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Introduction

This guide describes how to set up and perform Bending Moment in a Beam experiments.

From this experiment will clearly demonstrates the principals involved and gives

practical support to our studies.

Description

The bending moment in a Beam experiment is shown in figure 1.It consists of a beam,

which is cut by a pivot. To stop the beam collapsing a moment arm bridges the cut onto

a load cell thus reacting (and measuring) the bending moment force. The force from the

load cell is shown in a digital display.

The beam geometry and hanger positions are shown on the left-hand support of the beam

in the diagram. Hanger supports are 20 mm apart, and have a center slot, which positions

the hangers. The moment arm is 125 mm long.

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Apparatus

First of all, we set up the apparatus before the experiment.

But we need to pay attention on several precaution, we need to always

1. Inspect electrical leads, for damage or wear

2. Make sure that the electrical connection are correct

3. Check the fastening and make sure that all the components are good in condition

and setup properly.

4. Put the test frame in proper position. A rigid, level surface that easily available is

stand by the test frame carefully.

Please be caution that excessive load is prohibit on the equipment.

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1. Test frame that assemble before is place on a workbench. Before this the

window of the test frame must be easily available.

2. Refer to the figure 3, slide the four securing nuts on the top member of the

frame to approximately position.

3. Fit the left hand support to the top member of the frame by the right hand end

of the resting on the bottom member of the test frame. Make sure that the

internal bars are sitting on the frame squarely with push the support on the

frame.

4. Put the remaining two thumbscrews into securing nuts and lift the right hand

support into position. Ensure that the internal bars are sitting on the frame

squarely by push the support on to the frame. The rolling pivot is middle of its

travel because the support position horizontally. The thumbscrews are

tightening.

5. The Digital Force Display is checked, make sure that on is display. Mini

DIN lead from Force Input 1 on the Digital Force Display is connecting to

the socket marked Force Output on the left-hand support of the experiment.

The beam must not touch the lead.

6. Force meter located on the left hand beam of the experiment is adjusted to

zero carefully by using dial. Centre of the beam is applied carefully with a

small quantity of load with a finger. The meter is adjusted to zero again if that

is necessarily.

Note: Lightly tap the frame if the meter is only 0.1 difference (this should overcome it if

there is little striation)

Experiment

Experiment 1: Bending Moment Variation at the Point of Loading

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This experiment examines how bending moment varies at the point of loading. The force

diagram for the beam is shown at figure 3 below.

BM (at cut) = Wa

(la)

l

The following table is useful in converting the masses used in the experiment to loads.

Mass (Grams)

Load (Newtons)

100

0.98

200

1.96

300

2.94

400

3.92

500

4.90

Table 1: Grams to Newtons conversion table

Procedure

1) Read zero with no load by checking the Digital Display meter.

2) A hanger with mass 100 g is placed at the cut.

3) The length from Ra to Rb is 440mm while the length from Ra to cut is 260mm.

4 | Page

5) Repeat the experiment by using different masses: 200g, 300g, 400g, and 500g.

6) The mass is converted into a load (in N) and the force reading into bending

moment (Nm).

Bending moment at the cut (in Nm) = Displayed forced x 0.125

7) The theoretical bending moment at the cut is calculate and complete in Table 2.

The cut position of the beam for various loading conditions varies with bending moment.

Algebraic sum of the moments caused by the forces acting to the left or right of the cut

equal to the bending moment at the cut.

Before this, ensure that is zero force display on Digital Force Display Meter.

The beam with the hangers in the position shown in figure is load carefully by using load

indicate in the table. Result shown in Digital Force Display is record down in a table.

Bending Moment is converting from the force reading by using the formula as below:

Bending moment at the cut (in Nm) = Displayed force x 0.125

Support reaction (RA and RB) must involve in the calculation for the theoretical bending

moment at the cut.

Load the beam with the procedure as shown in figure 5 and 6.

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Result

Mass (g)

0

100

200

300

400

500

Experimental

Load (N)

Force (N)

bending

moment (Nm)

0

0

0

0.9810

0.6000

0.0750

1.9620

1.1000

0.1375

2.9430

1.8000

0.2250

3.9240

2.3000

0.2875

4.9050

3.0000

0.3750

Table 2: Result for experiment 1

Theoretical

bending

moment (Nm)

0

0.4013

0.8026

1.2039

1.6053

2.0066

2.5

2

2.01

1.61

1.5

1.2

11

0.8

0.5

00

0.4

0.08

0.14

0.23

0.29

0.38

Mass

Experimental bending moment (Nm)

7 | Page

Figure

W1 (N)

4

5

6

1.9620

0.9810

3.9240

W2

(N)

Force

(N)

Experimental

Bending

Moment (Nm)

2.94

2.94

-0.6000

2.2000

2.5

-0.0750

0.2750

0.3125

RA (N)

RB (N)

2.5836

1.6927

2.0491

-0.6236

2.2273

4.8109

Theoretical

Bending

Moment

(Nm)

-0.0877

0.3118

0.6735

Discussion

The factor of errors that may have caused the large percentage between the measured

moment from the experiment and theoretical moment are as follow:

Human error

Human error took place during experimenting such as load error, which might have

contributed to the discrepancies in the final results. Load should be added carefully to

ensure that it is according to the procedures requirement.

Device sensitivity

The device was sensitive to minor change in the experiment such as vibration and wind

blow. This caused the reading gained to be deviated from the actual values. Experiment

should be carried out in a steady state to minimize the effect of device sensitivity to

unnecessary change.

Device accuracy

The device can only detect up to 0.1N changes in the force of the beam. This may

contribute to overall accuracy discrepancies in the reading.

Frictional Forces

Frictions at the support joints may have also caused slight deviation in the reading,

causing deviations and inaccuracy in the reading. In ideal condition, experiment should

be conducted at a frictionless environment.

Conclusion

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The comparisons between the experimental bending moment and the theoretical

bending moment for a beam under various loads are as follow:

Example for 100g,

Average experimental bending moment = 0.0750Nm

Theoretical bending moment = 0.4013Nm

Percentage Difference = 81.31%

References

1) http://www.tecquipment.com/Datasheets/STR2_0213.pdf

2) http://dcomm.cxc.lsu.edu/portfolios/09fall/jboard2/Bending_lab_report_Final

.pdf

3) http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~labossip/2222/Lab4.pdf

4) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bending_moment

9 | Page

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