too soft on the authoritarian regime of Myanmar.

Despite call from international community it didnt suspend Myanmar or put economic sanction on it during the
military regimes crackdown on peaceful protestors.

2012: ASEAN released declaration on Human rights. But led to lot of protests from civil society and NGOs. They
terms it as just another piece of paper.

In 2002, ASEAN came up with Treaty to control haze pollution in South East Asia. still there were outbreaks of Haze
in 2005 and 06.

ASEAN also has mechanism for wildlife protection. Yet it hasnt drastically reduced the illegal trade in endangered
species (especially for medicine) .


Chinese Arm twisting

ASEAN is becoming a victim of Chinese assertiveness/pseudo-bullying. for example

in the last meeting of ASEAN (Dec 2012@ Phnom Penh), no joint communique was issued. (for the first time in the 45 years of history of
ASEAN Summits)


Cambodia (host of the summit) is an ally of China

China did not want the joint communique text to mention South China Sea as a standing conflict.

but other gang members- Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei wanted the text to contain their respective grievances regarding
territorial issues with China.

In wake of such unprecedented influencing of China into the ASEAN matters, the ASEAN is looking towards India like never before.

India is being seen as the counter balance to China at the ASEAN platform.

Now, lets focus on:

India-ASEAN Relations

India ASEAN Timeline (Click to Enlarge)


India starts engaging with ASEAN, part of Look East Policy.


India becomes a sectoral dialogue partner of ASEAN


India becomes full dialogue partner of ASEAN


India starts having annual summits with ASEAN


India accedes to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC)India signs counter-terrorism declaration with ASEAN.



FTA* in goods.

This established Free Trade Area established between India-ASEAN.


20th Anniversary of ASEAN-India Dialogue.

ASEAN India Commemorative Summit is held.

Now India becomes a strategic partner of ASEAN

FTA* in services and investment.


*Some websites/news reports call it India-Asian Free Trade Agreement (FTA) instead of CECA. Although both CECA and CEPA are
examples of FTAs.

anyways moving on in the topic:

We have institutionalized annual summits, ministerial consultations; and nearly 25 mechanisms for dialogue and cooperation.

India is actively contributing to ASEAN+1, the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia Summit (EAS) and the ASEAN Defense
Ministers Meeting (ADMM) Plus etc.

Combined Population

~1.8 billion = ~1/4th of total world population

Combined GDP

~4 trillion USD

Two way investment

40+ billion dollars in past decade

Why ASEAN important for India?


The Future architecture of Asia Is going to be shaped by the US, China and India.


Maritime boundary disputes between China and a number of ASEAN countries; claims over South China sea = Those ASEAN countries
look towards India as a counterbalance against China.


For India a stronger posturing at ASEAN = its stature as a global power will get a great boost. After all, without being a strong regional
player becoming global power = day dream.


they situated are at the intersections of major land and sea routes

ASEAN countries, particularly Myanmar, Vietnam and Malaysia can potentially contribute to Indias energy security.

Oil and natural gas deposits in the South China Sea region.

India and several ASEAN countries are net importers of hydrocarbon. They need to develop alternative energy sources. But R&D in
renewable =need truckload of ca$H hence regional cooperation essential for financing those projects.

In terms of income, India-ASEAN community is roughly the size of the EU

In terms of Trade, India-ASEAN community NAFTA.

The ASEAN is Indias fourth-largest trading partner after the EU, the US and China.

India ASEAN is slated to grow faster than the rest of the world due to a favorable demographic profile and growing market for goods
and services.

Indias trade relations are shifting from West economies towards the East, comprising of Japan, China, Korea and ASEAN.

India-ASEAN linkage provides for large-scale movement of people, capital, ideas and creativity.
For Indian States

The coastal states: West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are looking to rebuild maritime links with ASEAN nations to
boost their own trade and economy.

