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28

51

Vol. XXXIV

No. 2

February 2016

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71

18

contents

83

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aths Musing was started in January 2003 issue of Mathematics Today with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Maths

Musing is to augment the chances of bright students seeking admission into IITs with additional study material.

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Set 158

jee main

the number of such sequences where a, b, c are in

H.P., the last digit of N is

(a) 3

(b) 5

(c) 6

(d) 7

1

2. If 2 |z| 4 and a z + b, then a + b =

z

19

21

23

21

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

4

4

4

5

3. The alternate vertices of a regular octagon are joined

to form another octagon. The ratio of the areas of

the two octagons is

(b) 2 2

(a) 2 1

(c) 3 2 2

(d)

3 1

4. The determinant

2

a +b+c +d

ab+cd

a +b+c +d 2(a +b)(c +d ) ab(c + d )+cd(a +b) =0

ab+cd ab(c +d )+

+cd(a +b)

2abcd

for

(a) a + b + c + d = 0

(b) ab + cd = 0

(c) ab (c + d) + cd (a + b)

(d) any a, b, c, d

5. ABCD is a rectangle with A (1, 2), B (3, 7) and

AB : BC = 4 : 3. If d is the distance of the origin from

the centre of the rectangle, then [d] =

(a) 4

(b) 5

(c) 6

(d) 7

jee advanced

2

and h(x) = sin x tan x. Which one is greatest?

(a) f(x) (b) g(x)

(c) h(x)

(d) depends on x

( )

comprehension

(x 1)(x 2)

Let f(x) =

(x a)(x b)

8

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

a maximum

a minimum

a maximum and a minimum

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

a maximum

a minimum

a maximum and a minimum

integer match

then

sec2 A

co sec2 A

matching list

getting the sum 10, is

7

15

of the first 10 natural numbers, the

probability that x2 y2 is divisible

by 3, is

(c) If 10 men are sitting in a row, the (r)

probability of choosing 3 of them so

that no two are from adjacent seats

is

(d) Triangles are formed with vertices (s)

of a regular octagon. If a triangle is

chosen at random, the probability

that it does not have any side

common with the octagon, is

2

7

(t)

8

15

5

27

5

81

a > b. Let tn = an bn for n N, then the value of

t22- 2t20

is

2t21

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) 4

part of z is nonzero and a = z2 + z + 1 is real.

Then a cannot take the value

3

1

1

(a) 1

(b)

(c)

(d)

4

3

2

3. Let a1, a2, a3, ........ be in harmonic progression with

a1 = 5 and a20 = 25. If n is the least positive integer

for which an < 0 then the value of 4n 100 is

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d) 3

4. Six cards and six envelopes are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4,

5 and 6. Cards are to be placed in envelopes so that

each envelope contains exactly one card and no card

is placed in the envelope bearing the same number

and moreover the card numbered 1 is always placed

in envelope numbered 2. Then the number of ways

it can be done is

(a) 264

(b) 265

(c) 53

(d) 67

5. Let A = {a : sin a - cos a = 2 cos a} and

B = {a : sin a + cos a = 2 sin a} be two sets. Then

(a) A B and B A f (b) B A

(c) A B

(d) A = B

6. If the angles A, B and C of a triangle are in an

arithmetic progression and if a, b and c denote

the lengths of the sides opposite to A, B and C

a

c

respectively. If x = sin 2C + sin 2 A , then x is

c

a

root of the equation

(a) x 2 - ( 3 + 1)x + 3 = 0

(b) x 2 - ( 2 + 1)x + 2 = 0

(c) x 2 - ( 3 + 2 )x + 5 = 0

(d) None of these

7. Tangents drawn from the point M(1, 8) to the circle

x2 + y2 6x 4y 11 = 0 touch the circle at points

A and B. If C is the centre of the circle. Then the

equation of circumcircle of triangle ABC is

(a) x2 + y2 + 4x 6y + 19 = 0

(b) x2 + y2 4x 10y + 19 = 0

(c) x2 + y2 2x + 6y 20 = 0

(d) x2 + y2 6x 4y + 19 = 0

8. Let A and B be two distinct points on the parabola

y2 = 4x. If the axis of the parabola touches a circle of

radius r having AB as its diameter, then the slope of

the line joining A and B can be

2

1

3

1

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a) r

r

r

r

x2 y2

+

= 1 is inscribed in a

9

4

rectangle R whose sides are parallel to the coordinates

axes. Another ellipse E2 passing through the point

(0, 4) circumscribes the rectangle R. The eccentricity

of the ellipse E2 is

1

3

3

2

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

4

2

2

9. The ellipse E1 :

2x + 3 is

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 2

(d) 3

11. If A is an 3 3 nonsingular matrix such that

AA = AA and B = A1A, then (BB)10 equals

(a) I + B (b) I

(c) B1

(d) (B1)

10

equations

2x1 2x2 + x3 = lx1

2x1 3x2 + 2x3 = lx2

x1 + 2x2 = lx3

has a nontrivial solution is

(a) 2

(b) 2

(c) 4

(d) None of these

13. Four fair dice D1, D2, D3, D4 each having six faces

numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are rolled simultaneously.

The probability that D4 shows a number appearing

on one of D1, D2 and D3 is

127

125

108

91

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

216

216

216

216

14. If a R and the equation 3(x [x])2 + 2(x [x])

+ a2 = 0 (where [x] denotes the greatest integer x)

has no integral solution, then all possible values of

a lie in the interval

(a) (1, 0) (0, 1)

(b) (1, 2)

(c) (2, 1)

(d) (, 2) (2, )

x2 + x + 1

15. If lim

- ax - b = 4 , then value of 2a b is

x +1

x

(a) 2

(c) 6

(b) 4

(d) None of these

takes rational value for all x and f(2) = 5 then the

equation whose roots are f(3) and f( 10 ) is

(b) x2 3x + 2 =0

(a) x2 10x + 25 =0

2

(c) x 6x + 5 =0

(d) None of these

17. If f (x) = f (x) and g(x) = f (x).

2

x x

If F(x) = f + g and given that

2 2

F(5) = 5, then value of the expression (F(10))3

5(F(5))2 + F(2) is

(a) 5

(b) 10

(c) 0

(d) 15

18. The normal to the curve, x2 + 2xy 3y2 = 0, at (1, 1)

meets the curve again at (a, b) then the value of

(2a 3b) is

(a) 8

(b) 9

(c) 10

(d) None of these

19. The number of roots of the equation

x2 x sinx cosx = 0 is

(a) 6

(b) 4

(c) 2

(d) 0

12

ln3

(a)

x sin x 2

sin x 2 + sin(ln 6 - x 2 )

ln2

dx is

1 3

ln

2 2

1 3

(d) ln

6 2

1 3

ln

4 2

(b)

3

2

21. The area enclosed by the curves y = sinx + cosx and

y = | cosx sinx | over the interval [0, p/2] is given

as 2 a ( b - c) where a and b are prime number

then the value of a, b and c respectively.

(a) (2, 2, 1)

(b) (2, 2, 1)

(c) (3, 2, 1)

(d) None of these

(c) ln

t 2 f (x ) - x 2 f (t )

= 1 for each

t-x

t x

x > 0. Then f(x) is

1 2x 2

+

3x

3

1 2

(c) - +

x x2

(a)

(b) (d)

1

x

1 4x2

+

3x

3

position vectors -2i - j, 4i, 3i + 3j and - 3i + 2 j,

respectively. The quadrilateral PQRS must be a

(a) parallelogram, which is neither a rhombus nor

a rectangle

(b) square

(c) rectangle, but not a square

(d) rhombus, but not a square

24. The equation of a plane passing through the line

of intersection of the planes x + 2y + 3z = 2 and

2

from the point

x y + z = 3 and at a distance

3

(3, 1, 1) is

(a) 5x 11y + z = 17 (b) 2 x + y = 3 2 - 1

(c) x + y + z = 3

(d) x - 2 y = 1 - 2

25. Equation of the plane containing the straight

x y z

line

and perpendicular to the plane

= =

2 3 4

x y z

containing the straight lines

= = and

3 4 2

x y z

= = is

4 2 3

(a) x + 2y 2z = 0

(b) 3x + 3y 2z = 0

(c) x 2y + z = 0

(d) 5x + 2y 4z = 0

2.

2

2

2

a - b + b - c + c - a does not exceed

(a) 4

(b) 9

(c) 8

(d) 6

triangle OPQ. The point R inside the triangle OPQ

is such that the triangles OPR, PQR, OQR are of

equal area. The coordinates of R are

4 2

2

4

4

(a) , 3 (b) 3, (c) 3, (d) ,

3 3

3

3

3

28. The tangents of angles subtended by a tower at

four points A, B, C and D on the ground are in H.P.

If O be the foot of the tower on the ground, then

(a) OA + OC = OB + OD

(b) OA + OB = OC + OD

(c) OA + OD = OB + OC

(d) AB + CD = BC + CD

3.

1

1

=

+ (20 - 1)d

a20 a1

1 1

1

1

- = 19d

= 19d

25

5

a20 a1

-4

1

1

d=

= + (n - 1) d < 0

19 25

an a1

1

-4

+ (n - 1)

<0

19 25

5

maximum at x = e.

(a) Statement I is true, Statement II is true ;

Statement II is a correct explanation for

Statement I.

(b) Statement I is true, Statement II is true ;

Statement II is not a correct explanation for

Statement I.

(c) Statement I is true, Statement II is false.

(d) Statement I is false, Statement II is true.

30. Statement I : ~(p ~ q)is equivalent to p q

Statement II : ~(p ~ q) is a tautology.

(a) Statement I is true, Statement II is true; Statement

II is a correct explanation for Statement I.

(b) Statement I is true; Statement I is true; Statement

II is not a correct explanation for Statement I.

(c) Statement I is true, Statement II is false.

(d) Statement I is false, Statement II is true.

4.

1, then it is derangement of 5 things which can be

1 1 1 1

done in 5! - - + = 44 ways.

2 ! 3! 4 ! 5!

Hence, total 53 ways are there.

5.

solutions

14

= an bn

(c) : tn

Also a2 6a 2 = 0

Multiply with a20 on both sides

a22 6a21 2a20 = 0

Similarly, b22 6b21 2b20 = 0

Subtracting (2) from (1) we have

a22 b22 6(a21 b21) = 2(a20 b20)

t - 2t20

=3

t22 6t21 = 2t20 22

2t21

mathematics today | february 16

19 5

4(n - 1)

> 1 or n - 1 >

4

19 5

19 5

+ 1 or n 25.

or n >

4

Least positive value of n = 25

Hence the value of 4n 100 = 4 25 100 = 0

(c) : There are 2 possibilities

(i) If the card number 2 goes in the envelope 1

then it is derangement of 4 things which can be done

1 1 1

in 4! - + = 9 ways.

2 ! 3! 4 !

or

1.

Clearly this equation do not have real roots if D < 0

3

1 4(1 a) < 0 4a < 3 a <

4

(a) : a1, a2, a3, ..... are in H.P.

1 1 1

, , , ..... are in A.P.

a1 a2 a3

6.

... (1)

... (2)

or tan a = 2 + 1

In set B, ( 2 - 1) sina = cosa

1

= 2 +1 \ A = B

or tan a =

2 -1

(a) : Since angles of ABC are in A.P., 2B = A + C

Also, A + B + C = 180

\ B = 60

a

c

\ x sin 2C + sin 2 A = 2 sin C cos A + 2 sin A cos C

c

a

3

= 3

2

Clearly x is a root of the equation

x 2 - ( 3 + 1)x + 3 = 0

= 2 sin( A + C ) = 2 sin 2 B = 2

7.

A

M(1, 8)

C(3, 2)

B

8.

CM is the diameter of the circumcircle of DABC.

Its equation is

(x 3)(x 1) + (y 2)(y 8) = 0

or x2 + y2 4x 10y + 19 = 0

y

(d) :

A

parabola y2 = 4x

For circle on AB as diameter center is

t 2 +t 2

.

2

C 1

,(t1 + t2 )

2

r = |t1 + t2| or t1 + t2 = r

2t - 2t2

2

2

=

=

Also slope of AB, m = 21

r

t1 - t22 t1 + t2

9.

x2

a2

through (0, 4) and (3, 2).

y2

b2

= 1 as it is passing

(0, 4)

y=2

(3, 2)

(3, 2)

x=3

x

x = 3

y = 2

(3, 2)

So, b2 = 16 and

or a2 = 12

9

a

(3, 2)

4

=1

16

1

2

1

1

=

= sin sin -1

x 2 + 2x + 2

x 2 + 2x + 2

1

1

=

cos(tan -1 x ) = cos cos -1

1 + x2

1 + x2

1

1

=

Thus,

1 + x2

x 2 + 2x + 2

1

or x2 + 2x + 2 = 1 + x2 or x = 2

Hence the value of 2x + 3 = 2.

11. (b) : B = A1A AB = A

ABB = AB = (BA)= (A1AA) =(A1AA) = A

BB = I

Hence (BB')10 = I10 = I

12. (b) : System has nontrivial solution

l-2 2

-1

\ 2

-3 - l 2 = 0

-1

2

-l

2

(l 2)(3l + l 4)2(2l+2)1(43l) = 0

(l 2)(l 1)(l + 4)+ 4(l - 1)+ (l 1) = 0

(l 1)(l2 + 2l 8 + 5) = 0 (l 1)(l2 + 2l 3) = 0

(l 1)2 (l + 3) = 0 l = 1, 3

Hence the sum is 1 + (3) = 2

13. (a) : Required probability

= 1 P (Dice D4 shows none of D1, D2 and D3)

D4 can show any of six numbers.

If D4 shows a number x, then D1, D2, D3 shows any

number other than x.

3

1 5

\ Required probability = 1 -6 C1

6 6

3

125 91

65

=

= 1- 4 = 1216 216

6

14. (a) : Let t = x [x] = {x}

a2 = 3t2 2t, where t = {x} (0, 1)

2

1 1 1

= 3 t 2 - t = 3 t 2 - 2t. + -

3 9 9

2

1 2 1

1 1

= 3 t - - = 3 t - 3 3

3 9

Since 0 < t < 1

1

1 2

- <t - <

3

3 3

2

2

4

4

1

1

0 t - < 0 3 t - <

3

3

9

3

2

1

- 1 3 t - 1 - 1 < 1 - a2 < 1

3 3

3

3

2

0<a <1

or a (1, 0) (0, 1)

mathematics today | february 16

15

ln3

x2 + x + 1

15. (c) : lim

- ax - b = 4

x x + 1

1

- ax - b = 4

lim x +

x +1

x

lim ((1 - a)x - b) = 4

x

a = 1 and b = 4

Hence 2a b = 6

16. (a) : Since f(x) is continuous in [1, 10].

f (x) will attain all values between f (1) and f (10).

If f(1) f (10), then f (x) will attain innumerable

irrational values between f(1) and f (10). But given

that f(x) attains rational values only, then we

must have f (1) = f(10), infact f(x) = constant for

x [1, 10]. Since f (2) = 5, f (x) = f (2) = 5, " x.

Hence the equation whose roots are f(3) and f ( 10 )

is x2 (5 + 5)x + 25 = 0.

1

sin(ln 6 - t )

...(2)

\ I=

dt

2 sin(ln6 - t ) + sin t

ln2

Using

b

b

a

a

Adding (1) and (2)

1

2I =

2

ln 3

ln 3

p

21. (a) : Since sin x and cos x > 0 for x 0, , the

2

graph of y = sinx + cosx always lies above the graph

p

of y = | cosx sinx |. Also cos x > sinx for x 0, 4

p p

and sinx > cosx for x , .

4 2

Area =

x x

F(x) = f + g

2 2

x x

x x

\ F (x) = f f + g g

2 2

2 2

x x

x

x

= f g + g f

2 2

2

2

x x

x x

= f g - g f = 0

2 2

2 2

Thus F(x) = c

Hence F(x) = F(5) = 5 = F(10) = F(2)

=2

x -

Hence number of roots is 2.

20. (a) : Put x2 = t or 2x dx = dt

16

ln2

sin t

dt

sin t + sin(ln6 - t )

sin x dx + 2

p /2

cos x dx

p/ 4

= - [ 2 - 2] + [2 - 2 ] = 4 - 2 2 = 2 2 ( 2 - 1)

Hence by comparison a, b and c are respectively

(2, 2, 1)

\ f (x) = 2x x cosx = x(2 cosx)

Clearly f(x) is decreasing in (, 0), increasing in

(0, ).

Hence x = 0 is point of minima.

f(0) = 1 < 0 and lim f (x ) , lim f (x )

ln3

p/ 4

p/ 4

p/ 4

p /2

= [ -2 cos x ]0 + [2 sin x ]p/4

18. (b) :

(x y) (x + 3y) = 0

x y = 0 or x + 3y = 0

Equation of normal at (1, 1) to line x y = 0 is x + y 2 = 0,

which intersects the line x + 3y = 0 at (3, 1).

Hence the value of (2a 3b) = 2(3) 3(1) = 9

1

2

p /2

x2 + 2xy 3y2 = 0

\ I=

((sin x + cos x) - (sin x - cos x)) dx

p/ 4

0

2

1 3

or I = ln

4 2

1dt

...(1)

t 2 f (x ) - x 2 f (t )

=1

t-x

t x

form

0

2tf (x ) - x 2 f (t )

=1

1

t x

(Applying L Hospitals Rule)

x2 f(x) 2xf(x) + 1 = 0

lim

x 2 f (x ) - 2 xf (x )

4

x

d f (x )

1

=

2

dx x

x4

=-

1

x4

1

f (x)

f (x )

1

= - 4 dx

=

+c

2

x

x

3x 3

x2

2

Since, f(1) = 1 c =

3

f (x )

1

2

1 2x 2

=

+

2

3 3 f (x ) =

+

3x

x

3x

3

i

2

PQ = SR = 6i + j

PS = QR = -i + 3j

So, PQ PS 0

PQ || SR, PS || QR and | PQ || SR | = 37 ,

| PS | = | QR | = 10

Hence, PQRS is a parallelogram but neither a

rhombus nor a rectangle.

24. (a) : Equation of required plane is

P (x + 2y + 3z 2) + l(x y + z 3) = 0

(1 + l) x +(2 l)y +(3 + l)z (2 + 3l) = 0

2

Its distance from (3, 1, 1) is

3

2

3(1 + l) + (2 - l) - (3 + l) - (2 + 3l)

=

3

(l + 1)2 + (2 - l)2 + (3 + l)2

(-2 l)2

4

3l2 + 4l + 14 = 3l2

=

3 3l2 + 4 l + 14

7

l=2

5

11

z 17

= 0

Required plane is - x + y - +

2

2

2 2

or 5x 11y + z = 17

x y z

25. (c) : Let the planes containing lines = = and

3 4 2

x y z

= = be P1.

4 2 3

i j k

4 2 3

= 8 i - j - 10k

Now, required plane P 2 is perpendicular to this

x y z

plane and it contains the line = = .

2 3 4

Since all lines pass through the origin, plane P 2

passes through the origin.

n = n (2i + 3j + 4k )

i j

k

= 8 -1 -10 = 26i - 52 j + 26k

2 3 4

passing through (0, 0, 0) is

26x 52y + 26z = 0 or x 2y + z = 0

2

2

2

Now, x = a - b + b - c + c - a

= 2(a a + b b + c c ) - 2a b - 2b c - 2c a

= 6 - 2(a b + b c + c a )

... (1)

Also, a + b + c 0

\ a a + b b + c c + 2(a b + b c + c a ) 0

or 3 + 2(a b + b c + c a ) 0

or 2(a b + b c + c a ) -3

or -2(a b + b c + c a ) 3

or 6 - 2(a b + b c + c a ) 9

... (2)

From (1) and (2), x 9

Therefore, x does not exceed 9.

27. (c) : Centroid of triangle divides triangle into three

triangles of equal area. So, in given question R is

centroid of triangle OPQ, which is given by

3+6+0 4+0+0

4

R

,

or R 3,

3

3

3

28. (c) : If a, b, g d be the four angles such that tana,

tanb, tang, tand are in H.P., then cota, cotb, cotg,

cotd are in A.P.

h cota, h cotb, h cotg, h cotd are in A.P.

[h is height of tower]

OA, OB, OC, OD are in A.P.

OA + OD = OB + OC

29. (d) : Consider f(x) = x1/x

1 - ln x

f (x ) = x1/ x

x 2

f(x) increases on (0, e) and decreases on (e, )

f has local maximum at x = e

Since p > e and f decreases on (e, ) so f(p) < f(e)

pe > ep

30. (c) :

p

~q

T

T

F

F

T

F

T

F

F

T

F

T

p ~q ~(p ~q) p q

F

T

T

F

T

F

F

T

T

F

F

T

~ (p (~ q)) p q

\ Statement I is true.

But ~ (p ~ q) is not a tautology, so Statement II is

false.

nn

mathematics today | february 16

17

Time Allowed : 3 hours

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(ii) Please check that this Question Paper contains 26 Questions.

(iii) Marks for each question are indicated against it.

(iv) Questions 1 to 6 in Section-A are Very Short Answer Type Questions carrying one mark each.

(v) Questions 7 to 19 in Section-B are Long Answer I Type Questions carrying 4 marks each.

(vi) Questions 20 to 26 in Section-C are Long Answer II Type Questions carrying 6 marks each.

(vii) Please write down the serial number of the Question before attempting it.

section-a

2

the inverse of A?

2. Show that the points A(3, 5, 1), B(1, 0, 8) and

C(7, 10, 6) are collinear.

3. Equation of the plane passing through (2, 3, 1) and

is perpendicular to the vector 3i 4 j + 7 k .

4. Determine the order and degree of the differential

d2 y

equation 2 =

dx

p2

5. Evaluate :

2

dy

1 + .

dx

p 2

6. Evaluate :

dx

9 25x 2

section-B

dy

, when y = a + a + a + x 2 , where a is a

dx

constant.

7. Find

18

a + b sin x

log

a b sin x

9. Find the probability of drawing a diamond card

in each of the two consecutive draws from a well

shuffled pack of cards, if the card drawn is not

replaced after the first draw.

OR

A clever student used a biased coin so that the head

is 3 times as likely to occur as tail. If the coin is

tossed twice, find the probability distribution and

mean of numbers of tails. Is this a good tendency?

Justify your answer.

10. Prove that :

sin cos

p

2 tan 1 tan tan = tan 1

4 2

2

sin + cos

11. Find the interval in which the value of the

determinant of the matrix A lies.

1

sin q

1

1

sin q

Given A = sin q

1

1

sin q

0

Evaluate :

p/2

2p

.

3

OR

sin 2x tan

(sin x )dx

the perpendicular from the point (7, 14, 5) to the

plane 2x + 4y z = 2.

14. Let A = {1, 2, 3, ..., 9} and R be the relation in

A A defined by (a, b) R (c, d) if a + d = b + c for

(a, b), (c, d) in A A. Prove that R is an equivalence

relation.

OR

Let * be a binary operation on the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

a + b, if a + b < 6

and a * b =

a + b 6, if a + b 6

Find the identity element and the inverse element

of each element of the set for the operation *.

1 1 0

0 2 1

row operations.

16. If a b = a c , a b = a c and a 0, then prove that

b = c.

3x + 1

17. Evaluate

dx.

5 2x x 2

function

sin(a + 1)x + sin x

, x <0

f (x ) =

c

, x =0

x + bx 2 x

, x >0

b x3

may be continuous at x = 0.

OR

It is given that for the function f(x) = x3 + bx2 + ax + 5

1

on [1, 3], Rolles theorem holds with c = 2 +

.

3

Find the values of a and b.

19. Solve the differential equation :

dy

sec2 y + 2 x tan y = x 3

dx

section-c

be inscribed in a given sphere is such that three

times its altitude is twice the diameter of the sphere.

Find the volume of the largest cone inscribed in a

sphere of radius R.

21. Three cards are drawn successively with replacement

from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards. A random

variable X denotes the number of hearts in the three

cards drawn. Find the mean and variance of X.

OR

Assume that the chances of a patient having a heart

attack is 40%. Assuming that a meditation and yoga

course reduces the risk of heart attack by 30% and

prescription of certain drug reduces its chance by

25%. At a time a patient can choose any one of the

two options with equal probabilities. It is given that

after going through one of the two options, the

patient selected at random suffers a heart attack.

Find the probability that the patient followed a

course of meditation and yoga. Interpret the result

and state which of the above stated methods is more

beneficial for the patient.

22. A factory owner wants to purchase two types of

machines A and B, for his factory. The machine A

requires an area of 1000 m2 and 12 skilled men for

running it and its daily output is 50 units, whereas

the machine B requires 1200 m2 area and 8 skilled

men, and its daily output is 40 units. An area of

7600 m2 and 72 skilled men be available to operate

the machines.

(i) How many machines of each type should be

bought to maximize the daily output?

(ii) Write two advantages of keeping skilled men in

a firm.

23. Show that the lines

x y2 z+3

and

=

=

1

2

3

x2 y6 z3

=

=

are coplanar. Also, find the

2

3

4

24. Let f : N R be a function defined as

Show that f : N S is invertible, where S is the

range of f. Also, find inverse of f.

mathematics today | february 16

19

x4

OR

Prove that the curves y = x2 and x = y2 divide the

square bounded by x = 0, y = 0, x = 1 and y = 1 into

three parts which are equal in area.

26. Find the particular solution of the differential

equation

y

x

xe

dy

y

y

y sin + x sin = 0, given that y = 0,

x

x

dx

when x = 1.

solutions

2

1. We have A = I A1A2 = A1 I A = A1

^

2. Position vector of A = 3 i 5 j + 1 k

^

Position vector of B = 1i + 0 j + 8 k

^

Position vector of C = 7 i 10 j 6 k

^

= 4 i + 5 j + 7 k

= 4i 5j 7k

AC = AB

\ The points A, B and C are collinear.

3. The equation of the plane passing through (2, 3, 1)

and perpendicular to the vector 3i 4 j + 7 k is

3(x 2) + ( 4) (y 3) + 7(z ( 1)) = 0

or, 3x 4y + 7z + 13 = 0

4. The given equation can be written as

2

2

d2 y

dy

=

1

+

2

dx

dx

5.

p2

p 2

p2

sin x cos x dx +

p 2

sin x cos3 x dx = 0

p 2

\

20

mathematics today | february 16

9 25x

dx =

1

5

1

2

3

2

x

5

dx

1 1 5x

1

x

= sin 1

+ C = sin + C

3

3/5

5

5

7. We have, y = a + a + a + x 2 , where a is a

constant.

1

2

y = a + a + a + x 2

dy 1

= a + a + a + x 2

dx 2

1

2

d

2

a + a + a + x

dx

1

2

1 a + a + x2 2

2

d

a + a + x2

dx

1

1

dy 1

2 2 1

= a + a + a + x

a + a + x2 2

2

dx 2

1

1

(a + x 2 ) 2 .2 x

dy 1

= a + a + a + x 2

dx 2

)(

dy 1

= x a + a + a + x 2 a + a + x 2 (a + x 2 )

dx 4

1

2

a + b sin x

.

