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IMI1G1IU~S IU~hi'l!

lm IRdbiai'lil1mi IPoittass'~uml CaldllJlm Sodium, IMaglrilesi'lJlm AllllIJmilrilum IMangalrilese Zinc

Illmn

IrNJiklkel

lim,

ILead COIPiPeir S'~lllveir

IP~aittilrilum Gold

~~~~~'-LI 5_y_nt_h_e_si_s __ ~~LI A_+_B_·-7 __ G_. ~~~~~~J

IMlClsi adilVie

~... knowlHdge of tmm:iirng e-7.A.+ El

'-- ~ and periodic table

I

Decomposition

I

A + OlC.Ygen -7 ox ides o.f A. + o.ther ccmpoundtsl

r.

L- --l

Combustiorn

,~ activity series ![If metals and halogerns

,~ krnowledge oi bonding and periodic table

''====(10<1: Si ng IEi' Dis p 1,81 cem ent

'-- A_·_+_El_C_~ __ A_G_+_B_. __ ~~

IlEi!ast " adil'VIii!

IMAIOGIEINS I~ II!lJliQri~ne Chiliolrilllle I~rumilrne IIlodine

,~ understanding of selubilitv

,~ krnowledgE! oi bonding and periodic table

r

L- ~

AG -if- BD~AD + BC

/

Sllilb liev@ills (types, 0'" o~b'ibds)' plJ1esent

rlIllIIlwber of o:rbjtalis Ireil!ated ito slillb~e1j.llell

'l s

//

2s 2p

///

3s 3p :3d

////

,4i,s ,4,p lid 4f

////

L5s Sp 5d !if

///

os op 'cd

//

r« 1p

p d f

1 'ill +- 01'--

2, :2

Neg.i.~~. i .•........•. ' I a~

'''"

IIIIIIIIIIIIIII~

IIIIIIIIIIIIIII~

ikendls in .Atomic Radii

.;"''';" ., 'II 1.------'1

in;c~'asiin;g '--------,.-----'

1l!lemmlll

afifiilility

diri!3dialil (lif ililcmasiliiQI 1l!19Il:!tron;8ga~i'<!ii]y

I

3..3

~
H
2.10
3: 4
l!i Be
(L98 157
HI 12
Na M~
0.'913 1, ·;1
19 2.0 211 12
III: ca Soc Ti
0..182 1 .. 00 11.36 1.54!
~~, 38 39 410
511' Y ZII'
0.82 0.,95 1112 1.3]
l~b ~5Jo 57 72
(~ B1I1 ta !!If
0.19 (]I,:891 U L3
!g1 !8l8 89 I~\
Fir IRa All:
0.10. (]I,'11C!1 U I DeledJronegati'llity -c 1.0

• 1.0~. electJliolllceg'ativilrty -c 2.JI'

• 2 .. 0 ~. electl~ollilieglativilrty <:: ~ .1[11

• ~.O ~.electJliollilieglativilrty -e 4.101

5 6 7 8 9 Be. 0 F 2.04 2.55 l..O4 1M 3.98

113 114 15 16 17

All ~i 51 5 a

hi?r-h~h::-::-"T"""~""T"""~"'T"""="""T"""~""'T""~--r-""':':""::-'T"~:-T~:--r~+11.;;:;:6..;..11 +1.;.;;1.9::0~·. 1.19 2.58 3.16 ,29 .30 3~ 32 B 14 35

(lUI Zn 'Gal 'Ge As 5e Br

tOO 11.65 11.811 2.011 1.18 2.55 2..96

47 48 49 50 511 52 53

1~~ 11~~~ 11~;18 1~;6 ,2~:5 I~ 2..~6

79 80 8 ~ 82 83 84 85

All H glill Pb B~ Po At

2..4 1.9 1.8 HI i.s 2..0 1.1

2:3 2:41 15 16 .21 2:8
V (r Mlil Fe (iO! Ni
1.6] ~ .. 66 11,55 11,88 1.8:8: 1.91
41 4.2 43 44 45 46
Nil, MOo re Ru Rh Pd
TI.6 2.J16 2.,10 1.2. 1.18 1.2.0
13 741 75 76 77 78
Ifa 'III RJe Os Ir PI
TI.5 11.7 TI:9 1.2. 2..2 2.2 .58 5'9 60 61 61 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 :70 71
'C@ Pr N!III Pm Sm Iliu Cd Tb Dy He! Er 1m Vb lu
1.12 1.13 1.Iol 1.17 1.20 1.22 1.23 1.24 l.25- 1.0
'90 9"1 '92 '93 9"4
Th POl U Nip P,u
l.3 1.5 1.7 1..3 1.3 p0111H' Govi3llel1l1 (J!J,EN 0.4-1 .7~·

1

N08-. m\!jI[)Oo-. :s>()h.l!lb~e CLOI,3-

G8J(e~03)'2 ~S iasoluble

[;~+, Na4-, [1(+, Rb+,J::s:4-. NH",+

,,,",,,,,+' 'imi, ''''',24- ['''m,' ,4- ",~ ,,!I:"11LJ .::!I!g

4

COs 2-. FO,~:!I-. 02-, ,82-;, IOH-

[msQlufu~e BaO ami Ba(OHb i3i1'e so[ub1e.

