You are on page 1of 34


This is our 10th edition of Yojana Gist and the 1st edition of Kurukshetra Gist,
released for the month of January, 2016. Both the magazines are increasingly
finding a place in the questions of both UPSC Prelims and Mains and therefore,
weve come up with this initiative to equip you with knowledge thatll help you
in your preparation for the CSE.
Every Issue deals with a single topic comprehensively sharing views from a
wide spectrum ranging from academicians to policy makers to scholars. The
magazine is essential to build an in-depth understanding of various socioeconomic issues.
From the exam point of view, however, not all articles are important. Some go
into scholarly depths and others discuss agendas that are not relevant for your
preparation. Added to this is the difficulty of going through a large volume of
information, facts and analysis to finally extract their essence that may be
useful for the exam.
We are not discouraging from reading the magazine itself. So, do not take this
as a document which you take read, remember and reproduce in the
examination. Its only purpose is to equip you with the right understanding.
But, if you do not have enough time to go through the magazines, you can rely
on the content provided here for it sums up the most essential points from all
the articles.
You need not put hours and hours in reading and making its notes in pages. We
believe, a smart study, rather than hard study, can improve your preparation
Think, learn, practice and keep improving! That is the key to success

Women & Girls Education: Issues in India

What are the different perspectives of gender discrimination in India as far as
education is concerned? What are the issues and ways forward?
Gender as a category needs to be seen within larger social, regional and
locational context. Socio-economic inequalities and gender-relation
promotes/impedes girls ability to go through schooling. Cultural beliefs &
practices and regional characteristics also play an important role.
Poverty, social inequalities and gender relations intersect in different ways in
different parts of the country

Rural-urban differences (enrolment, attendance, completion) greater

than male-female differences.
Backward-forward areas (Regional differences) greater than gender and
social group differences.
Disparities between BPL households and well-to-do households are
higher than social, gender and regional differences.
Differences between social groups (tribal communities, specific subgroups among the SC etc).
Inter-community status (literacy status of some tribes is better than

Readiness of families to send their children, especially girls to school


Schools within access and regular functioning - demand increased.

Dysfunctional schools & not much teaching happening demand sharply
Communities/Families did not have confidence in the school as safe
place for their daughters.
Attitudes and practices of teachers and children from forward social
groups affect the readiness of children from socially disadvantaged
social groups.

Way ahead :Meaningful Access




To provide an equitable opportunity for all children to engage with a

quality education system and is required at every single step of the
education delivery system.
Access to teachers
a. Provide differentiated support
b. Varied learning styles
c. Special attention to those that need extra push
Provision of a safe, gendered space to express ones opinion without the
fear of discrimination/mockery
Reduction in dropout rates
Enable smoother transitions between different levels of education

Inter-personal and inter-group dynamics prevalent in the community is
reflected in schools and therefore, it is important that the teachers and
headmasters do not discriminate on the basis of caste, religion, gender, ability
or economic status.


Right to equality & Right against discrimination enshrined in the

Constitution Teachers and educational administrators are duty bound
to ensure non-discriminatory environment in school.
A non-negotiable code of behaviour needs to be communicated to
those who are involved in school education
Boys should be involved in activities that will help them understand and
appreciate diversity and respect differences.
Creation of forums/platforms for teachers and community leaders to
ensure schools are free of discrimination.

Foregrounding gender:Most of the time, its the textbook that reinforce gender inequalities and social
hierarchies by illustrating traditional notions of masculinity/femininity & caste
specific occupations on its pages. This leads to a certain kind of an imageformation in the minds of the students
Rural-urban, tribal & non-tribal stereotypes are promoted
Notion that heroes /leaders are men and caregivers/homemakers are
Therefore, theres a need to
Adopt a substantive and corrective approach to equality
Question the divide between what is masculine and what is feminine
Curriculum & text-books should transmit egalitarian values and respect
for diversity and difference and guard against discrimination