8. Let y = log

a b sin x

Then, y = log(a + b sinx) log (a b sinx)

dy

1

d

1

=

(a + b sin x )

dx a + b sin x dx

a

b

sin x

(a b sin x )

dx

dy

1

=

(0 + b cos x )

dx a + b sin x

1

(0 b cos x )

a b sin x

dy

b cos x

b cos x

=

+

dx a + b sin x a b sin x

p2

6. Let I =

(x 1)(x 2 + 1) dx

25. Find

dy

1

1

= b cos x

+

dx

a

+

b

sin

x

a

b

sin

x

dy

a b sin x + a + b sin x

= b cos x

dx

(a + b sin x )(a b sin x )

2ab cos x

= 2 2 2

a b sin x

first draw and B be the event of drawing a diamond

card in the second draw. Then,

P ( A) =

13

C1

52

C1

13 1

=

52 4

are left out of which 12 cards are diamond cards.

\ P(B/A) = Probability of drawing a diamond card

in second draw when a diamond card has already

been drawn in first draw

P(B|A) =

12

C1

51

C1

4 1 1

= 17 4 = 17

P( x )

16

Mean =

1

2

= R.H.S.

2

0 sin2 q 1 0 + 1 (1 + sin q) 1 + 1

1 (1 + sin2 q) 2 2(1) 2(1 + sin2 q) 2(2)

2 2(1 + sin2 q) 4 2 | A | 4

| A | [2, 4]

So, the value of |A| lies in the interval [2, 4]

1

6

16

2

1

16

6 2

8 1

=0+ + = =

16 16 16 2

0

...(1)

Then, I = (p x )sin3 (p x ) dx

0

p

I = (p x )sin3 x dx

or

...(2)

Value :

1. No, it may be good once or twice but not forever.

2. Honesty pays in a long run.

10. L.H.S. = 2 tan

2 sin cos

sin cos

= tan 1

= tan 1

2 cos + 2 sin

sin + cos

= 2(1 + sin2q)

The value of sin2q lies in the range of 0 and 1.

9

6

1

Mean = SxP(x) = 0 + 1 + 2

16

16

16

2 sin cos

= tan 1

(1 + cos )(1 + sin ) (1 cos )(1 sin )

1

sin q

1

1

sin q

11. |A| = sin q

1

sin q

1

12 4

=

51 17

OR

P(H) = 3/4; P(T) = 1/4;

Event: Tails; n = 2; x = 0, 1, 2

3 3 9

3 1

6

P (0) = = , P (1) = 2 = ,

4 4 16

4 4

16

1 1 1

P(2) = =

4 4 16

x

0

\ Probability distribution is

9

1

p

sin sin

2

2

= tan 1

2

2

2

2

p

tan 2 tan 4 2

p

2 tan 2 tan 4 2

= tan 1

1 tan2 tan2 p

2

4 2

p

p

2 sin cos sin cos

4 2

4 2

2

2

= tan 1

4 2

2

4 2

2

0

2 I = p (1 cos2 x )sin x dx

0

x = 0 t = 1 and x = p t = 1

1

2 I = p (1 t 2 ) dt

1

t3

4p

2 I = p (1 t ) dt = p t =

.

3

1

1

Hence, I =

2p

3

mathematics today | february 16

21

Let I =

OR

p/2

sin 2x tan

(sin x )dx

p/2

(sin x )dx

p

x = 0 t = 0, x = t = 1

2

1

\ I = 2t tan 1 t dt = 2 t tan 1 t dt

Integrating by parts, we have

1

1

t2

t2

dt

I = 2 tan 1 t 2

2

2

0

0 2(1 + t )

1

t2

1

= 2 tan 1 1 0

dt

2

0 (1 + t 2 )

1

t2 +11

1 p

dt

= 2

2 4 0 (1 + t 2 )

=

p

1

dt

1

4 0 (1 + t 2 )

p

p p

p

[t ]10 + [tan 1 t ]10 = 1 + = 1

4

4 2

4

13. Any line through P(7, 14, 5) and perpendicular to

the plane 2x + 4y z = 2 is given by

=

P(7, 14, 5)

x 7 y 14 z 5

=

=

= l(say).

2

4

1

Any point on this line is N(2l + 7, 4l + 14, l + 5).

If N is the foot of the perpendicular from P to the

given plane, then it must lie on the plane 2x + 4y z = 2.

\ 2(2l + 7) + 4(4l + 14) (l + 5) = 2 l = 3.

Thus, we get the point N(1, 2, 8) on the plane.

Hence, the foot of the perpendicular from P(7, 14, 5)

to the given plane is N(1, 2, 8).

\ Length of the perpendicular from P to the given

plane = PN = (7 1)2 + (14 2)2 + (5 8)2

= 189 = 3 21 units.

22

numbers.

To show that R is an equivalence relation

Reflexivity :

Let (a, b) be an arbitrary element of A A. Then,

we have: (a, b) A A

a, b A

a + b = b + a (by commutativity of addition on

A N)

(a, b) R (a, b)

Thus, (a, b) R (a, b) for all (a, b) A A

So, R is reflexive.

Symmetry :

Let (a, b), (c, d) A A such that (a, b) R (c, d).

i.e., a + d = b + c

b+c=a+d

c + b = d + a (by commutativity of addition on

A N)

(c, d) R (a, b)

Thus, (a, b) R (c, d) (c, d) R (a, b) for all (a, b),

(c, d) A A. So, R is symmetric.

Transitivity :

Let (a, b), (c, d), (e, f) A A such that

(a, b) R (c, d)and (c, d) R (e, f)

Now, (a, b) R (c, d) a + d = b + c

...(1)

and (c, d) R (e, f) c + f = d + e

...(2)

Adding (1) and (2), we get

(a + d) + (c + f) = (b + c) + (d + e)

a + f = b + e (a, b) R (e, f)

Thus, (a, b) R (c, d) and (c, d) R (e, f)

(a, b) R (e, f) (a, b), (c, d), (e, f) A A

So, R is transitive on A A.

\ R is an equivalence relation.

OR

*

0

1

2

3

4

5

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

1

1

2

3

4

5

0

2

2

3

4

5

0

1

3

3

4

5

0

1

2

4

4

5

0

1

2

3

5

5

0

1

2

3

4

are the same as the original set.

0*0 = 0, 1*0 = 0*1=1, 2*0 = 0*2 = 2, 3*0 = 0*3

= 3, 4*0 = 0*4 = 4, 0*5 = 5*0 = 5. Hence, 0 is the

identity element of the operation *.

Now, the element 0 appears in the cell 1*5 = 5*1

= 0, 2*4 = 4*2 = 0, 3*3 = 0 and 0*0 = 0

Inverse element of 0 is 0, inverse element of 1 is 5,

inverse element of 2 is 4, inverse element of 3 is 3,

inverse element of 4 is 2, inverse element of 5 is 1.

1 1 0

15. Given, A = 2 5 3

0 2 1

For finding the inverse, write A = IA

1 1 0 1 0 0

\ 2 5 3 = 0 1 0 A

0 2 1 0 0 1

Applying R2 R2 2R1, we get

1 1 0 1 0 0

0 7 3 = 2 1 0 A

0 2 1 0 0 1

Applying R2 R2 3R3, we get

1 1 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 = 2 1 3 A

0 2 1 0 0 1

Applying R1 R1 +R2 and R3 R3 2R2, we get

1 0 0 1 1 3

0 1 0 = 2 1 3 A

0 0 1 4 2 7

1 1 3

\ A = 2 1 3 [ A1 A = I ]

4 2 7

16. We have, a b = a c and a 0

a b a c = 0 and a 0

a (b c ) = 0 and a 0

b c = 0 or a (b c )

b = c or a (b c )

Again, a b = a c and a 0

(a b ) ( a c ) = 0 and a 0

a (b c ) = 0 and a 0

(b c ) = 0 or a ||(b c )

b = c or a ||(b c )

...(2)

From (1) and (2), we get b = c

[ a (b c ) and a ||(b c )

both cannot hold simultaneously].

17. Let I =

3x + 1

dx

5 2x x 2

This integral is of the form

...(1)

px + q

ax 2 + bx + c

dx

whose solution is

d

px + q = A (ax 2 + bx + c) + B

dx

Now, we write given integrand as

d

3x + 1 = A (5 2 x x 2 ) + B

dx

3x + 1 = A( 2 2x) + B

3x + 1 = 2Ax + (2A + B)

On equating the coefficients of x and constant term

both sides, we get

3

3 = 2 A A =

2

3

and 1 = 2 A + B 1 = 2 + B B = 2

2

\ Given integral can be rewritten as

3

(2 2 x )

2

2

I=

dx +

dx

2

5 2x x

5 2x x 2

1

+1

3 (5 2 x x 2 ) 2

2

=

dx

1

2

( 6 )2 (x + 1)2

+1

...(1)

x +1

3 ( 5 2x x 2 )

2 sin 1

+C

6

2

1/ 2

x +1

= 3( 5 2 x x 2 ) 2 sin 1

+C

6

18. Here, f(0) = c

L.H.L. at x = 0

sin(a + 1)x + sin x

Lt f (x ) = Lt

x

x 0

x 0

mathematics today | february 16

23

= Lt

+

x

x

x 0

12

1

2b 2 +

+ a = 13

3

3

On solving, (1) and (2), we get

a = 11, b = 6

sin x

sin(a + 1)x

= Lt

(a + 1) + Lt

x 0 (a + 1)x

x 0 x

= (a + 1) + 1

( If x 0 (a + 1)x 0)

=a+1+1=a+2

R.H.L. at x = 0

x + bx 2 x

Lt f (x ) = Lt

x 0

x 0

b x

= Lt

x { 1 + bx 1}

x 0

bx x

1 + bx 1 1 + bx + 1

= Lt

bx

x 0

1 + bx + 1

1 + bx 1

= Lt

x 0 bx ( 1 + bx + 1)

1

1

1

= Lt

=

=

x 0 1 + bx + 1

1 +1 2

Now, f is continuous at x = 0 if

Lt f (x ) = f (0) = Lt f (x )

x 0

x 0

1

1

3

i.e., if a + 2 = c = a = and c =

2

2

2

Hence, for f to be continuous at x = 0, we must have

3

a = , c = 1 ; b may have any real value.

2

2

OR

We have, f(x) = x3 + bx2 + ax + 5

On differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we get

f (x) = 3x2 + 2bx + a

Since, the function satisfies the Rolles theorem

\ f(1) = f(3)

13 + b(1)2 + a(1) + 5 = (3)3 + b(3)2 + a(3) + 5

b + a = 26 + 9b + 3a 2a + 8b + 26 = 0

a + 4b = 13

...(1)

and f (c) = 0

1

f 2 +

=0

3

2

1

1

3 2 +

+ 2b 2 +

+a =0

3

3

1 4

1

34 + +

+ 2b 2 +

+a =0

3

3

3

13 +

24

12

3

1

+ 2b 2 +

+a =0

... (2)

dy

+ 2 x tan y = x 3

dx

dy dt

Let tan y = t sec2 y

=

dx dx

dt

+ 2tx = x 3

dx

This is a linear differential equation of the form,

dt

+ Pt = Q,

dx

where P = 2x and Q = x3

Therefore, integrating factor

2

Pdx

2 xdx

IF = e

= e

= ex

Solution of the differential equation is given by

2

t e x = x 3e x dx + C

...(1)

To solve x 3e x dx

Let x2 = z 2x dx = dz

2

1

x 3e x dx = ze z dz

2

1 z

= ze e z dz + C

2

1

= ze z e z + C

2

2

1

= (x 2 1)e x + C

2

...(2)

Thus, we have,

2

2

1

t e x = (x 2 1)e x + C [from (1) and (2)]

2

2

1

t = (x 2 1) + Ce x

2

2

1

tan y = (x 2 1) + Ce x

[ t = tan y]

2

20. R is the radius of the given sphere with centre O and

let V be the volume of the inscribed cone, h be its

height and r be the radius of the base.

In the given figure, we have OD = AD AO = (h R).

In DODC,

\ R2 =(h R)2 + r2 or r2 = h(2R h)

...(1)

Now, V = 1 pr 2h = 1 ph2 (2R h)

[using (1)].

3

3

O

B

dV 1

d 2V 4

dh 3

3

dh

dV

For maxima or minima, we have

= 0.

dh

dV

1

Now,

= 0 ph(4 R 3h) = 0

dh

3

4

h = 0 or (4R 3h) = 0 h = R [... h 0]

3

d 2V

p

4

R

And,

=

< 0.

2

3

dh

\

h=( 4/3)R

4

So, V is maximum when h = R i.e., when 3h = 2(2R)

3

i.e., 3 times the height = 2 times the diameter of the

sphere

Now, volume of the largest cone

1

16R2

4 R 32 pR3

= p

2R

=

3

9

3

81

21. Let E = event of drawing a heart.

13 1

1 3

Then, P (E ) = = and P (E ) = 1 =

4 4

52 4

\ X denotes the number of hearts in three cards

drawn.

Then, X = 0, 1, 2 or 3

X = xi

pi

3 3 3

27

=

0

4 4 4

64

1 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 1 = 27

1

+ +

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 64

1 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 1

9

+ + =

2

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 64

1

1 1 1

=

3

64

4 4 4

\ Mean (m) = Sxi pi

9

1 3

27 27

= 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 =

64 64 64 64 4

OR

Let A, E1 and E2 respectively denotes the event that

the person suffers a heart attack, the selected person

followed the course of yoga and meditation and the

person adopted the drug prescription

40

P(A) =

= 0.40

100

1

P(E1) = P(E2 ) =

2

P(A/E1) = 0.40 0.70 = 0.28

P(A/E2) = 0.40 0.75 = 0.30

Probability that the patient suffering heartattack

followed course of meditation and yoga is

P(E1)P(A | E1)

P(E1 | A) =

P(E1)P(A | E1) + P(E2 )P(A | E2 )

1

0.28

0.14

14

2

=

=

=

1

1

0.14 + 0.15 29

0.28 + 0.30

2

2

P(E2 )P(A | E2 )

Now, P(E2 | A) =

P(E1)P(A | E1) + P(E2 )P(A | E2 )

1

0.30

0.15

15

2

=

=

=

1

1

0.14 + 0.15 29

0.28 + 0.30

2

2

Since P(E1|A) < P(E2|A), the course of yoga and

meditation is more beneficial for a person having

heart attack.

22. (i) If x machines of type A and y machines of type

B are bought, then our problem is to maximize

Z = 50x + 40y subject to constraints

x 0, y 0

1000x + 1200y 7600 5x + 6y 38

12 + 8y 72 3x + 2y 18

Feasible region is shown shaded in the figure.

Variance, s2 = Sxi pi m2

27

9

1 9

9

27

= 0 + 12 + 22 + 32 =

64

64

64

64 16 16

mathematics today | february 16

25

Let g : S N be defined by

O(0, 0)

50 0 + 40 0 =0

g ( y) =

19

B 0,

3

E(4, 3)

19

=253.3

3

50 4 + 40 3= 320

Points

50 0 + 40

C(6, 0)

50 6 + 40 0 = 300

i.e., when 4 machines of type A and 3 machines

of type B are bought, the daily output would be

maximum

(ii) (a) High productivity

(b) Time management

(c) Efficiency

23. We know that the lines

x x1 y y1 z z1

x x2 y y2 z z 2

=

=

=

=

and

a1

b1

c1

a2

b2

c2

are coplanar

x2 x1

a1

a2

y2 y1

b1

b2

z2 z1

c1 = 0,

c2

x x1

a1

a2

y y1

b1

b2

z z1

c1 = 0.

c2

Here, x1 = 0, y1 = 2, z1 = 3; x2 = 2, y2 = 6, z2 = 3; a1 = 1,

b1 = 2, c1 = 3; a2 = 2, b2 = 3, c2 = 4.

x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1 2 4 6

\

a1

b1

c1 = 1 2 3 = 0.

2 3 4

a2

b2

c2

Hence, the given two lines are coplanar.

The equation of the plane containing these lines is

x 0 y 2 z +3

x y 2 z +3

1

2

3 =0 1

2

3 =0

2

3

4

2

3

4

x(8 9) (y 2)(4 6) + (z + 3)(3 4) = 0

x + 2 (y 2) (z + 3) = 0 x 2y + z + 7 = 0

24. Let y = f(x) = 4x2 + 12x + 15, xN

Now, firstly find the range of y.

Consider y = (2x)2 + 2 2x 3 + 9 + 6

y = (2x + 3)2 + 6 (2x + 3)2 = y 6

2 x + 3 = y 6 [taking positive square root]

x=

26

y 6 3 [

2

( y 6) 3

...(1)

2

Now, gof (x) = g(4x2 + 12x + 15) = g[(2x + 3)2 + 6]

=

(2 x + 3)2 + 6 6 3

2

[from (1)]

gof (x) = IN

y 6 3

and fog ( y ) = f

2{ ( y 6) 3}

2

=

+ 3 + 6 = ( y 6 ) + 6 = y

2

fog(y) = IS

Hence, f is invertible and inverse of f is

( x 6) 3

2

x 4 dx

25. Let I =

(x 1)(x 2 + 1)

f 1 (x ) =

x4

(x 1)(x 2 + 1)

1

x4

... (1)

= (x + 1) +

2

(x 1)(x + 1)

(x 1)(x 2 + 1)

1

A

Bx + C

... (2)

=

+

(x 1)(x 2 + 1) (x 1) (x 2 + 1)

1 = A(x2 + 1) + (Bx + C) (x 1)

= (A + B)x2 + (C B)x + A C

A + B = 0, C B = 0 and A C = 1,

1

1

A = ,B =C =

2

2

Substituting the values of A, B and C in (2), we have,

1

1

1 x

1

...(3)

=

2

2

2

2

1

2

(

x

)

(x 1)(x + 1)

(x + 1) 2(x + 1)

Consider the expression

x4

(x 1)(x 2 + 1)

1

1 x

1

= (x + 1) +

2(x 1) 2 (x 2 + 1) 2(x 2 + 1)

[From (1) and (3)]

4

1

x

(x 1)(x 2 + 1) dx = (x + 1)dx + 2(x 1) dx

x

1

dx

dx

2

2

2(x + 1)

2(x + 1)

1

1

x2

1

+ x + log | x 1 | log(x 2 + 1) tan 1 x + C

2

4

2

2

OR

1

X

vx

xe x

dv vx

vx

+x v+x

sin

=0

x

dx x

dv

xe v vx sin(v ) + vx sin v + x 2 sin v

=0

dx

1

dv

v

x 2 sin v

= xe v e sin vdv = dx

x

dx

On integrating both sides, we get

x2 = y

I

II

(1, 1)

III

1

1

y2 = x

quadrant are obtained by solving the two equations

y = x2 ... (1) and x = y2 ...(2)

From (1) and (2), we get

x = (x2)2

x = x4 x4 x = 0, i.e. x(x3 1) = 0 x = 0, 1

So, y = 0, 1

\ The points where the two parabolas meet in the

first quadrant are (0,0) and (1,1). The area gets divided

into 3 parts as shown in the figure.

Area I =

1

3/ 2

x

(1 x ) dx = x 3 / 2 0

Area II =

(

0

x 3/ 2 x 3

x x ) dx =

3 / 2 3 0

2

Area III =

(

0

bounded by x = 0, y = 0, x = 1 and y = 1 into three

parts which are equal in area.

26. Given differential equation is

dy

dv

=v+x

dx

dx

II

dv

I1 = e v sin v e v cos v e v sin v dv

I1 = evsinv evcosv I1

... (3)

e v

(sin v + cos v ) = log | x | + C1

2

e y/x

2

y

y

sin x + cos x = log | x | + C1

put v = x

y

y

e y / x sin + cos = 2 log x 2C1

x

x

I1 = e v sin v + e v cos v dv

dy

y

y

xe( y /x ) y sin + x sin = 0

x

x

dx

Put y = vx

I1 = sin v e v dv (sin v ) e v dv dv

dv

x3 1

x dx = = sq. units

3 0 3

2

II

... (2)

e v

(sin v + cos v )

2

From equation (2) and (3), we get

2 1 1

= = sq. units

3 3 3

1

I1 =

2 1

= 1 = sq. units

3 3

1

1

sin vdv = dx

x

Let I1 = e v sin vdv

vx sin

...(1)

y

y

e y / x sin + cos = log x 2 + C

x

x

[put C = 2C1]

Also, given that y = 0 and x = 1

\ e0(sin (0) + cos(0)] = log 12 + C

1[0 + 1] = 0 + C C = 1

\ Required particular solution is

y

y

e y / x sin + cos = log x 2 + 1

x

x

mathematics today | february 16

nn

27

1.

y=

2y 1

(a)

cos x

dy

=

dx

cos x

(b)

2y 1

cos y

2x 1

(c)

(d)

2

y 1

cos y

2. The equation of the hyperbola referred to its axis

as axis of coordinate and whose distance between the

foci is 16 and eccentricity is 2 , is

(a) x2 y2 = 16

(b) x2 y2 = 32

(c) x2 2y2 = 16

(d) x2 y2 = 16

3. If a1, a2, a3, a4 are the coefficients of any four

consecutive terms in the expansion of (1 + x)n, then

a3

a1

+

=

a1 + a2 a3 + a4

a2

a2

(a)

(b)

a2 + a3

2(a2 + a3 )

2a2

2a3

(c) a + a

(d)

a2 + a3

2

3

4.

(a)

(c)

d

[ tan1 log10 x ] =

dx

1

2

[1 + (log10 x ) ] x log e 10

1

[1 + log10 x 2 ] x log10 e

(b)

1

1 + log10 x 2

S = 0 and if e2 + e2 = 3 then both S and S' are

(a) hyperbolas

(b) ellipses

(c) parabolas

(d) None of these

6.

x

1+ | 1 t |dt , x > 2

, then

If f(x) = 0

5x 7

, x 2

(b) f is differentiable everywhere

(c) RHL at x = 2 doesn't exist

7. The length of normal at q on the curve x = acos3q,

y = asin3q is

(a) |asin2q|

makes with the positive directions of the coordinate

axes, then sin2A + sin2B + sin2C =

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

3

3

3

3

3

3

9. Sum of the series 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 + 3 + ...

1

1+ 3

1+ 3 + 5

to 16 terms is

(a) 346

(b) 446

(c) 546

x

10. If f (x) = 1

2

x

:x <0

: x = 0 ,then lim f (x ) =

x 0

:x >0

(a) 0

(b) 1

(d) 2

By : Vidyalankar Institute, Pearl Centre, Senapati Bapat Marg, Dadar (W), Mumbai - 28. Tel.: (022) 24306367

28

cuts off intercepts p and q on the coordinate axes, then

the value of p4/3 + q 4/3 is equal to

(a) a4/3

(b) a1/2

(c) a1/2

dx

12.

0 (x

+ 1)3/2

1

2

(b)

(c) 1

(d)

(a)

4

(b) 3 3 + 1

(3 3 1)

13

1

(c)

(d) None of these

(2 + 7 3 )

3

19. A candidate appearing for the competitive test

finds the following information on seeing the question

paper :

(a)

2

1

2

and atleast three question from section B.

(a) 113

(b) 1/6

minutes and that of section B is 25 minutes.

(c) 1/9

(d) 1/12

1

1

1

+

+

+ ... is

3 7 7 11 11 15

that of section B carries 15 marks

to x, then the value of l im (1 x + [x 1] + [1 x]) is

is 10.

The maximum marks he can secure is

(a) 115

(b) 125

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 100

(d) 1

common to the pair of lines given by 6x2 xy 12y2 = 0 and

15x2 + 14xy 8y2 = 0 and the sum of whose intercepts

on the axes is 7, is

x 0

15. x log x dx =

x n+1

[n log x 1] + C

n

x n+1

[(n + 1)log x 1] + C

(b)

n +1

x n+1

[(n + 1)log x 1] + C

(c)

(n + 1)2

(a)

16. The orthogonal trajectories of the family of curves

an1 y = xn are given by

(a) xn+ n2y = constant (b) ny2+ x2 = constant

(c) n2x+ yn = constant (d) n2x yn = constant

17. If each observation of a raw data, whose variance is

s2, is multiplied by l, then the variance of the new set is

(a) s2

(b) l2 s2

(c) l + s2

(d) l2 + s2

x3

y3

5x2 + 3y2 + 4x + 5y 1 = 0 at the points A, B and C, then

OA . OB . OC (where O is (0, 0)) is

(a) 2x 3y = 42

(b) 3x + 4y = 12

(c) 5x 2y = 10

x

l

21. The roots of l

l

a

x

m

m

b

b

x

v

1

1

1 = 0 are independent of

1

(a) l, m, v

(b) a, b

(c) l, m, v, a, b

co-ordinate axes and 3x + 4y = 12 is

(a) (1/2, 1/2)

(b) (1, 1)

(d) (1/2, 1)

xe x

dx =

(x + 1)2

(a) ex /(x + 1) + C

23.

29

(0, 1) and having smallest possible radius is

(a) x2 + y2 x y = 0 (b) x2 + y2 + x + y = 0

(c) x2 + y2 2x y = 0 (d) x2 + y2 x 2y = 0

25. If a, b are roots of x2 + px + 1 = 0 and g, d are the

roots of x2 + qx + 1 = 0, the value of (a g) (b g) (a + d)

(b + d) is

(a) p2 q2

(b) q2 p2

(c) p2

(d) q2

circle is circumscribed about the AOB. The distance

from the end points of the side AB to the line touching

the circle at origin O are equal to p and q respectively.

The diameter of the circle is

(a) p(p + q)

(b) q(p + q)

p+q

2

27. Area between the curves y = x3 and y =

(c) p + q

(d)

(a) 5/12

(b) 5/3

(c) 5/4

x is

x2 4x 3y + 10 = 0 is

(a) y = 5/4

(b) y = 5/4

(c) y = 3/4

(d) x = 5/4

identity, then

(a) a = 1, b = 24

(b) a = 3, b = 24

(c) a = 4, b = 2

(d) a = 7, b = 18

the point (13, 0). They include an angle

(a)

tan1(5/12)

tan1(12/5)

(b)

(c)

2tan1(5/12)

3n+1 3 2n

(a)

3n+1 + 3 2n

(b)

3n+1 + 3 + 2n

(c)

(d)

4

32. The eccentric angle of

x2 y2

+

= 1 whose distance

6

2

ellipse is 2, is

30

3n1 3 + 2n

4

a point on the ellipse

from the centre of the

(a) p/4

(b) 3p/2

(c) 5p/3

(d) 7p/6

them. A match ends in a win or loss or draw for a team.

A number of people forecast the result of each match

and no two people make the same forecast for the series

of matches. The smallest group of people in which

one person forecasts correctly for all the matches will

contain n people, where n is

(a) 81

(b) 243

(c) 486

living till he is 70 and 4 to 3 against another person now

50 till he will be living 80. Probability that one of them

will be alive next 30 years is

(a) 59/91

(b) 44/91

(c) 51/91

(d) 32/91

(a)

yx

=k

1 + xy

(c) x2 y2 = k

dy 1 + y 2

is

=

dx 1 + x 2

(b) xy = k

(d) None of these

be put in two boxes of different sizes so that no box

remains empty is

(a) 62

(b) 64

(c) 36

(a) 23

(b) 24

(c) 22

dy

2x +

y = 3; given y(0) = 1 represents

dx

(a) straight line

(b) circle

(c) parabola

(d) ellipse

equation

of (1 + x)n are 28, 56 and 70, then n equals

(a) 6

(b) 4

(c) 8

(d) 10

Contd. on page no. 80

This column is aimed at Class XI students so that they can prepare for competitive exams such as JEE Main/Advanced, etc. and

be also in command of what is being covered in their school as part of NCERT syllabus. The problems here are a happy blend

of the straight and the twisted, the simple and the difficult and the easy and the challenging.