Union government is also building infrastructure while in the Northeastern states so they can engage in commerce with South East Asian

Pandemics and disease are no longer limited to national boundaries and have assumed a trans-national dimension. SARS and H1N1 virus
have in recent times afflicted the region. Hence cooperation is essential between India-ASEAN.

now lets take a look @India-ASEAN trade relations

India-ASEAN Trade relations


Trade /expectation (USD)


75 billion

By 2015

100 billion

By 2022

200 billion

India-ASEAN trade has grown over ten times in the ten years.

ASEAN investments into India have multiplied

ASEAN countries too have emerged as major destinations for Indian companies.

From energy resources to farm products, from materials to machinery, and from electronics to information technology, Indian and
ASEAN companies are forging new partnerships of trade and investment.

Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) are important for the region. So well provide for linkages between SMEs in our countries.

annual India-ASEAN Business Fair and Conclaves

Both parties have agreed to encourage business-to-business relations, establishing a necessary framework to strengthen private sector
engagement and public-private partnership (PPP).
Trade Agreements

Signing year

India ASEAN trade agreement


In Goods


In Services and Investment

FTA in Goods

signed in 2009

Before this agreement, the India-ASEAN annual trade was ~30 billion but after It jumped to ~75 billion$ in 2012.

Main products: metal parts and components, electronic components, processed fruits, ceramics, gloves and knittings, fertilizers,
chemicals like fatty alcohol, coconut and vegetable oil, refined glycerine.

The trade deficit has been increasing hugely in favor of ASEAN mostly because of the heavy import of plantation products.

Cheaper palm oil from ASEAN = hurting local producers in Kerala.

Our groundnut and pepper farmers also suffering due to cheaper ASEAN imports.

similar apprehension about Indian fisheries sector.

FTA in services and Investment

Concluded in 2012.

In present times, the global trade in merchandise/goods is slowing, hence FTA in services and investment assumes greater significance.


It opens ASEAN service market to our Indian professionals: from IT, KPO, BPO, doctors, chartered accountants and lawyers etc.

Indias growth story has been led by services sector. Weve competitive advantages against most ASEAN countries in this sector.
Services Issue

This Trade agreement in services and investment =follows 8+1+1 pattern.

Meaning, agreement provides 3 separate arrangements for:


for 8 countries


for Indonesia


For Philippines.

Indonesia and Philippines have special terms because services sector is vital for their economies, and theyre worried their local service
sector will be hurt while competing with Indias strong services sector.

Biggest worry is for Philippines. Because more than 50% of their workforce is engaged in IT/outsourcing sector.

recall we are facing similar issue in FTA in Goods, because of cheaper plantation products from ASEAN

Although India is not putting all eggs in one FTA basket. Were also doing bilateral trade agreements with individual countries in the
region. for example


Singapore (CECA in 05)


Malaysia (CECA in 11)





FTA already done

In process


Indian investors want to invest in ASEAN for

ASEAN investors want to invest in India for




construction services




Transportation services.




engineering services





ASEAN India Commemorative Summit 2012

Held in Delhi, Dec 2012 (during the same time when Delhi gang-rape protests had erupted).


To mark the 20th year anniversary of the ASEAN India dialogue

Theme: ASEAN-India Partnership for Peace, Progress and Shared Prosperity.

This summit led to three outcomes


car rally


naval expedition


vision document
#1: India-ASEAN car rally

It started from Yogyakarta (Indonesia) and ended in New Delhi (India).

Its Journey covered 8 out 10 ASEAN nations. (and more than 8000 kms)

But What was the purpose of this car rally?


To Increase jantaas awareness about India-ASEAN partnership, with respect to, trade-investment-tourism and people to people


To waste petrol and increase air pollution

#2: Naval Expedition

Part of the 20th anniversary celebration, India sent INS Sudarshini on a ship expedition to ASEAN countries. (6 months, 9 countries)

To enhance people-to-people and naval links between India and the ASEAN nations.



along the route of the monsoon trade winds


Retrace the sea routes developed during the 10th to 12th centuries, linking India with South East Asia,


It covered most of the modern and ancient ports in ASEAN countries. (This 13 ports were Padang, Bali, Manado, Brunei,
Cebu, Manila, Da Nang, Sihanoukville, Bangkok, Singapore, Klang, Phuket and Sittwe.)


