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Bushfire

Resistant
Construction
EnvironmentSustainability

Joshua Maltese

Contents
Design Brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Project Proposal
Identification and Exploration of Needs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Areas of Investigation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Criteria to Evaluate Success. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

Project Management
Action and Time Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Finance Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Selection and Use of Ideas and Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

Project Development
Evidence of Creativity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Consideration of Design Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Research, Experimenting and Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Application of Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Identification and Justification of Ideas and Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Evidence of the Testing of Design Solutions and Application of Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Use of Communication and Presentation Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Project Realisation
Evidence and Application of Practical Skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Consideration of the practices in Industrial/Commercial Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71

Project Evaluation
Project Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Alternative Evaluation System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Analysis and Evaluation of Functional and Aesthetic Aspects of the Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Final Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
Legend:
Evaluation/ Research Conclusions/ Application
Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Additional Resources/ Tools Used


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Introduction
Bushfires are an intrinsic aspect of the Australian environment. The natural ecosystems have adapted to
bushfires, whilst the diversity of the landscape has be captivated by fire. Bushfires has always been part of
Australias natural biophysical environment, becoming a frequent and periodic event of the landscape. The
drying of the Australian environment, changes to the climatic conditions, the evolution of Australia flora, and the
Indigenous Aboriginal and European settlement use of are all geographical processes and components which
combine to make Australia particularly vulnerable to bushfires. Australia increasing climate characterised by
low, unreliable rainfall and prolonged droughts associated with El Nino events, procedure fire prone conditions.
Bushfire prone areas are a region that can support a bushfire or is likely to be subjected to a bushfire attack.
Being natural phenomenon and part natural cycle in Australia, bushfires are inevitable and with more fuel to
burn, fires are continuously becoming more frequent,
Effects of bushfires. Loss of dwelling
intense, catastrophic and destructive. Bushfires are
associated with the extensive environment, physical,
social and economic impacts. Bushfires represent an ever
present potential threat and risk to life, property and the
environment. Bushfires are a major challenge for
communities.

Design Brief
Design Situation
Bushfires are a foremost challenge for bushfire prone communities. The persistent development of
constructions adjacent to bushland areas has subsequently increased the threat and risk of fire impacting on
people, property and environment of the community. With a substantial amount of existing and proposed
development in bush fire prone areas, fire management techniques, strategies, systems and obligations are
pursuing to be enhanced for the protection of life and property, through appropriate development control,
planning hazard management and suppression of bushfires. Fire management needs to strike a balance between
the protection of life and property, and the maintenance of ecological processes and systems. The design of
homes and the associating surrounding environment has been targeted at the intensification of functionality,
aesthetics, and environmental sustainability. Lowering the Earths carbon footprint is achieved by the efficiency
and functionality of a passive design, the embodied energy in the life of a product, and the minimisation of
environmental effects.

Design Brief
The geographical conditions of the Australian country, as well as the expanding development of
constructions in bushland and fire prone areas, exemplify the opportunity to design a bushfire resistant
construction. Hundreds and thousands of buildings and properties, especially homes are lost due to inevitable
bushfires. Consequently, the design of a bushfire resistant home would not only protect the property and
withstand the intense effects and damage potentials caused by bushfires, but additionally ensure the protection
of the life of the client, user or occupant. Fire management techniques, materials, strategies and systems will be
utilised in the design to cultivate a bushfire resistant home, which ensures the protection of life, and property of
the residence. The design of home is obliged to promote a sustainable environment, by incorporated features
and design that improves its efficiency, and effect on the environment in all aspects. Residents of bushland
regions will be targeted through the development of the design project. Communities which have been recently
effected by intensely devastating bushfires in the New South Wales Blue Mountains region are principally
inclined in my design of a modern, contemporary, innovative, functional, aesthetically gratifying and
environmentally sustainable dwelling.
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Specifications of the design incorporate many aspects both immediately affecting the design and
indirectly effecting the environment. The dwelling and the environment it is created in ought to fulfil the
following requirements:
The dwelling is able to withstand the destructive forces and conditions of the most serve and intense fire of
which it can encounter
Have an exterior that is not only aesthetically pleasing but additionally being bushfire resistant
Suitable for the target market, their lifestyle, characteristics, and needs
Environmentally sustainable in its design, manufacturing, construction, operation, and termination
Embrace the dwelling with the existing environment
Cost is not extensive different to that of a similar non-bushfire resistant home
Appropriate for the community of its vicinity
Possess integrity with the natural landscape of the specified area in the Blue Mountains

Project Proposal
Identification and Exploration of the Need
The majority of existing buildings, constructions and dwellings in bushfire prone areas are pre-date to the
fire management regulations. Consequently, these older designed dwellings lack the vital materials, design and
features necessary for it to potentially withstand the conditions and effects of a severe bushfire impact. Pre-date
dwellings possess nominal features and requirements of current proposed developments. As a result, majority
of the existing dwellings pre-date to the 1990s do not comply with the enhanced building standards to protect
against bushfire attack, therefore have an increase of damage, destruction or loss from bushfire. These older
type dwellings are typically lost as a result of a bushfires destructive path since they simply do no retain the
technology, materials, design and requirements necessary to continue standing after the bushfire attack has
passed. Dwellings in bushfire prone areas, especially the New South Wales Blue Mountains region have simply
not been effectively designed to suit the specific location of their establishment.
Safety is the most paramount requirement of all constructions and buildings. Not only do the
manufacturing and assemble need to be conduct in a safe appropriate manner, but the operation and use is
imperative for the safety of the occupant. Pre-date homes in bushfire prone areas are insufficient in equipping a
safe protection for the occupants and property against a bushfire attack. After people have experienced the
traumatic circumstances of the loss of their home from bushfire, or witnessed the effects it has on communities,
they seek to establish comfort and security, ensuring that they house will not burn down again. Residents want
to design and develop a home that ensures the safety for themselves and family, the protection of property, and
a place that withstand the attack of a bushfire, providing a place for them to come home to every night.
Protection of construction from the impacts of bushfires is required for the entire life of the
development. Determination of the protection measures necessary are based on estimation of the maximum
hazard potential to the development site. Providing an acceptable level of protection is a compromise between
the level of threat, financial cost and environmental costs, involved in enabling bushfire protection. Through the
implementation of planning and construction provisions for developments in bushfire-prone areas, it enables
the most effective way of minimising the effects of bushfires on the property and its occupants. Improving the
design and construction of existing dwellings, or establishing new fire resilient developments, it will minimise
the damage from the effects of bushfires, but is one of several measures needed and wanted by property
owners and occupiers.
The intentional design for a bushfire resistant dwelling encompasses both intrinsic and extrinsic
motivation. During the initial thoughts and considerations, the design of the project was influenced and
manipulated by intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Being part of the New South Wales (NSW) Rural Fire Service
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(RFS) has distinctly opened by eyes to the destruction and effects of bushfires. Attendance to fire calls has
resulted in the first hand witness of the effects a bushfires has on the environment, community and residents it
has directly affected. My application with the Rural Fire Service saw me attend the Bilpin State Mine Fire (2013)
and the Blue Mountains Winmalee (2013) fire. At these locations and many other locations, I observed that
many buildings and dwelling were of old heritage, and did not embrace the fundamental features to provide
some protect to a bushfire attack. These events have shaped my internal influences supporting the intrinsic
motivation for the design. Extrinsic motivation for the project, is aimed at the level of protection against
bushfire attacks, embracing the existing surrounding environment of its location, the embodied energy require
for its construction, and the products overall effect on the environment. Through examining of existing
dwellings, and realising the measures that can be taken to produce a more sustainable design, a smarter, more
technology advanced, and passive designs, will not only provide a functional and aesthetical design for the
client, but it will additionally reduce the embodied energy and environmental impact involved in the aspects of
the projects life. Essentially, the motivation for the project is directed at designing a bushfire resistant home
complying with all National Standards, suited for the target market, embrace the features and characteristic of
the existing location of development, and for the product to encompass and magnify aesthetical, functional, and
environmental sustainable components.
The project is being produced to minimise and overcome the destruction impacts of bushfire attacks on
dwellings located in bushland regions. The design will provide adequate resilience and protection from the
attack of a fire, for the occupants and property inside the construction. The development of the design will
overcome the problem faced with the loss of homes due to bushfire impacts, on bushland communities. As well
as protection for the threat of destruction, the dwelling can be found as a safe refuge for neighbours, family,
friends, pets and animals which do not have the appropriate defence from the intensity of a bushfire. People
who are intending of developing or moving into bushfire-prone areas would be subject to the use of the
product. Features and innovation of the design will engender the consumer to consider the safety offered in the
product and how it grants protection it offers to them, their families and their possessions. The operational use
of the design is imperative for safety, and legal requirements. The product will offer the residents a safe refuge
during a bushfire attack, resilient to the conditions, heat, and intensity of the fire. The design of the house is also
necessary to comply with the Australian National Standards of Construction of buildings in bushfire-prone areas
(AS 39592009). Planning for bushfire protection and the consideration of the Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) will
determine the fire management techniques, approaches, features, and regulations.

Target Market
The bushfire resistant construction can potentially have an extensive range of target markets. Primarily,
the design will be targeted at the residents anticipating in developing, re-developing or moving into bushfire
prone areas. Additionally the product can have a significant interest and appropriation to residents of a
community which have been affect by bushfire, and which have potentially lost property and their home. People
who have been endure the harrowing experience of the loss of their home; they endeavour to obtain safety,
security and peace of mind to not endure the same circumstances. The target market of the product can be
people from all areas of the Australian continent since the most of Australia experience similar bushfire
conditions. Recent bushfires in the New South Wales Blue Mountains region have had a dramatic effect on the
people directly affected, and also others that who have been indirectly affected. The Winmalee/Springwood and
the Bilpin fires which were ignited September of 2013 resulted in the loss of property, homes and lives. The
Winmalee/ Springwood/ Yellow Rock fire spread intensely over 3, 500 hectares. The severity and destruction of
the bushfire resulted in 193 houses being destroyed. Consequently, the target market specific to the design of
the project of a bushfire resistant dwelling are residents of the Blue Mountains region and in particular the
Winmalee and adjacent areas which had been affected by the fires.
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The Blue Mountains Local Government Area (LGA) covers 143, 000 hectares of land in the Greater
Western Sydney Region. The Blue Mountains is a place of great natural beauty and rich in cultural resources. In
2012, there was an estimated 78, 489 persons residing in the Blue Mountains area. The Blue Mountains is
expected to experience population growth by 16, 500 people by 2036. Consequently, this results in the further
development of dwellings bushfire-prone areas. According to the Blue Mountains Demographic and Economic
Profile, 2014, the amount of dwelling approvals granted annual increased by 12% between 2007 2012. A total
of 144 residential buildings were approved to be built in the financial year 2011 2012. Although
there is one in four households comprising of lone person dwellings, majority of the
Blue
area comprises of a medium sized families. The median age of residents in the Blue
Mountains
Mountains LGA was fourty-two (42) years, based on the Census 2011 data. Children
Map
aged 0 14 years made up 19.5% of the population and people aged over 70 years and
over made up 10.5% of the population. Many people aged between 30-59, consist of
families of 2-3 typically teenaged children. Building in the Blue Mountains can vary
slightly, however single dwellings make up the majority of the demographics. Ninetytwo (92) percent (%) of all dwellings in the Blue Mountains exist as separate houses.
Examination and analysis of the residents of the target market in the Blue Mountains community
exemplifies common trends, qualities, characteristics and what defines them as a group. Analysis of the
qualifications of Blue Mountains residents in 2011, displays that there was a higher proportion of people holding
formal qualifications. Higher qualifications incorporated Bachelor or higher degree, Advanced Diploma or
Diploma; or Vocational qualifications. Overall, 54.9 % of the population aged 15 and over held educational
qualifications and 34.9% of residents are tertiary qualified. Residents in the Blue Mountains area vary with the
place of workplace and employment. Due to the high level of qualifications, residents are typically employed in
education and health care assistance. Evidently, the individual income of the working population exceeds $1,
000 per week for 28.4% of the residents. However 59% of residents leave the Blue Mountains for work. These
residents with developments in bushfire-prone areas want to have the guarantee, safety and security that their
home will not be subject as a victim of a bushfire, even if they are not at the premises. They want the
opportunity to develop a dwelling that is capable of withstanding a bushfire attack so it can continuously
provide a home for them and their family to come back to each day and night.
Not only does the target market want their dwelling to be bushfire resistant but they want the design,
features and aesthetics of the design to suit their lifestyles, the environment, the local community and the
modern trends. An architecturally appealing and dramatic statement bushfire designed dwelling should suit the
needs of the residents commonly living in separate dwellings. The design need to be a family, with an open living
design, modern architectural features, large common and living areas, and a modern exterior which is resilient
to the conditions and attack from a bushfire. The target market also wants the house to be environmental
sustainable, with a passive design reducing the energy consumption and costs. Potential consumers of the
product additionally want the design to fit in with the modern trends, as well as the demographics and
characteristics of the existing dwellings in the local community.

