Forest plot

y Shows the estimate and confidence interval for

each study, and commonly a summary estimate y Study effect estimate is marked with a square proportional to a study¶s weight and inversely proportional to the variance y µEyeball¶ the between study heterogeneity

Funnel plot
y Measure for effect size on x axis and measure

related to within study variance on the y axis
y Smaller

studies have estimates that are more

scattered and further removed from the summary estimate y Funnel like distribution that is assumed to be symmetrical without publication bias
y i.e. If studies are µmissing¶ on one side of the plot then

this might be attributed to publication bias
y Limitations of funnel plots?

Trim and fill plot
y Also a funnel plot y Uses imputation methods to µfill¶ in studies which

appear to be missing and therefore leading to asymmetry y The plot includes the imputed studies and an additional dotted line indicating both the original summary estimate and the summary estimate would after imputed studies are included

Galbraith plot
y Assesses the extent of heterogeneity between

studies in a meta analysis y y axis shows the effect size divided by SE (z score) y x axis shows the inverse of the standard error y Regression line runs through a dot plot of studies, with a 2 standard deviation interval between which most studies should be expected to fall if the studies were estimating a single parameter

L¶Abbe plot
y Only applicable to meta-analyses of studies which y y y y

consider binary outcomes Plots the risks/odds in the exposed group against those in the control group Contains a regression line and a central diagonal line indicating identical risk Size of the dots are proportional to the study weights Substantial spread around the regression line may indicate increasing between study heterogeneity

Other options
y Normal quantile plot
y Study z score on y axis and normalized quantile

of its rank on x axis. y Is the data normal (dots on a straight line), is the data heterogenous (clustering of dots) and is there publication bias (deviation of the tails from regression line)
y Standardized residual plots
y Histogram plots the fractions of categorized

standardized residuals in vertical bars y Overlay of normal distribution assesses heterogeneity and departures from normality

y Advantages and disadvantages of different plots y Results of simulation studies
y Reproducibility y Judgement of publication bias y Validity

y Summary

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