About the


INS Sudarshini is a Sail Training Ship built by the Goa Shipyard Ltd.


Sudarshini = Sanskrit word meaning something beautiful or a provider of good omen when visited upon.

#3: India-ASEAN Vision 2020 document

It was adopted during the Commemorative Summit held in New Delhi (Dec 2012). This document..

Declared India and ASEAN as strategic partners.


India agreed to support ASEAN community (to be setup in 2015).


Work for ASEAN-India Partnership for Peace, Progress and Shared Prosperity.


political and security, economic, socio-cultural and development cooperation

More co-op in regional forums

in future, well intensify our security consultations in

Regional forums like


East Asia Summit,


ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)


ASEAN Defense Ministers Meeting


Sub-regional forums like

Mekong-Ganga Cooperation (MGC)

Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation

by the way, recall that we said the similar things to America, in Kerry visit / 4th Indo-US strategic dialogue article.
Maritime Cooperation
As maritime nations, India and ASEAN nations agreed to do following:


relief during natural disasters

search and rescue at sea

maritime safety: for communication and cargo

freedom of navigation

fisheries: promotion, protection

Peaceful settlement of maritime disputes, as per international law including UNCLOS.

cooperate via ASEAN Maritime Forum (AMF)


defense and counter-terrorism cooperation

transnational crimes, India is committed to drug-free ASEAN 2015

ASEAN-India Joint Declaration for Cooperation to Combat International Terrorism.

Development front

Together face common challenges related to


energy security


Food security, agriculture development.


rapid urbanization


climate change


education and skill development, including English language training


drug abuse


natural disasters
Renewable Energy

India-ASEAN already cooperating here under the CEBU declaration. (CEBU declaration was signed in 2007 for energy security and
alternatives to conventional fuels).

India accepts 100% FDI from ASEAN investors for renewable power generation projects in India.



Green Fund

S&T Fund


$50 million

For variety of projects in trade, science & technology, human resource development, health and pharmaceuticals,
space sciences, agriculture, new and renewable energy, information and communication technology,
telecommunications, transport and infrastructure, and tourism and culture.

$5 Million

for pilot projects in the field of climate change, for adaptation and mitigation

India gave $1 million to this.

To collaborate in R&D areas of common interest.

India gave $1 million to this.

for short gestation projects in Cambodia, Lao, Myanmar and Vietnam.

under the Mekong-Ganga Cooperation


greater interaction between our people: particularly younger generations, students, scientists, academics, intellectuals, diplomats, media,
entrepreneurs, agriculturists and artists

We will also enhance contacts between parliamentarians, media personnel, academics and Track II institutions such as the network of
think tanks.

Study/research on Indias civilization links with ASEAN countries.

Protect/restore following monuments because they show civilizational bonds between ASEAN countries and India


Angkor Wat



Why important?

By King Survyavarman II.

Wat is the Khmer name for temple

architecture evolved from Indian subcontinent.

Borobudur and Prambanan


dedicated to the Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva

Wat Phu


Theravada Buddhist monuments.



Theravada Buddhism. temples, pagodas and monasteries

Sukhothai Historical Park


Buddhist architecture

My Son


abandoned and partially ruined Hindu temples constructed between the 4th and the 14th
century AD

Joint development of infrastructure such as transport networks, ports, shipping and air connectivity


India-Myanmar-Thailand Trilateral

Mekong-India Economic Corridor (MIEC)

will connect North Eastern states with ASEAN countries.

This highway is extended to Lao and Cambodia.

Lao is a landlocked country, but this highway (+MIEC) will turn it into landlinked country.

This will connect Southeast Asia to South Asia on the eastern part of India

^These will help in greater regional economic integration between ASEAN and India.
now lets look at some minor topics:
Delhi Dialogue

India-ASEAN Delhi Dialogue is an annual international conference of political and economic leaders, officials, academics and opinionmakers of ASEAN countries

5th Dialogue was held in Feb 2013, theme India and ASEAN: Partners for Peace, Progress and Stability.
India ASEAN logo


Unveiled in 2012.

