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DEPARTMENT: MECHANICS

REG:14102369

ABSTRACTThe objective of this experiment is to find the main contributors to heat transfer in the

system. Water is heated and the energy is transferred in two ways throughout the system.

The system is run for a period of 30 minutes, in both free and forced convection. The heat

produced by the boiler will remain constant throughout the experiment and the actual

energy gathered will be a result of the condensed water captured in the three different

vessels. The theoretical and experimental data was determined through measurements

taken in the experiment by thermocouple, scale and water drainage for the forced and free

convection trials. The steam condensed on the outer surface of the inner tube as well as the

inner surface of the outer tube. When theoretical values for forced convection were

calculated (284KJ) was compared to the 220 KJ for the experimental values, roughly 25%

error was experienced.

Contents

ABSTRACT-............................................................................................................................... 1

INTRODUCTION-....................................................................................................................... 3

Theory...................................................................................................................................... 5

Results..................................................................................................................................... 9

Conculsion-............................................................................................................................ 14

INTRODUCTION-

The experimental system uses a boiler which supplies heat to the water to create

steam. Heat is lost in the system and calculations are shown later in the report to analyze

this for the two trials in the experiment, forced and free convection.

Convection refers to the transfer of thermal energy in the means of diffusion. As a

fluid moves around the boundaries of an object, with a given velocity, an amount of heat

energy will be transferred. It is used in many processes, such as cooling a circuit board or

keeping a room cool during a hot summer. The fluid, which comes in at a certain

temperature, will experience the change in temperature. The object is being cooled while

the fluid keeps flowing. This process repeats over and over again, keeping the object at a

desired temperature.

A reservoir in the system was adjusted between forced and free convection levels.

This means that the pressure head is being changed. The forced convection setup creates a

pressure head capable of moving water through the system with a velocity. The free

convection setup does not circulate as much new water into the system. The forced

convection setup results in an increase in dissipated heat in the exiting of the fluid into the

drainage tank. This results in a larger total heat transfer for the forced convection than the

free convection.

In the next section of the report the procedure used to complete the actual

experiment is shown. After that a general understanding of the equations and methodology

used will be explained. Finally, a series of sample calculations are shown that show how

achieving the hc = convection heat transfer coefficient was possible and what conclusions

can be made through these results.

The equipment used for this experiment is basically one piece equipment which

includes different components. An electric boiler is the driving force of the experiment. The

boiler is set to a constant output (1100 watts) and as a result it heats the water and turns it

into steam. This steam is fed into a condensing tower. This tower is comprised of a closed

jacket and a central single aluminum tube. Cooling water passes upward though the inside

of this condenser tube, causing the steam to condense on the outside surface. Steam also

condenses on the inside surface of the jacket as heat escapes out into the room. A boiler

supply tank is used to provide and maintain a constant level in the boiler this insures that

the mass within the system remains constant during the experiment (glass tube). Cooling

water is provided by reservoir that allows the experiment to be performed with either free or

forced convection. All the copper-constantan (type T) thermocouples are monitored using a

high impedance millivoltmeter. Tube wall and shell wall condensates are collected separately

from drain tubes provided, and cooling water flow through the condenser tube is collected in

the weigh tank mounted on the scale.

When performing the experiment many water levels needed to remain constant in the

system. The group members were given different responsibilities such as, maintaining the

glass tube water height, maintaining reservoir height (forced/free setting), as well as

keeping track of the start and finish water levels.

Theory-

must be acquired. To determine what numerous constants are the initial conditions must be

known so tables can be utilized.

Nusselt Number:

Nu=

hc D

K

Prandtl Number:

Pr=

Cp

,

K

Grashoff Number:

2

Gr=

D g ( T )

2

D=

UD

These equations are crucial to calculate to determine what type of flow exists in the system.

In order to use the correct heat transfer equation the type of flow must be known to be

laminar or turbulent.

Forced convection occurs when the fluid flows across the boundary of an object, with

the movement caused by external forces. Heat transfer coefficient for the forced convection

depends on the relationship between Nusselt number, Prandtl number and the Grashoff

number acquired for free convection. The relationship is expressed in the following equation:

hc D

DG m

=

mn=exponents experimentally acquired

K

( )

Free convection occurs when the fluid is allowed to flow by means of buoyancy forces.

This convection method occurs when the temperature differences exist between the two

ends of the air. When the end part touching the hot object contacts the object, the fluid

becomes warmer and less dense. The air moves up and the colder air moves in to replace

the warmer air. The combination of the variables in order to obtain the heat transfer

coefficient for the free convection process is:

Nu=f n ( Pr x Gr )

Heat transfer in condensation, because a phase change is involved, requires complex analysis.

Condensation takes place when vapor is cooled down. Once this occurs, heat is transferred in a

fundamentally different manner than when heat is added or taken away from a fluid without such phase

change. When vapor is condensed, it lets go of considerable amounts of energy. The condensed fluid

becomes a barrier, in the form of a liquid film which either completely or partially covers the cooler

surface. If the drainage of the fluid is done from vertical or inclined surface, the drainage will be naturally

faster than a horizontal surface. The film will be thinner. If the vertical height is great, the accumulation of

condensate fluid at the lower portion of the surface will thicken the film and make the lower portion less

effective than the upper transmitting heat.

In order to acquire an even more accurate result, the heat transfer that occurs when

heat is released during the condensation of the vapor must also be taken into account. This

value can be easily calculated by obtaining the latent heat of vaporization value.