Evaluation:
The need of the design is to provide the safety to the property and lives of the occupants. The design is required
to be constructed to enable protection and withstand the intense heat and destruction of a bushfire attack. As
well as providing sufficient protection, it is to meet the needs of the target markets demographics, lifestyle, and
wants. The target market encompasses medium sized families anticipating in developing, re-developing or
moving into bushfire prone areas. The target market wants the design to be aesthetically appealing,
environmentally sustainable, and to match modern and local housing trends. Since the target market commonly
comprises of medium sized families, with reasonable to high income, the house need to be a family four
bedroom home, which is not extensively over the cost for a normal non-fire resistant dwelling.
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Project Proposal
Areas of Investigation
The establishment of design and production of the bushfire resistant dwelling (house) will incorporate a
spectrum of parameters and boundaries. Parameters appropriate to my intended project encompass production
time, size, materials, cost, transport, safety, accessibility as well as legal requirements and standards. These
constraints will guide and assist the development of the design project, and create targets of performance. One
of the major constraints on the completion of the project is the amount of time given. Time is significantly
important throughout the process of design, creating and evaluating the project. Along with the physical
construction of the project as series of imperative steps and series of actions are required in order for the
product to be successful. Considerable amount of time must be factored into account in relation to the project
proposal, management, research, development, realisation and continuous detailed evaluation. All of which
these aspects, consume an extensive amount of limited time, organisation and effort.
Planning is also involved with the process of completing a project. Designers have to plan out their
course of actions, what they are going to do, and when they are going to do it by. There are an array of
organisational methods utilised to achieve the maximum potential, benefit and success of project. Visual
representations and planners allow a designer to consider all possible thoughts, features, ideas, opinions,
aspects and areas of an assignment prompting them to think outside the box synthesising new ideas and
enhancing their metacognition. In addition it enables the recognition of type of work and features entailed with
a design. These tools, also acknowledged as cognitive organisers can include Venn diagrams, matrix, mind maps,
web features, ranking, T-Charts, P.M.I, bridging snapshots and fish bone.
The size of the design is crucial. The size needs to be appropriate to the area of the land it is located on,
the size of families of the target market, and to be a suitable and comfort size which still allows for spacious,
open, free flowing living plan. The design is required to be a four bedroom house, will all appropriate and
necessary features which will be discovered through further investigations. The size of the land on the property
is also dependent on further investigation and first hand observations of Winmalee land properties in the Blue
Mountains. Not only would size be directly related to the volume of the building, it is also related to the cost,
time, difficulty, energy and materials of the design. A sizable development would accordingly have an increased
cost, difficulty and time to construct. The larger the design the more materials required for the construction of
building. With this, the time, cost and energy involved in the construction also escalates. A balance in the size of
the building between the cost, and comfort is critical for establishing an appropriately proportioned dwelling
suitable to the requirements of the target market. Further research will be conducted to determine the
appropriate sized and proportioned dwelling for the target market needs, buildings cost, energy consumptions
and the size of the property of land available for development. The size in relation to the development of a three
dimensional model of the project is also constrained. The physical model mock-up, prototype and final design
ought to be produced using timber, cardboard, foam core and any other suitable material, but does not exceed
a 500 millimetre by 500 millimetre size.
Cost is a fundamental and extensively critical parameter for this project. The functional requirement of
the design being fire resistant produces a diverse range of additional cost and expenses. Materials required for
the development in bushfire prone areas are also costly. The cost of the construction is necessary to be only
slightly over the cost of a normal, non-fire resistant home. A balance is essential between the fire protection and
the level of safety the dwelling provides, and the cost associated with fire management and safety systems,
materials, planning and designs. The cost of the product will additionally be dependent on the geographical
features of the property of its intended development. Expenditure in the design is essential to be minimal; since
the overall cost of the building could mean it the product is more appealing to most wage levels. Thoughtfulness
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into planning, design, manufacturing, assembly and operation costs must be implemented. The formation of a
design budget will balance the total expenditure of the development, with the future purchase projections on
labour, materials, planning and construction. Additional investigation into the cost of the dwelling is imperative
to the success of the product and the formation of a suitable budget for the requirements of the design. Cost is
related to the requirements of the portfolio as it involves the purchasing of materials to construct a 3D model.
This cost would be keep to an insignificant amount as the 3D mock-up or prototype is simply providing the
target market with an overview on the overall look of the product.
Developing in bushfire-prone areas incorporates the complication of Australian standards and
regulations. For a building to be certified the design is require to fulfil or exceed the level of bushfire attack of
which the dwelling could be subject to, and to comply with all the construction regulations. Planning for bushfire
protection and other bushfire protection measures are vital in the functionality of the design, and the safety it
offers to the occupants and their belongings. Research and investigation into the Bushfire Attack Level (BAL),
Australian Standards (3959-2009) of constructions in bushfire-prone areas, bushfire protection planning, and
property bushfire protection measures is required throughout various aspects of the design. The achievement of
knowledge of the expectations and requirements of the dwelling will influence and manipulate the intended
design, look and function of the dwelling. These areas are essential to be investigated, since the non-compliance
of the construction regulations would prevent the product from being about to be purchased, hence the product
would not be success.
Environmental impact of the product is also critical to the design. The product is required to be
environmental sustainable in all aspects of material sourcing, transportation, manufacturing, assembly, operate
and the end of the products life. The design needs to produce a minimal impact to the immediate and extended
environments and ecosystems. Investigation into appropriate and sustainable materials and their extraction can
minimise the extended environmental impact. The research and investigation into a successful and passive
design that utilises the elements of nature will inevitable result in the decreased effect on the environment.
Further investigation into various and fundamental aspects of the design is imperative to the successful
completion and fulfilment of design specifications of the project.
Numerous and a variety of opportunities can be extended through the development of this project. The
opportunities incorporate the extending of a target market, the establishment of a business, the influence of the
construction designing in bushfire-prone areas and the development of other products. The aesthetical appeal
of the design is intended to be appropriate with modern, grand designs of the majority of the population. As a
result the design features and characters can appeal to consumers outside bushfire-prone areas. This provides a
larger, more dynamic target market for the product and further extends the opportunity for greater success. If
the product had become successful and produced increasing demands, additionally products and design can be
generated. A business can be established from the original product. It could be able provide a range of designs
with varying sizes and styles, as well as fire protection systems which can be fitting to existing dwellings that
dont offer adequate bushfire attack protection. The architecture of the design is intended to be made a
statement and procedure a wow factor to the local community of its existence. If the product was successful in
completing this, other residents or designers may become influenced to create a building which replicates the
style, look and feel of the construction.
Further investigations will be conducted in order to obtain information and knowledge around particular
aspects of the design. Features comprising materials most appropriate to the design, the magnitude of the
design, production time, design specifications, techniques, action and time plans, target market research,
problems the design can overcome, and for the potential for the design to expand will all be investigated.
Existing designs along with their success and failure will be critical analysed so the successes and be collaborated
to provide guidance to a prosperous design. Research will be undertaken to locate information helpful on the
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areas stated, finding the most successful features of existing designs. Research will be conducted both
quantitatively and qualitatively in primary actions and secondary investigation allowing a range of different
information to be encountered and recorded. Primary investigations would encompass the visiting of bushfire
affect areas, the areas of the target market and the intended property for the design. Research tools including,
questionnaire, survey, interview questions, tally sheet, and many more will help with the process of obtaining
information, findings and considerations. Once information is acquired it will be documented in the design
portfolio, becoming subject to analysis and interpretation before being applied and presented in
understandable, appealing and easily viewed arrangements.

What is to be
Investigated?
Production Time
required to fulfil
with detail all
aspects of the
design portfolio

Materials

Cost

Size of the project

Target Market
Research

Problems the

Analysis and justification of how and why it is to be investigated


Discovering the amount of time required to complete all aspect of the design portfolio, will
be based upon the scaffold presented by the teacher, asking students would have already
done the project, and by estimating the time required to complete each task. The tasks
required to be accomplished to finish the design and how much time is proposed to work
on it will be displayed in a time action plan. This will enable me to visual understand the
steps in the process, and when they should roughly be completed. It is imperative to
investigate the amount of time required to fulfil the design portfolio and the assembling of
the prototype/model so I dont not fall to behind, and will be able to successful complete
the project
Materials will be required to be researched to great lengths and with significant analysis.
Materials which are bushfire rated, comply with Australian standards and regulations, and
which are appropriate to the design need to be investigated. The sourcing and extraction
of these materials as well as the energy requirements in all aspects of the materials will be
researched in addition. This is essential for the product to be bushfire compliant, offer
protection to life and property, and to be environmentally sustainable
Cost is a fundamental and extensively critical parameter for this project. Extensive research
into the cost associated with the materials, transport, construction and operation of
aspects in the design will all need to be conducted. All these costs must be discovers
through appropriate research, will limit the design capabilities, whilst also providing
necessary information to be able to formulate a budget for the development and to
consider an appropriate selling price of the dwelling. Additional investigation into the cost
of the dwelling is imperative to the success of the product and the formation of a suitable
budget for the requirements of the design
Size of the product is crucial to the success of the design. The size needs to be appropriate
to the area of the land it is located on, the size of families of the target market, and to be a
suitable and comfort size which still allows for spacious, open, free flowing living plan. The
design is required to be a four bedroom house, will all appropriate and necessary features
which will be discovered through further investigations. The size and geographical features
of the property will be investigated upon the first hand visit to the area of which the design
will be subjected. Sizes of four bedroom dwelling will be founded upon the examination
and analysis of floor plans, and show homes which are similar in size and features
The target market, their characteristic, needs, wants and requirements will need to be
explored so the toy can be successful. The purpose of the market research is to achieve an
increased understanding of the subject manner. Information in the needs, lifestyle
characteristics and wants will need to be located, analysed and appropriately incorporated
into the design. Demographics of the target market will be achieved through secondary
hand research, as well as primary first hand surveys and questionnaires of the needs and
wants they would appreciate in the design of a fire resistant home. Research of the target
market would additionally enable the design to be appropriate to the needs, wants,
lifestyles, behaviours and actions of the target market
The successful construction of a fire resistant dwelling would inevitably permit the safe and

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design can
overcome

secure protection of the clients personal property and life. The dwelling could then
become a safe refuge for people in the local community. Research into additional
problems in which the development can overcome is essential to achieve the most benefit
out of the design. If the design can solve several problems it will be more likely to be taken
into consideration, and purchased by consumers
Design
Design specifications refer to descriptions of the requirements of an object. It needs to
specifications
fulfil functional, aesthetical and other criteria related to the project. The dwelling is
required to comply with a number of specifications listed in the project design brief.
Research into how these specifications can be meet is essential for the product to be
successful in fulfilling the design brief, and requirements
Bushfire Attack
Building construction and design is another aspect that must be considered and
Level (BAL)
investigated when building in bushfire-prone areas. The determination of the Bushfire
Attack Level (BAL) is essential for the design and the development of the dwelling.
Different BALs require a range of different features and regulations of which ought to be
complied with. Investigation through visiting the intended property of the design is
imperative to determine regulations and standards to which the design be suitable and
embrace
Inner and Outer
The inner and outer protection areas are components of an asset protection zone. These
Protection Area
are areas consist of the maintenance of fuel loads, and bushfire hazards, as well as access
roads and requirements of dwellings. Enquiry into the required spacing, fuel loads, and
vegetation types within these areas is essential for the dwelling to fulfil legal obligations
and regulations. Examination of bushfire protection guides and appendixs will assist in the
gathering of this type of information
Asset Protection An asset protection zone (APZ) is known as a fire protection zone and aims to protect
Zone
human life, property and highly valued assets. It comprises of an inner protection area and
outer protection area. Research into the bushfire hazard and the required asset protection
is necessary for the dwelling to comply with standards and to be able to withstand the
impact of a bushfire attack
Bushfire hazard
A bushfire hazard is the potential severity of a fire. Several factors can determine and
and reduction
influence the severity of a potential bushfire. These factors such as climate, weather
works
patterns, vegetation, fuel quantities, moisture, and slope will require further investigation
on how they affect the severity of the fire and the hazard they possess. First hand
examination of the property that will be used as a basis will help determine the bushfire
hazard present to the intended development. Secondary hand investigate through
research will additionally be conducted to define the fire protection measures and
requirements necessary for the dwelling and the environment
Fire Protection
Fire protection systems are imperative to defend against serve ember attack, radiant heat
Systems
and also direct flame contact. Sprinkler systems used to dispense water on walls, roof and
other elements of the building will be researched to observe how they can be incorporated
into the intended design of the dwelling. Fire protection guides and also consultations with
more advanced members of the Rural Fire Service will enable me to obtain the required
information
Fire Intensity
Fire intensity is related to the severity of a fire. This would be determined though the
vegetation types, slope of the land, and the placement of the building. Observations of the
property and reference to fire intensity scales and calculations will enable be to successful
fulfil this area of investigation
Other fire resistant Bushfire resistants is an imperative element of this design development. All necessary fire
elements included resistant elements, programs, and materials will all need to be further investigated to help
in the design
make the dwelling as fire resistant as possible. Environmental features are also included in
the fire resistant research. This will be conducted in a secondary manner, gathering
appropriate and helpful information to further advance the design making it significant fire
resistant to be able to withstand a range of fire conditions
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Geography of the
design property

The geographical, physical and environment characteristics of the property in which the
design will be formulated around are all elements that will be investigated through first
hand observes and recording whilst visiting the property. The geography of the landscape
and its environmental features as essential to be analysed as it can potential alter the
design of the dwelling, its situation, the size, and type of building it will consist of
Climate/ Weather/ The climate, weather conditions and other naturally occurring element in the area and
Natural elements location of the intended property for the design are necessary. This required to be
researched to give and understanding for the design and architectural elements necessary
in the house design. Passive design components are also reliant on the climate, weather
and other natural conditions. Investigation for this will be conducted through observations
of the property and statistical analysis of weather programs and data sheets
Specific needs of The specific needs, wants and desires of the target market are fundamental to the success
target market
of the project. These ought to be examined and the results to be incorporated into the
design of the dwelling in order for it to be significantly more appealing, aesthetically
satisfying and functionally appropriate to the consumers. The more of the elements,
characteristics and lifestyle types the design can encompass, the more diverse range of
consumer will be potentially interested in purchasing the product
Bushfire
New establishing developments in bushfire prone areas and required to comply with the
constructions and Australian Standards, State standards, local council standards and also in some
planning standards circumstances the Rural Fire Service standards. Constructions in these bushfire prone areas
and regulations
have strict laws and regulation involving the dwelling type, its features, vegetation,
building materials and other bushfire building regulations. The recent catastrophic effects
of recent bushfire disasters have provoked increased restrictions on developments and
amplified the enforcement of the safety elements of new developments. These are
required to be researched and examine to allow for them to be applied in the design of the
product, and to allow to be sold successfully
Passive design
Passive design elements ought to be incorporated in the design of the house to enhance its
environmental sustainability and reduced its effect on the environment. An understanding
of how to design a dwelling with the appropriate passive design features is crucial to
reduce the cost on the environment, the amount of energy consumption and the cost to
the consumers. Further investigation into passive design components through information
analysis is vital to the environmental effect of the construction and the comfort of the
future occupants
Computer Aided Computer Aided Drawing (CAD) programs are imperative to the design, as well as the
Drawing (CAD)
marketing of the product. They provide three-dimensional visualisations of the product to
Programs
the potential consumers and help builds and contracted implement the design in the
construction. Some CAD programs are more advanced and better suited to the design of a
building and so they will be utilised. However all CAD programs are not the same, with
some more difficult than others. Lack of experiences and knowledge into the capabilities
and feature of ArchiCAD program will limit my visualisation capabilities. Research into how
to use the programs, and how to implement particular components is necessary. This will
be achieved through viewing YouTube videos and tutorials on the function of the
program, consulting other students will more experience using the program, and simply
experimenting the buttons and features of the program
Safety Measures Safety is critical and is the first priority. The safety of the occupants inside the dwelling
during a bushfire attack is essential. This can be achieved through the incorporation of
extensive and appropriate fire management systems, educations and the design. However
the safety of the builders also needs to be considered when the construction of the design
is conducted. Consideration into safety concerns in the construction of the design, as well
as the safety for the occupants is indispensable
Architecture for
Architecture for bushfire prone areas and the required components in the design are
bushfire prone
critical. Architecture in bushfire prone areas has different needs and requirements to that
areas
of dwellings in suburb low risk bushfire areas. Architectural design and techniques will
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Environmental
Sustainability