Rashtriya Madhayamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) aims for universalisation of

access to education at secondary stage. However, the schemes have failed to
take off completely despite various interventions by the government. Suggest
some potential measures for effective implementation of the programme.
RMSA aims to
Achieve gross enrolment ratio of 75% for classes of 9th and 10thwithin 5
years by providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance from
every habitation
Provide universal access to secondary education by 2017 and universal
retention by 2020
Suggestions for effective implementation:
Extension of RTE 2009 to secondary education and aligning the existing
norms of RMSA with RTE 2009 will provide an unprecedented
momentum to the aim of universalisation of secondary education

Ensuring equal access to all facilities by identifying disadvantaged

sections of the society, geographically disadvantaged locations,
economically disadvantaged group
Interdepartmental coordination between HRD, Labour, women and
child development, and rural development ministry for efficiency and
Necessary to involve PRI in rural areas for effective implementation of
RTE act. Parents, teachers, professionals, social workers, and NGO
should assist government in this regard. MPs MLAs should be made
responsible for smooth functioning of schools in their areas.
The quality of teachers is the backbone of any educational programme.
Teachers need to have at their disposal a deep fund of empathy,
commitment, conviction, to create meaningful educational experiences
for all children.
To ensure community participation for ensuring access to quality
education and school management development committees will have
to play a vital role for implementation of RMSA.

Education, Research and Development: Linkage to Make in

India Mission
How critical is education, research and development in making 'Make in
India' mission a success? What are the lacunas and opportunities?
Make in India is expected to create large employment as significant
percentage of its population shifts from agriculture
As Indias economy grew, it has become increasingly dependent on
imports and has massively increased its import bill
The growing economy has provided little in industrial employment
Critical Elements
Design and IPR contributes significantly to the overall costs of any
product presently.
Example iPhone costs $500 ($7 manufacturing, $174 - components&
subsystems, $321 design and IPR)
It is important to include design and IPR generation as well as
manufacturing in Make in India mission. This will reduce the import bill
and employ a significant number of Indian people in Make in India.

Indias Design Capabilities

Design is largely carried out as service work for multinational companies.
Design works carried out in India does not result in Indian owned IPR &
Indian products.
Indias capabilities do not extend to making and commercialising the
India has to build high-quality products which can compete with the best
in the world.
R&D community must deliver on this.
Indian Business leaders need to drive these products into market &
build profitable ventures.
Government should make policies to encourage product
development & remove the barriers such industry encounters

Indias Weakness/Quality Education

Significant amount of money gone into higher education (especially
engineering).The quantity and equity got addressed but the quality was
left behind.
As Indias economy grew, middle-class became a huge consumer of
industrial product and thus the growing import bill.
Important task towards Make in India is to improve quality of the
colleges and college education.
All kinds of skills needs to be developed Graduates can participate fully
in R&D, IPR creation, designing, developing and testing of products,
mass-manufacturing and commercialising.

Component Industry
Component industry is very weak in India- Weak product designing &
local marketing
Most of the components are often imported.
Price of components depends on volume. Unless the production takes
place in high volumes, the component prices will be high.
Manufacturing has also helped some component industry in India to
strengthen itself.

Indias IPR Capability

Indian R&D personnel need to be connected to technical bodies (which
formulate draft standards for any product).
This process will help in identifying gaps& IPR contributions which fill
these gaps.
Once the contribution of an IPR goes into a standard, its value increases.

Indias Standard Development Societies

Telecom Standards Development Society of India (TSDSI) will help Indian
R&D community to move faster.
IEEE creating academia-industry forum to work on standards.
For IPR creation & driving them to standards Indian academia and
industry needs to work together.

Indias Design & Development Capabilities and Product Eco-System

No major contributions in Design and Development of electronics and ICT
products by Indian academia.
Need to shift focus from basic research towards translational research
Reorientation of R&D personnel of public-sector industries (BEL, BHEL,
ECIL, ITI) to focus on commercial products
Start-ups have designed, developed and commercialised products- basis
of translational research & development towards product development
Incubators Dept of S&T, GOI initiative to set-up university-based
incubators. This will help in creating an eco-system where product startups are nurtured.
Similar initiative by Dept of Bio-Technology.