GOOI!.I!P' 2. sl!.I!lfides rend 00 d!8C Dn"lliiP0s.e ,"

5

1ifalem::e ~-1

him

CN-

lH~,P04 - d~hydrogen phosphate

CIOr hypocfulo:rmte

N02- n~.ltrire

hydnTIgen calI'bomalte

lHS- hydrogen sl!.I!lfide

UH- hydm:dde

HSO.t-

hydn:ng,en slll~:lf:are

I en Nllame

cadtmmril:e

oxalate

cmom;ate

hydn:n'gen pfuosophlle

hydn:ngen pfuosophate

S~U1l2- silicate

him

aesenate

11m Nllame

hypo

ite .x - 2 oxygen alt~m:s:

He .x - 'ffi oxygen alt~m.:S:

am .x oxygen altoms

mass ·ofsotute. (gJl IffiTh;1SS ·of SO]UtiOiD (g)

x'IT.oo%

mas", of i5ob.i.tie (g) mass of sohrtio,[I. (g)

Mas", of i5oh.itJe (g) mass of sorn.utio[l. (g)

molar ClOIIJ:cen1iIatio[l lmcl/L], C IMol,u'ity

m@les o~sollilm killlGglram of SQlvl8i1i1l,t

Ea~fwdf InO catalyst

HANS:IlniON SlA1ES

*~

*'

.»: !!J ncetalvzed

Ea(rev) IilO catalyst

Ea~fwdf with estalvst

PRO [)U crs

!

Enthalpy C:hang,es for 'Exo,th@nnk and

End,01l:hennic: Readio,ns

IIJInits of R

IN u me~i:ca'll 'U'a'l:u:e~f R

L'dltm mol·l(

0.0821

l...IkPa mol·111(

l'mm IHUg mol'll<

R,e .aft.,on sh ips Am,on 9 Ener,gry IIJ nits

C~mIlersi~1m ifiac,t~lrs

1 JI

0.2::1'90 eal 0.2::1'90 i(;al 1 JI

11 ,calli = 4. '11 &ill ~l

ij cal 4.18:4.J 4.1MJ ij cal

111kJ = HmO J

1i<J '11000. ~l

11000. ~l 1i<J

'1 Cailioliie '11 o~o' cal .

1I0(!l<[I' cal

1 kcal

'11 (:a I@riile = '11 Ik!cal

Si,gn of ,~N;Ii'IIiIl'

ilJipe of madi'an

Il[nda~he:rmii:[

Acid

aIDiI.y slillJlbsltanGetn;at dissoelstes to fonD H+~n aq_me@'ms solutkm

ai~.y slillJlbstamGetlliru;a~ prov~des, a p'wtrm 1:0 another suhi5~ai~(}e [or aIDilyslillJlbsltaU:Ge &om~vhkfu aproltmil. maybe removed)

Base

aIDily slillJlbsltamGe that dissoelatea to fOITIl OH- i.~ aq_me@'ms solutkm

ai~y slillJlbstamGetlliru;a~ raeai ves aprnton &om alii. acid (Of amy substance tlmt removes, a p'r@to~. from an acid)

he1t1ivee~. ions he1twee:IDiI.moleC:LIl~e:5

'Type ,lltfml\ll,e I(i~ltramo~eculad l(i~~em!lo~ecuh:l!lI')

betw,e,en mm~eclillJles [intermolecular]

llquid Oli' gas

I(CaIDiI als:mbe s'OH!d)

Example

GAS

Mleltilrng

Sollubiliirtiesals a lFundtiiion of Temlpelraiture UIO

8 '90
""
::I: ;80
,C'lI
0 10
0
~
..._,.
!l.i' 150
~
::!I
"E !)O
,~,
-
0
C'lI 40
~
>.
.~ so
::5
::I 20
"E
VI '1 0 I,ca C II
.2
II
I
_, V
K'C~ -~ ~
~ "...... L
_,,;1'
c- ~ NaCI ~ V
"... " , IKICH):;:
-, ~ ~
_...
I"'ioo. -- Oe2(S.oIl!):;:.