Behaviour of
bushfires

Embodied energy

Recyclability of
materials

addition need to be investigated as it will impact the aesthetics of the design. Examination
and analysis of existing designs and established architecture in bushfire prone zones and
their effectiveness in a bushfire attack to reduce the impact of the fire and ensure the
safety of the resident occupants will be conducted to provide inspiration and a foundation
of the design of the intended product
Environmental sustainability is the central to the development of the design. It is one of
the most important design specifications of this project. Research into the environmental
sustainable element for buildings, materials and other key areas will be completed. A
sustainability calculator would also be investigated to calculate the exact energy and
environmental rating of the design in all aspects of its development
The behaviour and conditions of bushfires are factors that can potentially change the
design. Components of the intended design will need to counteract these effects. Typical
fire characteristics and conditions will need to be investigated. This can be achieve through
first hand experiments and my involvement with the RFS, but also with secondary
resources and information
Embodied energy is the amount of energy and work it takes to extract, manufacture,
transport and assemble materials and components of the design. Adequate research into
the embodied energy at all stages of the design would enable the completion of the life
cycle analysis to be a straight forward and detailed expression of the findings of the
research. It would also promote the reduce in energy consumption through effective
passive design elements and the buildings situation
Recycling, reusing and reducing the amount of materials in the design of a construction are
imperative components that help improve the environment sustainability of the design. By
reusing recycled materials, not only does it reduce the carbon footprint on the
environment but it also saves significant amounts of money. General research in the
energy requirements to extract, transport and manufacture materials will be conducted.
The amount of energy saved in recycling and reusing will also be located and compared
with the results of non-recycled elements. Successful investigations in this area will
strengthen the environmental sustainability of the design

Project Proposal
Criteria to Evaluate Success
Parameters will assist the design of the intended project as it will create targets of performance that
must be met, in order for the project to be successful. The process of determining how successfully these targets
are met is accredited as the criteria to evaluate success. The design will integrate a variety of functional,
aesthetical, and other criteria necessary to complete a successful product. The accomplishment of the criteria
will inevitably make the proposed design successful in fulfilling its requirements and successful in product
purchases.

Criteria to Evaluate SuccessHigh Priority


Bushfire resistant is the foremost and most imperative criteria for the design. The design for a
development to be constructed in bushfire prone areas has to essentially be able to withstand natural
conditions, diminish the damage to the property, protect life, and ultimately survive the severe, intense and
destructive forces and conditions associated with a bushfire attack. The intent for the development of the
project is for protection. The protection of life, the protection of property and the protection of valued
possessions are fundamental goals and requirements for the product. Through the incorporation of a diverse
range of fire protection measures, systems and designs the criteria for the design to be bushfire attack resistant
can be successfully achieved. Examination of other existing bushfire resistant designs and the effectiveness of
the features and characteristics of the construction will be a factor in determining if this project will meet and
exceed the criteria. Proven and experimented designs will also establish a basis to determine if the final design
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of the project is prosperous in fulfilling the requirements of the standards. The consultation with certified
professionals will enable the opportunity for an expert to determine the bushfire protection and safety the
design offers. If the design in inadequate in supplying sufficient protection of life and property it will not fulfil
the design brief, requirements and specifications. Failure to meet or exceed the expectations of the criteria to
be bushfire resistant would inevitably eventuate in the design not being able to be sold or purchased as it would
not meet regulations or be safe to the residents and occupations of the dwelling.
Environmental sustainability is another principle and fundamental criteria to evaluate the success of the
design. Design specifications and the design brief distinctly states the requirement for the design to focus and
intergrade components targeting environmental sustainability. The home has to reduce the impact and effect it
produced and has on the environment. The minimal usage of materials, and product wastage will support its
movement to an environmentally sustainable design. Passive design elements will support the minimal
consumption of electrical energy; hence benefit the cost of the operation of the design and reducing the
environmental impact of extensive electrical usage. The usage of particular materials, and the location of
extraction will have an insignificant of the surrounding environment is essential for the development. Existing
environmentally friendly dwellings and the extent of their impact of the environment directly and indirectly will
offer a foundation to the assessment of the sustainability of the final design. This criterion is significant in
evaluating the success of the design. Noncompliance with the basics of environmental sustainability will mean
that the product will not meet the stated criteria and the specifications of the design brief, hence not be
successful in the completion of the assigned assessment task.
Aesthetic characteristics and features are fundamental to the success and triumph of a bushfire resistant
home. The dwelling is required to be aesthetically appealing to the major of people and be extensive attention
engaging to the target market. In order to complete this, it is required to have a modern, contemporary and
rural style, texture, feel and appeal. The design should be able to make a statement, producing a wow factor
from the audience. Aesthetically, the design needs to fit into modern trends and also the trends of new
developments in the area of which its intended design is situated. The aesthetics of the final product are
required to be suitable and appropriate to changing social trends and exemplify a range of cultural diversity. This
will enable the products target market to be further expended into different ethnical cultures and groups, and
potentially attracting new developers of buyers to the area. Not only does the final design need to be
aesthetically satisfying, but it also needs to assimilate the surrounding environment and its characteristics.
Aesthetics are most often the determining purchasing point of a product. The target market is more likely and
intended to purchase a product that enables the same function but has better looking, and feeling due to
personal desire, comfort and wants. To determine it the final design has meet or exceed the criterion, images
and models throughout the realisation of the project will be presented to the target market and the community
for their judgement, opinion, criticism and verdict on its aesthetical characteristics. It is absolutely crucial for the
dwelling to exemplify aesthetical characteristics which are modern, rural, environmentally assimilative, and
appealing to an assorted range of people, in order for the product to be sold and developed successfully.
Functionality and the functional attributes of the design need to be appropriate to the target market and
their characteristics. Most apparently, the construction needs to be a suitable home for the target market and
their families. It needs to incorporate elements that support and assist their lifestyles, needs and wants. The
design is required to consider and comprise of any elements to better suit and tailor the clients. The functional
factors are important to retaining the success of the development. Functional components of the project have a
weighting integrity of the house and its successfulness. Durability, strength and bushfire resistants are all key
elements of the designs functionality. The location and positioning of the property is additionally required to be
situated in a functional and practical position, especially in relation to the access available for firefighters. The
functionality of the product, the exterior and the development location on the property will be determined
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through the comparison of the final design to other existing, successful and effective designs. It will also be
concluded when questioning and consultations with the target market. Functional characteristics of the design
are integral to the success of the product.
Constructions in bushfire prone areas have to comply with the appropriate bushfire protection and
building standards and regulations. Compliance with all Australia, State and council regulations is integral to the
triumph of the design. This is especially imperative as the standards are primarily focused on improving buildings
in bushfire prone areas to obtain the capability to withstand a bushfire attack and protect life and property.
Through the correct application of the related standards and requirements the design will be able to be resistant
to a bushfire attack. Consumers of the product knowing that the dwelling obeys with all regulations are more
inclined to purchase the project, as it offers a safe and secure level of protection to them and their family.
Research and examination of the standards and thorough analysis of the final design ensuring it encompasses all
aspects required will be the foundation of the success of fulfilling the criteria. External examination from a highly
experienced firefighter and professional will be utilised to finalise the accomplishment of the criteria. If the
design fails to meet this criterion it will emit no success as the product will not be able to be sold until the
problem, hazard or area of the design has been adjusted.

Criteria to Evaluate SuccessMedium Priority


Criteria
Explanation of Criteria
Finance

Operation of the
product

Environmental
assimilation

Bushfire resistant elements and designs


have added and extra costs involved.
These extra costs would inevitably push
the overall cost of the final product up,
potential deterring some of the
interested consumers away. The final
cost of the design is required to be kept a
minimal. Costs of the final product should
not be extensive over the cost of a similar
but normal dwelling type
The dwelling is required to be in full
operational conditions for a long period
of time. All fire protection measures and
features new to be maintained and
remain in appropriate working order for
the entire length of itself life. The
dwelling is also obliged to be functionally
and aesthetically pleasing for a prolonged
life after its development. The design of
the constructions needs to ensure it is
design for a prolonged usage and life
span of at least 30 years
The design needs to be suited and
assimilate with the surrounding
environment. The house needs to adapt
to the characteristics and features of the
environment, embracing into its design.
Integrity with the surrounding
environment can be generated

Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

How criteria success or failure will


be determined
The cost of the design will be gauged
upon the educated estimation of the cost
of each step. The final estimated cost to
develop the bushfire resistant dwelling
will be compared with that of a similar
non fire retardant home. If the costs is
less than 25% over the cost of the other
dwelling, the achievement of the criteria
will be successful
The length of the life of the dwelling will
be determined through examining the
elements of buildings, methods of
construction and how long other houses
have remained both functionally,
protectively, and aesthetically fulfilling.
From these appropriate actions and
components will be incorporated to
ensure the life of the products operation
is a minimum of 30 years

Consultations and surveying the target


market will provide the opinion of the
potential consumes on the overall
integration with the environment.
Positive responses will advance the
success of the product, as the target
market are more inclined to purchase it

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Evaluation:
The judgement of overall success of the final design in the evaluation of the product will be conducted through
the determination if the design has met or exceed the criteria established. Reference to a range of existing
designs, products, systems and construction will establish a basis for the final design to be judged, and the
assessment of whether the criteria for success has been accomplished. Primarily, the target market and
audience intended for the design will be consulted and questioned on aspects of the design in order to
successfully gather opinions, criticism and thoughts. Appropriate modifications and alterations to the design to
further suit the target market will be made as result of the consultations. Each component of the design will be
thoroughly, consistently, and effectively evaluated throughout the project to enable the completion of a
successful and effective design solution.

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Project Management
Finance Plan
Finance will impact on the designing and producing of a product model and prototype. A budget is
imperative for all projects, and should balance the income from the product purchases with the expenditure.
Designers need to consider the funding of the project through all aspect of the portfolio and model
development. My design of a bushfire resistant dwelling will have to take numerous considerations to the costs
of various elements. Majority of the cost involved with this project will be the development and construction of
the three-dimensional model of the environment. Comprehensive detail is required to be expressed in the
model to show all the architectural elements and features. Detail will promote the interest and appeal of the
consumers and will influence the success of the design. However with the extensive detail, a significant costs
and time is involved. Modelling materials such as balsa wood, craft wood, Styrofoam, and a range of other
materials will consume most of the budget for this design.
Other areas involving expenditure will involve the funding of three dimensional printer materials for the
printing of model pieces and a company logo, and also to the purchase of sample materials during the
experimenting and investigation components of the design. Additional costs will also be related to the finishing
of the model, and to the printing and developing of the design portfolio. An inquiry into the cost of the materials
will enable me to generate an estimation of the perceived costs associated with the project. Basic fundamental
knowledge of some of the materials and resources involved with the design, has allow me to set an appropriate
sized budget of one hundred and twenty ($120) dollars. Alterations to the budget may need to be made, due to
lack of knowledge of the exact funding associated with particular materials, and the quantity needed. The
finance plan will be organised in the tables below, exemplifying any income, expenditure or donations related to
the design and portfolio development of the project.