R&D, Design and Product Development, IPR creation and preservation,
in addition to manufacturing will add significantly to Make in India.
This will enable to achieve its twin objectives
a) To employ a large number of people
b) To reduce the import bill
Improving the quality of education needs to be strengthened to achieve
these objectives.

Vocationalisation of Education in India

Why is vocationalisation of education in India important? What steps have
been taken by the Government of India in this regard? What measures can be
further taken to improve the scenario?
Indias demographic dividend and opportunity to re-establish itself as a
leading economy has to be addressed through adequate skilling of
Convergence of education and skills is vital for this
What has been till date?
To address the convergence of education and skills number of initiatives
has been established:
a) National Skills Development Corporation (NSDC)
b) National Skills Development Agency (NSDA)
c) National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF)
i. Provides framework for the much needed convergence between
education and skills by enabling mobility between formal and
vocational education
ii. Framework for enabling recognition of the large numbers of
informally skilled individuals opportunity for future career
iii. Ministry of Skills Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) and
Make in India & Skill India campaigns are re-energising the
relationship between education and skills
iv. Various schemes like National Skill Development Mission, Deen
Dayal Antyodaya Yojana, Digital India and many more are steps to
encourage skills development to develop products within India by

What should be done Government has laid great emphasis on provision of skills training &
assessment & certification. It is necessary to consider the demand also
Availability of more and more skilled personnel needs to be
accompanied by creation of increased demand for their services
It depends on the growth of the economy and thus, economic and
financial policies must move towards growth & development, leading to
creation of jobs and absorption of people graduating from various
Policy/Academia/Regulation all must work together with the industry to
ensure the supply and demand for skills are always matched
Any education or skilling system must provide trainees with these skills
a) Communication
b) Collaboration
c) Creativity
d) Critical Thinking
With these skills they will be able to handle the demands of future,
w.r.t.-to-be-announced jobs

India is set to contribute heavily to the global workforce in the years to
come and therefore it is necessary to start young.
Vocationalisation of schools & orientation of youth towards future
employability and skills associated with future jobs Convergence of
education and skills

Education of the Marginalised, SCs & STs: Issues, Challenges and

the Way Forward
Scheduled Castes are not privileged in terms of economic means, social
status, political participation and educational opportunities.
Geographical isolation led Scheduled Tribes to unequal participation in
social, economic, political and educational spheres of the developing
These groups have shown progress in terms of enrolments at all levels of
education, but by the time they arrive at fifth grade, their numbers seem
to fall.
Major issue:
Drop-out rates
The issue accelerates as children move up the higher levels of education
SCs and STs are being pushed to further misery and disadvantage as
other social groups are moving forward due to historical advantage in
literacy and education.
Girls from the communities are more disadvantaged in comparison to
their male counterparts.
Structures of poverty, social class, caste and social identities widen the
inequalities between teachers-children and parents-children.
Teachers apathy and differential treatment deter these children away
from the school.
Social discrimination and exclusionary attitudes towards children from
these communities are prevalent in both rural-urban schools.
Existence of social segregation in society in general and schools in
particular is a major challenge.