ConiC SeCtion

The locus of a point, which moves so that its distance

from a fixed point is always in a constant ratio to its

distance from a fixed straight line, not passing through

the fixed point is called a conic section.

z

The fixed point is called the focus.

z

The fixed straight line is called the directrix.

z

The constant ratio is called the eccentricity and is

denoted by e.

z

When the eccentricity is unity i.e., e = 1, the conic

is called a parabola ; when e < 1 the conic is called

an ellipse and when e > 1, the conic is called a

hyperbola.

z

The straight line passing through the focus and

perpendicular to the directrix is called the axis of

the parabola.

z

A point of intersection of a conic with its axis is

called vertex.

Now the middle point of SZ, say A, will lie on the locus

of P, i.e., AS = AZ. Take A as the origin, the x-axis

along AS, and the y-axis along the perpendicular to

AS at A, as in the figure.

Let AS = a, so that ZA = a. Let (x, y) be the coordinates

of the moving point P.

Then MP = ZN = ZA + AN = a + x. But by definition

MP = PS MP2 = PS2.

So that, (a + x)2 = (x a)2 + y2.

Hence, the equation of parabola is y2 = 4ax.

parabola

Vertex

(0 , 0)

(0, 0)

(0, 0)

(0, 0)

Focus

(a, 0)

(a, 0)

(0, a)

(0, a)

Eqn. of the x = a

directrix

x=a

y=a

y=a

Eqn. of y = 0

the axis

y=0

x=0

x=0

Tangent at x = 0

the vertex

x=0

y=0

y=0

Let S be the focus, ZM be

the directrix and P be

the moving point. Draw

SZ perpendicular from

S on the directrix. Then

SZ is the axis of the

parabola.

latus rectum

In the given figure, LSL is the latus rectum.

Also LSL = 2 4a.a = 4a = double ordinate through

the focus S.

note :

z

Any chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax perpendicular

to the axis of the parabola is called double ordinate.

Four common forms of a parabola

y2 = 4ax y2 = 4ax x2 = 4ay x2 = 4ay

He trains IIT and Olympiad aspirants.

31

parametric Coordinates

Any point on the parabola y2 = 4ax is (at2, 2at) and we

refer to it as the point t. Here, t is a parameter, i.e., it

varies from point to point.

Focal Chord

Any chord to y2 = 4ax

which passes through

the focus is called a focal

chord of the parabola

y2 = 4ax .

L e t y 2 = 4 a x b e t he

equation of a parabola

and (at2 , 2at) a point P on it. Suppose the coordinates

of the other extremity Q of the focal chord through P

are (at12 , 2at1).

Then, PS and SQ, where S is the focus (a, 0) have the

same slopes.

2at 0 2at1 0

=

tt12 t = t1t2 t1

at 2 a at12 a

(tt1 + 1)(t1 t) = 0

Hence t1 = 1/t, i.e. the point Q is (a/t2 , 2a/t).

The extremities of a focal chord of the parabola

y2 = 4ax may be taken as the points t and 1/t.

Focal Distance of

Y

P

any point : The focal

M

distance of any point

N

P on the parabola

X

A

2

Z

S

y = 4ax is the

distance between the

point P and the

focus S, i.e. PS.

Thus the focal distance = PS = PM = ZN = ZA + AN

=a+x

poSition oF a point relative to the

parabola

P(x1, y1)

Consider the parabola

Y

y 2 = 4ax. If (x 1 , y 1 )

L

is a given point and

2

M

y 1 4ax 1 = 0, then

X

A

S

the point lies on the

p ar ab o l a . B ut w h e n

y12 4ax1 0, we draw

the ordinate PM meeting the curve at L. Then P will

lie outside the parabola if PM > LM,

i.e., PM2 LM2 > 0.

Now, PM 2 = y 12 and LM 2 = 4ax 1 by virtue of the

32

parabola, the condition for P to lie outside the parabola

becomes y12 4ax1 > 0.

Similarly, the condition for P to lie inside the parabola

is y12 4ax1 < 0.

general equation oF a parabola

Let (h, k) be the focus S and lx + my + n = 0, the

equation of the directrix ZM of a parabola. Let (x, y)

be the coordinates of any point P on the parabola.

(x h)2 + (y k)2 = (lx + my + n)2/(l2 + m2)

(mx ly)2 + 2gx + 2fy + d = 0

This is the general equation of a parabola. It is clear

that second-degree terms in the equation of a parabola

form a perfect square. The converse is also true, i.e.

if in an equation of the second degree, the second

degree terms form a perfect square then the equation

represents a parabola, unless it represents two parallel

straight lines.

note : The general equation of second degree i.e.

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents a

parabola if D 0 and

h2

a

= ab, D = h

g

h

b

f

g

f

c

Special case

Let the vertex be (h, k) and the axis be parallel to

the x-axis. Then the equation of parabola is given by

(y k)2 = 4a(x h) which is equivalent to x = Ay2 + By + C

If three points are given we can find A, B and C.

Similarly, when the axis is parallel to the y-axis, the

equation of parabola is y = Ax2 + Bx + C.

tangent Drawn at a point lying on a

given parabola

z

If P(x1, y1) be a point on the parabola y2 = 4ax, then

z

If P(at 2 , 2at) be any point on the parabola

y 2 = 4ax, then slope of the tangent at P

2a 1

=

2at t

and hence its equation is

1

y 2at = (x at 2 )

t

=

\ Discriminant of (3) = 0

4(mc 2a)2 4m2c2 = 0

4amc + 4a2 = 0

a

c= , m0

m

dy 2a

dx = y

i.e. yt = x + at2

.... (1)

If we substitute m for 1/t, in equation (1), we have

the following result. The equation

a

y = mx +

m

.... (2)

z

Equations of the tangents at the points (at12, 2at1)

and (at22 , 2at2) are

yt1 = x + at12

.... (3)

and yt2 = x + at22

.... (4)

respectively.

Solving equations (3) and (4) gives the coordinates

of the intersection point of these two tangents as

(at1t2, a(t1 + t2))

note:

z If the tangents at t1 & t2 are at right angles then

t1t2 = 1.

z If the chord joining t1, t2 subtends a right angle

at the vertex then t1t2 = 4

Let the parabola be y2 = 4ax

.... (1)

and the given line be y = mx + c

.... (2)

Eliminating y from (1) and (2), then

(mx + c)2 = 4ax

or m2 x2 + 2x(mc 2a) + c2 = 0

.... (3)

This equation is quadratic in x, gives two values of x

which shows that every straight line will cut the parabola

in two points may be real, coincident or imaginary

according as discriminant of (3) > , = , < 0

i.e. 4(mc 2a)2 4m2c2 > , = , < 0

or 4a2 4amc > , = , < 0

or a > , = , < mc

.... (4)

note : If m = 0 then equation (3) gives

c2

4a

which gives only one value of x and so every line parallel

to x-axis cuts the parabola only in one real point.

z

Condition of tangency

If the line (2) touches the parabola (1), then

equation (3) has equal roots

4ax + c 2 = 0 or x =

....(5)

a

y 2 = 4ax if c =

(w hich is condit ion of

m

tangency).

Substituting the value of c from (5) in (2) then

a

....(6)

y = mx + , m 0

m

a

Hence the line y = mx + will always be a tangent

m

to the parabola y2 = 4ax.

The point of contact

The point of contact of the tangents at t is

(at2 , 2at). In terms of slope m of the tangent the

a 2a

point of contact is

, (m 0).

,

m2 m

If P(at2 , 2at) be any point on the parabola y2 = 4ax,

then

dy 2a

2a 1

=

=

Slope of the tangent at P =

2at t

dx y

Therefore, slope of the normal at P = t and its

equation is

y 2at = t(x at2)

i.e. y = tx + 2at + at3

....(1)

If we substitute m for t in equation (1), we have the

following result.

the equation

y = mx 2am am3

....(2)

is a normal. Real or imaginary can be drawn from any

point to a given parabola and the algebraic sum of the

ordinates of the feet of these three normals is zero.

If the normal (2) passes through the point (x1, y1),we

have

y1 = mx1 2am am3

i.e. am3 + (2a x1) m + y1 = 0

....(3)

The equation (2) gives three values of m, real or

imaginary, If m1, m2 and m3 be the roots of equation

(3), then we have m1 + m2 + m3 = 0.

Hence, the sum of the ordinates of the feet of these

normals = 2a(m1 + m2 + m3) = 0

mathematics today | february 16

33

note:

z

If normal at the point t1 meets the parabola again

2

at t2 then t2 = t1

t1

z

If the normals at t1& t2 meet again on the parabola

then t1t2 = 2

z

The point of intersection of the normals to the parabola y2 = 4ax at t1 and t2 is

[2a + a(t12 + t22 + t1t2), at1t2 (t1 + t2)].

rule For tranSForming an equation For

the variouS FormS oF the parabola

If any equation derived for the parabola y 2 = 4ax,

(a > 0) is given by

E(x, y, a) = 0

....(1)

then the same equation for the parabola y 2 = 4ax

will be

E(x, y, a) = 0

....(2)

For the parabola x2 = 4ay will be

E(y, x, a) = 0

....(3)

2

and for the parabola x = 4ay will be

E(y, x, a) = 0

....(4)

If the coordinates of the vertex be (h, k), then substitute

(x h) and (y k) for x and y respectively.

Using the above rule for the equation of general tangent

to the parabola y2 = 4ax, equation is

a

y = mx ,

....(5)

m

and to the parabola (y k)2 = 4a(x h), equation is

a

(y k) = m(x h) + ,

....(6)

m

and to the parabola x2 = 4ay, equation is

a

x = my +

....(7)

m

Similarly, equation of a general normal to the parabola

y2 = 4ax is

y = mx + 2am + am3,

....(8)

to the parabola x2 = 4ay, equation is

x = my 2am am3

....(9)

and so on.

equation oF the ChorD whoSe miD-point

iS given

Equation of the chord of

Y

B

the parabola y2 = 4ax whose

mid-point is (x1, y1) is given by

P

yy1 2a(x + x1) = y12 4ax1

or T = S1

34

ChorD oF ContaCt

If PA & PB be the tangents

through point P(x 1 , y 1 )

to the parabola y 2 = 4ax,

then the equation of the

chord of cont ac t AB is

yy1 2a(x + x1) = 0 or T = 0

Y

P

X

A

parabola

z

The portion of a tangent to a parabola intercepted

between the directrix and the curve subtends a right

angle at the focus.

angle between the focal chord through P and the

perpendicular from P to the directrix.

any tangent to a parabola lies on the tangent at the

vertex.

If S be the focus of the parabola and tangent and

normal at any point P meet its axis in T and G

respectively, then ST = SG = SP.

tangent at P, then H lies on the tangent at the vertex

and SH 2 = OSSP, where O is the vertex of the

parabola.

intersect at right angles on the directrix, and

hence a circle on any focal chord as diameter touches

the directrix. Also a circle on any focal radii of a

point P(at2 , 2at) as diameter touches the tangent at

Y

M

X

on a normal at the point P.

z

Any tangent to a parabola and the perpendicular

on it from the focus meet on the tangent at

the vertex.

z

If the tangents at P and Q meet at T, then

1. TP and TQ subtend equal angles at the focus S.

2. ST2 = SPSQ

3. The triangles SPT and STQ are similar.

z

Tangents and Normal at the extremities of the

latus rectum of a parabola y 2 = 4ax constitute

a square, their points of intersection being (a, 0)

and (3a, 0).

z

Semi latus rectum of the parabola y2 = 4ax, is the

harmonic mean between segments of any focal chord

1 1 1

2bc

of the parabola is 2a =

i.e + = .

b c a

b+c

z

The circle circumscribing the triangle formed

by any three tangents to a parabola passes

through the focus.

z

The orthocenter of any triangle formed by

three tangents to a parabola y 2 = 4ax lies on the

directrix and has the coordinates

( a, a(t1 + t2 + t3 + t1 t2 t3)).

z

The area of the triangle formed by three points

on a parabola is twice the area of the triangle

formed by the tangents at these points.

z

If normal drawn to a parabola passes through

a point P(h, k), then k = mh 2am am 3 i.e.

am3 + m(2a h) + k = 0.

Then it gives m1 + m2 + m3 = 0; m1m2 + m2m3 + m3m1

k

2a h

=

; m1 m2 m3 = , where m1, m2 and m3 are

a

a

the slopes of the three concurrent normal.

Note that the algebraic sum of the

1. slopes of three concurrent normal is zero.

2. ordinates of the three co-normal points on the

parabola is zero.

3. centroid of the D formed by three co-normal

points lies on the x-axis.

reFleCtion property oF a parabola

The tangent (PT) and normal (PN) of the parabola

y2 = 4ax at P are the internal and external bisectors of

SPM and BP is parallel to the axis of the parabola and

BPN = SPN.

ent

Tang

Light ray

Normal

Reflected ray

Light ray

Light ray

Light ray

ELLIPSE

DeFinition

An ellipse is the locus of a point which moves in a plane

such that its distance from a fixed point is in a constant

ratio (less than one) to its distance from a fixed line. The

fixed point is called the focus and fixed line is called the

directrix and the constant ratio is called the eccentricity

of the ellipse.

equation oF an ellipSe

Standard equation of ellipse

SP

= e or, (SP)2 = e2(PM)2

PM

2

a

(x ae)2 + (y 0)2 = e2 x

e

x2 (1 e2) + y2 = a2 (1 e2)

\

x2

y2

x2 y2

= 1 or

+

= 1,

a2 a2 (1 e 2 )

a 2 b2

where b2 = a2 (1 e2)

This is the standard equation of an ellipse. AA and BB

are called the major and minor axes of the ellipse and

their lengths will be given by 2a and 2b respectively.

The minor axis and major axis taken together are called

principal axes.

Here b < a and A(a, 0) and A (a, 0) are the vertices of

the ellipse.

various terms related with an ellipse

x2 y2

Let the equation of the ellipse be 2 + 2 = 1, a > b

a

b

mathematics today | february 16

35

ellipse is called the centre (0, 0).

Directrix : ZM and ZM are two directrices

a

x=

and their equations are

and

e

a respectively.

x=

,

e

Focus : S(ae, 0) and S(ae, 0) are two foci of the

ellipse.

length of latus rectum : Length of latus rectum is

2b2

.

a

Relation between constant a, b and e

b2 = a2 (1 e2)

given by

a 2 b2

a

Focal distances : The focal distance of the

\ e=

a + ex and a ex.

another form of ellipse

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1 are

x2 y2

The standard equation of ellipse is 2 + 2 = 1 when

a

b

a<b

In this case, major axis is BB = 2b which is along y-axis

and minor axis is AA= 2a which is along x-axis. Foci

are S(0, be) and S(0, be) and directrices are y = b/e and

y = b/e.

The general equation of an ellipse, whose focus is

(h, k),the directrix is the line ax + by + c = 0 and the

eccentricity e is given by

(x h)2 + (y k)2 =

e 2 (ax + by + c)2

2

a +b

T h e C o n d i t i o n f o r a s e c o n d d e g r e e e q u at i o n

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 in x and y to represent

an ellipse is given by

36

h2 ab < 0 and

a

D= h

g

h

b

f

g

f

c

auxiliary Circle and eccentric angle :

A circle described on major axis of an ellipse as diameter

is called the auxiliary circle. Equation of the auxiliary

circle is x2 + y2 = a2. Let Q be a point on the auxiliary circle

x2 + y2 = a2 such that QP produced is perpendicular to

the x-axis then P and Q are called as the Corresponding

Points on the ellipse and the auxiliary circle respectively

and 'q' is called the Eccentric Angle of the point P on the

ellipse (0 q < 2p).

l(PN ) b Semi minor axis

Note that

= =

.

l(QN ) a Semi major axis

Hence "If from each point of a circle perpendiculars are

drawn upon a fixed diameter then the locus of the points

dividing these perpendiculars in a given ratio is an ellipse

of which the given circle is the auxiliary circle".

parametriC equation oF an ellipSe

Clearly x = a cos q, y = b sin q satisfy the equation

x2

y2

= 1 f o r a l l r e a l v a l u e s o f q. Mo r e ov e r,

a 2 b2

any p oint on t he el lips e c an b e repres ente d as

(a cos q, b sin q), 0 q < 2p. Hence the parametric

x2

y2

= 1 are x = a cos q,

a 2 b2

y = b sin q, where q is the parameter.

equations of the ellipse

angles are q and f is

x

q+f y

q+f

qf

cos

+ sin

= cos

2 b

2

2

a

point anD ellipSe

x2 y2

Let P(x 1 , y 1 ) be any point and let

+

= 1 be the

a 2 b2

equation of an ellipse.

The point lies outside, on or inside the ellipse according

x2 y2

as S1 = 1 + 1 1 > 0, = 0, < 0 respectively.

a 2 b2

ellipSe anD line

Let the equation of an ellipse be

given line be y = mx + c.

Solving the line and ellipse, we get

x

b2

a 2 x b2 y

= a 2 b2

x1

y1

a 2 b2

The equation of the normal at ' f' is

ax sec f by cosec f = a2 b2

the ellipse

= 1 and the

(mx + c)

=1

a2

b2

i.e., (a2m2 + b2)x2 + 2mca2 x + a2 (c2 b2) = 0

above equation being a quadratic in x.

Its discriminant = 4m2 c2a4 4a2 (a2 m2 + b2)(c2 b2)

= 4a2b2 {c2 (a2 m2 + b2)} = 4a2b2 {(a2m2 + b2) c2}

Hence the line intersects the ellipse in 2 distinct

points if a2m2 + b2 > c2, in one point if c2 = a2m2 + b2 and

does not intersect if a2m2 + b2 < c2.

\ y = mx (a2m2 + b2 ) touches the ellipse and

condition for tangency is c2 = a2m2 + b2

x2

y2

= 1 is

x2

y2

=1,

a 2 b2

whose mid point is (x 1, y 1) is given by T = S 1 , where

xx

yy

x2 y2

T 1 + 1 1 and S1 1 + 1 1 .

a2

b2

a 2 b2

ChorD oF ContaCt

If PA and PB be the tangents through point P(x1, y1) to

The equation of the chord of the ellipse

x2 y2

the ellipse 2 + 2 = 1, then the equation of the chord

a

b

xx1 yy1

of contact AB is

+

= 1 or T = 0 at (x1, y1)

a2

b2

Y

x2

y2

the ellipse 2 + 2 = 1 at

a

b

a 2 m

b2

,

a2m2 + b2 a2m2 + b2 .

note:

z

x cos a + y sin a = p is a tangent if

p2 = a2 cos2 a + b2 sin2 a.

z

lx + my + n = 0 is a tangent to the ellipse if

n2 = a2 l2 + b2m2.

equation oF the tangent

The equation of the tangent at any ( x1, y1) on the

xx

yy

x2 y2

ellipse

+

= 1 is 1 + 1 = 1

2

2

2

a

b

a

b2

y

x

cos f + sin f = 1

a

b

q+f

q+f

a cos 2 b sin 2

,

'f' is

cos q f cos q + f

2

2

z

The equation of the normal at any point (x1, y1) on

P(x1, y1)

X

B

pair oF tangentS

x2

y2

= 1,

a 2 b2

and let a pair of tangents PA, PB be drawn to it from P.

Then, the equation of pair of tangents of PA and PB is

given by

Let P(x1, y1) be any point outside the ellipse

x2 y2

SS1 = T2 , where S 2 + 2 1,

a

b

2

2

xx

yy

x

y

S1 1 + 1 1 and T 21 + 21 1

2

2

a

b

a

b

x2 y2

to an ellipse

+

= 1 which are perpendicular to each

a 2 b2

mathematics today | february 16

37

x2 + y2 = a2 + b2 .

DireCtor CirCle

Locus of the point of intersection of the tangents which

meet at right angles is called the Director Circle. The

equation to this locus is x2 + y2 = a2 + b2 i.e. a circle whose

centre is the centre of the ellipse and whose radius is

the length of the line joining the ends of the major and

minor axis.

HYPERBOLA

DeFinition

A hyperbola is the locus of a point which moves such

that its distance from a fixed point called focus is always

e times (e > 1) its distance from a fixed line is called

directrix.

variouS FormS oF hyperbola

Standard equation of hyperbola

transverse axis of the hyperbola. Length of transverse

axis is 2a.

Conjugate axis: The line segment BB is called the

conjugate axis of the hyperbola. Length of conjugate

axis is 2b.

The transverse axis & the conjugate axis of the hyperbola

together are called principal axes of the hyperbola.

length of latus rectum :

b2

2b2

Length of latus rectum =

and L ae, ,

a

a

b2

L ae,

are end points of latus rectum.

a

auxiliary Circle

A circle drawn with centre C and AA as a diameter is

called the Auxiliary Circle of the hyperbola. Equation of

the auxiliary circle is x2 + y2 = a2.

SP

= e or SP 2 = e 2 PM2

PM

(x ae)2 + y2 = e2 (x a/e)2

or x2(1 e2) + y2 = a2 (1 e2) i.e.,

x2

y2

=1

....(i)

a2 a2 (e 2 1)

Since e > 1, e2 1 is positive. Let a2 (e2 1) = b2. Then the

equation (i) becomes

x2

a2

y2

b2

=1.

b2

by the relation e 2 = 1 + .

a2

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1 is given

Foci: S (ae, 0) and S (ae, 0)

Directrices: ZM and ZM are two directrices and their

a

a

equations are x = and x = respectively.

e

e

vertices: A = (a, 0) and A = (a, 0)

38

Corresponding Points on the hyperbola and the

auxiliary circle. 'q' is called the eccentric angle of the

point 'P' on the hyperbola .

parametric Coordinates

The equations x = a sec q and y = b tan q together

x2 y2

represents the hyperbola

= 1 where q is a

a 2 b2

parameter. In other words, (a sec q, b tan q) is a point on

p

the hyperbola for all values of q (2n + 1) , n I . The

2

point (a sec q, b tan q) is briefly called the point q.

note: Equation of a chord joining q1 & q2 is

q q

q +q

q +q

y

x

cos 1 2 sin 1 2 = cos 1 2 .

2

2

2

a

b

note : Since the fundamental equation to the hyperbola

only differs from that to the ellipse is having b2 instead

of b 2 it will be found that many proposition for the

hyperbola are derived from those for the ellipse by simply

changing the sign of b2.

The equation of hyperbola, whose focus is point (h, k),

directrix is lx + my + n = 0 and eccentricity e is given by

(x h)2 + (y k)2 =

e 2 (lx + my + n)2

(l 2 + m2 )

Conjugate hyperbola

The hyperbola whose transverse and conjugate axes are

respectively the conjugate and transverse axes of a given

hyperbola is called the conjugate hyperbola of the given

hyperbola.

x2 y2

= 1

and

=1

a 2 b2

a 2 b2

are conjugate hyperbolas of each other.

note: If e1 and e2 are the eccentricities of the hyperbola

1 1

and its conjugate then 2 + 2 = 1.

e1 e2

aSymptoteS

Definition: If the length of perpendicular drawn from

a point on the hyperbola to a straight line tends to zero

as the point moves to infinity. The straight line is called

asymptotes.

e.g.,

x2

y2

Y

Q

B P

A

R

B S

x y

\ The equation of asymptotes are + = 0 and

a b

x y

=0.

a b

Obviously angle between the asymptotes is 2 tan1(b/a).

If we draw lines through B, B parallel to the transverse

axis and through A, A parallel to the conjugate axis,

then P(a, b), Q(a, b), R(a, b) and S(a, b) all lie on the

asymptotes x2/a2y2/b2 = 0 so asymptotes are diagonals

of the rectangle PQRS. This rectangle is called associated

rectangle.

x2 y2

x2 y2

note: H

= 1 , C

= 1 and

2

2

2

2

a

a

b

b

x2 y2

A = 0

a 2 b2

Clearly, C + H = 2A

{H = hyperbola, C = Conjugate hyperbola,

A = Asymptotes.}

particular Case :

When b = a, the asymptotes of the rectangular hyperbola

x2 y2 = a2 is y = x which are at right angles.

z

Equilateral hyperbola rectangular hyperbola.

z

If a hyperbola is equilateral, then the conjugate is

also equilateral.

z

A hyperbola and its conjugate have the same

asymptote.

z

The equation of the pair of asymptotes differ from

the hyperbola and the conjugate hyperbola by the

same constant only.

z

The asymptotes pass through the centre of the

hyperbola and the bisectors of the angles between

the asymptotes are the axes of the hyperbola.

z

The asymptotes of a hyperbola are the diagonals of

the rectangle formed by the lines drawn through the

extremities of each axis parallel to the other axis.

z

Asymptotes are the tangent to the hyperbola from

the centre.

z

A simple method to find the coordinates of the

centre of the hyperbola expressed as a general

equation of degree 2 should be remembered as,

df

let f(x, y) = 0 represents a hyperbola. Find

and

dx

df

df

df

. Then the point of intersection of

= 0 and

dy

dy

dx

= 0 gives the centre of the hyperbola.

reCtangular or equilateral hyperbola

A hyperbola is called rectangular if its asymptotes are at

right angles. The asymptotes of x2/a2 y2/b2 =1 are y =

(b/a)x, so they are perpendicular if b2/a2 = 1 i.e., b2 =

a2, i.e., a = b. Hence equation of a rectangular hyperbola

can be written as x2 y2 = a2

Some important observations of rectangular hyperbola

are as under :

z

z

z

z

z

Asymptotes are y = x.

Rotating the axes by an angle p/4 about the same

origin, equation of the rectangular hyperbola

x 2 y 2 = a 2 is reduced to xy = a 2 /2 or xy = c 2 ,

(c2 = a2/2).

In xy = c2, asymptotes are coordinate axes.

Rectangular hyperbola is also called equilateral

hyperbola.

Rectangular hyperbola referred to its asymptotes as

axis of coordinates.

Equation is xy = c2 with parametric representation

c

x = ct, y = , t R ~ {0}.

t

mathematics today | february 16

39

z

z

Q (t2) is x + t1t2 y = c (t1 + t2)

y

x

+ =2

Equation of the tangent at P(x1, y1) is

x1 y1

x

and at P(t) is + ty = 2c .

t

Chord with a given middle point as ( h, k) is

kx + hy = 2hk.

Equation of the normal at P(t) is xt3 yt = c(t4 1).

Vertex of this hyperbola is (c, c) and (c, c); focus

is ( 2c, 2c) and ( 2c, 2c) , the directrices are

x + y = 2c and l(L.R.) = 2 2c = T.A. = C.A.

Let S = 0 be the hyperbola and P(x1, y1) be the point and

S1 S(x1, y1).

Then

S1 < 0 P is in the exterior region

S1 > 0 P is in the interior region

S1 = 0 P lies on the hyperbola

normal :

x sec q y tan q

= 1.

a

b

x2

a2

y2

b2

=1

a 2 x b2 y 2 2 2 2

=a +b =a e .