- n

n 10 20 lO 40 ~(iI 150 1'0 80 90 1(10

'femp!E!lI'atlUlre (O,e)

8 "1 '3 E.<

.... !OJ

(;

E 5

~

~4

,,.c, 3: ::!I

(; i:

VI

~:!:)IIiIli1l!all

, tmee;z~IiI!i1 , Ipoo'rnt

I Normal I boillnq I . ..,

I porrn

I

I

I I I

VAPOIR

OJIO

109.00 T@mJP@lI'atlUlrli!·~egl'

Soil Wlbiiill ity ,of C01 in Water at ~ atml

\ I
"
""
-,
r-,
~ ........ 1 o

n 10 20 l040 50 160

1Il!mIP@rantwlr"lE!rC)

Examune tlhe substance.

t. A pure eleme:illiI.~fu.as aiillil.mxidi.a.~~.on uLrnllber ·mf'lIli.

N.a~Iil Naw,lSlr~n Br2{iIJ,iUildi.P iillil.P 'l:~S) al] halite aiillil. oxidi.a.~~J!3illi1. nuroher .@,f 01.

:2. The oxidation member of. an elemeillil.~ iillil. a monatoraleion equals ~fue cfumrge of. ~fue·~iOn.

The mxi,daltioillilillilurnlbe:r of A~ .~Iil 1\..p4- Is +3. T.iIrue ox:id!;a~~iOn number mf Se iillil. Se2- is; -2.

~ioli1i:at~mil:( il:on

ion 1......-.....;..;;-;-- ........

3. The oxidation member of. hydrogen iillil.HsG@mpOIill!Dds~.:s; +'ffi ,. ex(}ept iillil. metal hydrilldes,~v'e:m ~fue mxidi.a.llioillil. nureber ·mfhydlmgen is -1.

The mxi,daltioillilillilurnlher of Hi iillil.H28 or CH'I. is *" L The o:ddl;a~~.on rrumber of H InN<lH Oli' iillil.CaH2 is; -'ffi.

Oxidation number equals zero.

,~, The oxidation member of. oxyg,e:illiI iillil. its compounds Isusually -.2, but ~fue:re aire excaptions, Tfuese:~ndude pereeddes, Slill!c·fu as H20:!, <IUd ~he mmpolill!ndi. O[li 2;'

'5. IilliI. ·Gmva~.el[t cou)!lllolill!Iildis ~fu.alt dm no~ oantaln hydrogen@r oxygen,. ~fue mora ernJ8iCl1tmillilegi1lthre elemeillil.~ is assig[iJ.edi. an oxidation numher ~fu.aJt equals tllirue negaMve dil;3jrg~ .~.~ usually has iillil. its iOI[~JC compounds.

16. The SLrnI. of the oxidatlenemmbera of. all theelernants ill a eempoued is i[J, ..

J. The SLrnI. mf the ox~!dati:@l[illiIumhel's of. all theelements in a po[Y13.to:rnIic: imn equals the dil<lirg~ on the ion.

The mxi,daltioillilillilurnlbe:r of 10 iillil. U20 or InKNO.3~s -2.

The mxi,daltioillilillilurnlbe:r of ern iillil. P1C~:l is -1. The ox~!dationillilumbBr of S .~n CS2; Is-.2,.,

in CF,.,. ~fue· oxid!.a.~~aillil. numher ·@fF is -1, and the ox~!dati:onillilumber of e isM .. '[+4)1 +41[- 'ffi) = 01

OJl1i:dailt~'rm lriIumlbe:r e,qIllJ1alis, tha c:harg;e,.

Oxidatlon number 01 lIhe mort electronegative element is the same as the charge it wOUilid halve as an ion,

Thesum of the oxl datl () n numbers equals zero.

in NO.z-, ~fuH mxidiallioillil. numeer mfO is -2,. and the oxldation numher of. N :~.:s: +3, (+=3) + 2; (-2} = -'ill

I ~ .Assi g n exidation rlU rebe rs to

Write unbalanced net ionic equation

. . identify redloxrea ction

In eludle H20 .md H-, as nacessarv

Ba I an ce atrn s of oxidizeilJ ,a nd I---~---l reilJ ue edl ele merits

I clerdy e lern ent o,xidlizedi a rid element reduced

find increaseand decrease in o,xidat~o n n um be rs

Find sreallestwhole-rnuretler ratio. o,f oxidlized a rid redlu ce d elements

IN·e:u:llua I IC~nd'i~i:~ns

Bala n ce oohe r '---~I

slarnants by inspection

il:Oll'll

Tbe sumef itJ'lle ,o~~datiQn II'llWJIMrbern e,quall!l1lthe ,charg:e on the i~Q\I'II •.