Way Ahead
School should become a place for joyful and inclusive learning
This will facilitate children from these groups to move onto higher levels
of education and will ensure their absorption into educated labour
This will also alter the occupational and economic structures of Indian
society increase skilled and educated human resources which will
contribute to overall development of the country.
Special efforts are required to include and make schooling accessible to
a large number of girls.
School must be liberator from their deprivations.
School and society need to more inclusive, just and fair to children from
these communities
and only then the Indian society can claim itself to be a democratic

Reforming teacher management in Public School System

Despite achieving almost hundred percent enrollments of children in schools,
the quality of education, especially in public schools is a major concern. How
can teacher management help to achieve that? What steps can be taken to
reform teacher management?
In order to improve the learning outcomes of children, it is critical that
robust systems for developing high quality teachers must be in place.
Lack of trained teachers seems to be one of the biggest impediments in
improving the quality of education.
Teachers and teacher management have to contribute to the ultimate
goals of educational development to which a society and government
have committed themselves.
National Policy on Education 1986 envisages overhauling the system of
teacher education and establishment of DIETs (District Institute of
Education and Training) to organize training courses for teachers.
What is Teacher management?
Teachers Management include following functions
Getting teachers to school (Supply and deployment)
Managing Teachers (Administration of pay and remuneration mix,
Transfers, Motivation)
Improving quality (Training and use of IT)
Monitoring teaching (at school and central levels, role of nongovernment actors
Enabling teachers to do good work from both pupils and teachers
point of view
Respond to major existing (especially financial) constraints

Why Teachers Management is required?

Parts of the teaching force are not fully used due to the existing
school structures and the rules and regulations governing teacher
training and allocation.
Teachers need to be motivated and provided with adequate training
and professional support to be effective in teaching.
Existence of Inequality in teacher treatment, dissatisfaction and lack of
unity among teaching staff are hindering the performance of teachers.
Attracting enough qualified graduates towards the teaching profession
is a big challenge in the light of decreased attractiveness in teaching
profession (lower levels).

Loop holes in the existing TMS

The Block and district levels do not have the capacities to undertake
regular inspection and assessment given the expansion in schooling
that has happened over the past two decades.
The macro level policy formulation of teacher management is
intended to promote the issues of quality education and improved
learning outcomes. Due to the large number of teachers in the public
system, the policy interpretation at intermediary level is not driven by
macro level policy and fails to stress the academic purpose of school.
Lack of utilization of information technology. A few states have
employed CIS(Central information systems) and IT for gathering data
on schools, issues such as transfers (Karnataka), with lot of technical

Way forward/Reforms required

The district and sub district levels must be equipped to address the
issues of teacher management which must be in coherent with macro
level policy. This will reduce the inefficiencies and release more time
for academic work at the school.

Information technology must be made use to a larger extent in the

areas of teacher training; alternative methods of peer learning and
peer driven assessments have to be encouraged.
Proper implementation of Digital India will improve connectivity and
smart phone penetration. This leads to the use of social media
(posting of innovative solutions to common, but difficult educational
problems) and discussion forums.
Transparency, decentralization of power, development of appropriate
legal and organizational frameworks and procedures as well as
effective tools, incentives and control mechanism for teaching staff
management are much required.

What are events that led to the enactment of Protection of Children against
Sexual Offences Act 2012 (POCSO Act). Evaluate the efficacy of the Act.
Incidents that prompted to enact POCSO Act 2012:
Repeated string of sexual abuse, rape of children and absence of law
that exclusively dealt with crimes committed against children below 18
years of age prompted the government to pass POCSO Act.
The ambit of definition of sexual crime was limited to only penetrative
sex and thus, was very narrow and not well defined. However after
passing of the law the ambit was increased to:
Penetrative and aggravated penetrative sexual assault,
Sexual and aggravated sexual assault,
Sexual harassment (Voyeurism, stalking), and
Using a child for pornographic purposes
Objectives of the Act:
Relief and rehabilitation immediately for kids who are affected by child
Lays down guidelines for central and state government to publicise
through media and impart periodic training to all the stake holders (Civil
society, parents, teachers etc) on the matters relating to implementation
of provisions of the law
Enjoins National Commission and State Commission for protection of
child rights constituted under the commission for Protection of Child
Rights Act, 2005, for effective implementation of the Act
However the Act is relatively unknown as most people are unaware and
most of the child sex offences are not booked under POCSO act. Even
after the directions given by the Supreme Court, the constitution of
regulatory and monitory bodies is either non-existent or poorly

In 2013, the High Court in its landmark judgment has further directed Mandatory registration of all the child homes,
Constitution of child courts, and
Appointment of special public prosecutor
besides constituting a proper selection committee to make further
selection of various committees to be set up for child welfare
It is thus, clear from the Act that it is filled with good intentions however
effective implementation is the key that needs to be made functional to
unlock the evils done to the children of our country.