+

x1

y1

The equation of the normal at the point P(a sec q, b tan q) on the

at point P(x1, y1) on the curve is

x2 y2

by

ax

+

hyperbola 2 2 = 1 is

= a2 + b2 = a2 e2.

sec q tan q

a

b

In general, four normals can be drawn to a hyperbola

from any point and if a, b, g, d be the concentric angles

of these four co-normal points, then a + b+ g + d is an

odd multiple of p.

Chord of Contact of tangents Drawn from a point

outside the hyperbola

Chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point outside

the hyperbola is T = 0 i.e., (xx1/a2) (yy1/b2) = 1.

ChorD oF hyperbola with SpeCiFieD

miDpoint

Chord of hyperbola with specified midpoint (x1, y1) is T

= S1, where S1 and T have usual meanings.

pair oF tangentS

Equation of pair of tangents from point (x1, y1) to the

hyperbola

line anD a hyperbola

The straight line y = mx + c is a secant, a tangent or passes

x2 y2

outside the hyperbola

2

2

2

2

2

a

b

a m b .

tangent anD normal

tangent :

x2 y2

Equation of the tangent to the hyperbola

= 1 at

a 2 b2

xx1 yy1

the point (x1 y1) is 2 2 = 1.

a

b

In general two t angents can b e drawn f rom an

external point (x 1, y 1) to the hyperbola and they are

y y1 = m1(x x1) and y y1 = m2(x x2) , where m1 and

m2 are roots of the equation (x12 a2)m2 2x1y1m + y12 +

b2 = 0. If D < 0, then no tangent can be drawn from (x1,

y1) to the hyperbola.

x2

a

40

y2

b2

= 1 at

x2

y2

= 1 is SS1 = T2 i.e.,

2

x 2 y 2 x 2 y 2 xx

1

1

1 yy1

2 2 1 2 2 1 = 2 2 1

a

a

a

b

b

b

DireCtor CirCle

The locus of the point of intersection of two perpendicular

tangents to a hyperbola is called its director circle. Its

equation is x2 + y2 = a2 b2.

Equation of any tangent to x2/a2 y2/ b2 = 1 is

2 2

2

y = mx (a m b )

....(i)

1

....(ii)

x [(a2 /m2 ) b2 ]

m

Locus of point of intersection of these perpendicular

tangents i.e., equation of the director circle can be

obtained by eliminating m between (i) and (ii).

\ (y mx)2 + (my + x)2 = a2m2 b2 + a2 b2 m2

or (m2 + 1) x2 + (m2 + 1) y2 = (a2 b2) (m2 + 1)

Cancelling (m2 + 1), we get the equation of director circle

as x2 + y2 = a2 b2.

y=

Problems

Section-i

Single correct Answer type

1. A straight line through A(6, 8) meets the curve

2x2 + y2 = 2 at B and C. P is a point on BC such that

AB, AP, AC are in H.P., then the minimum distance

of the origin from the locus of P is

1

5

10

15

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

52

52

52

52

p

such that CBA = , then the range of ordinate

2

of C is

(a) (, 0) (4, )

(c) [0, 4]

2

(b) (, 0] [4, )

(d) (, 0) [4, )

px + qy = 1 always touches a parabola whose axis is

parallel to x-axis, then equation of the parabola is

(a) (y 4)2 = 24(x 2)

(b) (y 3)2 = 12(x 1)

(c) (y 4)2 = 12(x 2)

(d) (y 2)2 = 24(x 4)

4. The locus of point of intersection of tangents to the

parabola y2 = 4ax, the angle between them being

always 45 is

(a) x2 y2 + 6ax a2 = 0

(b) x2 y2 6ax + a2 = 0

(c) x2 y2 + 6ax + a2 = 0

(d) x2 y2 6ax a2 = 0

5. The locus of the vertex of the family of parabolas

a3 x 2 a2 x

+

2a, (a is parameter) is

3

2

105

3

(a) xy =

(b) xy =

64

4

35

64

(c) xy =

(d) xy =

16

105

6. Tangents are drawn from the point (1, 2) to the

parabola y2 = 4x. The length of the intercept made

by the line x = 2 on these tangents is

(a) 6

(b) 6 2

2

6

(c)

(d) None of these

y=

parabola y2 = 4ax such that P lies at the vertex of

the parabola and base QR is a focal chord. The

numerical difference of the ordinates of the points Q

and R is

A

A

2A

4A

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

a

2a

a

a

the ellipse x2 + 2y2 = 4 at P and Q, then the locus of

the points of intersection of the tangents at P and Q is

(a) a circle of radius 2 units

(b) a parabola with focus as (2, 3)

3

4

(d) an ellipse with length of latus rectum as 2 units

(c) an ellipse with eccentricity

internally and the circle x2 + y2 4x + 8y + 19 = 0

externally. The locus of centre of the circle S = 0 is

1

conic whose eccentricity is k then is, where []

k

denotes G.I.F.

(a) 7

(b) 2

(c) 0

(d) 3

x2 y2

in 2 + 2 = 1 with vertices having eccentric angles

a

b

a, b, g respectively is (x1, y1), then

Scos a cos b + Ssin a sin b =

(a)

(c)

9 x12

2

a

9 x12

2a2

+

+

9 y12

2

b

9 y12

2b2

3

2

3

(d)

9 x12

a2

9 y12

b2

+3

mid-point of PS and area of the ellipse where P is

any point on the ellipse and S is the focus of the

ellipse, is

(a) 1 : 2 (b) 1 : 3 (c) 1 : 5 (d) 1 : 4

12. How many tangents to the circle x2 + y2 = 3 are

x2 y2

+

=1

there which are normal to the ellipse

9

4

(a) 3

(b) 2

(c) 1

(d) 0

y2

= 1 is inscribed in a

a2 3 a + 4

square of side length a 2, then a is

(a) 4

(b) 2

(c) 1

(d) None of these

x2

end points of major axis and C, D are end points of

minor axis, F is focus of the ellipse. If inradius of

DOCF is 1, then |AB| |CD| =

(a) 65

(b) 52

(c) 78

(d) 47

mathematics today | February 16

41

6x 12y + 23 = 0, 4x2 + 2y2 20x 12y + 35 = 0

8

(a) lie on a circle centred at , 3 and of radius

3

1 47

3 2

8

3

1 47

3 3

(c) lie on a circle centred at (8,9) and of radius

1 47

3 2

(d) are not concyclic.

16. In a model, it is shown that an arc of a bridge is semi

elliptical with major axis horizontal. If the length of

the base is 9 m and the highest part of the bridge is

3 m from the horizontal, then the height of the arch,

2 m from the centre of the base is (in meters)

8

65

56

9

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3

3

3

3

17. If a chord joining P(a sec q, a tan q),

Q(a sec a, a tan a) on the hyperbola x2 y2 = a2 is

normal at P, then tan a =

(a) tan q (4 sec2 q + 1) (b) tan q (4 sec2 q 1)

(c) tan q (2 sec2 q 1) (d) tan q (1 2 sec2 q)

18. A variable straight line of slope 4 intersects the

hyperbola xy = 1 at two points. The locus of the

point which divides the line segment between these

two points in the ratio 1 : 2 is

(a) 16x2 + 10xy + y2 = 2

(b) 16x2 10xy + y2 = 2

(c) 16x2 + 10xy + y2 = 4

(d) 16x2 10xy + y2 = 4

19. Which of the following is incorrect for the hyperbola

x2 2y2 2x + 8y 1 = 0

(a) Its eccentricity is 2

(b) Length of the transverse axis is 2 3

(c) Length of the conjugate axis is 2 6

(d) Latus rectum is 4 3

20. The area of the triangle formed by the asymptotes

and any tangent to the hyperbola x2 y2 = a2 is

(a) 4a2

42

(b) 3a2

(c) 2a2

(d) a2

x2

y2

= 1.

a 2 b2

If the normal at the point P intersects the x-axis at

(9, 0), then the eccentricity of the hyperbola is

3

5

(a)

(b)

(c) 2 (d) 3

2

2

22. Equation of a common tangent to the curves

y2 = 8x and xy = 1 is

(a) 3y = 9x + 2

(b) y = 2x + 1

(c) 2y = x + 8

(d) y = x + 2

21. Let P(6, 3) be a point on the hyperbola

x2 y2

a 2 b2

triangle, O being the centre of the hyperbola. Then

the eccentricity e of the hyperbola, satisfies

(a) 1 < e < 2/ 3

(b) e = 2/ 3

(c) e = 3 / 2

(d) e > 2/ 3

24. The locus of a point, from where tangents to the

rectangular hyperbola x2 y2 = a2 makes an angle

of 45, is

(a) (x2 + y2) + a2(x2 y2) = 4a2

(b) 2(x2 + y2) + 4a2(x2 y2) = 4a2

(c) (x2 + y2)2 + 4a2(x2 y2) = 4a4

(d) (x2 + y2)2 + a2(x2 y2) = a4

25. If a circle cuts the rectangular hyperbola xy = 1 in

4 points (xr, yr) where r = 1, 2, 3, 4. Then

orthocentre of triangle with vertices at (xr,yr)where

r = 1, 2, 3 is

(a) (x4, y4)

(b) (x4, y4)

(c) (x4, y4)

(d) (x4, y4)

Section-ii

Multiple correct Answer type

y2 = 8x and the points P, Q, R, S are concyclic then

(a) Tangents at P and R meet on x-axis

(b) Tangents at P and R meet on y-axis

(c) PR is parallel to y-axis

(d) PR is parallel to x-axis

27. A(at12, 2at1), B(at22, 2at2), C(at32, 2at3) be 3 points

on the parabola y2 = 4ax. If the orthocentre of

DABC is focus S of the parabola, then

(a) t1t2 + t3t2 + t3t1 = 5

1

1

1

(b)

+

+

= 1

t1t2 t2t3 t3t1

(c) If t1 = 0, then t2 + t3 = 0

(d) (1 + t1)(1 + t2)(1 + t3) = 4

equations x = t2 2t + 2, y = t2 + 2t + 2. Then which

of the following is/are true?

(a) Auxiliary circle of the parabola is x2 + y2 = 4

(b) Vertex of the parabola is (2, 2)

(c) Director circle of the parabola is x2 + y2 = 6

(d) Focus of the parabola is (3, 3)

29. The equations of the common tangents of the curves

x2 + 4y2 = 8 and y2 = 4x are

(a) x + 2y + 4 = 0

(b) x 2y + 4 = 0

(c) 2x + y = 4

(d) 2x y + 4 = 0

30. Let PQ be a chord of the parabola y2 = 4x. A circle

is drawn with PQ as diameter passes through the

vertex V of the parabola. If area of triangle PVQ is

20 sq. units, then the coordinates of P are

(a) (16, 8)

(b) (16, 8)

(c) (16, 8)

(d) (16, 8)

31. If Ay2 + By + Cx + D = 0, (ABC 0) be the equation

of parabola, then

C

(a) the length of latusrectum is

A

(b) the axis of the parabola is a vertical line

B

(c) y-coordinate of the vertex is

2A

B2 4 AD

(d) x-coordinate of the vertex is

4 AC

32. An ellipse whose major axis is parallel to x-axis is

such that the segments of a focal chord are 1 and

3 units. The lines ax + by + c = 0 are the chords of

the ellipse such that a, b, c are in A.P and bisected

by the point at which they are concurrent. The

equation of auxiliary circle is x2 + y2 + 2ax + 2by

2a 1 = 0. Then

(a) The locus of perpendicular tangents to the

ellipse is x2 + y2 = 7

(b) Length of the double ordinate which is conjugate

to directrix is 3

(c) Area of the auxiliary circle is 2p

1

(d) Eccentricity of the ellipse is

2

33. If foci of an ellipse be (1, 2) and (2, 3) and its

tangent at a point A is 2x + 3y + 9 = 0, then

(a) Length of the minor axis of the ellipse will be

2 14

(b) C o o r d i n at e s o f t h e p o i nt A w i l l b e

32 17

,

9

27

(c) Distance between the foci is 2 2

(d) Product of the perpendiculars from foci to any

tangent is 56

34. Let P(x1, y1), Q(x2, y2), y1 > 0, y2 > 0 be the end

points of the latus rectum of the ellipse 3x2 + 4y2 = 12.

The equations of the parabolas with latus rectum

PQ are

(a) x2 2y 2 = 0 (b) x2 2y + 2 = 0

(c) x2 + 2y 4 = 0

(d) x2 2y + 4 = 0

35. If the chord through the points whose eccentric

x2 y2

+

= 1 passes

25 9

q

f

through a focus, then tan tan is

2

2

1

1

(a)

(b) 9

(c)

(d) 9

9

9

1

36. If a tangent of slope

of the ellipse

3

2

2

y

x

+

= 1 (a > b) is normal to the circle

2

a

b2

x2 + y2 + 2x + 2y + 1 = 0, then

2

(a) maximum value of ab is

3

2

(b) a , 2

5

2

(c) a , 2

3

(d) maximum value of ab is 1

angles are q and f on the ellipse

normal is parallel to the line 6x 5y = 2 is

(a) (5, 2)

(b) (5, 2)

(c) (5, 2)

(d) (5, 2)

38. If the normal at P to the rectangular hyperbola

meets the axes in G and g, and C is centre of the

hyperbola, then

(a) PG = PC

(b) Pg = PC

(c) PG = Pg

(d) Gg = 2PC

x2

y2

a 2 b2

points on the plane through which perpendicular

tangents are drawn

43

(a) If n = 1, then e = 2

(b) If n = 0, then e < 2

(c) If n > 1, then 0 < e < 2

(d) None of these

40. A rectangular hyperbola of latus rectum 4 units

passes through (0, 0) and has (2, 0) as its one focus.

The equation of locus of the other focus is

(a) x2 + y2 = 36

(b) x2 + y2 = 4

(c) x2 y2 = 4

(d) x2 + y2 = 9

41. The equation of tangent to the hyperbola 5x2 y2 = 5

passing through the point (2, 8) is/are

(a) 3x y + 2 = 0

(b) 3x + y 14 = 0

(c) 23x 3y 22 = 0 (d) 3x 23y + 178 = 0

Section-iii

comprehension type

Let R(h, k) be the middle point of the chord PQ of the

parabola y2 = 4ax, then its equation will be ky 2ax

+ 2ah k2 = 0. The locus of the mid-point of chords of

the parabola which

42. Subtend a constant angle a at the vertex is

(y2 2ax + 8a2)2 tan2 a = la2(4ax y2), where l =

(a) 4

(b) 8

(c) 16

(d) 32

43. Are such that the focal distances of their extremities

are in the ratio 2: 1 is

9(y2 2ax)2 = la2(2x a)(4x + a), where l =

(a) 4

(b) 8

(c) 16

(d) 12

Paragraph for Question No. 44 to 46

The normal at any point (x1, y1) of curve is a line

perpendicular to tangent at the point (x1, y1). In

case of parabola y2 = 4ax, the equation of normal is

y = mx 2am am3 (m is slope of normal). In case of

rectangular hyperbola xy = c2, the equation of normal

at (ct, c/t) is xt3 yt ct4 + c = 0. The shortest distance

between any two curves always exist along the common

normal.

44. If normal at (5, 3) of rectangular hyperbola

xy y 2x 2 = 0 intersect it again at a point

(a) (1, 0)

(b) (1, 1)

(c) (0, 2)

(d) (3/4, 14)

45. The shortest distance between the parabolas

2y2 = 2x 1, 2x2 = 2y 1 is

36

1

(a) 2 2 (b)

(c) 4

(d)

5

2 2

44

y2 = 2x 1 is

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

7

6 , 4 to parabola

(d) 4

Conic possesses enormous properties which can

be proved by taking their standard forms. Unlike

circle these properties rarely follow geometrical

considerations. Most of the properties of conic are

proved analytically. For example, the properties of a

parabola can be proved by taking its standard equation

y2 = 4ax and a point (at2, 2at) on it

47. If the tangent and normal at any point P on the

parabola whose focus is S, meets its axis in T and G

respectively, then

(a) PG = GT

(b) S is mid-point of T and G

(c) ST = 2SG

(d) None of these

48. The angle between the tangents drawn at the

extremities of a focal chord must be

(a) 30

(b) 60

(c) 90

(d) 120

49. If the tangent at any point P meets the directrix at

K, then KSP must be

(a) 30

(b) 60

(c) 90

(d) None of these

Paragraph for Question No. 50 to 51

A sequence of ellipse E1, E2...En are constructed as

follows:

Ellipse En is drawn so as to touch ellipse En1 at the

extremities of the major axis of En1 and have its foci at

the extremities of the minor axis of En1.

50. If En is independent of n, then eccentricity of the

ellipse En2 is

5 1

3 5

(a)

(b)

2

2

2 3

3 1

(d)

2

2

51. If eccentricity of ellipse En is independent of n, then

the locus of the mid-point of chords of slope 1 of

En (If the axis of En is along y-axis)

(c)

(a) ( 5 1)x = 2 y

(b) ( 5 + 1)x = 2 y

(c) (3 5 )x = 2 y

(d) (3 + 5 )x = 2 y

C1 : x2 + y2 = r2 and C2 :

x2 y2

+

= 1 intersect at four

16 9

form a parallelogram ABCD.

52. If ABCD is a square, then r is equal to

12

12

2

(a)

(b)

5

5

12

(c)

(d) None of these

5 5

53. If ABCD is a square, then r is equal to

(a) 20

(b) 12

(c)

15

circle C1 to the area of the circumcircle of DABC

is

9

3

(a)

(b)

16

4

1

(c)

(d) None of these

2

Paragraph for Question No. 55 to 56

If H : x2 y2 = 9; P : y2 = 4(x 5), L : x = 9

the equation of the corresponding pair of tangents is

(a) 9x2 8y2 + 18x 9 = 0

(b) 9x2 8y2 + 18x + 9 = 0

(c) 9x2 8y2 18x + 9 = 0

(d) 9x2 8y2 18x 9 = 0

56. If R is the point of intersection of the tangents to

H at the extremities of the chord L, then equation

of the chord of contact of R with respect to the

parabola P is

(a) x = 7 (b) x = 9 (c) y = 7 (d) y = 9

Paragraph for Question No. 57 to 58

In hyperbola portion of tangent intercept between

asymptotes is bisected at the point of contact. Consider

a hyperbola whose centre is at origin. A line x + y = 2

touches this hyperbola at P(1,1) and intersects the

asymptotes at A and B such that AB = 6 2 units.

57. Equation of asymptotes are

(a) 5xy + 2x2 + 2y2 = 0 (b) 3x2 + 2y2 + 6xy = 0

(c) 2x2 + 2y2 5xy = 0 (d) 2x2 + 3x2 + 5x = 0

7

2

(a) 5x + 2y = 2

(b) 3x + 2y = 4

(c) 3x + 4y = 11

(d) 3x + 2y = 6

Section-iV

Matrix-Match type

59. Consider the parabola

(12 x 5 y + 3)2

(x 1)2 + ( y 2)2 =

169

Column - I

Column - II

(A) Locus of point of

(p) 12x 5y 2 = 0

intersection of

perpendicular tangent

(B) Locus of foot of

(q) 5x + 12y 29 = 0

perpendicular from

focus upon any

tangent

(C) Line along which

(r) 12x 5y + 3 = 0

minimum length of

focal chord occurs

(D) Line about which

(s) 24x 10y + 1 = 0

parabola is

symmetrical

60. Match the following

Column - I

Column - II

(A) If the distances of two points (p) 8

P and Q lie on the parabola

y2 = 4ax from the focus S of

the same parabola are 4 and 9

respectively, then the distance

of the point of intersection R of

tangents at P and Q from the

focus is equal to

(B) The normal chord of a parabola (q) 4

y 2 = 4ax at the point whose

ordinate is equal to the abscissa,

t h e n a n g l e s u bt e n d e d by

normal chord at the focus, is

cosec1 (?)

(C) The distance between a tangent (r) 6

to the parabola y2 = 4ax (a > 0) and

parallel normal with gradient 1,

is pa , then p =

(D) If the normal to a parabola y2 = (s)

4ax at P meets the curve again

at Q and if PQ and the normal

at Q makes angles a and b

respectively, then |2tan a(tan

a + tan b)| equals to

mathematics today | February 16

45

Column - I

Column - II

(A) The eccentricity of the conic (p) 7

represented by x2 y2 4x +

4y + 16 = 0 is

2

y

x

+

=1

16 b2

x2 y2 1

and the hyperbola

=

144 81 25

coincide, then b2 is

(q) 0

perpendiculars from any point

t of the hyperbola x2 y2 = 8 to

its asymptotes is

(D) The number of points outside (s)

2

Section-V

Column - II

parabola y2 = 8x. The point on

this line, the other tangent from

which is perpendicular to this

tangent is

(C) The point on the ellipse x2 + 2y2 (r)

= 6 whose distance from the line

x + y = 7 is least is

2,

(s) (2, 8)

x 2 h2

+

=1

25 9

are S and S. P is a point on the

ellipse whose eccentric angle is

p/3. The incentre of the triangle

SPS is

The foci of the ellipse

(t) (2, 2)

mathematics today | February 16

perpendiculars drawn from the

foci of 3x2 4y2 = 12 on any of

its tangents is

points (4, 4) and (9, 6) respectively on the parabola.

Let R be a moving point on the arc of the parabola

between P and Q. If the maximum area of DRPQ is

(p) (2,1)

on the parabola y = x2 + 7x + 2,

which is nearest to the straight line

y = 3x 3 are

46

drawn from any point on the

hyperbola x 2 2y 2 = 2 to its

asymptotes is

(C) The length of the transverse axis (r) 32

of the hyperbola xy = 18 is

3

(D)

Column - II

the hyperbola 16x2 9y2 = 144 is

3

y

x

=1

the hyperbola

25 36

from where two perpendicular

tangents can be drawn to the

hyperbola is/are

Column - I

Column - I

65. Two tangents are drawn from point (1, 4) to the

parabola y2 = 4x. Angle between these tangents is

p

, then K =

K

66. If the line x 1 = 0 is the directrix of the parabola

y2 kx + 8 = 0, then k(> 0) is

67. If x + y = k is normal to y2 = 12x, then k is

68. If the angle between the asymptotes of hyperbola

p

x2 y2

. Then the eccentricity of

= 1 is

2

2

3

a

b

conjugate hyperbola is

69. The distance between the directrices of the ellipse

K

is

(4 x 8)2 + 16 y 2 = (x + 3 y + 10)2 is K, then

2

x2 y2

70. Number of points on the ellipse

+

= 1 from

50 20

which pair of perpendicular tangents are drawn to

the ellipse

x2 y2

+

= 1 is

16 9

2

y

x

+

= 1 and the circle x2 + y2 = 16 is intercepted

25 4

3L

by the coordinate axis, then

is

2

72. If P and Q are the ends of a pair of conjugate

diameters and C is the centre of the ellipse

4x2 + 9y2 = 36, then the area of DCPQ in square

units is

x2

y2

+

= 1 is

a 2 b2

normal to the circle x2 + y2 + 4x + 1 = 0, then the

maximum value of ab is

x2 + 2xy 3y2 + x + 7y + 9 = 0 is q. Then tan q =

SolutionS

1. (a) : (6 + r cos q, 8 + r sin q) lies on 2x2 + y2 = 2

(2 cos2 q + sin2 q)r2 + 2(12 cos q + 8 sin q)r

+ 134 = 0

2 AB + AC

AB, AP, AC are in HP =

r AB AC

1

(6 cos q + 4 sin q)

=

6x + 4 y 1 = 0

r

67

1

Minimum distance from O =

52

2. (b) : A(0, 2), B(t12 4, t1), C (t2 4, t)

2 t1 t1 t

1

1

= 1

= 1

2 2

2

2 + t1 t + t1

4 t1 t1 t

t12

+ (2 + t)t1 + (2t + 1) = 0

t (, 0]) [4, )

3. (c) : The parabola be (y a)2 = 4b(x c)

p

bq

Equation of tangent is ( y a) = (x c)

q

p

Comparing with px + qy = 1, we get

cp2 bq2 + apq p = 0

c b a

\ = = =1

2 3 4

The equation is (y 4)2 = 12 (x 2)

4. (c) : Equation of tangent is y = mx +

m2x my + a = 0 m1 + m2 =

a

m

y

a

,m m =

x 1 2 x

m m2

y

a a

tan 45 = 1

4 = 1 +

1 + m1m2

x

x x

x2 y2 + 6ax + a2 = 0

5. (a) : y =

y=

a3 x 2 a2 x

+

2a

3

2

2a3 2 3

12a

x + x 3

6

2a

2a

2a3 2

3

9

9

12a

x + 2. x +

2

2

6

4a

16a 16a

2a

2

2a3

3 105a

y=

x +

6

4a

16a3

y=

105a 2a3

3

y +

=

x +

48

6

4a

y=

105a

3

, x=

48

4a

yx =

105a 3 105

=

48 4a 64

SS1 = T2

(y2 4x)(8) = 4(y x + 1)2

y2 2y(1 x) (x2 + 6x + 1) = 0

Put x = 2

y2 + 2y 17 = 0

y1 y2 = 6 2

7. (c) : QR is a focal chord

a 2a

R(at2 , 2at) and Q 2 ,

t

t

2a

1

= 2a t +

d = 2at +

t

t

at 2

1 a

Now A =

2 t2

0

2a t +

2at 1

2a

1

1 = a2 t +

t

t

0

1

1 2A

=

t

a

8. (d) : x2 + y2 = 1, x2 + 2y2 = 4

Let R(x1, y1) be point of intersection of tangents

drawn at P, Q to ellipse

PQ is chord of contact of R(x1, y1)

xx1 + 2yy1 4 = 0

mathematics today | February 16

47

1(x12 + 4y12) = 16

x2 + 4y2 = 16 is ellipse with e =

Length of latus rectum = 2 units

3

;

2

2 a2 + a + 1 = 2a a = 1

c2 (2, 4)r2 = 1

Let c is the centre and r be the radius of S = 0

cc1 = r1 r

cc1 + cc2 = r1 + r2

cc2 = r2 + r

\

\ Locus is an ellipse whose foci are (2, 3) and

(2, 4)

2ae c1c2

1

1

e=

=

= k=

2a r1 + r2 7

7

a cos a b sin a

10. (c) : (x1 , y1 ) =

,

3

3

3x1

a

3 y1

sina = b

cos a =

....(1)

....(2)

11. (d) : Equation of ellipse is

y2

+

= 1 , Area = pab

a 2 b2

h = ae + a cos q ; k = b sin q

Locus of (h, k) is ellipse

ae

h

2

r=

(a2 / 4)

k2

(b2 / 4)

=1

3x sec q 2y cosec q = 5

5

= 3

9 sec2 q + 4cosec2q

But min. of 9 sec2 q + 4 cosec2 q = 25

\ No such q exists.

13. (d) : Sides of the square will be perpendicular

tangents to the ellipse. So, vertices of the square

will lie on director circle. So diameter of director

circle is

mathematics today | February 16

64

27 1 47

+9

=

9

2 3 2

x2

y2

+

= 1( y > 0)

a 2 b2

a b 1

Area = p = pab

22 4

48

12(l + 1) y + (23l + 35) = 0

For it to be a circle, choose l such that the

coefficients of x2 and y2 are equal.