Expenditure
Expenditure Reason

Qty

Projected
Expenditure
($)

Actual
Expenditure
($)

Progressive
Total ($)

Balance
($120)

Balsa WoodUtilised for the


modelling and marketing of
the design
Supplier:
Craft WoodUtilised for the
modelling and marketing of
the design
Supplier:
Adhesive applicantsUsed in
the construction of the project
model used for marketing
purposes
Supplier:
3D Printer MaterialsUsed in
the creation a company logo,
and potentially model articles.
This would be utilised in the
marketing of the environment
Supplier: Bede Polding College

35

Not yet
purchased

Not yet
purchased

$120

30

42.08

42.08

$77.92

2x
(100)
packs

10

11.25

53.33

$66.67

$66.67

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Expenditure Reason

Qty

Projected
Expenditure
($)

Actual
Expenditure
($)

Progressive
Total ($)

Balance
($120)

Model ArticlesObjects and


items to be added to the
model to improve detail and
aesthetics. This would further
improve the appeal of the
model used for marketing
purposes
Supplier:
Plan PrintingLarge A2 or A1
images could be printed to
clearly display the project
Plans
Supplier:
PaperThe printing, display
and demonstration of ideas,
the design and portfolio
Supplier: Office Nationals
Richmond
Communication (Phone
Calls)Conduct calls to
services, companys, or to
achieve necessary information
Supplier: Service provide
Telstra
Portfolio Display Folder
Collaborate information and
ideas in an organised, clear
and distinct manner
Supplier: Office National

15

Not yet
purchased

Not yet
purchased

$66.67

10

Not yet
purchased

Not yet
purchased

$66.67

80
A4
14
A3

2.15 + 0.65 =
2.80

56.13

$63.87

Not yet
purchased

Not yet
purchased

$63.87

62.13

$57.87

Income
Income Reason

Projected Income ($)

Income payment from the cost of product upon


purchase

The projected price of the design will require


additional investigation and would also require a
balance of the total expenditure of the project

Donation/ Availability
Donation/ Available

Use of Donation

Cost ($)

ArchiCAD architectural design


program (Student Licence)

The free application and usage of the CAD program


due to the permission of a student licence will be
allow me to use it to create 3D representations of
the design
To paint the final design model to make it
aesthetically pleasing for the target market, hence
making it more appealing for the target market
The printing, display and demonstration of ideas,
the design and portfolio

Nil

Acrylic paint set (Available)

Colour printer ink (Available)

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Nil

Nil

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Styrofoam (Collection)

Drawing board (Available)

Collecting Styrofoam from newly purchased


objects, neighbours and parental workplaces
provide a plentiful source to be used in the
production of the environment model
The drawing board will be utilised to develop the
technical and orthogonal drawing of the project. It
will help support the application of the skill of
architectural drawings

Nil

Nil

Project Management
Selection and Use of Ideas and Resources
Resources are essential to the development of any project. These will be the key foundations of which
you can utilise to generate ideas, design an entity, and create the object. A vast range and plentiful source is
ideal, since it prompts more creative and innovative designs. Resources available for my project incorporate a
three dimensional printer, computer aided drawing programs; acrylic based paints, some modelling materials as
well as a range of information associated with the design process. The production of the portfolio will, require
the use a significantly increased amount of resources. It will require the utilisation of a computer to type the
portfolio, a colour printer, graphic drawing sets, a drawing board, vast amounts of A3 and A4 pieces of paper,
and an A3 display folder. These resources will enable me to collaborate information and ideas, organise it,
create designs, and complete the portfolio. Presentation of the portfolio will be a range of A4 and A3 sized
papers. A significant amount of the aspects of the portfolio will be typed and printer on A4 paper, however,
large CAD images and references will be displayed in a large colour format to empower a clear, distinct and
detailed visual representation of the product.
The process of design of the project will incorporate a range of associating steps. Various resources
would be necessary in the completion of each aspect of the design portfolio. The project proposal section would
require resources such as information for the needs of the target market, research into parameters, a set of
criteria to base the evaluation of success. Research involved with this particular area will be conducted both,
first hand and second hand hence, availability of the target market in their environments is required, whilst also
access to the internet, books and magazines is necessary. An abundant supply of paper for note taking,
information printing, and intention project ideas and sketches is required. Project management is another area
of the design portfolio which contributes to the success of an object. For project management to be effective,
resources linked with time, action, finance and resource management are fundamental. A resource utilised to
organise time is a large, day-by-day yearly planner. A board visual of the calendar show how many days are left
for the project, and displays significant dates of due items enable the appropriate use of time to complete the
project. This can be used to plan, and organise the appropriate tasks on when they should be fulfilled in order
for the project to be successfully completed on time. Whiteboard markers are necessary for the planning and
marking of due dates on the yearly planner. Once again, paper is also essential for note taking, action planning
and for the printing of necessary information.
Project development is essential to the bringing together of ideas, testing of features, investigating areas
of the design and the presentation of techniques. Equipment and resources required for the project
development are associated with the research and testing of the product. These would include, an adequate
supply of paper, a survey scaffold, help in establishing creative idea generation approaches, and sample pieces
of the materials being utilised. Possession of these resources are imperative to the testing, research and
investigation, hence the development of the project. The realisation of the project is just as significant as the
project development. This is the aspect where the project will be modelled on computer aided program
software, and the model prototype be constructed. In order for this area to be completed the accessibility to a
computer aided drawing (CAD) is crucial. The resource of ArchiCAD 17 software is intended to complete the
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realisation of the object. This software will enable me too accurately, easily, distinctly, correctly and
descriptively construct a visual representation of the features, elements and components of the final design
prototype. Model materials are imperative to the three dimensional model of the environment. These materials
are essential for the construction of a scale representation of the final product, to be shown and advertised to
the market. Adhesive products to easily a construct the model will be used. Paint and other finishing equipment
will be utilised in the realisation of the product to finish the design and support the aesthetical requirements.
Finally, the project evaluation will involve access to resources of information, criteria and the overall
outcome of the article. All applicable supplies necessary to analyse, evaluate and test you design against the
criteria in the proposal, industry standards, and the success of other similar existing products. Professional
assessment will be a resource used to determine to the success of the design in fulfilling legal requirements. This
would determine the results of the criteria to evaluate success in relation to the compliance with legal
regulations.
Ideas of the project have be formulated through initial thoughts, application with the Rural Fire Service,
research of the needs of a particular target market, and witnessing television shows which expressed a similar
idea. The fact that many of the houses in bushfire prone areas are pre-date, there are not many products in the
market expressing these characteristics, and the need for the protection of life and property are the key
elements that stimulated the initial intended to construct a dwelling which is bushfire resistant. A Grand Designs
episode showing the effects of the Victoria Black Saturday bushfires, and a mans determination to rebuild of his
home making it fire resistant was a key external idea that produced the interest in design a dwelling which will
offer sufficient protection in a bushfire attack. All these ideas eventually led to the decision to create the
proposed design. These ideas are important and useful in the development of the overall design project.

Project Development
Evidence of Creativity
Idea Generation
Planning and idea generation is incorporated with the process of completing a project. Designers have to
simulate designs for a project, stating the key features, interesting points and difference of their idea. There are
an array of organisational methods utilised to achieve the maximum potential, benefit and success of project.
Visual representations and planners allow a designer to consider all possible thoughts, features, ideas, opinions,
aspects and areas of an assignment prompting them to think outside the box synthesising new ideas and
enhancing their metacognition. In addition it enables the recognition of type of work and features entailed with
a design. These tools, also acknowledged as cognitive organisers can include Venn diagrams, matrix, mind maps,
web features, ranking, T-Charts, P.M.I, bridging snapshots and fish bone. A range of these cognitive organisers
and other brainstorming, flowcharts, sketches, photographs and collection of images has supported my thoughts
to simulate an innovative design. The following images, photographs, brainstorms, and lists have all been
resources in the idea generation of my project.
Annotations communicate key points, features,
interesting point and innovative characteristics that
can be collaborated into my design in order for it to
be successful.

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Callignee IIGrand Designs Australia


Source: http://www.completehome.com.au/be-inspired/articles/real-home-bushfire-house-grand-designsaustralia
North facing, embracing the
heat and light from the sun to
warm the house in winter.
Louvered windows also air flow
to cool the house in summer

Steel cladding not only looks aesthetically pleasing, it is also a non-combustible


material, hence adds to the design bushfire resistance. Core 10, is the material
have produces surface rust when exposed to the natural elements. It produces a
rustic, rural whilst also a modern aesthetically appealing look

The design produced a wow


and makes a statement to the
target audience. Interesting
layout and components.
Creative design

Design assimilates with the


environment, embracing key
elements of greenery, and the
rustic, wore look from being
subject to a bushfire. It is
settled into the surrounding
environment
The bush setting, it recreated throughout the
design. The outside leads inside the dwelling. It
engenders an overriding sense of freedom to
the occupants. The design has flow with the
environment, intergrading it as an integral and
coherent component
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Western Australias bushfire-proof housing project


Source: http://www.watoday.com.au/wa-news/was-bushfireproof-housing-project-thats-designed-to-beburnt-20131028-2wc3l.html

Industrial, raw, simple look and


feel. Modern trends are
associated with the industrial
industry aesthetics

Design may be seen as too


much of a fortress against
fire. Homely, conformable and
environment feel is lost in the
extensive protection of the
design. Some consumers may
not appeal to the aesthetics

Incorporates a semi-outdoor area which


can be used to sit, relax and embrace
the surrounding environment. Typical
element of all Australian houses has
been included in the design

Metal roller and shutters over


windows and doors essentials the
minimal transfer of radiant heat from
a fire, to objects inside the house
which may spontaneously combust

Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Steel cladding is a key element to the


designs fire resistants. Steel structure
support essential it will not burn and
collapse in bushfire attack
Page 26

Kit Bushfire Resistant Home


Source: http://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/news/industry-news/kit-home-is-bushfire-resistant
Curved Colourbond roofing and cladding
makes it highly energy efficient in terms
of heating and cooling. This improves
the environmental sustainability of the
design. Roofing type is also very
effective in a bushfire situation
Exposed timber deck would
possess a fire hazard to the
building

Design may be seen as too


much of a fortress against
fire. Homely, conformable and
environment feel is lost in the
extensive protection of the
design. Some consumers may
not appeal to the aesthetics

The product would not necessarily


assimilate with the environment as it
has been constructed off site, and with a
design brief of purely being bushfire
resistant

A limited amount of sunlight and heat able to


enter the building due to the small windows.
More energy will be then consumed with the
lighting of praticalur rooms with low lighting. A
balance between the bushfire resistant,
suitable lighting, the environmental
sustainable measures is necessary

Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Page 27

Ecosystem HomesBushland
Source: http://www.ecosystemhomes.com.au/sustainable-eco-home-designs.asp
Modern, contemporary styled dwelling. Roofing
of the dwelling is evident in modern building
trends. Aesthetically please to the majority of
the target audience
Simple design of house is appealing
to all. Design of the houses is
adaptable for the majority of the
occupants lifestyles and needs

Passive design components allow the


flow of air to cool the house in
summer. Additional light can enter
the house, reducing the amount of
electricity used for lighting the house

No gutters on the roofing does not allow leaves to


be caught. Leaves in gutters are one of the most
common elements that ignited under ember
attack. It also provides the residents with less
maintenance as they dont have to constantly
clean the leaves out from the gutters
Exterior of the dwelling is brick,
with a rendering of concrete. This
is a good choice of coating as it is
not combustible and does not
transfer or allow heat to be
conducted

Exposed timber screening is likely to


burn with the radiant heat, ember
attack and direct flame contact in a
bushfire attack

Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Page 28

Environmentally Sustainable HomesEcosystem Homes


Source: http://www.ecosystemhomes.com.au/sustainable-eco-home-designs.asp

Simple designs of houses is


appealing to all. Design of the
houses is adaptable for the majority
of the occupants lifestyles and
needs

Passive design components allow the


flow of air to cool the house in
summer. Additional light can enter
the house, reducing the amount of
electricity used for lighting the house

Modern, contemporary styled


homes. Roofing of the dwellings is
evident in modern building trends.
Aesthetically please to the majority
of the target audience

Construction materials are not


suitable for the development in
bushfire prone areas. Exposed pieces
of timber are a potential fire hazard
since they are a combustible material

Vegetation is present is aesthetically


pleasing, however it may possess a
risk to be subjected to fire

Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Page 29

Project Development
Evidence of Creativity
Idea Generation
Key characteristics, components and elements of designs have been collaborated from initial ideas.
These will establish a basic principle for the fundamental design of the dwellings. Components from areas of
bushfire resistant, environmental sustainability, passive design, and overall aesthetical appealing will be taken
into consideration when making conclusions on the feature of my final design. The utilisation of these elements
will enable the successful completion and accomplishment of the criteria to determine success. Innovation will
be incorporated with the design. The design of the dwelling will be different, interesting, new and have impact
in solving the problem houses destroyed from bushfire attack. Innovative measures in the design will be
achieved through seeking out new ideas and concepts, and also modifying existing designs.
A component of my design that is intended to be the most innovative aspect of the design will be the
sprinkler and fire defence system. The system will encompass a series of water sources which have been
integrated into the environment, with a technologically advanced detection apparatus provoking the operation
of the defence system, and the effective disruption of water to vital areas of the building. Water sources will be
assimilated with the design of the home, as well as playing a part of ecosystem for natural animals and habitats.
An advanced system will be incorporated to enable the correct detection of the threat of a bushfire attack and
active the fire protection even when the occupants of the dwelling are not on the premises. An effective and
adequate water disruption over the house and its vital structure will be the physical bushfire attack suppression
measure. Not only will the innovative design of the sprinkler system improve the defence of the dwelling against
a bushfire attack, but it can be additional operated as a water feature for the house. The stimulation of ideas for
this innovation has been accomplished through embracing typical fire sprinkler systems, modifying them and
creating a new type of fire protection measure that can have multiple purposes and uses.