Adverse Sex Ratios

What are important causes and implications of adverse sex ratios? Discuss
the measures taken by government to reduce adverse sex ratio and suggest
potential solutions to reduce the same.
Causes: There are broadly two major causes of skewed sex ratio:
Social: High preference for sons, a sense of financial security for parents
during old age, Institution of marriage and dowry, are some of the
important causes for adverse sex ratio.
Migration: Migration takes place on a large scale from rural areas to
developing areas in search of livelihood. Since usually men migrate, the
place where in migration is there, the sex ratio gets skewed e.g. Delhi,
Daman and Diu etc.
This can have drastic effects:
Prolonged bachelorhood
New wave of female migration from neighbouring countries
(contributing to social tensions)
Crimes like human trafficking, kidnapping, dowry, forced marriages, etc.

Schemes by the government:

In the recent times government of India and state governments are making
efforts mainly through conditional cash transfer schemes to stem the trend of
adverse sex ratios.
Devised schemes like
Beti Anmol,
Ladli and
Nanhi chhaan
However, there is a wide spread criticism against these schemes that amount
provided by the government is far less than required to sustain and marry a girl

Awareness campaigns: A multipronged effort by active involvement of
Panchayati Raj, involvement of local social, religious, political leaders,
media and entertainment industry, medical professionals and medical
associations is needed to create awareness among masses.
Education: According to survey conducted by USAID in 2008, it is
inferred that higher level of education among girls leads to lesser
preference for son. So high impetus needs to be given for girls
education, introduction of gender based quotas in colleges, and other
incentives for parents who participate in this process.
Increase in female workforce: In India, only 30 percent of women are in
workforce compared to 80 percent in Nepal, 71 percent in China, 67
percent in Bhutan. Involving more females in labour workforce and
making them financially independent will make it easier for the woman
to provide shelter and support to elderly parents.
Offering old age pensions: The government may assure the elderly by
offering old age pension covering not only the food and living but also
accident and medical purposes. This financial independence of elderly
may succeed in lowering the preference for male child.
Incentivising female work force: Income tax exemptions for women
who work for public and private sectors. As the income earned by
women will be spent on family, the net loss of income tax can be
compensated by increase in indirect taxes that women spend on family.
Allowances: To discourage female infanticide the government could
consider a mothering allowance to the mother for first six years after the
birth of girl child. Here, medical associations should ensure that doctors
play a responsible role.

The prices of pulses have increased in the recent past surpassing the past
records. Last year, the production of pulses was a decreased number (17.5
million tonnes) when compared with the production a year ago (19.5 million
tonnes). This shortfall of 2 million tonnes is causing distress.
1. On an average the requirement in the country is 22 million tonnes of
pulses. Due to drought in the present year, yield is lower. Hence there is
a Demand-Supply mismatch
2. As soon as the IMD forecasted rainfall shortage, the pulses prices shot
up within short period of time. This shows that hoarding and
speculation is on the rise.
3. Pulses are generally grown in non-irrigated and rain-fed areas. Hence,
there is a lot of uncertainty in production.
Reasons for the slow growth pattern in the production of pulses

Substitution of pulses by other crops

Shift in pulses cultivation to less productive drylands
Limited improvement in the yields of pulses compared to other food

Almost 1/4th of pulses requirement is met through imports. Govt. allows
private sector to import pulses freely i.e. zero duty on imports. It usually
doesnt intervene in the market of pulses..
This year, the places from where India imports pulses also, have shortfall
in production, like in Myanmar, Australia, and Canada etc. Hence,
import prices have increased.
Besides these, there are internal problems like logistics and distribution
Storage houses are not available everywhere, railway lines are loaded
causing delays in transportation etc.