\ l=2

This gives the equation of the circle as

6(x2 + y2) 32x 36y + 81 = 0

16

27

x2 + y2 x 6 y + = 0

3

2

8

Its centre is C , 3 and radius is

3

x2

S = (ae, 0)

M(h, k) be the mid-point of PS

So a cannot take the value 1.

14. (a)

15. (a) : If S1 = 0 and S2 = 0 are the equations, then

lS 1 + S 2 = 0 is a second degree curve passing

through the points of intersection of S1 = 0 and

S2 = 0

4x2 y2

+

=1

81

9

65

1

65

If x = 2, then y 2 = y =

9

3

17. (b) : Slope of chord joining P and Q = slope of

normal at P

tan a tan q

tan q

=

tan a tan q = k tan q

sec a sec q

sec q

and sec a sec q = k sec q

\ (1 k) tan q = tan a and (1 + k)sec q = sec a

[(1 + k)sec q]2 [(1 k)tan q]2 = sec2 a tan2 a

k = 2(sec2 q + tan2 q) = 4 sec2 q + 2

tan a = tan q(1 + 4 sec2 q 2) = tan q(4 sec2 q 1)

18. (a) : Let P(h, k)

y k = 4(x h)

Let it meets xy = 1 at A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2)

4h k

1

, x1x2 =

4

4

2 x1 + x2

(2h + k)

8h + k

= h x1 =

, x2 =

Also

3

4

2

16x2 + 10xy + y2 = 2

\

x1 + x2 =

x2 2y2 2x + 8y 1 = 0

or (x 1)2 2(y 2)2 + 6 = 0

or

or

or

(x 1)2 ( y 2)2

+

=1

6

3

( y 2)2 (x 1)2

=1

3

6

...(1)

Y 2 X2

= 1,

3

6

[where X = x 1 and Y = y 2]

...(2)

Length of latus rectum = 4 3

2

y2

y

x

....(1)

sec q tan q = 1

a

a

a

a

or x sec q y tan q = a

The two asymptotes of the hyperbola x2 y2 = a2

are x y = 0 and x + y = 0

\ Equation of other two sides of the triangle are

xy=0

....(2)

x+y=0

....(3)

Solving (1), (2) and (3) in pairs, the coordinates of the

vertices of the triangle are (0, 0)

2

= 1 is

a

a

a

a

and

sec q tan q sec q tan q

1

Let P t , be any point on xy = 1

t

1

Equation of the tangent to xy = 1 at P t , is

t

x

+ yt = 2

t

....(1)

2

2

=

t 3 = 1

t 1/ t2

x2

9a2

3

b2

= a 2 + b2 = 1 + 2

6

2

a

2

b

1

1

3

= e2 1 = e =

2 2

2

2

a

x 2

y= 2 +

t

t

a 2 x b2 y

+

= a 2 + b2

6

3

It passes through (9, 0) also

b= 6 .

But b2 = a2 (e2 1)

i.e.

1 ( 2 2 ) [ sec2 q tan2 q = 1]

a +a

2

= a2

=

6 = 3(e2 1) e2 = 3 or e =

1

a 2

a2

\ The centre = (1, 2) in the x-y coordinates using (2)

If the transverse axis be of length 2a, then a = 3 ,

since in the equation (1) the transverse axis is parallel

to the y-axis. If the conjugate axis is of length 2b, then

Area of triangle =

t=1

\ Common tangent is y = x + 2

23. (d) : If OPQ is equilateral triangle, then OP makes

30 with x-axis.

3r r

, , lies on hyperbola

2 2

r2 =

16a2b2

12b2 4a2

x2

y2

=1

a 2 b2

>0

b2 4

12b2 4a2 > 0 2 >

12

a

1

e2 1 >

3

e2 >

4

2

e>

3

3

mathematics today | February 16

49

t12t2 + t12t3 t22t1 t22t3 + 4(t1 t2) = t2 t1

t1t2(t1 t2) + t3(t12 t22) = 5(t2 t1)

t1t2 + t3 (t1 + t2) = 5

\ t1t2 = 5

So, option (a) is true

y = mx m2a2 a2

Let P(x1, y1) be the point

y1 mx1 = m2a2 a2

S.B.S.

m2(x12 a2) 2 y1x1m + y12 + a2 = 0

\

y 2 + a2

, m1m2 = 1

x12 a2

x12 a2

m m2

tan 45 = 1

1 + m1m2

m1 + m2 =

2 x1 y1

t1t2t3 t1 = t2 + t3

t1t2t3 =t1 + t2 + t3

2

y 2 + a2

y 2 + a2

2 x1 y1

1

1

1 + 2 2 = 2 2 4 2 2

x

a

x

a

x

1 a

1

x1x2x3x4 = 1, y1y2y3y4 = 1

Orthocentre of triangle with vertices (x1, y1),

(x2, y2), (x3, y3)

1

, ( y1 y2 y3 )1 i.e. (x4, y4)

i.e.,

x1x2 x3

26. (a, c) : Equation of normal chords at P(2t12, 4t1) and

R(2t22 , 4t2) are y + t1x 4t1 2t13 = 0 and

y + t2x 4t2 2t23 =0

Equation of curve through P, Q, R, S is

(y + t1x 4t1 2t13) (y + t2x 4t2 2t23) + l(y2 8x) = 0

P, Q, R, S are concyclic, t1 + t2 = 0 and t1 t2 = 1 + l

Points of intersection of tangents (at1t2, a(t1 + t2))

z

lies on x-axis, slope of PR =

t1 + t2

\ PR is parallel to y-axis.

27. (a, b, c) : Slope of AS =

2at1

at12

a

2

=

Slope of BC =

2

2

t

+

a(t3 t 2 )

3 t2

2t1

2

= 1

\

2

t1 1 t 3 + t2

2a(t3 t2 )

If t1 = 0 t3 + t2 = 0

So, option(c) is correct.

t12(t2 + t3) + 4t1 = t3 + t2

Similarly t22(t1 + t3) + 4t2 = t1 + t3

50

2t1

t12

...(1)

...(2)

1

1

1

+

+

= 1

t1t2 t2t3 t3t1

So, (b) is correct.

(a, b, d) 29. (a, b)

30. (a, b) 31. (a, c, d)

(b, d)

33. (a, b)

34. (b, c) 35. (b, c)

(a, b)

37. (b, d)

38. (a, b, c, d)

(a, c)

40. (a)

41. (a, c) 42. (c)

(a) 44. (d) 45. (b) 46. (a) 47. (b)

(c) 49. (c) 50. (b) 51. (b) 52. (a)

(d) 54. (c) 55. (c) 56. (b) 57. (a)

(b) 59. a r; b s; C p; d q

a r; b s; C p; d q

a r; b p; C s; d q

a s; b q; C p; d r

a r; b p; C s; d q

(5) 65. (3) 66. (4) 67. (9) 68. (2)

(8) 70. (4) 71. (7) 72. (3) 73. (4)

(2)

nn

28.

32.

36.

39.

43.

48.

53.

58.

60.

61.

62.

63.

64.

69.

74.

This column is aimed at Class XII students so that they can prepare for competitive exams such as JEE Main/Advanced,

etc. and be also in command of what is being covered in their school as part of NCERT syllabus. The problems here

are a happy blend of the straight and the twisted, the simple and the difficult and the easy and the challenging.

DEFINITION

A scalar is a quantity, which has only magnitude but

does not have any direction. For example time, mass,

temperature, specific gravity etc. are scalars.

A vector is a quantity which has magnitude as well as

direction. For example displacement, force, acceleration

are vectors.

vectors and a, b, c to denote their magnitudes. Magnitude

OA and arrow gives direction of this vector. Length of

the line segment gives the magnitude of the vector.

O

A is the terminal point of OA

PROPERTIES

z

(Vector addition is commutative)

a + b = b + a,

z

(Vector addition is

a + (b + c ) = (a + b ) + c ,

associative)

z

like vectors.

z

are unlike vectors.

z

a +0 =a =0+a

a + (a ) = 0 = (a ) + a

z

TYPES OF VECTORS

Equal vectors : Two vectors are said to be equal if

and only if they have equal magnitudes and same

direction.

z

Let OA = a , AB = b and OB = c .

a

and

b

. It is to

point

of a to the terminal point of b represents vector

C

vector): A vector whose

initial and terminal

p oints are same, is

called the null vector.

Such vector has zero

m a g n itu d e a n d n o A

direction, and denoted

by 0.

AB + BC + CA = AA or AB + BC + CA = 0

He trains IIT and Olympiad aspirants.

51

be

(i) Like, when they are in same direction.

(ii) Unlike, when they are in opposite directions.

z

Unit Vector : A unit vector is a vector whose

magnitude is unity. We write, unit vector in the

a

direction of a as a^ . Therefore a^ = .

|a |

z

Parallel vectors:

a

Tw o o r m o r e O

A

b

C

B

be parallel, if they

c

E

D

have the same

support or parallel support. Parallel vectors may

have equal or unequal magnitudes and direction

may be same or opposite.

z

Position Vector: If P is any point in the space, then

where O is the origin of reference. Thus for any two

points A and B in the space, AB = OB OA .

z

Co-initial vectors: Vectors having same initial

point are called co-initial vectors.

z

MULTIPLICATION OF VECTOR BY SCALARS

This multiplication is called scalar multiplication. If

m(a ) = (a )m = ma

m(na ) = n(ma ) = (mn)a

(m + n)a = ma + na

m(a + b ) = ma + mb

LINEAR COMBINATION

Given a finite set of vectors a , b , c ,...... then the vector

of a , b , c ,...... for any x, y, z .....R. We have the

following results:

z

If a , b are non zero, non-collinear vectors then

xa + yb = x a + y b x = x ; y = y

52

Fundamental Theorem : Let a , b be non zero,

non collinear

vectors . Then any vector r coplanar

with a , b can be expressed

uniquely as a linear

combination of a , b i.e. there exist some unique

If a , b , c are non-zero, non-coplanar

vectors then

xa + yb + zc = x a + y b + z c

x = x, y = y, z = z

Fundamental Theorem in Space : Let a , b , c be

non-zero, non-coplanar vectors in space. Then

uniquely expressed as a linear

combination of a , b , c i.e. there exist some unique

x,y,z R such that xa + yb + zc = r .

k 1 , k 2 , ....., k n are n scalars and if the linear

c o m b i n a t i o n k1x1 + k2 x2 + ...... + kn xn = 0

k1 = 0, k2 = 0.....kn = 0, then we say that vectors

they are said to be linearly dependent vectors, i.e.,

are said to be linearly dependent.

If kr 0;

kr +1.xr +1 + ... + kn xn

1

1

1

kr xr = k1 x1 + k2 x2 + ... +

kr

kr

kr

1

1

kr 1. xr 1 + ... + kn xn

kr

kr

+ cn 1xn

x1 , x2 ,...., xr 1 , xr +1 ,...., xn

linearly dependent set of vectors .

z

If a = 3i+ 2

a l i n e a r c o m b i n at i o n o f v e c t o r s i,

j,k.

Also, a , i ,j,k form a linearly dependent set of

vectors. In general , every set of four vectors is a

linearly dependent system.

i,

j,k are linearly independent set of vectors.

For K1i+ K 2

j + K 3k= 0 K1 = K 2 = K 3 = 0.

POINTS

The necessary and sufficient condition for three points

that there exist scalars x, y, z (not all zero) such that

xa + yb + zc = 0 , where x + y + z = 0

The necessary and sufficient condition for four points

with position vectors a , b , c and d to be coplanar is that

there exist scalars x, y, z ,u (not all zero) such that

xa + yb + zc + ud = 0 where x + y + z + u = 0.

^

^

^

r

x i + y j+ z k

^

^

^

r= =

= l i + m j + nk

2

2

2

|r |

x + y +z

^

r = l i + m j + nk

AC n

=

CB m

(As vectors are in same direction)

Now, OA + AC = OC AC = r a

r + CB = b CB = b r

ma + nb

Using (i), we get r =

m+n

SECTION FORMULA

Let A, B and C

be three collinear

points in space

having position

vectors a , b and r

respectively.

Let

^ ^ ^

respectively.

^

^

^

^

^

We h a v e r = OP = x i + y j + z k as OA = x i , OB = y j

^

and OC = z k

ON = OA + AN ; OP = ON + NP

So, OP = OA + OB + OC

NP = OC , AN = OB

r = | r | = | OP | = x 2 + y 2 + z 2

...(i)

...(ii)

...(iii)

Let OX, OY and OZ be three mutually perpendicular

straight lines. Given any point P(x, y, z) in space, we

can construct the rectangular parallelopiped of which

OP is a diagonal and OA = x, OB = y, OC = z.

Here A, B, C are (x, 0, 0), (0, y, 0) and (0, 0, z)

respectively and L, M, N are (0, y, z),(x, 0, z) and

(x, y, 0) respectively.

PRODUCT)

The scalar product, a b of two non-zero vectors

angle between the two vectors, when drawn with same

initial point.

Note that 0 q p .

If at least one of a and b is a zero vector, then a b is

defined as zero.

PROPERTIES

z

a b = b a (scalar product is commutative)

z

a 2 = a a =| a |2

z

(ma ) b = m(a b ) = a (mb ) (where m is a scalar)

a b

1

z

q = cos

| a || b |

z

a b = 0 Vectors a and b are perpendicular to

each other. [provided a , b are non-zero vectors]

z

z

z

z

z

z

^^

^ ^

^ ^

i j = j k = k i = 0

a (b + c ) = a b + a c

(a + b ).(a b ) = | a |2 | b |2

^

^

^

^

^

^

Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k , b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k .

^

^

^

^

^

^

Then a.b = (a1 i + a2 j + a3 k ).(b1 i + b2 j + b3 k )

= a 1b 1 + a 2b 2 + a 3b 3

Maximum value of a b =| a || b |

Minimum value of a b = | a || b |

mathematics today | february 16

53

^^ ^^ ^ ^

a = (a. i ) i + (a. j) j + (a. k ) k

vector :

a.b

ON = OB cos q = | b | = a^ .b

| a || b |

B

z

N a

PROPERTIES

z

a b = (b a )

(ma ) b = m(a b ) = a (mb ) (where m is a scalar)

z

z

a b = 0 vectors a andb are parallel.

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

z

i i = j j = k k = 0

z

54

^ ^

i j = k = ( j i ), j k = i = (k j) ,

^

k i = j = ( i k )

a (b + c ) = a b + a c

^

^

^

^

^

^

Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k ,

then

mathematics today | february 16

k

a3

b3

^

|a b |

sin q =

| a || b |

1 1

Area of DOAB = | a b | = ab sin q

2

2

whose modulus are a and b respectively, is the vector

whose modulus is absinq, where q(0 q p)is the

a , b , n are in right-handed orientation.

By the right-handed

orientation we mean that, if

b

we turn the vector a into

O

a

angle q, then n points in

the direction in which a right handed screw would move

if turned in the same manner. Thus a b =| a || b | sin q n^ .

If at least one of a and b is a zero vector, then a b is

defined as the zero vector.

i

j

a b = a1 a2

b1 b2

z

z

Area of parallelogram OACB = ab sin q =| a b |.

ab b a

Unit vector

a and b is

(not commutative)

perpendicular

to the plane of

a b

.

a b

r a b

plane of a and b is .

a b

1

are d1 and d2 is given by d1 d2 .

2

2 2 2 . 2 a . a a .b

a b = a b (a b ) = .

a .b b .b

)

of three vectors a , b and c

^

^

^

^

^

^

Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k , b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k,

^

^

^

c = c1 i + c2 j + c3 k

i

j

Then a b = a1 a2

b1 b2

^a

=i 2

b2

a2

(a b ).c = c1

b2

k

a3

b3

a3 ^ a1 a3 ^ a1 a2

j

+k

b3

b1 b3

b1 b2

a3

a1 a3

a1 a2

c2

+ c3

b3

b1 b3

b1 b2

a1 a2 a3

= b1 b2 b3

c1 c2 c3

Therefore, (a b ) c = (b c ) a = (c a ) b

= (b a ) c = (c b ) a = (a c ) b

Note that (a b ).c = (b c ).a = a.(b c ), hence in scalar

triple product, dot and cross are interchangeable.

PROPERTIES

z

|(a b ).c | re pre s e nt s t h e v o lu m e of t h e

parallelopiped, whose adjacent sides are represented

direction. Therefore three vectors a , b , c are

a1 a2

i.e., b1 b2

c1 c2

z

z

z

a3

b3 = 0

c3

cross can be interchanged i.e. a . (b c ) = (a b ) . c

i.e., [ a b c ] = [ b c a ] = [ c a b ]

a . (b c ) = a . (c b ) i.e. [ a b c ] = [ a c b ]

a1 a2 a3

then a b c = b1 b2 b3 l mn ;

c1 c2 c3

Scalar product of three vectors, two of which are

equal or parallel is 0.

system.

^ ^ ^

[ i j k] = 1.

z

[ K a b c ] = K[ a b c ].

z

[(a + b ) c d ] = [ a c d ] + [ b c d ]

z

The position vector of the centroid of a tetrahedron

if the pvs of its angular vertices are a , b , c and d

1

a+b +c +d .

are given by

4

Note that this is also the point of concurrence of the

lines joining the vertices to the centroids of the opposite

faces and is also called the centre of the tetrahedron.

In case the tetrahedron is regular it is equidistant from

the vertices and the four faces of the tetrahedron.

Remember that : a b b c c a = 0

and a + b b + c c + a = 2 a b c .

z

In all other cases a (b c ) will be a non-zero vector in

the plane of non-collinear vectors and perpendicular

to the vector a.

l and m.

Since, a a (b c ) a (a (b c )) = 0

l(a.b ) + m(a.c ) = 0

Hence, a (b c ) = a[(a c )b (a b )c )], for any vectors

^ ^

beginning. In particular if we take, a = b = i , c = j ,

then a = 1.

Hence, a (b c ) = (a.c )b (a.b )c

RECIPROCAL SYSTEM OF VECTORS

satisfies a a = b b = c c = 1 and a b = a c = b a

= b c = c a = c b = 0, is called the reciprocal system to

mathematics today | february 16

55

the vectors a , b , c . In terms of a , b , c the vectors a, b, c

b c c a a b

are given by a = , b = , c = .

[a b c ]

[a b c ]

[a b c ]

PROPERTIES

a.b = a.c = b .a = b .c = c .a = c .b = 0

z

z

The scalar triple product [a b c ] formed from three

non-coplanar vectors a , b , c is the reciprocal of

the scalar triple product formed from reciprocal

system.

SOLVING OF VECTOR EqUATION

Solving a vector equation means determining an

unknown vector (or a number of vectors satisfying

the given conditions)

Generally, to solve vector equations, we express the

unknown as the linear combination of three noncoplanar vectors as

r = xa + yb + z (a b ) as a , b and a b are non-coplanar

and find x, y, z using given conditions. Sometimes we

can directly solve the given conditions it would be

more clear from some examples.

THREE - DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

SPACE

Let O be any point in space and three lines are

perpendicular to each other. These lines are known as

coordinate axes and O is called origin. The planes XY,

YZ, ZX are known as the coordinate planes.

Consider a point P in space whose position is given by

triad (x, y, z) where x, y, z are perpendicular distance

from YZ-plane, ZX-plane and XY-plane respectively.

OZ respectively, then position vector of point P is

^

56

SHIFTING OF ORIGIN

Shifting the origin to another point without changing

the directions of the axes is called the translation of

axes.

Let the origin O be shifted to another point without

changing the direction of axes.

P(x, y, z) be a point with respect to the coordinate

frame OXYZ. Then, coordinate of point P w.r.t. new

coordinate frame O X Y Z is (x1, y1, z1), where,

x1 = x x, y1 = y y , z1 = z z where O is shifted

at O(x, y, z)

DIRECTION COSINES & DIRECTION RATIOS OF

A LINE

If a, b, g be the angles which a given directed line

makes with the positive direction of the x, y, z

coordinate axes respectively, then cosa, cosb, cosg are

called the direction cosines of the given line and are

generally denoted by l, m, n respectively. Thus l = cosa,

m = cosb, n = cosg. By definition it follows that

the direction cosine of the x-axis is cos 0, cos 90,

cos 90 i.e. (1, 0, 0). Similarly direction cosines of

the y-axis and z-axis are respectively (0, 1, 0) and

(0, 0, 1).

Note :

z

The unit vector along the line can be written as

^

^

^

l i + m j + nk

z

will be (l, m, n)

Let OP be any line through the origin O which has

direction cosines l, m, n. Let P(x, y, z) and OP = r.

Result : We have

2

2

2

2

2

2

sin2 q = 1 cos2 q = (l1 + m1 + n1 )(l2 + m2 + n2 )

= (l1m2 l2m1 )2 + (m1n2 m2n1 )2 + (n1l2 n2l1 )2

sin q =

(l1m2 l2m1 )2

CONDITION OF PERPENDICULARITY

If the given lines are perpendicular, then q = 90 i.e.

cosq = 0

l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2 = 0 or a1 a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0

CONDITION OF PARALLELISM

If the given lines are parallel, then q = 0 i.e. sinq = 0

l

m

n

a

b

c

1 = 1 = 1 or 1 = 1 = 1

l2 m2 n2

a2 b2 c2

Then OP2 = x2 + y2 + z2 = r2

...(1)

From P draw PA, PB, PC perpendicular on the

coordinate axes, so that OA = x, OB = y, OC = z

Also, POA = a, POB = b and POC = g.

x

From DAOP, l = cos a = x = l r

r

Similarly, y = mr and z = nr

Hence from (1)

r2(l2 + m2 + n2) = r2 l2 + m2 + n2 = 1

If the coordinates of any point P be (x, y, z) and l, m,

n be the direction cosines of the line OP, O being the

origin, then (lr, mr, nr) will give us the coordinates

of a point on the line OP which is at a distance r

from (0, 0, 0).

C

Let q be the angle between

two straight lines AB and

B

AC whose direction cosines

are l1, m1, n1 and l2, m2, n2

respectively, is given by

A

cosq = l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2.

If direction ratios of two lines are a1, b1, c1 and a2, b2,

c2 are given, then angle between two lines is given by

a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2

by cos q =

a12 + b12 + c12 . a22 + b22 + c22

THROUGH TWO POINTS

The direction ratios of line PQ joining P(x1, y1, z1) and

Q(x2, y2, z2) are x2 x1 = a(say), y2 y1 = b(say) and

z2 z1= c(say). Then direction cosines are

Q(x2, y2, z2)

O

l=

n=

(x2 x1 )

(x2 x1 )2

, m=

( y2 y1 )

( y2 y1 )2

(z2 z1 )

(z2 z1 )2

Straight line in three dimensional geometry is defined

as intersection of two planes. So general equation of

straight line is stated as the equations of both planes

together i.e. general equation of straight line is

a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 ....(1)

So, equation (1) represents straight line which is

obtained by intersection of two planes.

mathematics today | february 16

57

FORMS

Equation of straight line passing through point

P(x1, y1, z1) and whose direction cosines are l, m, n is

x x1 y y1 z z1

=

=

= r.

l

m

n

the position vector of a point in the straight line and

Equation of straight line passing through two points

P(x1, y1 , z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2) is

x x1

y y1

z z1

=

=

.

x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1

Vector form : Equation of straight line passing through

two points P (r1 ) and Q(r2 ) is r = r1 + l(r2 r1 )

Note : The general coordinates of a point on a line is

given by (x1 + lr, y1 + mr, z1 + nr) where r is distance

between the point (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) and point whose

coordinates is to be written.

PROjECTION OF A LINE SEGMENT ON A GIVEN

LINE

Projection of the line joining two points P(x1, y1, z1) and

Q(x2, y2, z2) on another line whose direction cosines

are l, m, n is AB = |l(x2 x1) + m(y2 y1) + n(z2 z1)|.

Here PQ and AB need not be coplanar.

Q(x2, y2, z2)

P(x1, y1, z1)

In vector form

If the lines r = a1 + lb1 and r = a2 + lb2 are coplanar,

then

a1 b1 b2 = a2 b1 b2

r b1 b2 = a1 b1 b2 or r b1 b2 = a2 b1 b2

x x1 y y1 z z1

x x2 y y2 z z 2

and

=

=

=

=

l1

m1

n1

l2

m2

n2

58

x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1

l1

m1

n1 = 0

l2

m2

n2

and the

x x1

l1

l2

y y1 z z1

x x2 y y2 z z 2

m1

n1 = 0 or l1

m1

n1 = 0

m2

n2

l2

m2

n2

LINES (NON-PARALLEL, NON-INTERSECTING

LINES)

Two non-parallel, non-intersecting lines are called

skew lines. The shortest distance between these two

lines is the distance of the intercepting portion of a

line perpendicular to both the lines.

Method : Let the equation of two non-intersecting

lines be

x x1 y y1 z z1

...(1)

=

=

= r1(say )

l1

m1

n1

and

x x2 y y2 z z 2

=

=

= r2 (say )

l2

m2

n2

...(2)

and on line (2) is Q(x2 + l2r2, y2 + m2r2, z2 + n2r2).

Let PQ be the line of shortest distance, its direction

ratios will be

[(l1r1 + x1 x2 l2r2), (m1r1 + y1 y2 m2r2),

(n1r1 + z1 z2 n2r2)]

This line is perpendicular to both the given lines. By

using condition of perpendicularity we obtain two

equations in r1 and r2.

So by solving these, values of r1 and r2 and subsequently

point P and Q can be found. The distance PQ is the

shortest distance.

Note : The shortest distance between two lines can be

given by

x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1

1

l1

m1

n1

2

(

l

m

l

m

)

1 2 2 1

l2

m2

n2

The shortest distance between two lines

(a2 a1 ) . b1 b2

r = a1 + lb1 and r = a2 + mb2 is

| b1 b2 |

be transformed into symmetrical form and we can

further proceed.

SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO

PARALLEL LINES

If two lines l1 and l2 are parallel, then they are coplanar.

Let the lines be given by r = a1 + lb and r = a2 + mb ,

The shortest distance between the given parallel lines

b ( a2 a1 )

is d =

|b |

EqUATION OF THE PLANE THROUGH A GIVEN

LINE

z

a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 then

the equation of plane passing through this line is

(a1x + b1y + c1z + d1) + l(a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 ) = 0.

x x1 y y1 z z1

as

, then equation of plane

=

=

l

m

n

is a(x x1) + b(y y1) + c(z z1) = 0, where a, b, c

are given by al + bm + cn = 0.

AREA OF A TRIANGLE

y1

1

D x = y2

2

y3

z1 1

x1

1

z 2 1 , D y = x2

2

z3 1

x3

x1

1

D z = x2

2

x3

y1 1

y2 1

y3 1

z1 1

z2 1 ,

z3 1

D2 = D x 2 + D y 2 + D z 2

VOLUME OF TETRAHEDRON

Let a , b , c be 3 coterminous edges of a tetrahedron.

