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The Bending Moment In A Beam Experiment

Introduction
This guide describes how to set up and perform Bending Moment in a Beam experiments.
From this experiment will clearly demonstrates the principals involved and gives
practical support to our studies.

Description
The bending moment in a Beam experiment is shown in figure 1.It consists of a beam,
which is cut by a pivot. To stop the beam collapsing a moment arm bridges the cut onto
a load cell thus reacting (and measuring) the bending moment force. The force from the
load cell is shown in a digital display.
The beam geometry and hanger positions are shown on the left-hand support of the beam
in the diagram. Hanger supports are 20 mm apart, and have a center slot, which positions
the hangers. The moment arm is 125 mm long.

Figure 1 The bending moment in a Beam experiment

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The Bending Moment In A Beam Experiment

Apparatus

How to set up the equipment


First of all, we set up the apparatus before the experiment.
But we need to pay attention on several precaution, we need to always
1. Inspect electrical leads, for damage or wear
2. Make sure that the electrical connection are correct
3. Check the fastening and make sure that all the components are good in condition
and setup properly.
4. Put the test frame in proper position. A rigid, level surface that easily available is
stand by the test frame carefully.
Please be caution that excessive load is prohibit on the equipment.
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The Bending Moment In A Beam Experiment

We may already complete the instruction from steps 1 to 4.


1. Test frame that assemble before is place on a workbench. Before this the
window of the test frame must be easily available.
2. Refer to the figure 3, slide the four securing nuts on the top member of the
frame to approximately position.
3. Fit the left hand support to the top member of the frame by the right hand end
of the resting on the bottom member of the test frame. Make sure that the
internal bars are sitting on the frame squarely with push the support on the
frame.
4. Put the remaining two thumbscrews into securing nuts and lift the right hand
support into position. Ensure that the internal bars are sitting on the frame
squarely by push the support on to the frame. The rolling pivot is middle of its
travel because the support position horizontally. The thumbscrews are
tightening.
5. The Digital Force Display is checked, make sure that on is display. Mini
DIN lead from Force Input 1 on the Digital Force Display is connecting to
the socket marked Force Output on the left-hand support of the experiment.
The beam must not touch the lead.
6. Force meter located on the left hand beam of the experiment is adjusted to
zero carefully by using dial. Centre of the beam is applied carefully with a
small quantity of load with a finger. The meter is adjusted to zero again if that
is necessarily.
Note: Lightly tap the frame if the meter is only 0.1 difference (this should overcome it if
there is little striation)

Experiment
Experiment 1: Bending Moment Variation at the Point of Loading
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The Bending Moment In A Beam Experiment

This experiment examines how bending moment varies at the point of loading. The force
diagram for the beam is shown at figure 3 below.

This experiment will use the following equation:


BM (at cut) = Wa

(la)
l

The following table is useful in converting the masses used in the experiment to loads.
Mass (Grams)
Load (Newtons)
100
0.98
200
1.96
300
2.94
400
3.92
500
4.90
Table 1: Grams to Newtons conversion table

Procedure
1) Read zero with no load by checking the Digital Display meter.
2) A hanger with mass 100 g is placed at the cut.
3) The length from Ra to Rb is 440mm while the length from Ra to cut is 260mm.
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The Bending Moment In A Beam Experiment

4) The Digital Force Display reading is recorded in Table 1.


5) Repeat the experiment by using different masses: 200g, 300g, 400g, and 500g.
6) The mass is converted into a load (in N) and the force reading into bending
moment (Nm).
Bending moment at the cut (in Nm) = Displayed forced x 0.125
7) The theoretical bending moment at the cut is calculate and complete in Table 2.

Experiment 2: Bending Moment Variation away from the Point of Loading

The cut position of the beam for various loading conditions varies with bending moment.

A statement is used in this experiment:


Algebraic sum of the moments caused by the forces acting to the left or right of the cut
equal to the bending moment at the cut.

Before this, ensure that is zero force display on Digital Force Display Meter.
The beam with the hangers in the position shown in figure is load carefully by using load
indicate in the table. Result shown in Digital Force Display is record down in a table.
Bending Moment is converting from the force reading by using the formula as below:
Bending moment at the cut (in Nm) = Displayed force x 0.125
Support reaction (RA and RB) must involve in the calculation for the theoretical bending
moment at the cut.
Load the beam with the procedure as shown in figure 5 and 6.

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The Bending Moment In A Beam Experiment

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The Bending Moment In A Beam Experiment

Result

Mass (g)
0
100
200
300
400
500

Experimental
Load (N)
Force (N)
bending
moment (Nm)
0
0
0
0.9810
0.6000
0.0750
1.9620
1.1000
0.1375
2.9430
1.8000
0.2250
3.9240
2.3000
0.2875
4.9050
3.0000
0.3750
Table 2: Result for experiment 1

Theoretical
bending
moment (Nm)
0
0.4013
0.8026
1.2039
1.6053
2.0066

Graph Between Experimental Mending Moment and Theoretical Bending Moment


2.5
2

2.01
1.61

1.5

Bending Moment (Nm)

1.2

11
0.8
0.5
00

0.4
0.08

0.14

0.23

0.29

0.38

Mass
Experimental bending moment (Nm)

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Theoretical bending moment (Nm)

The Bending Moment In A Beam Experiment

Figure

W1 (N)

4
5
6

1.9620
0.9810
3.9240

W2
(N)

Force
(N)

Experimental
Bending
Moment (Nm)

2.94
2.94

-0.6000
2.2000
2.5

-0.0750
0.2750
0.3125

RA (N)

RB (N)

2.5836
1.6927
2.0491

-0.6236
2.2273
4.8109

Theoretical
Bending
Moment
(Nm)
-0.0877
0.3118
0.6735

Table 3: Result for experiment 2

Discussion
The factor of errors that may have caused the large percentage between the measured
moment from the experiment and theoretical moment are as follow:
Human error
Human error took place during experimenting such as load error, which might have
contributed to the discrepancies in the final results. Load should be added carefully to
ensure that it is according to the procedures requirement.
Device sensitivity
The device was sensitive to minor change in the experiment such as vibration and wind
blow. This caused the reading gained to be deviated from the actual values. Experiment
should be carried out in a steady state to minimize the effect of device sensitivity to
unnecessary change.
Device accuracy
The device can only detect up to 0.1N changes in the force of the beam. This may
contribute to overall accuracy discrepancies in the reading.
Frictional Forces
Frictions at the support joints may have also caused slight deviation in the reading,
causing deviations and inaccuracy in the reading. In ideal condition, experiment should
be conducted at a frictionless environment.
Conclusion

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The Bending Moment In A Beam Experiment

The comparisons between the experimental bending moment and the theoretical
bending moment for a beam under various loads are as follow:
Example for 100g,
Average experimental bending moment = 0.0750Nm
Theoretical bending moment = 0.4013Nm
Percentage Difference = 81.31%

References
1) http://www.tecquipment.com/Datasheets/STR2_0213.pdf
2) http://dcomm.cxc.lsu.edu/portfolios/09fall/jboard2/Bending_lab_report_Final
.pdf
3) http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~labossip/2222/Lab4.pdf
4) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bending_moment

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