IPiroC)eSS Oxiiidatilnln Rl(!dlllldioln

IUedf\olnl .Amm ~oS'e Atom g ai~n5

transfer ·elecllroli1i5 electrons

Ch~lrng€! 11m ~ ncnr>e<3r!'iiE!!'ii lJi<eoreaS'es

oxlidaUofll

mlllmibelf

Balanceassul11lirn~ r---- acidic corndrnorns

.Adcl 011 to "rleillralize" HT io ns p ress rnt

Sim plrry resuln rn'lll eQlU an 0 n, if possi tile

'~. I "
methane 1
ethane 2:
J!lmpiane 3
butane 4
pe![jJJlaime 5
hexane ,6
heptl1ime 'J
(]c~<IiIile 8
nonane 9
decame '1[0 molecular fumrll . ila

alkane

alkene

pmpeme

alk.yne

-G-G-

pmpyne

R:--OH

IEither

Ami~ne

'0

IIII ~-C-IH

IEiIlher

Caribonylll

IKewrne

Caribonylll

o

III \'!'-C-O~

lEster

()

IIII ~-C-O-R

Amiiide

10 IHI

IIII II

I'O-C-lrN.I-R

Amiiido

R V2!Fd:8Jllle side CllliaJdlil

I

AliIliimo grDI!lj] H2N - C - C- 0 H CEl!rboxy!. grDI!lj]

II II

H.ydliogelii.a~om" 0

Ili2[i1iJ--C -OH

III III

H 10

Gllly{;iII1Uil

Ili2[i1iJ- C-C -OH

III III

H 10

(j luiltamii:caciild

1~li9Jiid ine

Aliia

G,I<Irt:amii:c add

I~olileuciilne

IMlettthiilolml,ine IMeitt

Ahelllyialllall1lmne IlPhe

Rroilline Pro

Valill1le 'Valli

His

1IIIe

H2N1I-C. - C-OHI

III lUI

HI 0

(j l'Ulliltamine

Cysteine

H2N11- III Iii

l~y:5illle

o

I CH2 I

IHl2[iIiJ - C- C. - OH

III 1I11

H 0

Vali~lI1e

TyIP€! ·oflj IlI'adi~(ldiiwe ·decay

H2N1I-C - C-OHI

III 11]1

IHI 0

Cibangeiin massnumiler

Cil1ange iin ,atomic numbe:1I'

AI pha decay

Beta d!ec:ay

Oa '-111-'

Nio change

Nio chall1lge

Nio change

Nio chall1lge

Nlo dhall1lge

.. Cionvemiom be-tween IlC + 2.73 = K

lltemlpelrabJlrescalles: K- 273 = 'Die

.. II,aw 01 conservation of mass lMasSreactaliilits= Mals~pmdl:uct:s

.. IDetermli 1'iII~lfiIg the In lIlmber oFf pmnt:Oif'i1ls ail1delledimrlis fil,.,il!nmlk: = rIiIllJImber = number

mumber of p:ro~oms efeleetsons

• IOeterminlingl the number of neutrons

IriI4ltr1mber of ne~dJfQn:s

mass rIiIlliImber

atomk rIilllilmber

.' IE melrgy c~ange oFf a,filelledmn:

ll,f3= fhigl'l€!H!I'I@rgiY oMl:li~ -E1ower-'!!!nerm' o~bi,t ~,f3= fpt'ilmon = h,v

11 mole

moles off lmknowrlil

.. m oles ot known x = moles oii lin known

m oles of known

momar mals,_~EI mdlar massA

.. '. . P11V11

• Comibulledl glas Ilarw:. -T . , 11

• Iideall glas ~Iarw: PV= nlRT

• Ifirildirilg mollalf mass: M = ~W

If· d· d ., V·MP • lril. lrilg ,emillty: , .. =RT

P2V:z 1'2

51 52 ~ HlemlllfY'S Illaw,: '~ = D. ' q r2

, mass ofr SQ,lllJIle

~ IPelfcenrt by mass = . ,. x 1100

mass 10m s:o~llUlIili()riI

• IBoli~lli ng pOlinrt ellevartmon: ,tt lib = Kb m

• Ifr;ee.lling perhlll dlepresslion: ,& 1".= Klfm

~ q = ,e x .m x a,T

~ IPIHI ~ -log I[HIT]

~ IPO~ ~-Ilog I[OIH-]

• pHI + pOIHl .~ l4~OO

• Kw ~. [HI-9-I[OHI-1

~ E:xponernil!Jialll decayfurilrdion: .' n . tn

AmolUnrt l'iemamnirilg = (lrillitiall amOILm1l!)(~) e,r AmmJlrnt remaiinmngl= (1IInit~al amo!lJlnt)(~)