It is an improvised five-spoked wind turbine,

It represents energy, motion, progress, connectivity and dynamism as well as the expanding canvas of ASEAN-India partnership.
ASEAN-India Eminent Persons Group (AIEPG)

This group was setup to review the ASEAN-India Dialogue Relations and long-term strategic partnership.

Gave report in 2012.

Here are the major recommendations:


India should install a separate ambassador in Jakarta, solely dedicated to ASEAN-India relations.


regular bilateral consultations between ASEAN and India on drug trafficking.

ASEAN-India Business Council should be reactivated.

Collaborate in promoting corporate social responsibility (CSR)

setup ASEAN-India Business Portal for


exchanging of economic and trade information

easy interface between companies and business persons.

ASEAN-India Centre in India to promote trade, investment, tourism, and cultural exchanges.

Setup ASEAN-India Centre for Skill Development and Vocational Education in IIT Guwahati.




ASEAN and India should establish an ASEAN-India broadband high speed optical fibre network to enhance virtual
connectivity. This could become an ASEAN-India Broadband Corridor.

Revive Nalanda University as an icon of Asian renaissance.

Annual ASEAN-India Essay Competition for school/ university students, on the theme of ASEAN-India relations
in different fields.

ASEAN-India panel of experts to draw up a Food Security Plan for the region.

regular exchange of visits by Parliamentary delegations between the Indian Parliament and the ASEAN Inter
Parliamentary Assembly.

Mock Questions
5 Markers (50 words)

Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC)


Delhi Dialogue


India ASEAN logo


India-ASEAN car rally


Naval Expedition of INS Sudarshini


India-Myanmar-Thailand Trilateral Highway

12 marks


What are the roadblocks/future impediments according to you in effective implementation of FTA in services and investments between
India and ASEAN.


Write a note on the ASEAN India Commemorative Summit 2012.


Provide an account of Indias increasing involvement in the South East Asian region.


Write a note on Indian Diaspora in South East Asia.

25 marks


Twenty years of India-ASEAN relations.


The ASEAN way of musyawarah and mufakat resonates with Indias foreign policy and world view. Comment


India ASEAN vision 2020


Explain the importance of ASEAN for Indias look east policy


Enumerate the strategic and economic interests of India in South East Asia. How can ASEAN help achieving them?


A healthy relation with ASEAN nations can help transform the Indian economy in general and Northeast India in particular. Explain


There is tremendous scope for India to leverage its soft power in South East Asia. Elaborate.


Chinese assertiveness in ASEAN is both an opportunity and a challenge for India. Comment.


While India had signed a FTA in goods with ASEAN in 2009, the two sides have recently concluded a FTA in services. Examine the
impact of 2009 FTA in goods and analyze the future potential of FTA in services and investment.

Indian Diaspora for General Studies Mains Paper 2 Free Study material, Previous Questions for UPSC Civil Service IAS IPS exam
The International Relations (IR) topics under new UPSC Mains syllabus (GS2), can be broadly classified into following groups

Indias Relations/agreements:

with our neighbors


with non-neighbors


with associations/regional/global-groups of countries


International institutions, agencies: structure, Mandate



This article focuses only on the diaspora. Well look into remaining IR topics in other articles, later.
What was the aukaat of Diaspora topic before 2013?

In the earlier times, at most single big question (10-12 or more marks) and a few PINs (Persons in news for 2 marks).

Sometimes you could simply skip the topic (e.g. attempt any 3 out of 4 questions.)

In some years, UPSC did not ask anything from diaspora.

How is Diaspora Syllabus changed in 2013?

As per the syllabus from official notifications of 2012 vs 2013 we can see that

Upto 2012

Mains 2013

The Indian Diaspora and its contribution to India and

the world.

Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on Indias

interests, Indian diaspora.

So now what to prepare and from where to prepare?