Exploration of Existing Ideas


Product

Positives (Plus)

Western Australias bushfireproof housing projectDwelling


on page 26

Sufficient bush fire


protection measure
and components
Steel cladding and
rollers over
windows and doors
reduces heat
transfer to interior
elements

Kit Bushfire Resistant Home


Dwelling on page 27

Structural design of
the roofing and
exterior walls
provides adequate
bushfire protection
Can be
transportable to
different sites
Relatively cheap
house

Minus

Interesting

Aesthetics may
Enable the use of a
come across to
decking, outdoor
some target
area which is an
markets as being
essential part of a
too much like a
typical rural
fortress instead or
Australian home
a warm,
comfortable home
Cost of all steel and
metal products
would be extensive
Aesthetics of the
Expresses a different
design may not
a different approach
appeal to all
to constructions in
markets
bushfire prone areas
Can be seen as a
Shape of the design
fortress
hasnt commonly
Shape and materials
been seen or used in
would be difficult to
homes before
adapt with the
environment

Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Page 30

Ecosystem HomesBushland
Dwelling on page 28

Environmentally Sustainable
HomesEcosystem Homes
Dwellings on page 29

Callignee IIGrand Designs


AustraliaDwelling on page 25

Limited windows
reduce the amount
of natural light that
can enter the
dwelling
Modern
Exterior timber
architectural style
features, and stairs
No gutter systems
may be burnt in
attached to roof
bushfire attack
Passive design
The integration of
elements to reduce
the environment of
energy consumption
the design is not
Brick exterior with
evident
rendered surface
are noncombustible
materials suitable
for bushfire regions
Passive designs
Materials used on
which improve the
the exterior of the
environmental
dwelling is not
sustainability
suitable for
Modern
constructions in
architectural
bushfire prone
designs
areas
Appealing aesthetic Lack of integration
to the majority of
with surrounding
the target audience
environment
Aesthetically
Some of the
pleasing
elements of the
Assimilates with the
design would have
environment
come at a
Fire resistant steel
considerable cost
cladding which
Design is only based
additionally
on the landscape of
provided a rustic
the property
and rural look and
feel
Modern and
abstract
architectural design
Environmentally
sustainable with
features of design
Encompasses a pool
Large windows to
enable light to
enter, and to
embrace to
surrounding bush
landscape

Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Roofing structure
and architectural
lines within the
design

A range of different
housing elements
and layouts
Different materials/
textures work
together creating an
attractive appeal

Interesting design
approach and layout
Duck pond around
the dwelling
Swing bridge
connecting the car
port with the house
Reused steel
structural beams
which exemplify
characteristics of
being through a fire

Page 31

Modak HomesOutback

Tank House

CSIROTest House

Modern
architectural design
Aesthetically
pleasing to most of
the audience
Passive design
Large windows for
air to flow through
and light to enter
Significant bushfire
protection
Exterior elements all
comprise of noncombustible
materials
Can be used as a
disaster relief home
Easily transportable
design
Extensive bushfire
protection
components
Cottage like appeal
Transportability
Relatively cheaper
house

Size may be a factor


for large families
with 2-3 children
Construction costs

Surface tension
gutter system

Bunkerish look
may not appeal to
target market
Rectangular shape
may be consisted as
too simple, or
boring

Can support the


direct impact from a
water bombing air
craft
Different approach
to bushfire
resistance

Sizeespecially for
families

Regarded as fire
proof
Can withstand direct
flame contact from a
flame height 20
metres plus

Materials of
construction are
non-combustible
and bushfire
resistant
Can be regarded as
aesthetically
pleasing
Lodge like appeal
Looks like a home,
not just a protective
measure
Ability to be built on
sloping land
Significantly
bushfire attack
resistant
Exterior material
non-combustible

Lack of assimilation
with the
surrounding
environment

Double story home

Aesthetics may not


appeal to all
markets
Shape doesnt
incorporate
elements of the
environment
Cost involved with
the hydraulics and
systems for window
protection

Automotive system
to pull down window
and door protection
when the threat of a
bushfire exists

Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Page 32

Degree of Difference

The bushfire resistant construction will


incorporate a range of architectural, and
bushfire protection elements, improving its
success. The design is unique and innovative
since ideas have been collaborated and
intergraded from other existing designs. The
design will be different to existing designs as the
design brief, specifications and design
motivation is dissimilar to that of existing
products. The design will be a leading product
for its company.

Weakness of this project would include the lack


of funding and budget limitations. The personal
budget of the design is significantly less than
that of a designer of a major manufacturing
company. No management plan for design
decisions will also be weak in comparison to
existing building and manufacturing enterprises.

The design obtains potential to expand. Success


in the marketing of the design will further
promoted its purchase and development in a
range of local communities. Architectural
elements many be sourced from the design and
incorporated by other companies. Opportunities
in the establishments of other types of dwellings
and a range of bushfire protection measures and
systems may be sourced from the original
design.

Lack of external funding is a threat that affects


the design. Other companies with existing
products typically has a constant flow of external
income, however since this design is the first of
the company, external funding from other
product sales, or other sponsoring organisations
may not be present. Sickness during the critical
development stages would push the design
completion date back.

Project Development
Consideration of Design Factors Relevant to the Project
Throughout the process of project development, carefully consideration it undertaken to ensure all
factors affecting design have been accounted and evaluated. The range of factors will provide a foundation for
success as it presents guidance and direction to design an object. A diverse range of factors affecting my project
are critical to the design, development and production. These factors incorporate appropriateness of the design
solution, needs of the target market, function, aesthetics, finance, ergonomics, quality, obsolescence,
environmental consequences and life-cycle analysis. Most of these factors have a significant effect on the
design, development and overall success. The product I am designing is obliged to be appropriate to the target
market of families who are considering developing, re-developing or moving into bushfire prone areas. The
design needs to be appropriate with the design solution of overcoming the problem of houses being burnt down
due to bushfire attacks. The final design of the dwelling is obliged to be bushfire resistant, protecting life and
assets. This is a fundamental factor that will alter all elements of the design. As well as being bushfire resistant,
the product needs to consider the aesthetic requirements in order to be successful. A suitable and appropriate
product needs to be adaptable to changing social trends and exemplify a range of cultural diversity. This will
enable the products target market to be further expended into different ethnical cultures and groups, and
potentially attracting new developers of buyers to the area.

Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Page 33

Functionality is a factor affecting the design. Occupants of the product seek the primary function for a
house to be suitable to their lifestyle and needs. Environment consequences of the designing and manufacturing
of the product is crucial to the environmental sustainability of the project. Short-term and long-term
environmental consequence that the product may produce will influence the process of development. Thought
into the energy required extracting, transporting, and manufacturing the product, and the sustainability of the
materials is necessary and typically discovered through the conduction of a life-cycle analysis. Quality is a vital
element that will affect the design. Quality is a measure of excellence, with superior excellence required for the
ability to withstand server and repeated bushfire attacks. Obsolescence is a factor that is required to be avoided.
The house needs to be functionally and aesthetically sustainable for a period of at least 30 years. Design
techniques and aspects will need to be altered to fulfil a long life span of the product. Finance is a factor
impacting on designing and producing a scale model of the product. Cost involved with the testing, investigation
and experimenting of materials for the design constrains some features of the design idea.

Project Development
Research, Experimentation and Testing
Investigations will be conducted in order to obtain information and knowledge around particular aspects
of the design. Features comprising materials most appropriate to the design, the magnitude of the design,
production time, design specifications, techniques, action and time plans, target market research, problems the
design can overcome, and for the potential for the design to expand will all be investigated. Research will be
undertaken to locate information helpful on the areas stated, finding the most successful features of existing
designs. Research will be conducted both quantitatively and qualitatively in primary actions and secondary
investigation allowing a range of different information to be encountered and recorded. Research tools
including, questionnaire, survey, interview questions, tally sheet, and many more will help with the process of
obtaining information, findings and considerations.

Bushfire Prone AreasResearch


Source: New South Wales Rural Fire Service Planning for Bushfire Protection, A guide for councils, planners, fire
authorities, developer and home ownersDecember 2001
A bushfire prone area is a region of land that can support a bushfire or is likely to be subject to bushfire
attack. In general a bushfire-prone area is an area occurring within or within 100 metres of a high to medium
bushfire hazard. Bushfire risk is the chance of a bushfire igniting, spreading and causing damage to assets of
value to the community. Risk may be rated as being extreme, major, moderate, minor or insignificant and is
related to the vulnerability of the asset. Research conducted by the New South Wales Rural Fire Service states
that 85 percent (%) of houses are lost in the first on hundred (100) metres from bushland, hence suggesting that
direct flames and ember attack is a significant form of the attack on properties. This is primary due to the
insufficient bushfire protection of the buildings and the fact that many home established in bushfire prone areas
are pre-date to current construction regulations and requirements.

Consultation with local Yellow Rock residents


Whilst in the Winmalee/ Yellow Rock I spoke and questioned from of the local residents that were
affected by the recent bushfires. Speaking with them concluded that ember attack and radiant heat were the
major elements of the fire that caught them out. This is because the fire had started in areas before the fire
front impacted.

Evaluation/ Research Conclusions/ Application:

Research conducted exemplifies that majority of dwelling situated in areas which are likely to be influence by a
bushfire are pre-date to current construction and building regulations. Amongst the building in bushfire-prone
areas, 85% of houses had insufficient protection from ember, radiant heat and smoke attacks. This provides a basis
for the design of the dwelling, needing to be compliant with current requirements, resistant against server ember
attack and protected against radiant heat flux. Ember attack and radiant heat are factors that need to be managed.
Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Page 34

Property Investigations
On Saturday the 17th of May, 2014 I travelled to the recently bushfire affected area of Winmalee. Here I
was investigating the impact of the bushfires and the results of its destructive path. I analysed some property
with bushland regions burnt all around it, making conclusions and assessment on why and how it withstood the
impact of the bushfire. Whilst in the area, I selected a property on which the design of the product will be based
upon. The property is 335 Singles Ridge Road, Yellow Rock. A range of test, experiments and analysis was done
on the property in order to gain an accurate understanding of the elements that can affect the bushfire hazards
and risk. Examination of the vegetation type and profile, the size of the land, the slope of the land, climate and
geographical conditions as well as many other aspects was achieved. Information was recorded and further
resulted in the secondary source research to provide additional information about the property. The images and
information below displays images taken from the first hand investigation of the property. Additional images
were then achieved through the use of secondary sources.
335 Singles Ridge
Road, Yellow Rock. This
is the property
selected for the design
to be formulated upon

A remaining concrete slab is the only element


of the house left after it was destroyed by fire,
and consequently knocked down. This slab
shows the former house was only single story
due to the narrow foundations for bricks

Bushfire hazard relative to the position of the original


dwelling. Vegetation was classified as open forest.
Charted tree branches and the new foliage at the
crowns of the trees suggest that the fire attack was
intensity with an extreme flame height
Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Page 35

Property Investigations

Perspective from the positioning of the original


dwelling to the front and the road

The distance from the edge of the previously building to


the open forest bushfire hazard was 25-30 metres away

Instrument used in
an experiment to
determine the slope
of the land. Process
of experiment is
explained on the
page below

Secondary Data

Location of the property and


the surrounding environment.
The extensive bushfire hazard
is evident around the
dwelling, and extending well
into the properties
boundaries. Images sourced
from Google Maps.
Valleys and ridges evident in
the satellite image. This is
important to determine the
speed, spread, rate and
intensity of the fire that had
and will impact

Property
Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Street view shows the dwelling was


built around the 1970s hence preInvestigations
date to current regulations
Page 36

Experiment
Aim: To determine the slope of the land between the original dwelling location and the bushfire hazard. To
additionally determine the effective slope under the vegetation on the property.
Hypothesis: Upon visual inspection, the slope was seen to be approximately 10
Equipment: Ruler
Protractor
String
Tape
Small weight
Method:
1) Locate the centre of the ruler and tape the centre
Graphometer used in the examination of the property
of the protractor to this point
2) Cut a piece of string about 30 cm long
3) Tape this on top the 90 line of the protractor. Ensure it is positioned directly on top to provide an
accurate reading
4) Attach a small light weight to the other end of the string to provide a centre of gravity for the
graphometer
5) Using someone roughly the same height are the operator position them on them down or up the slope
6) Look along the top edge of the ruler pointing it their eye level
7) Record the amount of movement of the string. This is the measurement in degrees () of slope for the
landscape
8) Repeat the experiment to ensure reliability
9) Conduct the experiment on all parts of the property to discover the different slopes involved
Results: The slope from the edge of the previous dwelling to the edge of the bushfire hazard was 8. The
effective slope under the classified vegetation was 8 and continued to increase as it led into a valley below.

N
Rough sketch of the layout of elements on the property. Completed on site with
measurements achieved through experiments and research

Evaluation/ Research Conclusions/ Application:

First hand investigation of the property for which the design will be simulated discovered a range of vital and
useful measurements and readings. The front of the property is facing North. The width of the property is
approximately 58 metres. The depth of the land extended well into the bushland region, however of clearly
building zones, it was about 60 deep. The original house sizing was 29 m by 14.5 m. From the left rear corner of
the previous dwelling to the edge of the bush it was 30 metres with a slope of 8. The effective slope under the
vegetation was also 8. This extended well into an embankment gradually leading to a valley below.

Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Page 37

Climate and weather conditions and trends of selected propertyResearch.


Climate and weather conditions are important to the design of the construction. Consideration needs to
be fulfilled in various components of the propertys climate and average weather conditions. Major weather
elements that need to be investigated are winds, sun orientation, the sun angle, and the trajectory of the sun
light. These elements are essential to design to house for to keep it cool, or warm whilst using nominal amounts
of energy.

Sun Angles
The property at Yellow Rock is Northerly facing. This is significant as it means that the suns light and
heat will be emitted onto the north facing components all day. At the hottest part of the day, typically around
midday, the sun will be situated directly in-front and above the property. The following website was utilised is
achieving a visual understanding of the positioning of the sun during the day. The website shows the changing
angle and position of the sun relative to the property for the design. The source is found at
http://www.suncalc.net/#/33.6983,150.6317 ,17/2014.06.09/00:00. The
adjacent image shows the angle of the sun at 14:30 on the 9 th of June, 2014.
Another source was located to determine the exact angle of the sun
for to the property. Summer and winter solstices and equinoxes were
calculated. The source stated that:
Equinox = 90 latitude
Summer solstice = Equinox + 23.5
Winter solstice = Equinox 23.5
The sun angle information for the property is listed below.
Information
Calculations
Latitude
33.69657 South
Equinox
90 33.69657
Summer Solstice
56.30343 + 23.5
Winter Solstice
56.30343 - 23.5
Source: http://www.yourhome.gov.au/passive-design/shading

Result for property


33.69657 South
56.30343
79.80343
32.80343

Overhang for Eaves


Correctly designed eaves are generally the simplest and least expensive shading method of a
construction. Shading is the best way to reduce unwanted heat gain. By shading a building, summer
temperatures can be reduced, improved comfort and save energy. The rule of thumb can be used to calculate
the size of the eaves required. As a rule of thumb, eaves widths should be 45% of the height from the window
sill to the bottom of the eaves. North-facing upward ranked eaves allow full exposure of glass to winter sun
and shade larger areas in summer, without compromising the solar access.
Source: http://www.yourhome.gov.au/sites/default/files/files/pdf/YOURHOME-2-PassiveDesign-3-Shading(4Dec13).pdf
The following website was
utilised to calculate the sun heat
entering the house of the
property with eaves (image on
the left) and the shading provided
by the eaves (image on the right)
Source:
Sun %
Shading %
http://www.susdesign.com/overhang_annual/index.php

Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Page 38

Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) DeterminationInvestigation, Research and Application