Short-term Strategies:
Augment supplies through imports and distribute them through the
public distribution system (PDS) to the poor and through open market
sale to contain the rise in market prices
Formulate a Contingency Plans for the persistent deficiencies
Pulses Villages:
The previous Govt. has come up with a program called Pulses Villages
under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana.
Some 5000-odd villages are adopted and intensive cultivation of pulses
was practised with the right mixture of bio-fertilizers alongside the
training and awareness to farmers.
This has contributed to increase in production of pulses in the country.
However, demand also has increased in parallel.
Long-term Strategies:
MSP & Procurement:
Govt. has also increased the MSP for pulses and gave bonuses over and above
MSP. Hence, net sown area under pulses increased compared to the past. But
it has to be implemented through Active procurement as in in the absence of
the procurement support; the acreage under pulses could not be augmented
CACP: Farmers need a backup plan in the form of reasonably strong
procurement machinery to be put in place, to fall back upon when the prices
fall below MSP
Small crop-size: Not enough bargaining power to demand better prices

Focused PDS:
In view of the shortages and volatile prices, a more focussed PDS System with a
widespread network of procurement and a steady supply through marked
distributive arrangements is necessary.

Incentivising Cultivation:
Govt. has been extending large subsidies and export incentives to the
sugarcane cultivators. A similar step is expected out of Govt. to encourage
cultivation of pulses. There is a need for raising the production levels and
exploiting the advantages:

Limited water requirement in their critical stages of growth

Short crop cycles (3-6 months)
Enrichment of soil nutrients through nitrogen fixation
Less Input Intensive + Pesticides + Fertilizers
Less labour required
Gives more returns compared to ricewheat cropping systems

Development of HYVs:
Need to employ advances of biotechnology (multiple resistant varieties)
Need to promote Research and Development to create seeds that are:
Drought tolerant
Pest and disease resistant to increase the yields and output of pulses
Better Practices:
Pulses-based cropping systems like ricepulses instead of ricewheat to
augment soil nutrients and reduce input costs
Cultivation of short duration pulses like urad and moong as catch crops
in rice fallows
Positive externalities of cultivating pulses such as the soil nutrient
enhancing capabilities of pulses through nitrogen fixation and the
minimal water requirements at critical growth stages of pulses
compared to other crops.
Distribution of good quality seeds for free.
Facilitating inoculation of seeds with soil bacteria (rhizobium) before
sowing to increase yield and reduce the requirement for fertilisers
Usage of Technology-based inputs & reduction in foot-prints of cropdestructive animal (Nilgai)

Pulses are poor mans diet for nutrient requirements. The recent spike in their
prices calls for immediate measures to increase domestic supply in the shortterm, as well as measures to increase the supply of pulses for the long-term,
breaking the cycles of low and unstable yields.

Prelims oriented
National Digital Library (NDL)
Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD) initiated National Digital
Library (NDL) pilot project under National Mission on Education through
Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT) to address the
following issues
Absence of a one-stop destination: Users still have to visit individual
websites to access e-resources
Lack of vernacular access and limited content
Limited integration of learner-learner, teacher-teacher and teacherlearner communication
NDL will not be a new library but will be a deftly crafted umbrella over the
existing ones
Developed at IIT Kharagpur Creation of an infrastructure with a single
window search facility that comprises hardware systems, networks, software
tools and applications

Accessible India Campaign (Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan)

This campaign will enable persons with disabilities to gain universal access,
equal opportunity for development, independent living and participation in all
aspects of life in an inclusive society.
Under this campaign
a) 50% of all government buildings in National capital and State capital will
be made fully accessible for differently abled by July 2018
b) All international airports and railway stations of A1, A & B categories will
be made fully accessible by July 2016
c) 10% of public transport carriers will be made fully accessible to these
people by March 2018
d) A web portal and mobile application was also launched