Diaspora Basics


For the basics/overview, do a selective reading of IGNOU MA Sociology Course MSOE-002: Diaspora and Transnational Communities.

Entire set download link given @bottom. @Hindi medium aspirant, sorry Egaynkosh hasnt uploaded it Hindi medium, yet.

Lets look at the list of high-priority chapters/topics from this MSOE-002 PDF set.

Chapter in MSOE-002

Why important?

Unit-5 Indian Emigration

During Colonial Rule

Indirectly important from GS1: World History=> colonialism.

Unit-14 Immigration and

Emigration Policies and their

immigration policies (because syllabus itself says): Effect of policies and politics of developed and
developing countries on Indias interests, Indian diaspora.

and keep your self-updated with the new immigration policies, from newspaper/internet.
(Particularly for US, UK, EU).

More Focus on
Unit-17 Indian DiasporaHomeland Linkages

Unit-19 Films


Diaspora finance topic: FDI, remittances, business networks etc. + from newspapers, keep yourself
updated regarding QFI, NRI remittance, FCNR etc. things for economy section.


political connection (indirectly important for NRI voting rights issue under polity syllabus.)

Its on Bollywood and diaspora.

Although usually unimportant but 2013 marks hundred years of Indian Cinema, and you know the
rule: whenever someone /somethings birth/death anniversary is in the multiple of 10,15 or 25 then
it is important for the exam. And who knows, some essay might come as well!

Now moving to peripheral chapters from that set

Ch. 4: for getting the basic historical overview

6: Post independence migration

15: Nehru and Gandhis legacy and Diaspora

22, 23 and 24: from Essay point of view.

It doesnt mean other chapters are not worth reading. They too contain fodder for essay and interview. (+answers for past mains questions) But
whether itll be useful for the next exam or not? Well, that depends on your good/badluck with UPSC.
Diaspora: Region/country specific


Official syllabus focuses on effects of policies and politics of foreign countries on Indian diaspora. Besides the way question trend is
moving in past few years, the chances of getting direct questions like Write a note Contribution of Indian Diaspora in Fiji= extremely

Nevertheless, you need to have some idea on distribution of diaspora across various regions and what do they do there, to see a bigger
picture of how xyz thing is affecting them.

The same MSOE-002 PDF set: chapter 7 to 13, contains info on Indian diaspora in various countries/regions. (Compiled ZIP file in the
appendix I of this article).

Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs, also uploaded PDFs on Indian Diaspora in various countries. (again Compiled ZIP file in the
appendix I of this article).

But should you prepare all the countries? Of Couse one has to consider the time-energy constrains. The Important ones are:

USA, UK=all season favorite.

Middle East: Saudi, UAE, Qatar, Oman etc. mainly due to labor issues

remaining = based on your time, energy and mood.

For the MOIA set, dont read those pdfs word by word like it some board exam. Just focus on following areas:

Some fodder points that can be used in an essay themed around globalization/world is village etc. for example Indian contribution in
building Silicon Valley.


Problems/concerns/issues faced by our diaspora in that country.


Any bilateral agreements/schemes on social security, etc.

Talking about schemes, lets move on to:


from India 2013 (Yearbook) or Bharat 2013 , prepare following topics/schemes.


Page No.




Indian diaspora



Pravasi Bharatiya Divas-PBD (The 2013s summit already discussed in earlier article: click me)



bilateral Social Security agreements.



consulates, passport, visa service



overseas citizenship (for polity topic)



Know India program.



labour: International workers: special provisions in India. (for the IR>>bilateral relation topic)

If you have old edition (India 2012), then just dig google (particularly and MOIA websites), and youll get those topics.

But above list is not exhaustive. Because new schemes keep coming up.

Recall the interval in my article on [Economic Survey Ch13] Human Development (Part 3 of 4). A new scheme was launched for
Mahatma Gandhi Pravasi Suraksha Yojana (MGPSY)

by Ministry of Overseas Indian

for the Overseas Indian workers having Emigration Check Required (ECR) passports.

feature is similar to Swavalamban: you subscribe to NPS-lite then Government will make some contribution in your account.