What is a Bushfire Attack Level?
A bushfire attack arises from direct flame impingement,
radiant heat and/or ember attack. In order to undertake complying
development on bush fire prone land your category of bush fire risk
(i.e. BAL) for the property must be certified. The Bushfire Attack
Level (BAL) takes into consideration a number of factors including
the Fire Danger Index, the slope of the land, types of surrounding
vegetation and its proximity to any building. There are six bushfire
attack levels.
Determination of the Bushfire Attack Level Process
Step 1: Determine the relevant Fire Danger Index (FDI)
Step 2: Determine the classified vegetation types of the property
Step 3: Determine the distance from the site to the classified
vegetation types
Source: Building Commission Victoria
Step 4: Determinate the effective slope of the land under the
classified vegetation types
Step 5: Determine the BAL
Step 6: Determine the appropriate construction requirements set out in Australian Standard AS 3959-2009
Source: Australian StandardConstruction of buildings in bushfire-prone areas (AS 3959-2009)
Step One: Determine the Fire Danger Index
The Fire Danger Index is a measure of the probability of a bushfire starting,
its rate of spread, intensity and difficulty of suppression according to various
combinations of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and estimate fuel
loads, all of which is influenced by daily rainfall and the time elapsed since the last
rainfall.
Step Two: Determine the classified vegetation types of the property
Classifying the vegetation type can be conducted through the assessment
of the below image.
Step Three: Determine the distance between the classified vegetation and the site
Step Four: Determinate the effective slope of the land under the classified
vegetation types
Step Five: Determine the BAL using the table provided in the Australian Standards
Step Six: Determine the appropriate construction requirements

Vegetation Formation

Vegetation Slope
Building Separation distance
(metres)
Fire Danger Index
Category of Bushfire Attack
AS 3959 Construction Standard

Downslope

East
ForestConsists of trees 10-130 m
high. 30-70% foliage cover and
typically dominated by eucalyptus
Downslope of 8.13. Classifying it
into >5 to 10 degrees
25

South
ForestConsists of trees 10-130 m
high. 30-70% foliage cover and
typically dominated by eucalyptus
Downslope of 13.09. Classifying it
into .10 to 15 degrees
67

100
Extreme
Flame Zone

100
Extreme
Flame Zone

Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Page 39

Bushfire Protection MeasuresInvestigations and Research


Asset Protection Zones
Development on bush fire prone land will normally require the implementation of a set-back distance
which is referred to as an asset protection zone. An asset protection zone (APZ) is also known as a fire protection
zone and aims to protect human life, property and highly valued assets. It is a buffer zone between a bush fire
hazard and buildings, which is managed progressively to minimise fuel loads and reduce the potential radiant
heat levels, flame contact, ember and smoke attack on life and property. The width of the APZ will vary with
slope, vegetation, Fire Danger Index (FDI) and construction level. Planning for Bush Fire Protection 2006 should
be used to determine the applicable width of the APZ.

Planning for bushfire protection 2006 Table A2.4. Determination of asset protection zone

Fire Protection Systems


A fire protection system is the physical defence involving the use of sprinkles and a water drenching
system over elements of a building. This is crucial to reduce the radiant heat, extinguish embers, and to suppress
direct flame contact. The drenching system similar to that of RFS trucks will be adapted in the design.

Innovative Materials
TBA Firefly Passive Fire Protection
A TBA Firefly Bushfire system is a fire resistant insulation. The product is simply wrapped around the
framework of the house and also the roofing. The products have been tested and successfully meet the
expectations of AS 1530.8.2 when tested from the outside. The products make up the lightest and most easily
installed system, which have been fully tested to meet the new Flame Zone requirements of AS 3959-2009. It is
able to withstand temperatures in excess of 1200C
for over an hour. It provides optimal protection
from radiant heat transfer and is non-combustible
to direct flame exposure. In addition to the
significant bushfire protection capabilities, the
product also serves as an insulation system to
regulate the temperature of the house. The system
was used on Callignee 2, featured on Grand Designs
Australia as a bushfire resistant home. The product
provides the ideal solution for the creative designs
of architectures. The product is additionally as
cost effective solution to enable appropriate fire Secondary Experiment of Firefly material. Extensive direct flame
protection. Refer to sample article 4
contact, with a hand still able to touch the other side

Evaluation/ Research Conclusions/ Application:

Through the research conducted, the asset protection zone required for the design is 35- 50 metres. This is due
to the fact that the vegetation type of forest with an effective slope under the vegetation of 8. The design of the
dwelling is required to take into consideration the asset protection zone required, and manage the components
in the surrounding environment to ensure this compliance. The innovative material Firefly will be used for its
fire protection capabilities. It will be the insulation for the house and roof structure. A sprinkler/drenching
system similar to RFS emergency protection, will be implemented in the design to provide additionally protect
for the building elements.
Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Page 40

Construction Standards and Requirements for the DesignResearch


Source: Australian Standards 3959-2009Constructions in bushfire-prone areas
BALFZ is primarily concerned with protection from flame contact together with ember attack and radiant
heat of more than 40 kW/m2
Constructions in the Flame Zone BALFZ may require reliance on measure other than construction

Floors
No requirement exists for concrete slabs on the ground. Refer to sample article 5
Where the subfloor space is unclosed, systems, including support posts, columns and stumps, piers and poles
shall be non-combustible

External Walls
Walls shall be made of non-combustible material (e.g. masonry, brick veneer, aerated concrete, concrete) with
a minimum of 90 mm in thickness
A system complying with AS 1530.8.2 when tested from the outside
All joints in the external surface material of walls shall be covered, sealed, overlapped, backed or butt-jointed
to prevent gaps greater than 3 mm
Vents and weepholes in external walls shall be screened with a mesh with a maximum aperture of 2 mm, made
of corrosion-resistant steel or bronze

External Glazed Elements


Bushfire shutters shall comply with AS 1530.8.2
Windows need to be protected by an appropriate bushfire shutter. Refer to sample article 2
Sliding doors shall be completely protected by an appropriate bushfire shutter. They should be tight fitting in
the frames
Vehicle access doors shall be non-combustible

Roofing
A system complying with AS 1530.8.2 when tested from the outside
Roof ventilation openings shall be fitted with ember guards made of non-combustible material
Eaves lining shall be system complying with AS 1530.8.2
Gutters shall be non-combustible

Additional Features
Decking shall have no gaps and be of non-combustible material or fibre-cement sheet
Above-ground, exposed water an gas supply pips shall be metal

Evaluation/ Research Conclusions/ Application:


The above regulations and requirements for construction in a Flame Zone area must be complied with. Each
component of the exterior of the design must be suitable and fulfilling to the requirements made by the above
Australian Standards. During the designing of the product, regulations will be carefully considered ensured they
are incorporated within the design. Evaluation is the products is successful will be completed through
comparison with standards, and also be professionally accredited.

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Page 41

Environmental SustainabilityResearch
Passive Design
Passive design is the consideration implemented with the design of a construction. Components of
passive design incorporate the thermal processes of convection, conduction, absorption, and radiation in a
design to maintain comfort levels and reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical systems for these purposes.
Passive design is essential to the environment sustainability of the dwelling. A successful design will allow for the
reduction in energy consumptions for cooling and heating of the house. It will allow enable sufficient light to
enter the building, hence reducing the electrical energy consumption involved with the lighting of a dwelling.
Passive design reduces or eliminates the need for auxiliary heating or cooling, which accounts for about 40% (or
much more in some climates) of energy use in the average Australian home. A diverse range of components and
elements are required to create and integral design with is environment sustainable. Passive elements that will
be consisted in my design to promote the environmental sustainability will be:
Design for climate (wind and sun directions) Skylights
Orientation of the dwelling
Insulation
Shading
Insulation instillation
Passive solar heating
Thermal mass
Passive cooling
Sealing of dwelling
Glazing

Embodied Energy
Embodied energy is the sum of all required energy for each stage
of the construction of a building. A range of energy requirements are
needed for the extraction, transportation, manufacture and construction Embodied energy in common materials
of the dwelling. Reducing the amount of embodied energy within a design will not only diminish the
environmental impact of the dwelling, but it will additionally reduce the cost of the dwelling. The adjacent image
displays the embodied energy of common building materials. Since the construction is required to apply with
bushfire standards and regulations, the embodied energy may be significantly higher than that of a normal
building. Necessary materials of concrete, steel, aluminium, copper, timber and glass are all necessary for the
construction. However, stone which has a significantly low embodied energy level will be considered and
incorporated into the design, for both is environmental properties and aesthetical properties.

Sourcing of Materials
Not only does the type of materials impact the environment, but the sourcing of building materials is also
crucial to the environmental sustainability of the design. Materials for the design will be sourced from local
areas to reduce the environmental impact for energy requirements involved with transportation. Materials will
also be sourced from recycling plants, or scrap material yards. The selection of scrap material such as steel, to
be melted down and re-shaped into the desired shape will consumed considerably less energy than the process
of extracting the metal from their ores.

Recyclability of materials
Extraction and the recycling of materials involved the added of energy. However, most materials have a
significant difference between the energy required for the extraction in comparison to the energy required in reusing or recycling the material. Reuse of building materials commonly save about 95% of the embodied energy
that would otherwise be wasted. Metal is a major material that is imperative to the construction of a bushfire
resistant dwelling. Melting and recycling aluminium uses less than 5% of the total energy required to convert
bauxite ore to aluminium. Not only does recycling and reusing metal save sizeable amounts of energy, but it also
Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Page 42

sustains the environment as mines and the extraction of ores


requires less demand. Aluminium recycling saves considerable energy
and materials. For every 1 kg of aluminium recycled: 14-21 kW/h
less electricity is required for electrolysis, 5-8 kg of bauxite
(aluminum) does not have to be mined, 20 kg of greenhouse gases
are not emitted into the atmosphere. Steel has about 75-80% energy
saving in the process of recycling. Worldwide, steel is the most
Embodied energy saved in recycling
recycled materials and the annual savings in electrical energy are
equivalent to the power needed for 18 million homes per year. Every kilogram of steel that is recycled, it saves:
1.5 kg of iron ore being mined, 0.5 kg of coal being mined, 40% of the water used in producing new steel,
2 kg of greenhouse gases being emitted into the atmosphere. As a result, the steel required for the design
will be able to be recycled, and it will be sourced from manufacturing companies that involve the application
of recycled metal products. Source: Chemistry 1Preliminary Course. Geoffrey Thickett

Project Realisation ComponentsResearch


ArchiCAD
ArchiCAD is a computer-aided drawing software that is primarily used for the design and visualisation of
constructions. ArchiCAD offers specialised solutions for handling all common aspects of aesthetics and
engineering during the whole design process of the built environment buildings, interiors, urban areas, etc.
This program is the most effective, detailed and appropriate to generate a 3D image of the product design. Since
limited to no experience has been achieved using the program, a series of video tutorials will be utilised to learn
the basic functions of the program. Sources such as http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=72cR0bHzq44 will
provide a foundation to the basic functions and controls of the program. Other videos also on the YouTube
channel will help achieve more advanced skills. Using YouTube to learn the functions of the software, is the
most efficient and cost effective method.

Modelling Materials and Tools


Modelling materials are essential to the development of an effective product model. Appropriate and
suitable materials the design will enable the success of the scale representation. The model is a fundamental
part to the success of the marketing of the product. A model can be used to entice the attention of the target
market promoting the purchasing of the product. Modelling
materials such as balsa wood, craft wood, Styrofoam,
cardboard, adhesive products, paints, and other finishing
products and articles will be used. Tools required to
complete the model will be a small timber saw, sand paper,
glue, paint brush and a small set of sharp shaping and
modelling knives.

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Page 43

Company Logo
The company logo plays a part in the overall success of the project. An appropriate and appealing name
is required to initial draw the attention of the target market. It also needs to have appropriate aesthetics to
compliment the function of the products, and suitable to the name of the company. I wanted the company
name of the design to initiate interest of further investigation into the company. Through research and
establishing a range of ideas, I formulated the name Protective HorizonsBushfire Resistant Solutions. The
shape of the logo was selected to be an oval, to symbolise the capturing of a horizon. Through the oval will be a
large fire front burning through bushland on
a horizon. The name of the company will
follow the shape of the burning fire front
with Bushfire Resistant Solutions in the
bushland. This will provide, a logo to printed
on all documents, embroidered on clothing
and printed for free give away product.
The shape of the logo design is intended to replicate the capturing of a distant horizon. The large fire
front burning between mountain ridges produces a plume of smoke ascending into the atmosphere in the
horizon of the image. The company name, Protective Horizons follows and embraces the landscape
characteristics and follows the fire front. This feature suggests the environmental assimilation of the companys
products with the surrounding landscapes. This also implies meaning for the products not to alter their
surrounding environment, but to be fitting and adaptable to the property. The colouring the company name
additionally represents the burning of fire and the presents of flames. The strategic positioning of the name
behind the fire front, further exemplifies the function of the products to withstand bushfire attacks, and how
the offer protection to property, life and belongings in an attack.