Coir Udyami Yojana

It is a credit linked subsidy scheme in the coir sector.
Pattern of Financial assistance
a) 40% of project cost as GOI subsidy
b) 55% as loan from bank
c) 5% beneficiary contribution
The Scheme covers any type of coir project with project cost upto Rs. 10
lakhs plus working capital shall not exceed 25% of the project cost
The Board is providing Skill Development Training and organizing
seminars etc. under the Scheme Skill Development and Mahila Coir

A Pan-IIT and IISc joint initiative to develop a roadmap for research to solve
major engineering and technology challenges in ten technology domains

Health Care
Computer Science and ICT
Advance Materials
Water Resources and River systems
Sustainable Urban Design
Nano-Technology Hardware
Environmental Science and Climate Change
Energy Security


Identify areas of immediate relevance to society requiring innovation

Direct scientific research into identified areas
Ensure higher funding support for research into these areas
Measure outcomes of the research effort with reference to impact on
the standard of living in the rural/urban areas

Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds (SWAYAM)

An integrated platform and portal for online courses using ICT and
covering all higher education subjects and skill sector courses
An indigenous (Make in India) IT platform for hosting Massive Open
Online Courses (MOOCs)
SWAYAM would provide
a) High quality learning experience using multimedia on anytime,
b) One-stop web location for interactive e-content All courses from
school to university
c) State of art system Easy access, monitoring and certification
d) Peer group interaction and discussion forum
e) Hybrid model Value add to quality of classroom teaching

EFA Development Index (EDI)

This composite index assesses the progress towards the goal of basic
education for all children and adults by 2015
The index uses four of six EFA goals
a) Universal Primary Education (UPE)
b) Adult Literacy
c) Quality of Education
d) Gender Parity
*Each EDI component is given equal weightage in the overall index
For each of the four EFA (Education for All) goals, one Indicator is used
as proxy measure
a) Universal Primary Education Primary Adjusted Net Enrolment
Ratio (ANER)
b) Adult Literacy literacy rate for those aged 15 and above
c) Quality of education Survival rate to Grade 5
d) Gender Parity Simple average of three gender parity indexes

An online platform for a comprehensive self-review and analysis of
students performance and progress
A digital interface portal offering a one-to-one interaction platform
between teachers and the students parents
Launched by Ministry of HRD, as an initiative under Digital India to
promote ICT in CBSE affiliated schools
Promote and bring transparency in the existing educational system in

Ancient Universities in India

An ancient centre of higher learning in Bihar from 427 to 1197
Considered to be the Worlds first University; was devoted to Buddhist
studies and also trained students in fine arts, medicine, mathematics,
astronomy, politics and the Art of War
It has a link with the Buddha as he often came here and two of his chief
disciples, Sariputra and Moggallana, came from this area
The largest stupa is known as Sariputras Stupa, marking the spot not
only where his relics are entombed, but where he was supposedly born
Dated back to at least the 5th century BC; described in detail in later
Jataka tales
Takshashila is best known because of its association with Chanakya
Arthashastra is said to have been composed in Takshashila
Chanakya (Kautilya), Maurya Emperor Chandragupta and Ayurvedic
healer Charaka studied at Taxila
The main ruins of Taxila are divided into three major cities
I. The oldest is the Hathial area

The 2nd city of Taxila is at Sirkap & was built by Greco-Bactrian

kings in 2nd century BCE
III. 3rd cityis at Sirsukh & relates to the Kushana kings
A number of Buddhist monasteries and stupas also belong to the Taxila

Sukanya Samruddi Yojana

Scheme: Small savings instrument that focuses on making girls financially
Launched on: Jan 2015 by PM as part of Beti Bhacho,Beti Padhao
Can be opened in the name of the girl child any time from her birth till she
attains the age of 10
Minimum deposited of RS 1000.
Maximum deposit of 1, 50, 000
The account holder girl child will be able to operate the account herself on
attaining the age of 10 years
The account will remain operative for 21 years from the date of opening or
marriage of the girl child after attaining the age 18 years of age, whichever
is earlier.
The provision of not allowing withdrawal from the account till the girl child
attains the age of 18 years has been kept to prevent early marriage