Free life insurance as long as you work in ECR country.

Implemented via Bank of Baroda and LIC.

Another scheme (under consideration)

Diaspora bonds

India is considering introduction of diaspora bonds

It provides long-term investment facility to the diaspora.

Their money will go in developing infrastructure sector in India.

Therefore, keep an eye on the (via feedly) as well as newspapers.

Diaspora polity
Although there is no such topic called diaspora polity in the official syllabus hahaha but nonetheless following topics should be prepared:

NRI vs PIO difference, given in the given in the Citizenship chapter of Indian Polity by M.Laxmikanth OR Bharat ki Rajyavyavastha by


NRI voting rights related issues= + Hindu/Indianexpress (IE)


Bill to protect women deserted by NRI husbands=Hindu/IE ( if and when bill is uploaded)
Diaspora: Hot topics

These are the topics predicted/ prepared by people based on their past observation/hunch. For example,


Diaspora region

why was it a hot topic?



Coup/constitutional crisis. Indian origin PM Mahendra Chaudhry was ousted, Mass emigration of Indian
diaspora because of persecutions.



Operation Sukoon to rescue Indians during IsraelHezbollah War.



Demolition of Hindu temple, Large-scale protest by Indians.


Trinidad and

Indian origin Kamla Persad-Bissessar became PM.



Due to Operation Blossom to rescue Indians.



For the ongoing uprisings.

But (If I recall correctly), none of the above diaspora questions were asked in the Mains papers of the respective years, except the Fiji crisis
A more recent example is SABLA. No matter which coaching material you read, which magazine you picked up, which website you opened
(including mine lolz).there was SABLA,SABLA and SABLA, as if there was nothing else to prepare. Still UPSC ignored SABLA in Prelims 2013.
But there could be another reason (/conspiracy theory) for that= since government forced UPSC to undo some of the changes in Mains 2013
(regarding medium and Litt.) so, UPSC felt disrespected and wanted to do a tit-for-tat. And what could be a better show of disrespect to UPA
Government, than not asking about a scheme named after Rajiv Gandhi!
Anyway jokes apart, UPSC seems to follow an unwritten rule that if a topic becomes too hot then dont ask anything. Although it doesnt mean
we should totally neglect those hot topics because still you might have to face them during the interviews +/- could use it as fodder points in the
So what could be the hot topics under Diaspora for Mains 2013, GS Paper II?
Current Affairs: Issues Affecting Diaspora


Issue affecting Indian Diaspora:



Ethnic problems/protests, Indians are minorities.

Hindraf (Hindu right action force) leader was made Deputy PM in 2013.









South East Asia

in Mauritius

In Turkey
middle east

As per the Sharia law, a family member of the victim can pardon the accused if the latter pays the blood money.

Seventeen Indians, who had been on death row in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for the murder of a Pakistani
national, have been released after they paid blood money of $1 million.

This money was collected via charity, Punjab Congress and Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD).

Pregnant Indian lady dentist died because Irelands law did not permit abortion. Led to a lot of uproar.

That child abuse and child custody case, where our MEA/Krishna tried a lot to fix it.

Nitaqat law. It is aims to replacing a large section of overseas workers with locals in Saudi Arabia. Overseas workers from
Kerala, TN etc. affected.
Gurudwara shooting, Tri-Valley university visa scam. Professional Visa, outsourcing related issues.

Visa curb on students, doubt taxation avoidance agreement.

Because 2012 marks the 20th anniversary of India-ASEAN dialogue. FTA in service-investment was signed.
Because Pravasi Bharatiya divas 2013s chief guest was Mauritius President Rajkeswur Purryag. (Although this line of
thinking/prediction has proved clichd and useless for past 3 years!)

Because of ongoing uprisings/protests. (Although this line of thinking/prediction has proved clichd and useless for past
3 years!)