Three-dimensional (3D) printer


A three-dimensional printer is necessary for the creation of the
company logo article. The CAD program, Solid Edge will be utilised to draw a
3D visual representation of the designed logo. This will be then converted
into a STL file, before being load on the printer software and printed. This is
a compulsory technique in the development of the design project. Past
experiences with operation of the 3D printer has provided the knowledge
and skill to complete requirements for the successful printing and creation
of an article with the company logo on it. Cost for the plastic materials
which the printer uses has been budgeted for. The article produced is
considered to be a portion of the overall marketing campaign and the
promotion of the product environment. Refer to sample article 1
Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Logo 3D printing
Page 44

Expert and Professional Consultation and Surveying


Details of the Professional in constructions of bushfire prone dwellings
Company Name: Control Line Consulting
Consultant Name: Craig Burley
Mobile: 0408 755 344
Office Address: Hawkesbury Professional Business Chambers,
Corner Dight & George Streets, Windsor, NSW 2756
Postal Address: PO Box 7137 Wilberforce 2756
Company Phone: 02 4577 0125
Company Fax: 02 4577 4688
Email: craig@controllineconsulting.com.au
Website: http://www.controllineconsulting.com.au/

Questions asked during the consultation


The investigations were conducted on the 28th of May, 2014 to achieve an insight to the specific
requirements of the construction, and to gain additional knowledge on the bushfire regulations. Some of the
questions asked encompassed:
Requirements/Measurements involved with a construction in a Flame Zone bushfire attack level
Element of the required roofing structure
Window and door requirements
Water requirements
Exterior of the dwelling
Typical costs involved with the construction of a bushfire resistant home
Any fire resistant products that he may have knowledge of
The accreditation and certifying of the final design

Information Achieved from the Investigation


The consultation with Craig was very detailed and thorough. He explained in detail on how he synthesises a
bushfire assessment report based on the property and the intended design. Craig has exclusive access to a range
of technology applications and resources. He provided me a copy of all the images and resources he uses in his
development of a bushfire assessment report. In addition to this, he supported my assessment of the Yellow
Rock property stating it was in bushfire prone land, subject to a flame zone bushfire attack. He provided further
assessments on the dwelling stating only the roofing, the eastern
face, and the southern faces of the design had to be constructed
to flame zone regulations. The remaining faces of the dwelling
could be built in compliance with BAL40 requirements. He
stated that the required Asset Protection Zone had to be
managed and maintained to ensure the integrity of the dwelling
during a bushfire attack. The inner asset protection zone for the
dwelling extended to the property boundaries on the North, East
and West sides, whilst extending 60 metres South of the
dwelling. He also articulated that the outer asset protection zone
to the South should be managed up to 100 metres from the
dwelling. He will also be consulted with the final design, enabling
him to prove its success in fulfilling the bushfire regulations. He
also stated that a 20, 000 litre water tank was required.
Assessment conclusions on property
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Page 45

Additional Resources Obtained

Burnt bush around property

Cost of Construction
Average building costs
The average building cost for a normal four
bedroom home is approximately between $225, 000
$300, 000. The cost of the house is dependent on the
size and quality of its components. Custom built homes
are approximately between $1, 500 $3, 000 per
square metre. Source: http://onproperty.com.au/builda-house/

Additional costs involved with bushfire protection


The construction of a dwelling in bushfire prone areas generates additional cost to the overall cost of the
design. The level of bushfire attack controls the expense of the cost involved for the application of appropriate
bushfire safety requirements and measures. The cots typically increases due to the materials required for
construction, and the cost involved with the planning, development and certifying of the design and dwelling.
Craig Burley from control line consulting states that the development of a dwelling subject to a bushfire attack
level of flame zone will have a further cost of about $120, 000+. This cost may be seen as too expensive by
someone of the target market, whilst others are willing to buy the extra money to ensure that their home will
protect themselves, their families and their property during a bushfire attack.

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Page 46

Technique and method of displaying sample materials and articles


Sample materials and objects are essential to the development of a design. They enable the audience to
visualise, as well as physically observe and examine the material that has been investigated or which will be
incorporated into the design. An appropriate display of the sample materials is required to achieve the full
potential of having sample articles. A box type structure will be selected for the display of the sample pieces.
Within the box, a series of angled inserts each with a different sample will be incorporated. These slots can be
taken out and individually analysed and examined. The entire box will be covered with a Perspex sheet that will
allow the angle cards to be observed from the outside. This Perspex sheet will be able to easily slide off and the
sample pieces accessed. The following CAD images exemplify the basic shape and size of the display box design
which will be constructed using the available materials and tools at school woodwork workshops.

The construction process of the display box is evident in the subsequent flowchart.

Materials available in workshop were


sourced. Base length cut to size of CAD
orthogonal drawings. Base width was
extended to 220 mm with biscuit joint

6 x 6mm balsa wood is positioned and


adhered to the top of the box. The
remaining tracks were also positioned

Remaining sides were cut to


specified sizes

Box is lacquered. Slots for sample


pieces place in positioning

Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

Pieces were placed in appropriate


positioning before being fixed
together with glue and screws

Finished product with clear


Perspex observation window
Page 47

TestingSteel Vs. Stone Exterior Wall Cladding


The design Abacus is a method to evaluate the sustainability, practicality, and the fulfilment of article to
the criteria to evaluate success. A range of issues have been written down and an assessment of the two objects
has been stated below. The Abacus is useful for the comparing of two products, enable an appropriate
conclusion and evaluation to be formulated with the results.

Steel, for example Colourbond and Core 10 weathering steel sheeting performed considerably well in
some areas of the comparison. Stone, encompassing brick and stone masonry additionally performed
substantially sound in areas of the comparison. Both of the materials were non-combustible, meet the
requirements of AS 3959-2009 and were bushfire resistant. However, each material had its own faults,
disadvantages or incapabilitys. Steels bad characteristics incorporated the high level of embodied energy, large
amounts of raw materials waste produced from its manufacturing and its highly expensive cost. Nevertheless,
steel is able to be 100% recycled, hence it extends the life span of the steel, requiring for less to be extracted
from raw materials and improve its environmental sustainability. Stone on the other hand had low overall
embodied energy and reasonably low raw material waste in its manufacturing stages. Though, stone is not able
to be recycled as well as steel. Recycling stone often only involved the crushing of the minerals to produce rocks
for drives and around gardens. The recycling of stone does not allow it to be used for the same original purpose.
The result from the comparison of the two materials has formulated useful conclusions. Accordingly, the
exterior of the design will be cladding with stone feature walls, brick walls, and also areas involving Core 10
weathering steel and Colourbond steel. The design will incorporate a combination of both types of cladding
and finishing to be able to appeal to a range of target markets, to improve the overall aesthetics of the design
and to assimilate with the characteristics of modern home designs.
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Page 48

Project Development
Application of Conclusions
Research, Experimentation, Testing and Investigation Activities and Areas

Bushfire prone areas


Consultation with local Yellow Rock residents
Property first hand investigations, examination and analysis
Experimentation of effective slope on property
Second hand property investigations
Climate and weather conditions and trends of selected property
Sun angles
Overhang for eaves
Bushfire Attack Level (BAL) Determination
Environmental Sustainability
Passive design
Embodied energy
Sourcing of materials
Recyclability of materials
Project Realisation Components
ArchiCAD
Modelling materials and tools
Company Logo
Three dimensional printer (testing)
Expert and Professional Consultation and Surveying first hand investigations
Cost of construction
Average building costs
Additional costs involved with bushfire protection
Steel Vs. Stone testing comparison

Research/
Experiments
Conducted
Design

How it is used or not used in the project as a result of


experimentation and research
First-hand investigations of the property and consultations with bushfire
construction experts have concluded that the construction requirements of the
design are as following:
North BAL 40
East Flame Zone
South Flame Zone
West BAL 40
Through the practical investigation and meetings, the appropriate bushfire attack
level has been formulated. This enables the appropriate measures to be enforced for
the design to be bushfire resistant, hence fulfilling the criteria for the product to be
able to withstand a bushfire attack
Investigations with the consultation with a bushfire specialist determined that
required asset protection zone. The asset protection zone is required to be
followed and will be implemented in the design to ensure the success of fulfilling
the criteria to be bushfire resistant and to comply with also necessary regulations.
The asset protection zones for the property are as exemplified below:
North Boundary of the property
East Boundary of the property

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Page 49

Design

Materials

South Inner asset protection of 60 metres, with a manageable outer asset


protection zone of up to 100 metres
West Boundary of the property
The research has verified the necessary asset protection zone around the intended
development. This is necessary for the product to fulfil legal requirements and to
further advance the products ability to be bushfire resistant
Consultations with local Yellow Rock residents determined that ember attack and
radiant heat were the major factors of the fire that caught the residents in surprise.
Fire protection systems have be found to reduce radiant heat, extinguish embers,
and to suppress direct flame contact. As a result, a fire protection sprinkler system
will be incorporated in the design of the dwelling. The drenching system similar to
that of RFS trucks will be adapted in the design. A separate water supply other than
the 20, 00 litre for the sprinkler system
The criteria for the product to bushfire resistant to determine the success is further
supported in the incorporation of a fire protection system. This will reduce the
stress, tension and heat on the major design elements and strengthen its ability to
protect in a bushfire attack
Passive design feature and components implement in a design lead to
environmental benefits and the increased environmental sustainability of a
construction. Research has provided the amount of energy and resources are saved
with the elements. Along with first hand and secondary investigations of the angle
of the sun and climate conditions, a conclusion has been summoned to incorporate
the following passive design elements in the construction.
Design for climate (wind directions and sun directions/angles)
Orientation of the dwelling
Shading (ranking of eaves)
Passive solar heating (includes solar heating/energy)
Passive cooling
Glazing
Skylights
Insulation
Insulation instillation
Thermal mass
Sealing of dwelling
Environmental sustainability is a significant element of the design. Through the
incorporation of a range of passive design components, the product becomes more
environmentally sustainable
Examination of Australian Standards 3959-2009 and additional consultations with
bushfire development professionals have established specific and strict criteria for
the design of the dwelling to be formulated around. Specialised requirements have
to be made for the floors, external walls, external glazed elements, doors, roofing,
and additional home design features. Refer to page 41 for the details of the
construction requirements of the dwelling
Examination of the Australian Standards has ensured that the design will comply
will all the necessary regulations. It also warrants that all necessary construction
requirements are adhered to, improving the product bushfire resistance
TBA Firefly is a passive fire system. The products of Firefly, such as BALFZ Roofing
System and Plus 60 BALFZ Wall System have been tested and certified to meet
the requirements of AS 1530.8.2 Roof Test and AS 1530.4. Firefly is the easiest,
most cost efficient method of providing adequate radiant heat, ember attack and
direct flame contact from a bushfire attack. The product will be incorporated in the
design, where it will wrap the entire timber framing system. Refer to sample article
4

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Page 50

Materials

Encompassing TBA Firefly in the design permits the design to fulfil certain legal
requirements and to be bushfire resistant. Since the material, Firefly is relatively
cheap in comparison to other bushfire protection systems it helps accomplish the
criteria for the design to be as cost efficient as possible
Steel cladding on the exterior of a dwelling in Flame Zone must be a minimum of 6
mm thick. Research has proven that steel cladding and sheets can be aesthetically
pleasing whilst also being non-combustible and bushfire resistant
Non-combustible materials on the exterior of the dwelling can incorporate stone or
brick. Comparison against the characteristic of steel has exemplified that stone is an
adequate material that can be utilised in the cladding or exterior of the dwelling
Through research and the examination of AS 3959-2009, the roofing structure of
the design must have system complying with AS 1530.8.2. Colourbond steel sheets
along with the Firefly bushfire insulation, as system is produced that has been
tested by TBA Firefly to comply with the regulations and requirements of AS
1530.8.2. Refer to sample article 3
Other construction materials include glass, timber for the framing and aluminium
door and window framing. These materials when compliant with the requirements
of AS 3959-2009 will provide adequate bushfire protection. They also play a
significant part in the overall look and development of the design
Sourcing and recyclability of materials is an essential element to take into
consideration with developing a construction. The environmental sustainability can
be influenced by the sourcing of materials. Using recycled materials, especially
metals will improve the environment impact. Consequently, the metal and natural
materials involved with the design will be sourced from local areas to reduce
transportation emissions and from recycling plantations

Tools

Techniques

ArchiCAD is one of the best CAD softwares in relation to the representation of a


dwelling. It is the most effective, detailed and appropriate to generate a 3D image
of the product. Skills will be achieved to successfully use the program to produce
the 3D visual representation
The sample box development involved the utilisation of a range of woodworking
tools. Tools such as a drop saw, electric screwdriver, clamps, a set-square, sand
paper and a hand saw were all tools used in the boxs construction
To compare various materials and achieve results on the positive and negative
characteristics a cognitive organising tool, Abacus was utilised. This provided a
clear, visual result of the good and bad characteristics of each material within a
certain criteria
Upon the first-hand investigations of the property, a cheap, effective method and
technique of measuring the incline/decline of the land is too constructed an
inclinometer. The technique for measuring the angle of elevation or angle of
depression was achieved in junior years mathematics. This technique proved to be
accurate with the same measurement recorded in the first hand experiment, with
the computer and data based result
A 3D CAD file of the box for the sample articles was produced to enable the box to
be constructed correctly and to the required measurements. This technique was
helpful in accurately positing the tracks for the slots so it can effectively function for
its designed purpose

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Page 51

Techniques

Sample materials are fundamental in demonstrating and promoting the features,


characteristics and elements of the design. An effective way to display this is an
interactive display box, which allows the audience to interact and physically
examine the materials for the design. This box was formulated to display the
sample articles and will have a further function in the marketing of the product

Model/ Marketing

How it is used or not used in the project as a result of


experimentation and research

Materials

Modelling materials are essential to the development an effective product model.