^

^

^

^

^

^

Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k , b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k

^

^

^

and c = c1 i + c2 j + c3 k

1

Volume of tetrahedron = volume of parallelopiped

6

with coterminous edges a , b ,c

a1 a2

1 =1 b b

= a b c

1

2

6

6

c1 c2

a3

b3

c3

THE PLANE

Consider the locus of a point P(x, y, z). If x, y, z are

allowed to vary with any restriction for their different

combinations, we have a set of points for P. The surface

on which these points lie, is called the locus of P. It

may be a plane or any curved surface. If Q be any other

point on its locus and all points of the straight line PQ

lie on it then it is a plane. In other words for the plane

the straight line PQ, however small and in whatever

direction will completely lie on the locus, otherwise it

will be a curved surface.

EqUATION OF A PLANE IN NORMAL FORM,

PASSING THROUGH A FIxED POINT

General equation of a plane is ax + by + cz + d = 0.

(where a, b, c gives the direction ratios of the normal

to the plane).

Equation of the plane in normal form is lx + my + nz = p

where p is the length of the normal from the origin

to the plane and (l, m, n) be the direction cosines of

the normal .

Vector form : Equation of the plane in vector form,

plane and d is length of perpendicular drawn from

origin to the plane.

Equation of YZ plane is x = 0,

equation of plane parallel to YZ plane is x = d.

Equation of ZX plane is y = 0,

equation of plane parallel to ZX plane is y = d.

Equation of XY plane is z = 0,

equation of plane parallel to XY plane is z = d.

Four points namely A(x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ), B(x 2 , y 2 , z 2 ),

C(x3, y3, z3) and D(x4, y4, z4) will be coplanar if one

point lies on the plane passing through other three

points.

mathematics today | february 16

59

GIVEN LINE AND PASSING THROUGH A GIVEN

POINT

The equation to the plane passing through P(x1, y1, z1)

and is perpendicular to given line having direction ratios

(a, b, c) is a(x x1) + b(y y1) + c(z z1) = 0.

Vector form : The equation to the plane passing through

^

perpendicular to the plane is n^ , is (r r1 ). n = 0

al + bm + cn = 0

The plane and the straight line will be perpendicular

a b c

if = = .

l m n

(x x1 ) ( y y1 ) (z z1 )

is (x2 x1 ) ( y2 y1 ) (z2 z1 ) = 0.

(x3 x1 ) ( y3 y1 ) (z3 z1 )

Angle between the planes is defined as angle between

normals to the planes drawn from any point. Angle

between the planes a 1 x + b 1 y + c 1 z + d 1 = 0 and

a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 is

THREE NON COLLINEAR POINTS

The equation of the plane passing through three noncollinear points (x1, y1, z1), (x2, y2, z2) and (x3, y3, z3)

PLANE

Intercept form of the equation of a plane is given by

x y z

+ + = 1 where a, b, c are x-intercept, y-intercept,

a b c

z-intercept respectively .

DISTANCE OF A POINT FROM A PLANE

The length of the perpendicular of the point

P(x 1, y 1, z 1) from the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0

ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d

is

.

a 2 + b2 + c 2

Vector form : The length of the perpendicular from

Note :

The distance between two parallel planes is the algebraic

difference of perpendicular distances on the planes

from origin.

Let two parallel planes be ax + by + cz + d1 = 0 and

ax + by + cz + d2 = 0

| d2 d1 |

Then distance between them is given by

a 2 + b2 + c 2

ANGLE BETWEEN A LINE AND A PLANE

If equation of a plane is ax + by + cz + d = 0, then

direction ratios of normal to this plane are a, b, c.

x x1 y y1 z z1

The equation of straight line is

,

=

=

l

m

n

then angle between normal to the plane and straight

al + bm + cn

,

line is given by sin q =

a2 + b2 + c 2 l 2 + m2 + n2

where q is the angle between the plane and the line.

60

Two points P(x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2) on the same

or opposite sides of a plane ax + by + cz + d = 0

according to ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d and ax2 + by2 + cz2 + d

are of same or opposite signs. The plane divides the

line joining the points P and Q externally or internally

according to P and Q are lying on same or opposite

sides of the plane.

cos 1

.

a21 + b21 + c 21 a22 + b22 + c 22

)(

1 n1 .n2

cos

| n1 || n2 |

Note : If a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0, then the planes are

perpendicular to each other.

a

b

c

If 1 = 1 = 1 then the planes are parallel to each other.

a2 b2 c2

PLANE PASSING THROUGH THE

INTERSECTION OF TWO GIVEN PLANES

Equation of plane passing through the line of intersection of two planes u = 0 and v = 0 is u + lv = 0.

PRObLEMS

SEcTION-I

Single correct Answer Type

line r = b + lc is

[a b c ]

[a b c ]

(a)

(b)

|a b + b c + c a |

|a b + b c |

[a b c ]

[a b c ]

(c)

(d)

|c a + a b |

|b c + c a |

2.

^ ^ ^

parallel to the plane r (2 i 3 j + 5 k) + 7 = 0 is

^ ^ ^

(a) r (2 i 3 j + 5 k) + 11 = 0

^ ^ ^

(b) r (3 i + 4 j k ) + 11 = 0

^ ^ ^

(c) r (3 i + 4 j k) + 7 = 0

^ ^ ^

(d) r (2 i 3 j + 5 k) 7 = 0

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

3. Let a = i + j + k, b = i j + 2 k

^

^ ^

and c = x i + (x 2) j k . If the vector c lies in the

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 4

(d) 2

4.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

5.

^ ^ ^

^

^ ^

r = i + 2 j k + l( i + 2 j k ) and

^ ^ ^

^ ^

^

r = i + 2 j k + m( i + j + 3 k ) is

^ ^ ^

r (7 i 4 j k ) = 0

7(x 1) 4(y 1) (z + 3) = 0

^ ^ ^

r (i + 2 j k) = 0

^ ^ ^

r (i + j + 3 k) = 0

^ ^ ^

the line of intersection of the planes r (2 i 3 j + 4 k) = 1

^ ^

and r ( i j) + 4 = 0 and perpendicular to the plane

^ ^ ^

r (2 i j + k ) + 8 = 0 is

(a) 3x 4y + 4z = 5

(b) x 2y + 4z = 3

(c) 5x 2y 12z + 47 = 0 (d) 2x + 3y + 4 = 0

6. If a (a b ) + b(b c ) + g(c a ) = 0, then

(a) a , b , c are coplanar only if none of a, b, g is

zero

(b) a , b , c are coplanar if atleast one of a, b, g is non

zero

(c) a , b , c are non-coplanar for any a, b, g

(d) none of these

7. If ((a b ) (c d )) (a d ) = 0, then which of the

following

is always true

(a) a , b , c , d arenecessarily coplanar

c

(b) either a or d must lie in the plane of b or

8. Let r = (a b )sin x + (b c ) cos y + 2(c a ), where

2

2

x + y is

(a) p2

(c)

(b)

5 p2

4

p2

4

represented by the vectors p = 5a 3b ; q = a 2b

and r = 4a b ; s = a + b respectively, then the angle

1

1

between the vectors x = ( p + r + s ) and y = (r + s ) is

3

5

19

19

(a) cos1

(b) cos1

5

43

5 43

19

(c) p cos1

5 43

are a, b. Their shortest distance is d and the angle

between them is q. Then its volume is

1

1

abd sin q

(a)

(b) abd cos q

2

3

1

1

abd cos q

(c)

(d)

abd sin q

6

6

11. The position vectors of the points A and B with

^

^ ^

^

^

^

2 i + 4 j + 4 k . The length of the internal bisector of

BOA of DAOB is

20

217

136

136

(b)

(c)

(d)

3

9

9

3

12. Equation of a plane bisecting the angle between the

planes 2x y + 2z + 3 = 0 and 3x 2y + 6z + 8 = 0 is

(a) 5x y 4z 45 = 0

(b) 5x y 4z 3 = 0

(c) 23x + 13y + 32z 45 = 0

(d) 23x 13y + 32z + 5 = 0

(a)

than the origin from the plane x + y + z = p is equal

to the distance of the plane from the origin, then the

coordinates of P are

(a) (p, 2p, 0)

(b) (0, 2p, p)

(c) (2p, p, p)

(d) (2p, p, 2p)

y 1 z 2

14. If the angle q between the line x + 1 =

=

1

2

2

and the plane 2 x y + l z + 4 = 0 is such that

sinq = 1/3, then the value of l is

(a) 3/4

(b) 4/3 (c) 5/3

(d) 3/5

mathematics today | february 16

61

15. If l1, m1, n1 and l2, m2, n2, are d.c.s of OA, OB such

that AOB = q, where O is the origin, then the d.c.s of

the internal bisector of the angle AOB are

l1 + l2 m1 + m2 n1 + n2

,

,

(a)

2 sin q / 2 2 sin q / 2 2 sin q / 2

l1 + l2

m + m2 n1 + n2

, 1

,

(b)

2 cos q / 2 2 cos q / 2 2 cos q / 2

(c)

l1 l2 m1 m2 n1 n2

,

,

2 sin q / 2 2 sin q / 2 2 sin q / 2

l1 l2

m m2 n1 n2

, 1

,

2 cos q / 2 2 cos q / 2 2 cos q / 2

16. If a line with direction ratios 2 : 2 : 1 intersects the

x 1 y +1 z +1

x 7 y 5 z 3

=

=

=

=

line

and

at A

2

4

3

3

2

1

and B respectively, then AB =

(a)

(b) 2

(c)

(d) 3

2

3

(d)

its line of intersection with the plane x + y + 2z = 4 and

equation in new position is Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 where

A,B,C are least positive integers and D < 0 then

(a) D = 10

(b) ABC = 20

(c) A + B + C + D = 0 (d) A + B + C = 10

18. The reflection of the point P(1, 0, 0) in the line

x 1 y + 1 z + 10

is

=

=

2

8

3

(a) (3, 4, 2)

(b) (5, 8, 4)

(c) (1, 1, 10)

(d) (2, 3, 8)

19. Equation of the plane containing the straight line

x y z

and perpendicular to the plane containing

= =

2 3 4

x y z

x y z

the straight lines = = and

= = is

3 4 2

4 2 3

(a) x + 2y 2z = 0

(b) 3x + 2y 2z = 0

(c) x 2y + z = 0

(d) 5x + 2y 4z = 0

20. The two lines whose direction cosines are

connected by the relations al + bm + cn = 0 and

ul2 + vm2 + wn2 = 0 are perpendicular, then

(a) a2(v w) + b2(w u) + c2(u v) = 0

2

2

2

(b) a + b + c = 0

u

v w

(c) a(v2 + w2) + b(w2 + u2) + c(u2 + v2) = 0

62

angles to OP to meet the co-ordinate axes in A, B and C.

If OP = p, then the area of DABC is

p 3l

p2 l 2

p2hk

p5

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3hk

2hk

2hkl

l2

22. If li2 + mi2 + ni2 = 1 i {1, 2, 3} and

lilj + mimj + ninj = 0 i, j {1, 2, 3} (i j),

l1

D = l2

l3

m1

m2

m3

n1

n2 then

n3

SEcTION-II

Multiple correct Answer Type

unit vectors. If

|v | =

u = a (a b )b and v = a b , then

(a) | u |

(b) | u | + | u a |

(c) | u | + | u b |

(d) | u | +u (a + b )

to each other and c = l1a + l2b + l3 (a b ), then the

following is (are ) true

(a) l1 = a c

(b) l2 =| b a |

(c) l3 =|(a b ) c |

(d) l1 + l2 + l3 = (a + b + a b ) c

^ ^ ^ ^ ^

r ( i + 2 j + k) = i k, then r is equal to

^

^

^

(a) ^i + 3 ^j + k^

(b) 3 i + 7 j + 3 k

(c)

^ ^

^ ^

26. In a four-dimensional space, where unit vectors

^ ^ ^

along axes are i , j, k and ^l and a1 , a2 ,a3 ,a4 are four

non-zero vectors such that no vector can be expressed

as linear combination of others and (l 1)(a1 a2 )

2

(a) l = 1

(b) m =

3

1

2

(c) l =

(d) d =

3

3

27. Identify the statement(s) which is/are incorrect ?

2

(a) a [a (a b )] = (a b )(a )

(b) If a , b , c are non-zero, non coplanar vector and

(c) I f a and b l i e i n a p l a n e n o r m a l t o t h e

(a b ) (c d ) = 0

(d) If a , b , c and a, b, c are reciprocal system of

vectors, then a b + b c + c a = 3

^ ^ ^

when x, y, z N and a = i + j + k . If r a = 10, the

number of possible position of P is

(a) 36

(b) 72

(c) 66

(d) 9C2

29. The projection of line 3x y + 2z 1 = 0

= x + 2y z 2 on the plane 3x + 2y + z = 0 is

x +1 y 1 z 1

(a)

=

=

11

9

15

(b) 3x 8y + 7z + 4 = 0 = 3x + 2y + z

x + 12 y + 8 z + 14

(c)

=

=

11

15

9

y

+

8

x + 12

z + 14

=

=

(d)

11

15

9

30. The equation of three planes are x 2y + z = 3,

5x y z = 8 and x + y z = 7, then

(a) they form a triangular prism

(b) all three plane have a common line of intersection

y

(c) line x = = z is parallel to each plane

1 2 3

x y z

(d) line = = intersect all three plane

1 3 4

31. If the median through A of DABC having vertices

A (2, 3, 5), B (1, 3, 2) and C (l, 5, m) is equally

inclined to the axes, then

(a) l = 7 (b) m = 10 (c) l = 10 (d) m = 7

32. Consider the planes 3x 6y + 2z + 5 = 0 and

4x 12y + 3z = 3. The plane 67x 162y + 47z + 44 = 0

bisects that angle between the given planes which

(a) contains origin

(b) is acute

(c) is obtuse

(d) none of these

33. The plane lx + my = 0 is rotated about its line of

intersection with the plane z = 0, through an angle a,

then equation of plane in its new position may be

(a) lx + my + z l 2 + m2 tan a = 0

(b) lx + my z l 2 + m2 tan a = 0

(c) data is not sufficient

(d) none of these

SEcTION-III

comprehension Type

Consider the equations of planes

^ ^ ^

^ ^ ^

P1 r ( i + 2 j + k) 3 = 0, P2 r (2 i j + k) 5 = 0

34. The equation of plane passing through the

intersection of P1 = 0, P2 = 0 and through the point

A(1, 1, 1) is

^ ^ ^

^ ^ ^

(a) r (5 i 4 j + 5 k ) = 6 (b) r (5 i + 5 j 4 k) = 6

^ ^ ^

(c) r (5 i + 5 j + 4 k) = 14 (d) none of these

35. The line of intersection of planes P1 = 0, P2 = 0 is

parallel to

^

^ ^

^ ^

(a) 3 i 5 j k

(b) 3 i + j 5 k

(c) 2 i j k

^ ^ ^

^

^

^

^

^

^

a = 2 i + 3 j 6 k, b = 2 i 3 j + 6 k

L e t

a n d

^

^

^

36. a2 =

943 ^ ^ ^

943 ^ ^ ^

(2 i 3 j 6 k )

(2 i 3 j 6 k ) (b)

(a)

49

492

^

^

^

943

(2 i + 3 j + 6 k)

(c) 943 (2 ^i + 3 ^j + 6 k^) (d)

2

49

49

37. a1 b =

41

(a) 41

(b)

(c) 41

(d) 287

7

38. Which of the following is true?

(c) a , a1 , b are coplanar

(d) a , a1 , a2 are coplanar

Paragraph

for question No. 39 to 42

s y st e m , i f a b = c , b c = a , c a = b . If v e c t o r s

answer the following question.

39. If x = a + b c , y = a + b 2c , z = a + 2b c ,

x + y and y + z is

then a unit vector normal to the vector

(a) a

(b) b

(c) c

(d) none of these

mathematics today | february 16

63

40. Vector 2a 3b + 4c , a + 2b c and xa b + 2c are

coplanar, then x =

(a) 8/5

(b) 5/8

(c) 0

(d) none of these

41. Let x = a + b , y = 2a b , then the point of

intersection of straight lines r x = y x , r y = x y is

8

5

(a)

(b)

5

8

(c) 3a

(d) none of these

P1 is

(a) 2 units (b) 3 units (c) 5 units (d) 7 units

48. The coordinates of the foot of perpendicular drawn

from point (1, 2, 3) to the plane P2 are

(a) (0, 0, 0)

(b) (1, 0, 2)

(c) (1, 0, 2)

(d) (2, 0, 4)

49. The distance between parallel planes P1 and P2 is

(a) 2 units (b) 3 units (c) 5 units (d) 7 units

SEcTION-IV

42. a (b c ) + b (c a ) + c (a b ) is equal to

(a) 1

(b) 3

(c) 0

The vertices of a triangle ABC are A ( 2, 0, 2 ),

B (1,1 ,1 ) and C ( 1, 2 , 4). The points D

and E divide the side AB and CA in the ratio 1 : 2

respectively. Another point F is taken in space such

that perpendicular drawn from F on DABC, meets the

triangle at the point of intersection of the line segment

CD and BE, say P. If the distance of F from the plane

of the DABC is

2 units, then

^ ^

(a) ^i + ^j + 3 k^

^ ^

(b) i j + 3 k

^

(c) 2 i j 3 k

(a) 7 ^j + 7 k^

^ ^

(c) ( j + k)

(b)

7 ^ ^

( j + k)

2

(a) 7 cubic units

(b) 3/5 cubic units

(c) 7/3 cubic units

(d) none of these

46. The equation of the line AF, is

(a) r = (2 ^i + 2 k^) + l(^i + 2 k^)

(b) r = (2 ^i + 2 k^) + l(^i 2 k^)

(c) r = (^i + k^) + l(^i + 2 k^)

^

^

^

^

(d) r = (2 i + 2 k ) + l( i + 2 k)

Paragraph for question No. 47 to 49

Let a plane P1 passes through the point (1, 2, 3) and

is parallel to the plane P2 given by 2x 2y + z = 0

64

Matrix-Match Type

Column I

Column II

(A) The area of the triangle whose (P) 0

vertices are the points, with

rectangular cartesian coordinates

(1, 2, 3), (2, 1, 4), (3, 4, 2) is

(Q) 1

(b c ) (a d ) + (c a ) (b d ) is

(C) A square PQRS of side length p (R)

1218

is folded along the diagonal PR

8

so that planes PRQ and PRS are

perpendicular to each other, the

shortest distance between PQ and

p

then k =

RS is,

k 2

^

^ ^

^

^

^

(D)

(S) 21

a = 2 i + 3 j k, b = i + 2 j 4 k,

^ ^ ^

^

^ ^

c = i + j + k and d = 3 i + 2 j + k

then (a b ) (c d ) =

to each other, then match the following.

(A)

Column I

| a + b |< 1if

Column II

(P)

2p

<ap

3

(B)

| a b | = | a + b | if

(Q)

p

<ap

2

(C)

| a + b | < 2 if

(R) a =

(D)

| a b | < 2 if

(S) 0 a <

p

2

p

2

SEcTION-V

Column I

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

Column II

^

^ ^

If

a = x i + (x 1) j + k a n d

^ ^

^

b = (x + 1) i + j + a k always make

an acute angle with each other

for all x R, then number of non

positive integral values of 'a' is

Let a , b , c be unit vectors such that

3

a + b + c = x , a x = 1, b x = ,

2

c and x t h e n [ 2 c o s q + 2 ]

is ([]denotes G. I. F)

^

^

^

^ ^ ^

I f a = i + j + k, b = 4 i + 3 j + 4 k,

^ ^ ^

c = i + p j+ q k a r e l i n e a r l y

p2 q2 =

If a , b , c are non-coplanar and

a + b + c = ad , b + c + d = ba ,

then | a + b + c + d |=

(P)

with volume V, then 12 2V =

(Q) 0

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(R) 2

(S)

Column II

b et we e n any t wo b o dy diagonals then the value of

cosq is

If in a cube, q is the angle (Q)

between a body-diagonal

and a face-diagonal which

is skew to it, then the value

of sinq is

If in a cube, q is the angle (R)

between diagonals of two

faces through a vertex, then

the value of cotq is

If in a cube, q is the angle (S)

between a body-diagonal and

a face-diagonal interesting it

then the value of tanq is

^ ^ ^

plane r ( i + j + k) = 5 measured parallel to the vector

^

Column I

[(a + b ) (b c ) (b + c ) (c + a ) (c a ) (a + b )]

2 i + 3 j 6 k .

57. If a , b , c are unit vectors such that a is

p

b and c is then | a + b + c | is

3

58. Shortest distance between the z-axis and the line

x + y + 2z 3 = 0 = 2x + 3y + 4z 4 is

59. The equation of the plane passing through

the intersection of the planes 2x 5y + z = 3 and

x + y + 4z = 5 and parallel to the plane x + 3y + 6z = 1

is x + 3y + 6z = k, where k is

60. A line from the origin meets the lines

x 2 y 1 z +1

x 8 / 3 y + 3 z 1

and

at

=

=

=

=

1

1

2

1

2

1

P and Q respectively. If the distance PQ = l, then the

value of [l] is (where [.] represents the greatest integer

function)

SOLuTIONS

1

2

1

3

1/3

1. (c) : Equation of plane passing through a , b and

containing the line is [ AP AB c ] = 0

(r a ) ((b a ) c ) = 0

r (b c + c a ) = [a b c ]

\ Length of perpendicular from the origin

[a b c ]

=

|b c + c a |

2. (a) : Equation of any plane parallel to the given

^ ^ ^

plane is r (2 i 3 j + 5 k ) + l = 0.

^

^

^

If r = x i + y j + z k, we get 2x 3y + 5z + l = 0

This plane passes through the point (3, 4, 1) if

2 3 3 4 + 5(1) + l = 0 or l = 11

Hence the equation of the required plane is

^

r (2 i 3 j + 5 k) + 11 = 0

mathematics today | february 16

65

1

1

x

1

1

1

2 =0

x 2 1

1 0

0

1 2

1 =0

x 2 1 x

2(1 x) + 2 = 0

x=2

4. (a)

5. (c) : Equation of any plane passing through the

^ ^ ^

intersection of the planes r (2 i 3 j + 4 k) = 1 and

^ ^

r ( i j) + 4 = 0 is [(2x 3y + 4z 1) + l(x y + 4)] = 0

(2 + l) x (3 + l) y + 4z + 4l 1 = 0

...(1)

The plane (1) is perpendicular to the plane

10. (c) : Consider OABC, OA = a, OB = b, OC = g

And OA, BC as a pair of opposite edges.

OA = a, | BC |= b

Equation of OA is r = O + t a

Equation of BC is r = b + s(b g )

[a b g]

abd sin q

d=

V =

6

| a || b g | sin q

11. (b) : | OA | = 3, | OB | = 6

Position vector of L = OL

B

^ ^ ^

r (2 i j + k) + 8 = 0

So, 2(2 + l) + (3 + l) + 4 = 0

11 + 3l = 0 l = 11/3

\ The required equation of the plane is

3(2x 3y + 4z 1) 11(x y + 4) = 0

5x 2y 12z + 47 = 0

6. (b) : We have a(a b ) + b(b c ) + g(c a ) = 0

a[a b c ] + 0 + 0 = 0

a[a b c ] = 0

Similarly, taking dot product with b and c, we have

b[a b c ] = g[a b c ] = 0

Now, even if one of a, b, g 0, then we have [a b c ] = 0

a , b , c are coplanar

7.(c) : ((a b ) (c d )) (a d ) = 0,

([a c d ]b [b c d ]a ) (a d ) = 0

[a c d ][b a d ] = 0

8. (c) : r = (a b )sin x + (b c )cos y + 2(c a )

r (a + b + c ) = 0

[a b c ](sin x + cos y + 2) = 0

This is possible only when sin x = 1 and cos y = 1

p

for x2 + y2 to be minimum x = and y = p

2

5 p2

p2

minimum value of (x2 + y2) is

+ p2 =

4

4

9. (b)

66

L

O

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

| OA |(2 i + 4 j + 4 k )+ | OB |(2 i + 2 j + k )

=

| OA | + | OB |

^

^ ^

3(2 i + 4 j + 4 k) + 6(2 i + 2 j + k) 18 i + 24 j + 18 k

=

3+6

9

1 ^ ^ ^

= (6 i + 8 j + 6 k)

3

1

136

So, | OL |=

36 + 64 + 36 =

units

3

3

12. (b) : Equation of the plane bisecting the angle

between the given planes are

2 x y + 2z + 3

3x 2 y + 6z + 8

=

32 + (2)2 + 62

(2)2 + (1)2 + 22

=

7(2x y + 2z + 3) = 3(3x 2y + 6z + 8)

5x y 4z 3 = 0 taking the +ve sign, and

23x 13y + 32z + 45 = 0 taking the ve sign.

13. (c) : The perpendicular distance of the origin

(0, 0, 0) from the plane x + y + z = p is

p

| p|

=

1+1+1

3

If the coordinates of P are (l, m, n),then we must

have

l +m+n p | p|

|l + m + n p| = |p|

=

3

3

which is satisfied by (c)

14. (c) : Since the line makes an angle q with the

plane. So, it makes an angle p/2 q with normal to

the plane

p

2(1) + (1)(2) + ( l )(2)

\ cos q =

1+ 4 + 4 4 +1+ l

2

1

2 l

=

l + 5 = 4 l l = 5/ 3

3 3 l+5

15. (b)

16. (d) : A(7 + 3a, 5 + 2a, 3 + a),

B(1 + 2b, 1 + 4b, 1 + 3b)

Drs of AB are 2 : 2 : 1

6 + 3a 2b 3 + a 2b 4 + a 3b

\

=

=

2

1

1

a = 2, b = 1

\ A(1,1,1), B(3,3,2), AB = 3

17. (d) : Given planes are

xyz=4

... (1)

and x + y + 2z = 4

... (2)

Since required plane passes through the line of

intersection of (1) & (2)

\ Its equation is

(x y z 4) + a(x + y + 2z 4) = 0

(1 + a)x + (a 1)y + (2a 1)z (4a + 4) = 0

.... (3)

Since (1) & (3) are perpendicular

1(1 + a) 1(a 1) 1(2a 1) = 0

1 + a a + 1 2a + 1 = 0 a = 3/2

Required equation is

3

(x y z 4) + (x + y + 2z 4) = 0

2

5x + y + 4z 20 = 0

18. (b) : Coordinates of any point Q on the given line

are (2r + 1, 3r 1, 8r 10) for some r R

So the direction ratios of PQ are 2r, 3r 1, 8r 10

Now PQ is perpendicular to the given line

if 2(2r) 3 (3r 1) + 8(8r 10) = 0

77r 77 = 0 r = 1

\ The coordinates of Q i.e., the foot of the perpendicular

from P on the line are (3, 4, 2).

Let R(a, b, c) be the reflection of P in the given line

when Q is the mid-point of PR

a +1

b

c

= 3, = 4, = 2

2

2

2

a = 5, b = 8, c = 4

and the coordinates of the required point are

(5, 8, 4).

^

i j k

^ ^

^

3 4 2 = 8 i j 10 k

4 2 3

^

i j

k

^

^

^

8 1 10 = 26 i 52 j + 26 k .

2 3

4

.

So, equation of the plane is r n = 0 x 2 y + z = 0.