List of initiatives for empowerment of Girl child

Integrated Child Development Scheme

Udisha for training ICDS workers
Balika Samrudhi Yojana
Kishori Shakti Yojana
Nutrition programme for adolescent girls

Early childhood education for 3-6 age group children under the
programme of universalization of elementary education
Central adoption research agency
Beti-bachao-Beti Padhao
Aims to curtail female foeticide and infanticide
Initial funding of 100 crores
It is coordinated by Ministry of Women and Child Development

Some of the successful models of SHG and their federations contributing to

multiple forms of Empowerment of Women:
Launched by: Government of Kerala in 1998
Aim: To wipe out absolute poverty from state through concerned community
action under the leadership of local self-government
Largest women empowering projects in the country; it covers 50 percent of
the households in Kerala.
A government agency having a budget and paid staff and is responsible to
the department of local self-governments
Mahalir Thittam:
A socio economic empowerment programme for women
Implemented by: Tamil Nadu Cooperation for Development of Women
Limited- in partnership with NGOs and community based organisations
The SHG approach was started in a small way in Dharmapuri district in the
year 1989

Mahila Arthik Vikas Mahamandal (MAVIM)

Womens development cooperation established in 1975

Administered by: Women and Child Development Department of the

Government of Maharashtra
Work: SHG and micro-finance

CSR (2011) enlists

Top Five

Arunachal Pradesh (972),

Mizoram (970),
Chhattisgarh and
Andaman and Nicobar (968),
Pondicherry (967),
Kerala (964)

Bottom Five States

Haryana (834),
Punjab (846),
J & K (862),
Delhi (871),
Chandigarh (880)

Sustainable Development Goals

Poverty - End poverty in all its forms everywhere
Food - End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and
promote sustainable agriculture
Health - Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.
Education - Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and
promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
Women - Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
Water - Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and
sanitation for all
Energy - Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy
for all
Economy - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth,
full and productive employment and decent work for all
Infrastructure - Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive
and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
Inequality - Reduce inequality within and among countries
Habitation - Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and
Consumption - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
Climate - Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
Marine-ecosystems - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and
marine resources for sustainable development
Ecosystems - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of
terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification,
and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
Institutions - Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable
development, provide access to justice for all and build effective,
accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
Sustainability - Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the
global partnership for sustainable development

Sample Prelims Questions:

Q.1) Consider the following statements with respect to Sukanya samridhi
1. It was launched as a part of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao campaign
2. The scheme is related to Girls health.
3. The account will remain operative for 21 years from the date of opening
or marriage of the girl child attaining 18 years of age, whichever is
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

1 only
2 and 3 only
1 and 3 only
All the above

Q.2) Consider the following statements with respect to pulse pricing.


Persuading traders to reduce their sales prices.

Distributing imported pulses through PDS at subsidized prices.
Stringent action against hoarders.
Crop diversification.
Expanding pulse area.

Which of the following statements can be used as long term measures to

reduce the pulse prices?

1,2,3 only
2,3,5 only
4,5 only

Q.3) Consider the following statements with respect to Rashtriya Madyamik

Shiksha Abhiyan.
1. The scheme was launched in the year 2009.
2. It aims to provide universal education for all children between 1518
years of age.
Select the incorrect statement from the code given below
a) 1 only

b) 2 only
c) Both
d) None
Q.4) Consider the following statements with respect to Child sex ratio.
1. It is measured as number of females per 1000 males in the 0-6 years of
2. Haryana has the least Child sex ratio next to Punjab.
3. Kerala has the highest child sex ratio next to Arunachal Pradesh.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

2 only
2 and 3 only
1 and 3 only
1 only.