Nevertheless, as the condensate is cooled below T sat, the equation must be modified to:

Setting up all equations together, the combination of the rate of heat transfer and the heat

Once every value has been obtained, the heat transfer coefficient for the free and

forced convection heat transfer processes can be obtained.

The theoretical value for the free convection is expressed as:

.25

k 3 2 h fg

h C

Do T

k VDi

hC

Di

.8

Pr .4

In order to determine the heat transferred amount, two equations are needed. The

equations will take into account the gains and losses in the system. The first equation

needed is the heat transferred from the steam, which is expressed as follows:

QSteam VSteam h fg

The second equation needed is the heat transfer that occurs in the water. The

Therefore, in order to acquire the total amount of heat transferred, the two equations

must be combined. The total amount of heat transferred is expressed in the following

manner:

In order to find the heat transfer coefficient, the transfer heat amount must be

obtained. Further, the resistance must be taken into account. The resistance value will give

us the rate at which the heat is being transferred, which will symbolize the overall heat

transfer coefficient.

Heat Flow Through a pipe

Forced convection

c .4

k

VD .8

k

h=

d

Natural Convection

L3 2 Tg c n

)( )

k

2

k

h=

L

Condensing Steam

k 3 2 h fg

D T

h=

Results

All calculations are based on data collected from the tenth to fifteenth minutes of the

experiment. The data was averaged over the five minute time difference and used to

compute empirical and experimental values. The excel copies below show the average

temperatures and volume/weight of water/steam-condensate collected.

Forced Convection

Free Convenction

K V Di

h1 ( Forced ) C

Di

0.8

Cp

K

0.4

C is a constant = 0.0023

V = mean average velocity of fluid in m/s

3

1

+2

0.0254=0.02064 m

4

32

( ( ))

( 34 ) 0.0254=0.01905 m

k = Thermal Conductivity, in W/m* K

Cp= specific heat in kJ/kg

k = Thermal Conductivity, in W/mK

= Viscosity in kg/m*s

= Density of Water in kg/m3

*Properties in red were found in water property tables at atmospheric pressure and T avg = T2

+ T7/2

Tavg = 34.99555769 C , = 994.0317414 kg/m3, = 0.000724071 kg/m*s, Cp= 4.178 kJ/kg

k = 0.622917743 W/m*K

W2 = 6.25 lbm; mass of water that passed through the inner pipe in a five minute interval

6.25lbs * 0.454kg / lb

0.009449792kg / s

5 min* 60sec/ min

Ai

Di2 (0.01905) 2

0.000285

4

4

V=

=

A

0.00945

994

hi =0.0023

forced

hi

kg

0.000285 m2

3

m

0.623

0.01905

= 341.08

forced

kg

s

)[(

=0.0333

m

s

0.000724

0.8

)(

0.623

0.4

W

m2 K

Tube

k 3 2 h fg

ho =c

LT

1

4

EXCEPT hfg taken at Tsteam

Tsurface is the average inner pipe outer surface temperature; T 8 + T9

Tsteam is the average temperature of condensing steam ; T 10

T s=

T 8 +T 9 92.58946154+80.441

=

=86.51

2

2

T film=

=

=95.031 T = Tsteam Tsurface = 8.521 C

2

2

k = 0.677012277 m

kg

kg

2,247,415.8 kg

C = 1.666 for vertical pipe with height L= 0.635m

ho =1.666

0.635 0.000290945 8.521

1/ 4

=6303.14

W

m

2

ln

1

R

0.000285

T lmtd =

0.02064 m

1

1

0.01905

m

K

0.01905m

0.09308

W

W

0.02064m

W

6303.14 W

238

458.06 2

mK

m K

m2 K

T T out (91.0549.5)

=

=68.273 K

T

91.05

ln

ln

T out

49.5

Q=

0.09308

s

Total heat added to water in a five minute interval;

q=

Q

s

inner Surface of OUTER Tube; Forced Convection

3

kg

kJ (

6 m

qloss =m steam hfg =25 mL10

961 3 ( at T 4 ) 2,239

at 100 )=53.8 kJ

mL

Kg

m

Experimental: Heat Transferred; Forced Convection

q transferred=m w C p (T 2T 7) time

kg

J

4178

( 24 ) 300 s=284 kJ

lbs

kgK

When all the data was collected the heat transfer coefficient was able to be solved for.

Based on our data between the time period of 10 and 15 minutes the heat transferred for

the free convection was 186.5 KJ while for forced it was 220 KJ. Through the theory that was

previously talked about it would be a logical hypothesis to assume that the forced

convection would have a greater heat transferred. This is because a fluid is being forced

through having a flow rate that is constantly implementing new cooler fluid to the system.

Therefore, the new fluid has a greater difference in temperature and creates a greater heat

transfer.

ConculsionThe steam condensed on the outer surface of the inner tube as well as the inner

surface of the outer tube. This was the primary mode of heat transfer in the experiment.

The empirically calculated results varied by roughly 25% when compared to the

experimentally calculated results. This can be attributed to the experimental methods. The

experiment had its downfalls that could have poorly affected our results and therefore, our

calculations. The measurement system of filling up beakers seemed fairly unreliable. Since

the trials were 30 minutes long often times the beakers would become full and require

emptying, in which water was not being caught and mass was lost. In addition, there was

pressure accumulating inside of the cylinder itself that was not accounted for. This pressure

was assumed to be atmospheric when in reality it was probably higher.

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