20. (d)

21. (d)

l1

D = DD = l2

l3

2

l1

= l2

l3

m1 n1 l1

m2 n2 l2

m3 n3 l3

m1 n1 l1 l2

m2 n2 m1 m2

m3 n3 n1 n2

l12 + m12 + n12

m1 n1

m2 n2

m3 n3

l3

m3

n3

n32

l32 + m32 +n

1 0 0

= 0 1 0 = 1 D = 1 | D |= 1

0 0 1

u = a (a b )b = a b cos q

= 1 + cos2 q 2 cos2 q = 1 cos2 q = sin2 q u = v

Again u b = a b (a b )(b b ) = 0 | u b |= 0

So, v = u + u b

24. (a, d) : (a) is proved if we take dot product of

l2 = b c

Choice (b) is not true.

mathematics today | february 16

67

(c) If we take dot product of both sides with a b ,

2

we get [c b a] = l3[a b ]

l3 = [a b c ] or c (a b )

Choice (c) is wrong.

(d) is correct since l1 + l2 + l3 = c a + b c + [a b c ].

^ ^ ^ ^ ^

25. (a, b, c) : r ( i + 2 j + k) = i k

^

^

^

Let r = x i + y j + z k

^

i

^

^

^

^

^ ^

^ ^

\ (x i + y j + z k) (i + 2 j + k) = i k x

1

j k

^ ^

y z = ik

2 1

26. (a, b, d) :

+a3 + da4 = 0

+( g + d)a4 = 0

Since a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 are linearly independent

\ l 1 = 0, 1 l + m 2g = 0, m + g + 1 = 0

and g + d = 0

i.e. l = 1, m = 2g, m + g + 1 = 0, g + d = 0

2

1

1

i.e. l = 1, m = , g = , d =

3

3

3

27. (a, c, d)

28. (a, d) : r a = 10

\ x + y + z = 10; x 1, y 1, z 1

The required number of positions

= 10 1C3 1 = 9C2 = 36

29. (a, b) : Equation of a plane passing through the

line 3x y + 2z 1 = 0 = x + 2y z 2 is

3x y + 2z 1 + l(x + 2y z 2) = 0

Since it is perpendicular to the given plane

3

\ l=

2

\ Equation of the line of projection is

3x 8y + 7z + 4 = 0 = 3x + 2y + z

Its direction ratios are < 11, 9, 15 > and the point

(1,1,1) lies on the line

x + 1 y 1 z 1 is also the equation of the line

\

=

=

11

9

15

of projection.

30. (a, c)

68

l 1 m + 2

, 4,

31.(a, b): Mid point of BC =

2

2

d.rs of median through A are

m+2 l 5 m8

l 1

2 2, 4 3, 2 5 = 2 , 1, 2

The median is equally inclined to axes, so the direction

ratios must be equal, so

l 5

m8

=1=

l = 7, m = 10

2

2

32. (a, b) : 3x 6y + 2z + 5 = 0

(i)

4x + 12y 3z + 3 = 0

(ii)

3x 6 y + 2z + 5 4 x + 12 y 3z + 3

=

9 + 36 + 4

16 + 144 + 9

Bisects the angle between the planes that contains the

origin

13(3x 6y + 2z + 5) = 7( 4x + 12y 3z + 3)

39x 78y + 26z + 65 = 28x + 84y 21z + 21

67x 162y + 47z + 44 = 0

(iii)

Further 3(4)+ (6) (12) + 2( 3) < 0

\ Origin lies in acute angle

33. (a, b) : Equation of required plane is

lx + my + lz = 0

...(1)

Angle between (1) and lx + my = 0 is a.

l 2 + m2

cos a =

cos2 a =

l 2 + m2 l 2 + m2 + l2

l 2 + m2

2

l = l 2 + m2 tan a

l +m +l

Hence equation of plane is

lx + my z l 2 + m2 tan a = 0

34. (c) : The required plane is

x + 2y + z 3 + k(2x y + z 5) = 0

Since it passes through A,

\ k = 1/3

\ The equation of plane is 5x + 5y + 4z 14 = 0,

^ ^

^

i.e. r (5 i + 5 j + 4 k) = 14

35. (b) : The line of intersection of planes r n1 = d1

and r n2 = d2 is parallel to n1 n2 .

36. (b) :

^

^

^ ^

^ ^

^ ^ ^ (2 i 3 j + 6 k) 2 i 3 j + 6 k

a1 = (2 i + 3 j 6 k)

7

41 ^ ^ ^

=

(2 i 3 j + 6 k)

49

^

^ ^

^

^

^

41 ^ ^ ^ (2 i + 3 j + 6 k ) (2 i + 3 j + 6 k)

a2 =

(2 i 3 j + 6 k )

7

49

7

=

=

41

2

(49)

943

2

(49)

(4 9 + 36)(2 i + 3 j + 6 k )

^

(2 i 3 j 6 k )

41 ^ ^ ^

^

^

^

37. (a) : a1 b =

(2 i 3 j + 6 k) (2 i 3 j + 6 k ) = 41

49

38. (c) : a , a1 , b are coplanar, because a1 , b are

collinear.

39. (d) : x + y = 2b 3c and y + z = 2a + 3b 3c

a b c

\ (x + y ) ( y + z ) = 0 2 3 = 3a + 6b + 4c

2 3 3

3a + 6b + 4c

Required unit vector =

61

2 3 4

40. (a) : 1 2 1 = 0

x 1 2

2(4 1) + 3(2 + x) + 4(1 2x) = 0

x=

8

5

41. (c) : r x = y x (r y ) x = 0

r = y + lx

Also, r y = x y (r x ) y = 0 r = x + my

Now, y + lx = x + my

(2a b ) + l(a + b ) = (a + b ) + m(2a b )

2 + l = 1 + 2m, 1 + l = 1 m m = 1, l = 1

42. (b) : a b = c c (a b ) = c c = 1 [a b c ] = 1

a (b c ) + b (c a ) + c (a b ) = 3

4346

43. (b)

44. (c)

45. (c)

46. (d)

The vector equation of CD and BE are

l ^

^ ^

^

^

r = ( i 2 j + 4 k) + (7 j 7 k )

....(i)

3

m ^

^ ^ ^

^

^

and r = ( i + j + k) + (7 i 7 j + 7 k)

....(ii)

3

respectively.

CD and BE intersect at point P. At their point of

intersection, we must have

^

^

^ l ^

^

^ ^ ^ m ^

^

^

(i 2 j + 4 k) + (7 j 7 k) = ( i + j + k) + (7 i 7 j + 7 k)

3

3

7m

7l

7m

1 = 1 + , 2 +

=1

3

3

3

7l

7m

6

3

and 4

= 1+

m = and l =

3

3

7

7

Substituting the value of l in (i) or that of m in

^ ^

^

r = i j + 3k

1

Now, D = area of DABC = | AB AC |

2

1

7 2

^ ^ ^

^

^

^

= |(3 i + j k ) ( i 2 j + 2 k ) | =

sq. unit

2

2

\ Volume of the tetrahedron ABCF

1

= (area of the base) height

3

1 7 2

7

=

2 = cubic units

3 2

3

^

^

We have, AB AC = 7 j + 7 k

^

^

(7 j + 7 k) ^ ^

= j +k

Now, PF = 2

49 + 49

^ ^

PF = j + k

^ ^ ^ ^ ^

Position vector of F = ( j + k) + ( i j + 3 k)

^

= i+ 4k

Vector equation of AF is,

^

^

^

^

^

^

r = (2 i + 2 k ) + l( i + 4 k 2 i 2 k )

^

^

^

^

r = (2 i + 2 k ) + l( i + 2 k )

47. (c)

48. (b)

49. (b)

50. A - R; B - P; C - q; D - S

^

^

^

OC = 3 i + 4 j 2 k

1

1218

Area = | AB AC | =

2

2

(B) ((a b ) c ) d + ((b c) a ) d + ((c a ) b ) d = 0

(D) (a c )(b d ) (b c )(a d ) = 21

51. A P; B R; C - q, P; D S

So | a |2 + | b |2 +2a b < 1 a b <

2

1

2p

cos a <

<ap

2

3

mathematics today | february 16

69

p

(B) If | a b | = | a + b |, then a b = 0 a =

2

(C) If | a + b |< 2 , then cosa < 0 which is true if

p

<ap

2

(D) If | a b | < 2 , then cosa > 0 which is true if

0 a < p.

52. A - q; B - S; C - q; D - q

2

(A) a b > 0 x + 2 x + a 1 > 0

D<0 a>2

3

3

(B) (a + b + c ) x = x x 1 + + c x = 4 c x =

2

2

3

3

| c || x | cos q = cos q = [2 cos q + 2] = 2

2

4

1 1 1

(C) 4 3 4 = 0 q = 1. Also, | c | = 3 p2 = 1

1 p q

Hence p2 q2 = 0.

53. A S; B P; C R; D q

= [a b b c + c a a b + b c + c a

a b b c + c a]

1 1 1

2

= [a b b c c a] 1 1 1 = 4 [a b c ]

1 1 1

1

a a a b a c

2 1

55. (2) : a b c = b a b b b c =

2

c a c b c c 1

2

a b c =

2

1

1

Volume = a b c =

6

6 2

\

1

2

1

1

2

1

2

1 1

=

2 2

1

12 2V = 2

56. (7) : The distance of the point a from the plane

r n = q measured in the direction of the unit vector

q a n

b = ^

b n

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

Here a = i + 2 j + 3 k, n = i + j + k and q = 5

70

2 i + 3 j 6k

2 i + 3j 6k

Also b =

=

7

(2)2 + (3)2 + (6)2

^

^

^ ^

5 (1 + 2 + 3)

= 1

=7

1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

(2 + 3 6)

(2 i + 3 j 6 k ) ( i + j + k )

7

7

57. (2) : a = b = c = 1 and a b = 0 and a c = 0

p 1

b c = b c cos = .

3 2

2

\ a + b + c = 3 + 20 + 20 +1 = 4

\ |a + b + c | = 2

=

5 (i + 2 j + 3 k) (i + j + k)

x + y + 2z 3 + l(2x + 3y + 4z 4) = 0

....(1)

1

If plane (1) is parallel to z-axis l =

2

Therefore plane, parallel to z-axis is y + 2 = 0 ....(2)

Now, shortest distance between any point on z-axis

(0, 0, 1 ) (say) from plane (2) is 2

59. (7) : Equation of plane passing through the

intersection of the planes 2x 5y + z = 3 and

x + y + 4z = 5 is

(2x 5y + z 3) + l(x + y + 4z 5) = 0

(2 + l)x + (5 + l)y + (1 + 4l) z 3 5l = 0

....(i)

which is parallel to the plane x + 3y + 6z = 1.

2 + l 5 + l 1 + 4 l

Then,

=

=

1

3

6

11

\l =

2

From (i), we have

7

21

49

x y 21z + = 0

2

2

2

\ x + 3y + 6z = 7

Hence, k = 7

60. (2) : From the given conditions, we have,

1

2m + 8 / 3 m + 3 m + 1

l = 3, m =

=

=

3

l+2

2l 1 l 1

10 10 4

P (5, 5, 2), Q ,

,

3 3 3

Now, l = PQ =

6 [l] = 2

nn

The entire syllabus of Mathematics of WB-JEE is being divided into six units, on each unit there will be a Mock Test Paper

(MTP) which will be published in the subsequent issues. The syllabus for module break-up is given below:

Unit- I: Algebra, Unit-II: Trigonometry, Unit-III: Co-ordinate geometry of two dimensions & three dimensions, Unit-IV: Calculus,

Unit-V: Vector, Unit-VI: Statistics & Probability.

1

S , 1 . Its one directrix is the common tangent

2

(nearer to S) to the circle x2 + y2 = 1 and x2 y2 = 1.

The equation of the ellipse in standard form is

2

3

2

5. Let f (x ) =

1 + [x]2

integer, then

(a) f (x) is not differentiable

(b) f (x) > 0

(c) f (x) = 0 x

(d) none of these

100

(b) 12 x 1 + 9( y 1)2 = 1

(a) 0

(c) 100

x

2

2 + ( y 1) = 1

(c)

12

9

(d) 100p

1

1

1

1

+

+

+ .... +

is

1!(n 1)! 3 !(n 3)! 5 !(n 5)!

(n 1)! 1!

(d) 3 x + 1 + 4( y 1)2 = 1

2

2. AB is a chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax with vertex

at A. BC is drawn perpendicular to AB meeting the

axis at C. The projection of BC on the x-axis is

(a) a

(b) 2a

(c) 4a

(d) 8a

3. If both roots of x2 2ax + a2 1 = 0 lies in (2, 1)

then [a], where [] denotes greatest integral function

is

(a) 1

(b) 0

(c) 1

(d) 2

4. Let R be a relation in N defined

R = {(x, y) : 2x + y = 8}, then range of R is

(a) {1, 2, 3}

(b) {2, 4, 6}

(c) {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}

(d) none of these

sin 4 p[x]

by

(a)

2n1

(n 1)!

(b)

(c)

2n

(n 1)!

(d)

2n1

n!

2n

n!

questions. Each question has four alternatives of

which only one is correct. If a candidate answers

all the questions by choosing one answer for each

question, then the number of ways to get exactly 4

correct answer is

(a) 70

(b) 2835

(c) 5670

(d) none of these

9. There are two girls Rima and Tina having m and n

distinct number of toys respectively. The number of

mathematics today | February 16

71

after exchange they have the same number of toys

with them but not the same toys is

(a) m + nCm

(b) m + nCm 1

(c) m + nPn

(d) none of these

differ by almost 2m, then b lies in the interval

(a) (a2 m2, a2)

(b) (a2, a2 + m2)

2

2

2

(c) [a m , a ]

(d) (a2 m2, a2 + m2)

1+ 3p 1 p 1 3p

are the probabilities of

,

,

4

3

2

three mutually exclusive events, then the set of all

11. If

values of p is

1 1

(a) ,

3 3

1

(b) ,

3

1

(c) ,

13

1 1

(d) ,

13 3

3[x] 5 | x |

2

, x 0

12. f (x ) =

. Then f (x )dx =

x

3/2

x =0

2,

([] denotes the greatest integer function)

11

17

7

(a)

(b)

(c) 6

(d)

2

2

2

13. In a triangle A > B and A and B satisfy the

equation 3sinq 4sin3q k = 0, 0 < k < 1. Then C =

p

p

5p

2p

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3

2

6

3

14. Let f : N Y be a fuction defined as f (x) = 4x + 3

where Y = {y N : y = 4x + 3 for some x N} such

that f is invertible, then its inverse is

(a) g ( y ) = 4 +

(c) g ( y ) =

y +3

4

3y + 4

3

(b) g ( y ) =

(d) g ( y ) =

y +3

4

y 3

4

1

(a) 6 3 + log | 3 + 2 2 |

2

1

(b) 6 2 + log | 3 2 2 |

2

(c) 6 2 log | 3 + 2 2 |

(d) none of these

72

cards. The probability of drawing a number r is

proportional to r. Then the probability of drawing

an even number in one draw is

n +1

n+2

(a)

(b)

n+3

n+3

n +1

1

(c)

(d)

2n + 1

2

1

17. It is given that event A and B are such that P ( A) = ,

4

2

1

P (B | A) = , P ( A | B) = , then P(B) =

3

2

1

1

2

1

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

6

3

3

2

18. From the matrix equation AB = AC, we say B = C

provided

(a) A is singular

(b) A is skew symmetric

(c) A is non-singular

(d) none of these

sin x

1

0

p /2

2 sin x

1 then f (x )dx =

19. If f (x ) = 1

p/2

0

1

2 sin x

(a) 0

(b) 1

(c) 1

(d)

f (x ) =

3p

2

1

tan x + cot x + sec x + cosecx

is equivalent to

1

sin x + cos x 1

(a)

(b)

2(sin x + cos x 1)

2

(c)

1

sin x cos x +1

(d)

2(sin x cos x + 1)

2

21. Let f (x ) = e

p

cos 1 sin x +

3

7p

13 p

(a) e 12

(b) e 18

then a, b, c are in

(a) G.P. (b) H.P

8p

, then f =

9

5p

(c) e 18

(d) e 12

A

B

C

, cot , cot are in A.P.

2

2

2

(c) A.P.

(d) A.G.P.

23. If w =

1

z i

3

(a) a circle

(b) an ellipse

(c) a parabola

(d) a straight line

x

(a) pp loge(ep)

(b) p logep

p

(c) p loge p

(d) none of these

d2 y

is

25. If xy = e e y , then

dx 2 x =0

1

1

(a)

(b)

e

e3

1

(c)

(d) none of these

e2

a,

26. For

any

vector

the

value

of

^2 ^2 ^2

(a i ) + (a j ) + (a k) is equal to

2

2

(a) | a |

(b) 3 | a |

2

2

(c) 4 | a |

(d) 2 | a |

^ ^

^ ^

^

27. Let a = i k, b = x i + j + (1 x ) k and

^

^

^

c = y i + x j + (1 + x y ) k . Then [a b c ] depends

on

(a) x only

(b) y only

(c) neither x nor y (d) both x and y

28. A value of c for which conclusion of Mean Value

Theorem holds for the function f (x) = logex on the

interval [1, 3] is

(a) log3e

(b) loge3

1

(c) 2log3e

(d) log e 3

2

dy

= y(log y log x + 1) , then the solution of

dx

the equation is

x

y

(a) x log = cy

(b) y log = cx

y

x

y

x

(c) log = cy

(d) log = cx

x

y

29. If x

layer of ice of uniform thickness that melts at a rate

of 50 cm3/min. When the thickness of ice is 5 cm,

then the rate at which the thickness of ice decreases,

is

1

cm/min

18p

5

cm/min

(c)

6p

(a)

1

cm/min

36p

1

cm/min

(d)

54p

(b)

(log x 1)

31.

dx =

2

1 + (log x )

(a)

(c)

x

x2 + 1

+C

x

(log x )2 + 1

(b)

+C

(d)

log x

(log x )2 + 1

xe x

1 + x2

+C

+C

x2 + y2 + 3x + 7y + 2p 5 = 0 and

x2 + y2 + 2x + 2y p2 = 0. Then there is a circle

passing through P, Q and (1, 1) for

(a) all except one value of p

(b) all except two values of p

(c) exactly one value of p

(d) all values of p

33. The equation of the straight line passing through

the point (4, 3) and making intercepts on the

coordinate axes whose sum is 1 is

x y

x y

(a) + = 1 and + = 1

2 3

2 1

x y

x y

+ =1

(b) = 1 and

2 3

2 1

x y

x y

+ = 1 and

+ =1

(c)

2 3

2 1

x y

x y

+ =1

(d) = 1 and

2 3

2 1

34.

x+4

< 2 is satisfied when x satisfies

x 3

(a) ( , 3) (10, )

(b) (3, 10)

(c) (, 3) [10, )

(d) none of these

x +2

5x + 2 < 3x + 8 and

< 4 , x 1 is

x 1

(a) (, 1)

(b) (2, 3)

(c) (, 3)

(d) (, 1) (2, 3)

(2n)!

4n

<

, then P(n) is true for

n + 1 (n !)2

(a) n 1

(b) n > 0

(c) n < 0

(d) n 2

36. If

73

n(A B) = 100, then n(AC BC) is equal to

(a) 260

(b) 560

(c) 360 (d) 600

38. If a, b are roots of the equation p(x2 x) + x + 5 = 0

and p1, p2 are two values of p for which the roots

a b 4

a, b are connected by the relation + = then

b a 5

p

p

the value of 1 + 2 equals

p2 p1

(a) 254

(b) 0

(c) 245

(d) 254

five terms is

(a) 74

(b) 75

(c) 76

(d) 73

40. Four parts of 24 are in A.P. such that the ratio of

product of extremes to product of means is 7 : 15,

then four parts are

3 9 15 21

11 13

(a) , ,

(b)

,

, , 3, 9

2 2 2 2

2 2

5 15 9 21

21 9 15 7

(c) , , ,

(d)

, ,

,

2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2

41. If the coefficients of the rth term and (r + 1)th term

in the expansion of (1 + x)20 are in the ratio 1 : 2,

then r is equal to

(a) 6

(b) 7

(c) 8

(d) 9

42. The equation of tangents to the curve f (x) = 1 + e2x

where it cuts the line y = 2 is

(a) x + 2y = 2

(b) 2x + y = 2

(c) x 2y = 1

(d) x 2y + 2 = 0

43. If the line ax + by + c = 0 is normal to the curve

xy + 5 = 0, then

(a) a > 0, b > 0

(b) b > 0, a < 0

(c) b < 0, a > 0

(d) none of these

x 2 y +1 z 2

=

=

3

4

12

meets the plane x 2y + z = 20 is

(a) (7, 8, 26)

(b) (8, 7, 26)

(c) (7, 8, 26)

(d) none of these

x 1 y 2 z +1

and passing through the point

=

=

1

1

2

(2, 3, 1) is

^ ^

^

(a) r ( i + j + 2 k) = 1

^ ^

^

(b) r ( i j + 2 k) = 1

^ ^

^

(c) r ( i j + 2 k) = 7

(d) none of these

49. The maximum value of f (x) = |x ln x| for x (0, 1)

is

(a) 1/e

(b) e

(c) 1

(d) none of these

x3

dt

, x > 0 1 then

ln t

x2

50. If f (x ) =

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

f

f

f

f

(x) has a minima at x = 1

(x) is decreasing function

(x) has a maxima at x = 1

SOLUTIONS

hyperbola x2 y2 = 1, one common tangent is evidently

x = 1, the other being x = 1.

y

(a) 4

(b) 8

(c) 16

(d) 32

45. The ratio in which the xy-plane divides the join of

(1, 2, 3) and (4, 2, 1) is

(a) 3 : 1 internally

(b) 3 : 1 externally

(c) 1 : 2 internally

(d) 2 : 1 externally

is inclined at angles of 45 and 60 with OX and OY

respectively, then the position vector of P is

^

(a) 6 i + 6 j 6 2 k

^

(c) 6 2 i + 6 j 6 k

74

(b) 6 i + 6 2 j 6 k

(d) none of these

O

y

1

S , 1 and directrix x = 1 which is

2

2

2 1

2

x + ( y 1) = (1 x )

2

2

1

1

x 2 x + + ( y 1)2 = (x 2 2 x + 1)

4

4

3

x

x 2 + ( y 1)2 = 0

4

2

3

1

1

x + ( y 1)2 =

4

3

12

7. (b) :

9 x + 12( y 1)2 = 1

3

2. (c): Let B be (at2, 2at)

2at 2

Slope of AB = 2 =

t

at

Equation of BC is

t

y 2at = (x at 2 )

2

[Q BC ^ AB]

Since BC meets x-axis at C.

\ Ordinate of point C is zero.

t

at 3

0 2at = x +

2

2

3

4at = tx at tx = 4at + at3

\ x = 4a + at2

Thus, coordinate of C is (4a + at2, 0) and D is (at2, 0).

\ DC = 4a + at2 at2 = 4a

3. (a) : The given equation is

x2 2ax + a2 1 = 0

x2 (a + 1)x (a 1)x + (a + 1)(a 1) = 0

x{x (a + 1)} (a 1){x (a + 1)} = 0

(x a + 1)(x a 1) = 0

x = a 1 or x = a + 1

Since, both the roots lie in (2, 1)

\ 2 < a 1 < 1 and 2 < a + 1 < 1

1 < a < 2 and 3 < a < 0

\ 1 < a < 0 [a] = 1

4. (b) : Given R = {(x, y) : 2x + y = 8; x, y N}

Here y = 8 2x

\ When x = 1, y = 6 N

x = 2, y = 4 N

x = 3, y = 2 N

x = 4, y = 0 N

\ R = {(1, 6), (2, 4), (3, 2)}

\ Range of R = {y : (x, y) R} = {2, 4, 6}

5. (c): Here f (x ) =

sin 4 p[x]

1 + [x]2

f (x) = 0 [since sine of integral multiple of p is 0]

\ f (x) = 0 x

6. (d) : |z| is a positive real number.

\ Arg(|z|) = p

100

\ p dx = 100 p

0

1 n

[ C + nC3 + nC5 + ....]

n! 1

1 n1

2

n!

[Q sum of the odd binomial coefficients is 2n 1]

1 n!

n!

n!

+

+

+ ....

answers.

Let C stands for correct and W stands for wrong

answers. One order of doing so is illustrated.

CCCCWWWW

The number of permutation of above mentioned

8!

demonstration is

.

4! 4!

Since each correct answer can be marked in 1 way and

that for wrong in 3 ways.

8!

34 = 5670

\ Required number of ways =

4! 4!

9. (b) : Let us mix the toys making m + n number of

distinct toys in all. Now Rina can pick up m toys out of

these m + n toys in m + nCm ways which includes one

way in which she can pick up her own original toys.

\ Required number of ways = m + nCm 1.

10. (c): Let the roots are a and b

\ a + b = 2a and ab = b

Also given that |a b| 2m

(a b)2 4m2

Now, (a + b)2 4ab = (a b)2

4a2 4b 4m2 a2 b m2

a2 m2 b

... (i)

2

Also, the discriminant 4a 4b 0 (as roots are real)

a2 b

... (ii)

From (i) and (ii), we have

a2 m2 b a2

i.e., b [a2 m2, a2]

11. (d) : We know that probability of any event lies

between 0 and 1 and both 0 and 1 are inclusive.

1+ 3p

1

\ 0

1 gives p 1

4

3

1 p

0

1 gives 2 p 1

3

mathematics today | February 16

75

1 3p

1

1

1 gives p

2

3

3

\ 0

1+ 3p 1 p 1 3p

1

+

+

1 gives

p 1

4

3

2

13

1

1

p .

13

3

\ Required area = 2 x 2 1 dx

|x|

, x 0

3[x] 5

f (x ) =

x

2,

x =0

1

x 2

= 2

x 1 log x + x 2 1

2

2

1

3

= x x 2 1 log x + x 2 1

when x = 0

2

Now,

= 6 2 log | 3 + 2 2 |

16. (d) : Let P(r) be the probability that the number r is

drawn in one draw. It is given that

P(r) = kr, where k is a constant.

Further, P(1) + P(2) + .... + P(2n) = 1

k(1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 2n) = 1

1

k=

n(2n + 1)

Hence, the required probability

= P(2) + P(4) + P(6) + ... + P(2n)

= 2k(1 + 2 + ... + n)

2

n(n + 1) n + 1

=

=

n(2n + 1)

2

2n + 1

f (x )dx

3/2

3/2

1

3/2

3

1

11

1

= 1 + 2 5 2 = + 2 5 2 =

2

2

2

13. (c)

14. (d) : Let y = f (x) x = f 1(y)

\ y = 4x + 3

f 1 ( y ) =

\ g ( y) =

x=

y 3

4

y 3

[By using (i)]

4

y 3

4

|x 1| 2 and x2 y2 = 1

\ The graph of required curve is

1 x 3, x2 y2 = 1

76

.... (i)

P ( A | B) = P (B | A)

P ( A B)

P ( B)

P ( A B) P ( A)

=

P ( A) P (B)

P ( A)

P ( B)

2 1

1

\ P ( B) = 3 4 =

1

3

2

2

1

1

P (B | A) = 3 , P ( A) = 4 and P ( A / B ) = 2

18. (c): Let |A| 0

\ A1 exists.