Above list is not exhaustive. If youve additional topics, please list in the comment below.
Anyway, How to prepare the topics listed above?
Dig the websites of Hindu and Indianexpress (in terms of both news report articles as well as columns/editorials). In most of the cases youll have
sufficient points/content to detail a 12-15 marks worth question. If not, then dig Google further. But Avoid the temptation to do Ph.D on any
diaspora (current affairs) topic. Reasons are following:

When you do Ph.D on one topic, you are left with less time to prepare other topics.


When you know 50 points about a topic (because of your Ph.D) but the question usually asks 12-15 marks worth content, then becomes
difficult to prioritize which points to write and which points to skip during the exam.

In such a situation, often, candidates end up over crossing the word limit to write all the points they know, (hoping that itd fetch more
marks), but instead it harms them because theyre left with less time/energy to write the remaining answers.
Diaspora Person in New (PIN)

Tulsi Gabbard, Ami Bera, Judge Srinivasan et al.

In Mains 2012, UPSC asked PIN for only 1 marks each and that too only for paper I(=not from diaspora)

Although it doesnt hurt maintaining a PIN list, while youre reading the newspaper, because diaspora-related PIN still important for
RBI, SSC, IBPS, State PSC, etc. exams that you might be preparing simultaneously.

+ As a fodder point, if diaspora/India and globalization themed essay is asked.

Make notes simultaneously

when October/November comes, youll have 500 other things to read and revise. Then youll not have sufficient time to go through entire
PDFs/newspapers again for second revision. Therefore, whenever you read about diaspora from any PDF/newspaper/book, simultaneously
prepare summeries/notes/mindmaps on the very same day. Because No revision=low recalling power in the exam hall=low score=#epicfail.
Appendix-I: Diaspora Qs in previous mains
Following list is not exhaustive because:

I might have missed some questions.


Ive ignored diaspora Person In News (PIN) related Qs

PBD related


What is the significance of the Pravasi Bhartiya Divas in modern India?


Why was January 9 chosen to observe the NRI (Pravasi Bharatiya Divas) Day?
Diaspora Polity


Categorize the People of Indian Origin (PIO).


What is the distinction between Non-Resident Resident Indian and People of Indian origin?
Diaspora Yearbook related


Write about Pravasi Bhartiya Bima Yojana, 2006.


Write about Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs.


Write about Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas.


What was India Millennium Deposit Scheme?


Name the nodal agency that deals with issues relating to Indians abroad and explain its main task.


What efforts are being made by Indian Government to look after NRIs?


Council for promotion of overseas employment


Overseas citizenship of India scheme.


Know India program.

Diaspora Region/Country wise


Write about Indian Diaspora in Singapore.


Indians in the House of Lords, UK


Contribution of the NRIs to GCC countries


Assess the contributions of Indian diaspora in the Caribbean.


Contribution of Indians in Silicon Valley

Diaspora Current Affairs related (of that era)


Future of Indians in Fiji


future of expatriates in the gulf


Why is Fiji crisis of May 19, 2000 a specific concern for India?


Mention few NRIs who have brought name and fame for India.


What does the Global organization of people of Indian origin stand for?
Diaspora Static/essay-ish questions


Write about Indian Diaspora and Bollywood


Why do NRIs retain their emotional attachment to India?


What are the problems NRIs have to face if they decide to settle in India?


Point out the difference between the Jewish -Diaspora and the Indian Diaspora.


In what fields have NRIs excelled in the developed countries?


Write a short analytical note on Indian Diaspora. How is the New Diaspora different from the Old Diaspora?


In what ways did Idi Amin make life difficult for the people of Indian origin in his country?


Exodus of persons of Indian origin from Uganda

Diaspora Economy related


Under what conditions are NRIs permitted to remit deposits in India in any currency of their choice?


What has been the impact of Gulf remittances on Indias economy?


In which specialties Indians are most wanted abroad?


What is the contribution of the NRIs to Indias development?


How can NRIs be attracted to invest in India?


What is Brain drain?


What is reverse migration?


What are the references made to the NRI in the Union Budget July 2004?


What is the impact of economic sanctions against India on NRIs?

10. Examine the role of NRIs in the liberalization process of India.