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WARMING UP OF MAIN

PROPULSION TURBINE

Warming up depends on age and design of


turbine, and type of ship.
All main valves between boiler and HP turbine
upto main warming valves are opened while
gland steam, auxiliary heating and manoeuvring
valves are shut.
Heating rate should be controlled so that inlet
temperature of the LP turbine reaches to 75 oC
after one hour. If the turning gear was in use
then now it may be disengaged.
Gland steam of pressure 0.35~0.5 bar is used and
vacuum is raised rapidly, turbine may be turned a

WARMING UP OF MAIN
PROPULSION TURBINE
The warming through valve is now closed and ahead
manoeuvring valves opened slightly. Turbine should
be turned under steam at two minutes intervals for
15 minutes. Vacuum should be maintained at 0.34
bar.

Drainage is very important to avoid distortion. All


drains must be kept clear and should not be closed
until the turbine has been rotating for several
minutes.
Auxiliary exhaust steam entering main condenser
should be reduced to minimum at stand by periods.
During prolonged astern running, LP turbine
expansion indicators should be closely watched and

STARTING PROCEDURE OF COPT


Check the oil level in sump, drain off any water.
Start the priming lub oil pump for turbine.
Turn the turbine by hand using a lever.
Start cooling water to condenser and lub oil
cooler.
Start up the vacuum through steam ejectors.
Close the drains for casing, exhaust, and steam
inlet valve.

STARTING PROCEDURE OF COPT


(CONTINUED)
Open the gland steam to a low pressure and
warming up valve.
Start up condensate pump and maintain water
level .
Switch on alarm panel and reset any existing
alarm.
Try out lub oil low pressure and high back
pressure trips and remote and local emergency
stops.
When turbine has sufficiently warmed up,

STARTING PROCEDURE OF COPT


(CONTINUED)

Gradually open the steam valve until governor


takes over control, open the steam valve full.
Hand over the controls to Cargo Control Room.
Monitor steam chest, exhaust and gland steam
and lub oil pressures.
Monitor turbine bearing and pump bearings
temperatures.

GOVERNING OF STEAM TURBINES


Throttling is associated
by reduction of pressure
at constant enthalpy.

The speed of the


turbine is controlled
either by varying the
steam pressure or by
varying steam flow.
The speed of turbine
may be controlled by

The flow of steam may


be controlled by
grouping of nozzles and
each group is controlled
by its valve.
Hybrid control is a
combination of throttle
valve control and
nozzle valve control.
One nozzle group is

GOVERNING OF STEAM TURBINES


(CONTINUED)
The bypass valve takes
steam from first stage
to the later stage where
area is large and extra
power can be obtained.
Steam pressure is
controlled from the
governor valve.

Bypass control is used


for obtaining extra
power when full
pressure is applied to

In the simplest form the


turbine may have just
one nozzle.
In extreme case nozzles

EXPANSION OF STEAM TURBINES

The expansion arrangement shown above is for


a high pressure turbine. This allows the casing
to expand axially from the gear box end and

EXPANSION OF STEAM TURBINES


(CONTINUED)

Two sliding feet support below the casing


centre line have axial keys for location.

Four support palms are provided of which two


aft do not permit axial movement whereas two
forward allow axial movement and are
connected to horizontal extensions of the
casing joints.
Rotor position relative to casing is controlled by
the thrust bearing at the forward end.
Internal rings correctly dimensioned and fitted
in thrust bearing ensures no further
adjustment.

SELF CLOSING EMERGENCY STOP


VALVE (CONTD.)

This valve closes automatically and shuts off


the steam supply to the turbine in following
conditions:

Loss of lubricating oil pressure


Turbine over speed
Excessive axial rotor travel
Low condenser vacuum

This valve can be closed manually by: Handwheel


Emergency hand control
Deck manual control

SELF CLOSING EMERGENCY STOP


VALVE

SELF CLOSING EMERGENCY STOP


VALVE (CONTD.)

To open this valve, supply valve lever is first


pressed followed by turning of hand wheel.
Supply valve lever admits steam through ball
and supply valve to the left side of the piston.

Piston is loosely fitted in cylinder due to which


steam also passes on the back side of the piston
and keeps the piston balanced under spring
force.
Valve is held in open position by a catch on
supply valve lever.
If oil pressure or vacuum drops, steam on the
back side of the piston will be drained resulting

LOW VACUUM TRIP

LOW VACUUM TRIP


To protect the condenser from over pressure
this device is equipped.
Increase of pressure on the diaphragm top due
to decrease in vacuum or hand release from
deck causes downward movement.
Through the linkage the valve opens and leads
the steam to drain, which closes the emergency
stop valve.
The gear works equally well by releasing oil
pressure and functioning on the control valve in
similar way to other oil operated trips.

OVERSPEED & AXIAL MOVEMENT TRIP


MECHANISM

OVERSPEED & AXIAL MOVEMENT TRIP


MECHANISM
In this position, oil in annular space D is allowed
to discharge through port J and the steam valve
shuts.
Tripping speed can be varied by nut B. To reset
the valve, catch spindle is pulled by knob K.
In case of excessive axial movement of rotor,
control bush N moves with rotor but index bush
E remains in place. Oil trapped in annulus G is
released through annulus H which stops the
turbine.

EMERGENCY OVERSPEED TRIP

EMERGENCY OVERSPEED TRIP


(CONTINUED)
Speed control governor consists of a non
rotating oil supply tube and rotating assembly
of cantilever arms.
The cantilever arms hold a ball valve at their
free ends.
As the speed increases, cantilever arms move
radially outwards, opening the ball valve and
allowing oil to escape and drain.
This in turn reduces oil pressure which acts
upon the servomechanism and would close the

GOVERNOR SERVOMOTOR

GOVERNOR SERVOMOTOR
(CONTINUED)
When turbine is not running, governor output is
maximum and steam valve has full opening with
servo-piston completely up.

As steam is admitted to turbine, governor starts


rotating with fly weights moving outwards
resulting in upward actuator movement.
As pilot valve is connected with linkage, it moves
up and supplies oil on top of servo-piston. Servopiston starts moving down draining oil from
bottom side and closing the steam valve
simultaneously.
When desired speed is achieved, pilot valve will
block both oil ports and maintain the desired

TURBINE CLEARANCE GAUGES

TURBINE CLEARANCE GAUGES


(CONTINUED)

For smooth operation of turbines, clearances


have to be maintained within close tolerances.
Finger piece gauge along-with feeler gauge is
used to measure the wear of thrust bearing
which will be reflected as the shafts excessive
axial movement. This is checked when the
turbine is stopped.
Poker gauge also measures the wear of thrust
bearing and excessive axial movement of shaft.
This can be used when the turbine is at rest and
also when it is running. The reading is given on
a fixed scale.

TURBINE CLEARANCE GAUGES


(CONTINUED)
Casing axial position indicator describes about
the expansion of casing directly on a scale.
Bridge gauge is used to measure the wear of
journal bearing or the drop of rotor.
This is obtained after removing the upper half
of bearing and placing the depth gauge on top
of rotor.
Wear will be obtained by comparing present
reading with original reading.

Following
methods
may
ENERGY LOSSES &
METHODS
OF
be applied to reduce
IMPROVEMENT
losses: Use of cross compound
turbine plant.
Use of complex cycle
with regenerative feed
heating and reheating.
We can see that only
32% heat is available
for useful work.

Scoop intake of
condenser C.W.

Improved automation,
leading to online
Remaining 68% goes as
control.
waste, of which 57%
goes in condenser and