Given that AB = AC

\ A1(AB) = A1(AC)

(A1A)B = (A1A)C

[Associative law]

B=C

[Q AA1 = I]

A is non-singular

sin x

1

0

2 sin x

1

19. (a) : Here f (x ) = 1

0

1

2 sin x

\

\

= sinx(4sin2x 1) 1(2sinx)

f (x) = 4sin3x 3sinx

f (x) = 4sin3x + 3sinx = (4sin3x 3sinx)

f(x) = f(x)

f (x) is an odd function.

p /2

f (x )dx = 0

p /2

sin x cos x

sin x

=

1 + sin x + cos x sec x + tan x + 1

sin x

sin x(1 + tan x sec x )

=

=

(1 + tan x ) + sec x

(1 + tan x )2 sec2 x

20. (b) : f (x ) =

=

2

2

21. (b) : f (x ) = e

p

cos 1 sin x +

3

8p p

1

8 p cos sin 9 + 3

\ f =e

9

=e

11p

cos 1 sin

9

=e

=e

cos

=e

x

24. (a) : g (x ) = x log e (ex ) dx

d x

(x )dx

dx

g(x) = xx + C

\ g(x) = xx log(1 + x) = xx loge(ex)

g(p) = pp loge(ep)

25. (c): xy = e ey

dy

dy

y+x

= e y

dx

dx

dy

dy

ey

+x + y =0

dx

dx

dy

\ e + 1 = 0 [As x = 0 \ y = 1]

dx

dy

1

=

dx

e

=

... (i)

d2 y

d2 y

dy

dy

+ey + x

+2 =0

2

2

dx

dx

dx

dx

dy

1

= , we get

Using x = 0, y = 1,

dx

e

ey

d2 y

1

= 2

dx

e

2

22 p

cos 1 sin

18

9 p 13 p

sin +

18 18

13 p

cos 1 cos

18

6y 1 = 0 which is a straight line.

=e

cos

p 13 p

sin +

2 18

13 p

= e 18

A

B

C

, cot , cot are in A.P.

2

2

2

s ( s b)

s(s a )

s( s c )

2

=

+

(s a)(s c)

(s b)(s c)

(s a)(s b)

2(s b)= (s a) + (s c)

2b = a + c

\ a, b, c are in A.P.

3z

23. (d) : Given that w =

.

3z i

3| z |

\ |w| =

| 3z i |

|3z i| = 3|z|

|3(x) + i(3y 1)| = |3(x + iy)|

^

^

^

26. (d) : Let a = a1 i + b1 j + c1 k

^

^

^

a i = b1 k + c1 j

^

| a i |2 = b12 + c12 .

^

^

Similarly, | a j |2 = a12 + c12 and | a k |2 = a12 + b12

^

^

^

\ | a i |2 + | a j |2 + | a k |2 = 2(a12 + b12 + c12 )

= 2 | a |2

a1 a2

27. (c): [a b c ] = a (b c ) = b1 b2

c1 c2

[z = x + iy]

1

= x

y

0

1

1

1 x

x 1+ x y

a3

b3

c3

(C3 C1 + C3)

77

1

= x

y

= ez f (z) + C

0

0

1

1 =1

x 1+ x

f (b) f (a) f (3) f (1)

=

ba

3 1

log e 3 log e 1 1

f (c) =

= log e 3

2

2

1 1

1

= log 3 =

c 2 e

2 log 3 e

\ c = 2log3e

dy

= y(log y log x + 1)

dx

dy y y

=

log + 1

dx x x

29. (d) : x

\ v+x

y

dv

= v[log v + 1] Putting = v

dx

v+x

dv

= v log v + v

dx

dv

dx

y

=

log = Cx

x

v log v

x

4

30. (a) : V = p( y + 10)3 , where y is thickness of ice

3

dy

dV

= 4 p(10 + y )2

dt

dt

10

50

dy

=

dt y =5 4 p(15)2

10 + y

dV

3

As dt = 50 cm / min

=

31. (c):

1

cm/min

18p

(log x 1)2

\ e z ( f (z ) + f (z )) dz

78

1 + (log x )

+C =

x

1 + (log x )2

4

3

+

=1

a [(a + 1)]

4a + 4 3a = a(a + 1) a2 + a = a + 4

a2 = 4 a = 2

\ When a = 2, b = 3 and a = 2, b = 1

x y

x y

So equations are = 1 and

+ =1

2 3

2 1

x+4

<2

x 3

x+4

x + 10

x 10

2<0

<0

>0

x 3

x 3

x 3

{x 10 > 0 and x 3 > 0} or

{x 10 < 0 and x 3 < 0}

{x > 10 and x > 3} or {x < 10 and x < 3}

x ( , 3) (10, )

1

f (z ) =

1 + z2

+C

x y

... (i)

+ =1

a b

Given that a + b = 1

Since (i) is passing

through (4, 3)

4 3

\

+ =1

a b

(1 + (log x )2 )2

Let logx = z ezdz = dx

2z

1

= ez

dz

2

1+ z

(1 + z 2 )2

1+ z

e log x

+C =

and S2 : x2 + y2 + 2x + 2y p2 = 0

S1 S2 = 0

x + 5y + 2p 5 + p2 = 0

... (i)

If there is a circle passing through P, Q and (1, 1),

then its necessary and sufficient condition is that

(1, 1) does not lie on PQ.

i.e. 1 + 5 + 2p 5 + p2 0

p2 + 2p + 1 0 (p + 1)2 0

\ p 1

Thus for all values of p except 1, there is a circle

passing through P, Q and (1, 1).

dx

ez

x < 3 and

(x + 2)(x 1)

(x 1)2

< 4, x 1

x +2

<4

x 1

x < 3 and 3x2 9x + 6 > 0

x < 3 and x2 3x + 2 > 0

x < 3 and (x 1)(x 2) > 0

x < 3 and (x < 1 or x > 2) x (, 1) (2, 3)

4n

(2n)!

<

n + 1 (n !)2

For n = 2, P(2) :

which is true.

42

4!

16 24

<

<

2 + 1 (2)2

3

4

Now,

=

=

(2m)!

4m

<

m + 1 (m !)2

4m+1

4m 4(m + 1) (2m)! 4(m + 1)

=

<

.

m + 2 m +1 m + 2

(m !)2 m + 2

(2m)!(2m + 1)(2m + 2) 4(m + 1)(m + 1)2

(2m + 1)(2m + 2)(m !)2 (m + 1)2 (m + 2)

2(m + 1)2

[2(m + 1)]!

<

2 (2m + 1)(m + 2)

[(m + 1)!]

[(m + 1)!]2

[2(m + 1)]!

2(m + 1)2

< 1 m > 2

(2m + 1)(m + 2)

37. (d) : We know, n(AC BC) = n[(A B)C]

= n(U) n(A B)

= n(U) 100 = 700 100 = 600

38. (a) : p(x2 x) + x + 5 = 0 px2 (p 1)x + 5 = 0

p 1

5

\ a +b =

and ab=

p

p

Now,

a b 4

(a + b)2 2ab 4

+ =

=

b a 5

ab

5

( p 1)2 10 p 4

=

p2 16 p + 1 = 0

5p

5

\ p1 + p2 = 16, p1p2 = 1

p

p

( p + p )2 2 p1 p2

Now, 1 + 2 = 1 2

p2 p1

p1 p2

\ 4a = 24 a = 6

(a 3d )(a + 3d ) 7

3

=

d=

Again,

(a d )(a + d ) 15

2

3 9 15 21

\ Required numbers are , ,

,

2 2 2 2

39. (b) : Given that ar2 = 7 \ a ar ar2 ar3 ar4

= a5 r1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = a5 r10 = (ar2)5 = 75

40. (a) : Let the numbers are

a 3d, a d, a + d, a + 3d

20

Cr 1 1

1

r

=

=

20

+

2

20

1

2

r

Cr

2r = 20 r + 1 3r = 21

\ r=7

42. (b) : When y = 2, then e2x = 1 x = 0

df

df

\

= 2

Now,

= 2e 2 x

dx x =0

dx

\ The equation of the tangent is

y 2 = 2(x 0) 2x + y 2 = 0

dy

dy

y

43. (a) : xy = 5 x + y = 0

=

dx

dx

x

[Q xy = 5]

Since, the line ax + by + c = 0 is normal to the curve

y a

a

\

= 1

<0

x

b

b

the slope of the normal is negative

a

a

<0

> 0 a > 0, b > 0 or a < 0, b < 0

b

b

44. (c): Given that log2x + log2y 6 log2(xy) 6

xy 64

Also for log2x and log2y to be defined, x > 0, y > 0

... AM GM,

x+y

\

xy x + y 2 xy 2 64 = 16

2

45. (b) : Suppose xy-plane divides the join of (1, 2, 3)

and (4, 2, 1) in the ratio l : 1. Then the coordinates of

the point of division are

4 l + 1 2l + 2 l + 3

,

,

l +1 l +1 l +1

The point lies on xy-plane. So, z-coordinate = 0

l+3

= 0 l = 3

l +1

Hence, xy plane divides the join of (1, 2, 3) and

(4, 2, 1) externally in the ratio 3 : 1.

1

1

Then l = cos45 =

, m = cos 60 =

2

2

mathematics today | February 16

79

Now, l2 + m2 + n2 = 1

Let OP = r

n=

1

2

1 ^ 1 ^ 1 ^

^

^

^

i + j k

\ r = | r |(l i + m j + nk ) = 12

2

2

2

^

^

^

= 6 2 i + 6 j 6k

and if it lies in the plane also, then

3r + 2 8r + 2 + 12r + 2 20 = 0

7r = 14 r = 2

Hence the required point is (8, 7, 26)

For x (0, 1), f(x) = x lnx

1

f (x ) = x + ln x = (1 + ln x )

x

1

1

f (x) = 0 x = , f (x ) = < 0.

e

x

f (x) will be maximum at x = 1/e.

1 1 1

Maximum value of f (x) = ln = .

e e e

x 3 dt

50. (a) : f (x ) =

ln t

x2

For increasing or decreasing function,

^ ^ ^

x = i j + 2k .

The required plane passes through the point (2, 3, 1)

^

f (x ) =

=

^ ^ ^

n = i j + 2k .

So, its equation is

^

^ ^

^ ^

^

[r (2 i + 3 j + k )] ( i j + 2 k ) = 0

^ ^ ^

r (i j + 2 k) = 1

1

ln x

3x 2

1

ln x 2

2x

1

(x 2 x )

ln x

Sign of f (x)

0

1

Since f (x) > 0 for x > 0, x 1

Hence f (x) is increasing function.

It does not have minima as x = 0 is not in its

domain.

nn

px

1

40. If f(x) = A sin + B, f = 2

2

2

1

2A

and f (x )dx =

. Then the constants A and B are,

p

0

respectively

(a) p/2 and p/2

(b) 2/p and 3/p

(c) 0 and 4/p

(d) 4/p and 0

log[ x]

, where [x] is the greatest integer less

x x

than or equal to x is

(a) 1

(b) 1

(c) does not exist

(d) 0

41. Lim

subnormal are of equal length, then the length of

tangent is

(a)

(c)

2y

y

(b)

2y

the coordinate axes, the cosine of its angle of

inclination to any one of the axes is

80

(a)

(c)

1

3

1

(b)

1

2

1

(d)

2

3

vector, then the maximum value of the scalar triple

product [u v w] is

(a) 1

(b)

10 + 6

(c)

(d)

60

59

ANSWER KEYS

1.

6.

11.

16.

21.

26.

31.

36.

41.

(b)

(d)

(a)

(b)

(b)

(c)

(a)

(a)

(d)

2.

7.

12.

17.

22.

27.

32.

37.

42.

(b)

(b)

(b)

(b)

(b)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(b)

3.

8.

13.

18.

23.

28.

33.

38.

43.

(c)

(b)

(d)

(a)

(a)

(b)

(b)

(a)

(c)

4.

9.

14.

19.

24.

29.

34.

39.

44.

(a)

(b)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(c)

5.

10.

15.

20.

25.

30.

35.

40.

(a)

(c)

(c)

(b)

(b)

(c)

(a)

(d)

visit our website : www. vidyalankar.org. nn

soLUtioN set-157

h(x) = 2f(x)f (x) + 2g(x)g(x)

...(1)

Now, f (x) = g(x) f (x) = g(x)

f(x) = g(x)

[ f (x) = f(x)]

\ (1) h(x) = 2f(x) g(x) + 2g(x){f(x)} = 0

\ h(x) = c; but h(5) = 11. So 11 = c.

\ h(x ) = 11 x

\ h(10) = 11.

2. (b) : The point P(2a, a + 1)

y2 = 4x

will be an interior point of

both the circle x2 + y2 4 = 0

and the parabola y2 4x = 0

x2 + y2 = 4

(2a)2 + (a + 1)2 4 < 0

i.e., 5a2 + 2a 3 < 0

...(1)

2

and (a + 1) 4(2a) < 0,

i.e., a2 + 10a + 1 < 0

...(2)

From (1), (5a 3)(a + 1) < 0

3

\ By sign-scheme we get, 1 < a <

...(3)

5

By sign-scheme for (2), we get

5 2 6 < a < 5 + 2 6

...(4)

The set of values of a safisfying (3) and (4) is

1 < a < 5 + 2 6

3. (a) : The new equation is 2x y + 3z + 5 + l (5x 4y

2z + 1) = 0

(2 + 5l)x (1 + 4l)y + (3 2l)z + 5 + l = 0 ...(1)

It is perpendicular to 2x y + 3z + 5 = 0.

\ 2(2 + 5l) + (1 + 4l) + 3(3 2l) = 0

7

14 + 8l = 0 l =

4

Now, from (1), the required equation of plane is

27x 24y 26z = 13.

4. (d) : S = (1 + x)100 + 2x (1 + x)99 + 3x2 (1 + x)98

+ + 101x100

2

Sx

100

= (1 + x ) x + 2 x

1+ x

1+ x

1 + x

3

101

x

x

+ 3

+ ... + 101

1 + x

1 + x

Subtraction of this from the above,

S

=

1+ x

101

x 101

x

(1 + x )100 (1 + x ) 1

101

+ x

1 + x

1

( )

50

5. (b) : Taking the line as x = 5 + r cos q,

y = 4 + r sin q. It meets x + 3y + 2 = 0 at B.

\ 5 + r cos q + 3 ( 4 + r sin q) + 2 = 0

15

\

= cos q + 3 sin q

AB

6

10

= cos q sin q

= 2 cos q + sin q and

Likewise,

AD

AC

2

15 10

6

AB + AC = AD 3 sin q + 2 cos q = 0

2

or tan q =

3

2

\ The line is y + 4 = (x + 5) or 2x + 3y + 22 = 0.

3

6. (a, c) : Let S be the sample space, then

n(S) = 11 11 = 121

Consider,

A = {(x, y): |x y| = 0} = {(0, 0), ... (10, 10)}

n(A) = 11

B = {(x, y): |x y| = 1} n(B) = 20

C = {(x, y): |x y| = 2} n(C) = 18

D = {(x, y): |x y| = 3} n(D) = 16

E = {(x, y): |x y| = 4} n(E) = 14

F = {(x, y): |x y| = 5} n(F) = 12

(i) At random case: Probability

n( A) + n(B) + n(C ) + n(D) + n(E ) + n(F ) 91

=

=

n(S)

121

Solution Sender of Maths Musing

set-157

1. Gajula ravinder (Karim Nagar)

2. Khokon Kumar Nandi (West bengal)

3. N.Jayanthi (Hyderabad)

4. Gouri Sankar adhikari (West bengal)

set-156

1. Gouri Sankar adhikari (West bengal)

2. Gajula ravinder (Karim Nagar)

3. Khokon Kumar Nandi (West bengal)

4. Divyesh Saglani (Hyderabad)

mathematics today | February 16

81

n(B) + n(C ) + n(D) + n(E ) + n(F ) 80

=

=

n(S)

21

1

1

Gn 1 2 n n

= 1+

1 + ... 1 +

n n n n

n

1

G

r

lim ln n = lim ln 1 +

\

n

n n n n r =1

1

4

= ln(1 + x )dx = 2 ln 2 1 = ln

e

0

Gn 4

=

e

n n

1 n

lim f

n n r =1

r

= f (x )dx

n

2 x

= e 2 x (a cos 5x + b sin 5x ) + c

23

14

e 2 x cos 5x + sin 5x

29

29

14 23 37

\ a +b = + =

29 29 29

Rn

7

=

3

n n

lim

n n

nC j jCi

+ nC3(3C0 + 3C2 + 3C3) + nC4(4C0 + 4C1 + 4C2 + 4C4)

+ ... + nCn(nC0 + nC1 + nC2 + ... + nCn)

n

n

= C1(2) + C2(2)2 + nC3(2)3 + nC4(2)4 + ... + nCn(2)n

= (1 + 2)n 1 = 3n 1

10. (b) : P. Since a > 0, b > 0 and c > 0

(b + c)log e a (c + a)log e b (a + b)log e c

=

=

b2 c 2

c 2 a2

a 2 b2

(b + c)log e a + (c + a)log e b + (a + b)log e c

=

0

b+c

c+a

\ loge a + loge b + loge ca+b = 0

loge(ab+c + bc+a + ca+b) = 0

ab+c + bc+a + ca+b = 1

Q. AC = AP + PQ + QC

= 1 cot + 2 + 1 cot = 2 (1 + 3 )

6

6

3

3

ar ( ABC ) =

AC 2 =

4(1 + 3 )2

4

4

= 6 + 4 3.

mathematics today | February 16

nn

i =0 j =1

82

S.

lim

1

R

1 n r

7

lim n = lim 1 + = (1 + x )2 dx =

0

n

3

n n

n n r =1

9. (9) :

= (multiple of 9) + 1 ((multiple of 9) 1)

= multiple of 9 + 2.

8. (c) : Rn =

R.

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sectiOn - i

has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d), out of which only one is

correct.

Marks: 25 3 = 75

Negative marking (1)

5 + 3x 1 + x 19

+

< ,

6

2

3

x belongs to the set of whole numbers, is

(a) 3

(b) 4

(c) 5

(d) none of these

2. If 3 a 5, 5 b 2, then

(a) 0 a2 + b2 25 (b) 0 a2 + b2 50

(c) 4 a2 + b2 50 (d) 13 a2 + b2 50

3. The number of integer values of 30x, where x

1 1

belongs to the solution set of 0 < 3 < , is

x 2

(a) 2

(b) 3

(c) 4

(d) 5

4. Total number of relations from A to B is 4096,

the number of relations from B to C is 64 and the

number of relations from A to C is 256 .Then which

of the following is definitely true ?

(a) n(A) = 6

(b) n(B) = 4

(c) n(C) = 2

(d) n(A) = 3

5. The number of integers in the solution set of the

inequation 12 |4x 17| 19, are

(a) 2

(b) 3

(c) 0

(d) 4

6. P(n): n2 n + 2 is divisible by 11. This statement is

true

(a) for all n 5

(b) for all n 7

(c) for n = 5, 6, 7

(d) none of these

3

, then modulus of 5iz is

2

5

(b)

cos a

(d) 5 cot a

(a) 5 cos a

5

(c)

cos a

8. (5i26 + 3i39)2 =

(a) 16 + 30i

(c) 16 30i

9. If z =

18

1 + 3i

(b) 34 + 30i

(d) 34 30i

, then principal arg(iz) =

2

(b)

(c)

(d)

6

3

6

3

10. P(n): 3n > 9n + 2. This statement is true

(a) for all n N

(b) for all n 2

(c) for all n 4

(d) none of these

(a)

B = C A, then

(a) A B

(b) A B

(c) A = B

(d) A B

12. A = {x : x is a prime factor of 240}, B = {x : x is the

sum of any two prime factors of 240}. Then

(a) A = B

(b) 7 A B

(c) 8 A B

(d) n(A B) = 1

13. A market research group conducted a survey of

2000 consumers and reported that 1720 consumers

liked product P1 and 1450 consumers liked product

P2. The least number of consumers who must have

liked both the products is

(a) 1170

(b) 3170

(c) 270

(d) none of these

14. If X and Y are two sets, then X (Y X) equals

(a) X

(b) Y

(c) f

(d) none of these

15. The relation R defined on the set A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

by R = {(a, b): |a2 b2| > 16}, then

(a) Domain = {5}

(b) Domain = {4, 5}

(c) Domain = {1, 2, 5} (d) none of these

5

1 1 1 1

i , then

+ i +

16. If z =

3 2 3 2

(a) Re (z) = 0

(b) Im (z) = 0

(c) Re (z) > 0, Im (z) < 0

(d) Re (z) < 0, Im (z) > 0

MatheMatics tODaY | FEBRUARY 16

83

n( A B) = 4 and n(A B) = 12, then

(a) n(A B) = 6

(b) n(A B) = 2

(c) n(A B) = 72

(d) n(A B) = 56

18. Domain of f (x ) =

(a) [0, )

(c) ( , 0]

is

| x | x

(b) ( , 0)

(d) (0, )

19. If 3z + 2z = 5 + 2i , then

(a) Re(z) = 2

(b) Im(z) = 2i

(c) |z| = 5

(d) none of these

20. If (a + ib)(c + id) = 3 + 5i, then the value of

(a2 + b2 )(c2 + d2) is

(a) 4 + 30i

(b) 4 30i

(c) 29

(d) 34

21. If |z| = z + 3 2i, then z equals

7

7

(a) + i

(b) + 2i

6

6

5

5

(c) + 2i

(d) + i

6

6

22. If z is multiplicative inverse of 5 + 12i, then

Re(13z) + Im(13z) is equal to

13

(a)

(b) 65 + 156i

5 + 12i

7

(c)

(d) 7

13

23. If z, w are complex numbers and |3z| = 5, then

75 27 zw

=

z w

(a) 12

(b) 15

(c) 45

(d) none of these

24. If A = {z : (1 + 2i)z + (1 2i)z + 2 = 0} and

B = {z : (3 + 2i)z + (3 2i)z + 3 = 0}, then

(a) n(A B) = 1

(b) A B

(c) B A

(d) A B = f

25. If z1 and z2 are roots of z2 z + 1 i = 0, then a

z

possible value of 1 is

z2

(a) 1 + i

(b) 2 + 2i

(c) 1 i

(d) none of these

sectiOn-ii

This section contains 5 multiple choice questions. Each question

has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d), out of which one or more

than one is correct.

Marks: 5 4 = 20

Negative marking (2)

84

which of the following is correct.

(a) minimum value of n(A B) is 3

(b) maximum value of n(A B) is 3

(c) minimum value of n(A B) is 6

(d) maximum value of n(A B) is 9

27. S is a relation defined on R and is given by (x, y) S

if |x y| 1, then ...

(a) (x, x) S x R

(b) (x, y) S implies (y, x) S

(c) (x, x2 ) S x [ 1, 1]

(d) (x, y) S, (y, z) S implies (x, z) S

28. If |2z + 5| = 6z 9 and |z|2 = k Re(z) + g, where k and

g are real numbers, then...

(a) k 8g = 18

(b) k + 4g + 3 = 0

(c) k = 4

(d) g = 7

29. The relations f and g are defined by

2ax 2 + b, 0 x 3

f (x ) =

4 x , 3 x 10

x 2 , 0 x 2

. If these relations are also

g (x ) =

ax + b, 2 x 10

functions then

(a) 6a + b = 10

(b) 18a + b = 12

(c) 2a + b = 4

(d) 10a + b = 8

30. If 4 x < 5 then

(a) Range of f(x) = x2 + 6x + 10 is [1, 65)

1

2

(b) Range of

is , [2, )

x +3

4

(c) Range of 5 |x + 3| is ( 3, 0]

2 1

2

(d) Range of 2

is ,

x + 10 x + 27 3 51

sOlutiOns

we get x < 5.

2. (c) : 3 a 5 0 a2 25 and 5 b 2

4 b2 25 4 a2 + b2 50

1 1

1

1 1

1

< < 3 < ,3 0

x 2

2

x 2

x

5 1 7

1

< < ,x

2 x 2

3

2

2

1 60

< x < , x < 30 x < 12, 30 x 10

7

5

3

7

30x = 9, 11

3. (a) : 0 < 3

pq = 12

Similarly qr = 6 and pr = 8

(pqr)2 = 12 6 8 pqr = 24

21. (c) : z = a + ib a2 + b2 = a + ib + 3 2i

5

b = 2, a =

6

1

5 12i

5 12i

=

13z =

5 + 12i

169

13

12 4x 17 19 or 19 4x 17 12

1

5

29

x 9 or x

2

4

4

6. (d)

22. (c) : z =

3

Now < a <

sec a = sec a

2

| 5iz |= 5 | z |= 5 sec a

z (z w )

z w

= 27 z

= 9 | 3z |= 45

z w

z w

24. (a) : (1 + 2i)z + (1 2i)z + 2 = 0 x + 2 y + 1 = 0

and (3 + 2i)z + (3 2i)z + 3 = 0 6 x + 4 y + 3 = 0

A and B have one common element

\ (5i26 + 3i39)2 = ( 5 3i)2

= 25 9 + 30i = 16 + 30i

9. (b) : z =

iz =

10. (c)

18

1 + 3i

18i

1 + 3i

arg(iz ) =

6

iz =

18i(1 3i) 18

= ( 3 i)

4

4

= 27

1 1 4(1 i)

25. (d) : z 2 z + 1 i = 0 z =

2

z

i

i(1 i)

=

z = 1 + i, i 1 =

z2 1 + i

2

or

z1 1 + i

= 1 + i

=

i

z2

27. (a, b)

28. (a, b, c) : |2z + 5| = |6z 9| |2z + 5|2 = |6z 9|2

11. (c)

12. (d) : 240 = 24.3.5 A = {2, 3, 5} and B = {5, 7, 8}

13. (a) : |U| = 2000, |P1| = 1720, |P2| = 1450,

|P1 + P2| = |P1| + |P2| |P1P2| |P1 + P2| = 3170 |P1P2|

but |P1 + P2| 2000 3170 |P1P2| 2000

|P1P2| 1170

14. (c)

15. (c) : R = {(1, 5), (2, 5), (5, 1), (5, 2)}

\ Domain = {1, 2, 5}

16. (b) : Here z = z Im(z ) = 0

17. (d) : AB = A + B AB AB = 3

Also A = AB + AB = 8

Similarly B = 7

18. (b) : f(x) is defined if |x| x > 0 i.e. |x| > x x < 0

19. (d) : z = a + ib a = 1, b = 2

\

75 27 zw 27 zz 27 zw

Now,

=

z w

z w

7

32 | z |2 = 64(z + z ) 56 | z |2 = 2(z + z )

4

7

2

| z | = 4 Re(z )

4

29. (b, c, d)

1 (x + 3)2 + 1 < 65 1 f(x) < 65

4x<5

1 x + 3 < 8 1 x + 3 < 0 or 0 < x + 3 < 8

2

1

2

2 or <

<

<

x +3

4 x +3

1

2 f (x ) < or < f (x ) <

4

4 x < 5 1 x + 5 < 10 1 (x + 5)2 < 100

2

1

3 (x + 5)2 + 2 < 102 f (x ) <

3

51

20. (d)

nn

MatheMatics tODaY | FEBRUARY 16

85

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