Balsa and craft wood are some of the best modelling materials and will be utilised
in the model for the design
The modelling of the product will exemplify to the audience the aesthetics and
function of the design. This will be utilised in the marketing of the design could
materialise in the advancement in success of the product
Styrofoam is another material that is important for modelling. It ability to be easily
shaped and painted makes it a material that be effectively used for elements in a
model
Cardboard is a cheap and effective way in developing and constructing a model. It is
readily available, easily shaped and easily painted. Cardboard is one of a range of
material that will be used in the product model
Adhesive products are imperative to building of the model. All the materials cut and
positioned to formulate a model are required to be glue and fixed in position. A
glue that can adhere to all types of the material for modelling will be used
Paints and other finishing products are fundamental in displaying the aesthetical
characteristics of the design. Appropriate finishing of the design can stimulate and
increase in the appeal from the audience and consumers during marketing stages.
All necessary acrylic paint colours for the finishing of the model will be applied
A small timber saw is necessary for cutting piece to produce the model

Tools

Techniques

Sand paper will be utilised in the finishing stages of the model. It will ensure that a
smooth, or rough texture is applied to particular areas of the model
Paint brushes are required for the application of the paints. Fine paint brushes will
be necessary for detailed work on the model and also the company logo 3D article
Small modelling knives will be a tool that will be used for the fine cutting and
shaping of model articles
The 3D printing of company logo produced an article that can be utilised for
marketing purposes. This is an element that could further promote the product and
eventuate an increase of product sales
The sample display box demonstrates and promotes the features, characteristics
and elements of the design. It is an effective way to display this is an interactive
display box, which allows the audience and potential consumers to interact and
physically examine the materials for the design. This box was formulated to display
the sample articles and will have a further function in the marketing of the product
The function and aesthetics of the material in the design can be shown to the
potential target market. Consequently, the audience my develop an attraction to a
component or material, possibly becoming more inclined in purchase the product

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Page 52

Project Development
Identification and Justification of Ideas and Resources
Idea/Resource

Justification

Professional Bushfire
Planning Consultant
Control

Consultation with a bushfire development planning expert has enabled me to


confirm questions on the constructions of the design, whilst also achieving new
knowledge into other areas that add to bushfire resistant. The professional in the
field of the design has additionally agreed to meet when the final design has been
produced to seek the certification and accreditation of the product being bushfire
resistant, and meet all the necessary bushfire regulations
Australian Standards 3959-2009 for constructions in bushfire prone areas is a
resource that has provided a detailed understanding of the legal requirements for
the development in an area subject to a bushfire attack. Section 9 of the guide has
been examined in detailed to establish the criteria for which the dwelling is
required to design around. The resource also supplied the information to accurately
determine the bushfire attack level and the subsequent construction level
necessary
The Rural Fire Service, Planning for Bushfire Protection 2006 is an essential
document that has offered information on all areas involved with the bushfire
protection of a building. It has detailed explanations of the components of a
dwelling in bushfire prone areas. Other areas of the guide have flow charts that
ensure you have taken the appropriate and correct measures when planning for the
development in bushland regions
The resource incorporated a range of existing sustainable home designs.
Examination and analysis of the environmental sustainable components of these
homes enable be to make appropriate decisions on whether to encompass various
features and passive design elements to focus on the environmental sustainability
of the dwelling. The existing products were also a source of inspiration for
architectural design elements
Finance is a resource that promotes more advanced aspects of the design.
Increased finance for the design allows a budget to be formulated to purchase
adequate model materials, and other materials necessary for the completion of the
portfolio
Resources involved with the construction of the interactive sample display box have
been sourced from school woodwork shops. The available materials were used in
the development of the box design to display necessary sample materials and
objects. Joining techniques such as bisect and butt joints were utilised in the box
design. The availability of these materials means that additionally costs were not
added to the overall budget of the design
The Hawkesbury Gazette Newspaper released on the 11th of June, 2014 contained
an article about the law to approve the clearing of land around dwellings. The
proposed new laws will allow residents in designated bush areas to clear all
vegetation within 10 metres of their homes, and undergrowth within 50 metres of
their home. The laws are said to put people before trees. This resource has proved
to be useful in that fact that the laws will come into placed and the design can
implement such laws. On the 18th of June, 2014 theses laws were passed by the
Australian parliament and will be applied in bushfire prone communities and
regions

AS 3959-2009
Constructions in bushfire
prone areas

Planning for Bushfire


Protection 2006

Sustainable Eco Home


Designs

Finance for the


development and
marketing of the design
Resources involved with
the construction of the
sample display box

Hawkesbury Gazette
Newspaper Article

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Page 53

Project Development
Evidence of the Testing of Design Solutions and Application of Conclusions
Testing of the design solution and application of conclusions will be conducted to exemplify supporting
evidence. The testing and analysis will be performed through primary actions, but also some secondary actions.

Experiment
Aim
To determine the most effective angle and direction of eaves in summer and winter solstices to produce the
most shade and allow the most sun light to enter the design
Hypothesis
North-facing upwards ranked eaves would produce the most shade from the angle of the sun in summer, whilst
still allowing majority of the sun to enter the dwelling in winter
Equipment
Necessary equipment is shown in the adjacent image
A light source, such as a torch is needed
Tape is also needed
Method
1) Cut the cardboard piece to the listed widths in the image to the
Equipment for experiment
right
2) Mark 25 mm in on the roof structure from both sides
3) Tape one 80 mm on one line, and another 40 mm on the other line
4) Place the replicating roof structure on a piece of paper
5) Using the protractor and a ruler, position the light source at the determine angle of the sun in summer, 80
6) Mark and light of the border of the shade produced by the roof
structure, and record whether the light source was emitted from
the upward or downward rank of the eave. Measure the distance
from the edge of the shadow to the base of the underlying wall
7) Repeat the angle of the sun in summer for downward ranked eave
8) Repeat the steps 57, however measure the determined angle of
the sun in winter, 33
9) Collate and record results in a table
Results
Measurement
Eave Size
Shade
produced
Summer

Orientation (Side)
Emitted from the North
North Facing Side
South Facing Side
North Facing Side

Upward Rank

Downward Rank

25 mm
25 mm
30 mm

25 mm
25 mm
17 mm

South Facing Side

30 mm

60 mm

Nil

15 mm down the 40 mm wall

>50 mm

>80 mm

Shade
North Facing Side
produced on
South facing South Facing Side
Winter

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Page 54

Percentage of
shade
produced
Summer
Percentage of
shade
produced
Winter

North Facing Side


South Facing Side

120% of eave width


120% of eave width

68% of eave width


240% of eave width

North Facing Side

Nil

South Facing Side

>200% of eave width

37.5% of eave width on the


supporting wall
>320% of eave width

Amount of
light entering
design
Summer
Amount of
light entering
design
Winter

North Facing Side


South Facing Side

Approximately 25% of the wall


height

Approximately 5% of the wall


height

North Facing Side

100%

85%

South Facing Side

Conclusion
When the sun light is emitted from the North facing side of the
dwelling, at the summer and winter solstice, differing results occur. The
geometry of the sun in summer transmitting onto upward ranked eaves
produced consist shade about the dwelling, approximately 120% of the
width of the eave. However, in winter, all of the sunlight transmitted on
the north face of a dwelling with upward ranked eaves penetrates and
enters the dwelling. An increased shadow size on the south of the dwelling
is produced with upward ranked eaves during the winter positioning of the
sun. Downward ranked eaves on a dwelling perform in different ways.
Transmission of light in summer from the north onto the dwelling
produces a small amount of shade on the corresponding side. However, a significantly large amount of shade is
formed on the opposite side of the dwelling. In winter, the downward ranked eaves shade about 38% of the
supporting wall, whilst an extensive amount of shade is produced on the opposite aspect. The downward ranked
eaves only allow approximately 85% of the sun light to enter the dwelling during winter conditions.
Consequently, north orientated (facing) eaves would be the most beneficial to produce a uniform and
constant shade around the dwelling. In winter, north facing upward ranked eaves allow 100% of the light and
heat from the sun to enter the dwelling, whilst also constricting the light and heat in summer to 25%. These
eaves have proven to be most effective to improve the design and the designs environmental sustainability
through the shading during summer conditions, and allowing all of the sun light and heat to enter in winter
conditions.

Experiment
Aim
To determine the amount of sprinklers required for bushfire protection of the design, and the amount of water
consumed by the sprinklers
Hypothesis
I believe that the average size of a four bedroom home will require approximately 20 sprinkler disturbers, and
will consume approximately 12, 000 litres every 15 minutes in operation
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1.22 m

Resources and Calculations


The adjacent image on the right was located from the
listed source. This source provides the range and water
distribution from one standard overhanging sprinkler head.
Based on the calculations (Source: http://dimensionhomes.
com.au/house_plans/4+_bedrooms) that an average four
bedroom home has the perimeter of ninety (90) metres, the
minimal amount of sprinklers require to distribute water
entirely around the exterior would be twenty (20). (90/2.44
x 2 = 18.45round up to provide more protection).

1.22 m

0.46 m

Equipment
Pen
Calculator
Access to the internet for additional information

2.44 m

Distribution of water from a standard pendant


(suspended) sprinkler
Source: http://archtoolbox.com/materialssystems/fire-supression/83-sprinklerspacing.html

Water Usage
Quick response sprinklers release about 30 90 litres
of water every minute. This is sustainably less than the 190
473 litres release from a fire-hose. (Source: http://www.pbfeducation.org/files/ig2k-FAQ_Sprinklers.pdf) Based
on the average water consumption of approximately 60 litres per minute for one suspended quick response
sprinkler, the total amount of water consumed for fire protection for one minute is 1, 200 L (60 x 20 = 1200). For
the fire protection system to be in operation for fifteen (15) minutes, 18, 000 L are required. (1200 x 15 =
18000).
Due to the fact that the fire protection and suppression sprinklers consume extensive amount of water,
an adequate but safe supply is necessary. The compulsory 20, 000 litre water tank to bushfire regulations in
regards for water supply cannot be the source for the water. An additional supply for the water is necessary.
The generation of an idea to formulate at duck pond water feature around the majority or the entire perimeter
of the dwelling may prove to a substantial supply of water for the sprinkler system. The diagram below
exemplifies the size of the intended water feature around the dwelling
A 1.2 m metre extension of the
water source from the edge of the dwelling
with the size of 25 by 20 metres, and the
depth of 0.3 metres would provide an
extensive amount of water.
Volume of water:
27.4 x 1.2 x 0.3 = 9.864 m3
9.864 x 2 = 19.728 m3
20 x 1.2 x 0.3 = 7.2 m3 x 2 = 14.4 m3
19.728 + 14.4 = 34.128 m3
34.128 x 1000 = 34128 L
34128/ 18000 = 1.896 minutes
1.896/ 15 x 100 = 12.64 minutes
15 + 12.64 = 27.64 minutes of water supply for 20 quick response fire suppression sprinklers
Based on the sizes used in the diagram, the volume, excluding the recirculation of falling water is
substantial enough the operated the sprinkler system for 27.64 minutes.
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Project Development
Use of Communication and Presentation Techniques
Sketches, drawings, CAD work, technical drawings, photographs, protoypes and 3D models are all
illustrations and demonstrations of techniques involved with the project development. They have been utilised
throughout the design and portfolio of the product. Initial thoughts and concluding thoughts have been
expressed though images and sketches. A range of prestentation and design formulation techniques have been
utilised. The design protfolio encompasses images of CAD drawings, photographs, sketches, screenshots, and
other computer drawings.

Project Realisation
Evidence of Application of Practical Skill

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Project Realisation
Evidence of Application of Practical Skill
A series of images have been taken throughout the realisation of the project. These exemplify the
application of practical skills in computer aided drawing programs and softwares. Images show the steps in the
manufacturing the project, however every single step showing minor insignificant changes is not incorporated,
simply due to the fact it would result in an enormous amount of images displaying the process. Major changes
and steps show how the shape, size, features and aesthetics of the project have been established. It conveys
how the design has been derived and developed through realisation of the project. The subsequent computer
screenshots and images display and demonstrate the realisation of the project design. Photographs of the
realisation of the model are also shown.
A basic floor plan was used as
the basis of the shape and size
for the bushfire resistant
construction. Initial
measurements and rough
sketches were draw on the
image to give a visual
understanding of what the
building would look like from a
birds eye view

All parts of the project, originated with the


blank CAD scaffold. It included only the X, Y
and Z axis on which object can be generated.

The duck pond perimeter water feature based on the


sizes establishing in the water consumption research
was added. It was rendered with a water texture to
give the visual perspective of what the feature is

The basis of the design floor plan was constructed.


This was essentially the slab which was vital for the
construction of subsequent components

The walls of the design were added using the Sketch Up


functions of rectangles and lines. The indoor/outdoor
deck of the design was added before the surrounding
water feature was then constructed around it

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Project Realisation
Consideration of the Practices in Industrial/Commercial Settings
Industrial and commercial settings involved with the designing of a product, environment or system. A
series of occupations, responsibilities and tasks are embarked on the produce a successful product. The size and
structure involved with the development of a design in industrial and commercial settings differs from the major
design project. Responsibilities implicated with a design are required to be managed and complete by you. As a
result the relationship between the practices used in a major design project and a product in an industrial and
commercial setting exemplify some major dissimilarity. The comparison design components of a product are
communicated in the subsequent table.

Management
Structure &
Processes
Structure of
Management

Business Size

Marketing

Finance

Resource
Management

Industrial & Commerical Practices

Major Design Project

Industrial settings encompass a variety of


management roles and position which all
play a vital role in the success of the
product. Areas of the design can be divided
into different areas, each controlled by an
independent manager. All manages may
work collaboratively with one a lot to
ensure the smooth design, manufacturing,
transport, and marketing of the product.
The management scale of and environment
in an industrial and commercial setting is
extensive, especially in comparison to the
management of major design project
Business size of the environment would be
significant. Components of the business
would be divided up into different
categories and individually managed.
Sections such as finance, marketing and
product manufacturing would be involved
Marketing the environment in a commercial
setting would be much larger and more
success that a major design project.
Marketing areas would be regarded as a
separate faculty that purely involves
themselves in marketing the product. The
marketing would more finance supporting
its actions
A company on a large industrial and
commercial scale would have significant
amount of external and internal funding
that would increase the budget for the
projects

The management of the major design


project is on a significant smaller scale. All
responsibilities of the management roles
have been completed by myself. Due to the
small size of the project, various
management roles are not required, or play
an insignificant part. Different areas
involved with the design were all completed
by me, therefore a management structure is
not necessary

And abundance of resources would be


available in an industrial setting. These
resources could help the design and
marketing of the environment

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The business of the environment in the


major design project is minimal. A business
logo has only be formulated and a brief
overview on the function and other
products of the company have been given
Marketing the product of a major design
product is constricted. Small amount of
marketing could actually be conducted.
However, marketing strategies could be
considered with extensive thought and a
marketing strategy could be formulated to
ensure that the environment is marketed
effectively and appropriately
The design project had to be completed on
a restricted budget due the lack of funding
to support the expenditure of the project. I
have to individually manage my budget to
ensure that adequate funds were available
for several areas of the project
In the major design project, resources are
limited to that on the school premises, at
home, or what I can budge to purchase.
Effective use of resources is required to
reduce waste and reduce costs
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Management
Structure &
Processes

Industrial & Commerical Practices

Design &
Production
Processess
Research &
Investigations
Idea Generation
Experimentation
Planning &
Realisation
Evaluation

The designing process of an environment on


and industrial scale would require a lot
more consideration. Significantly more
research, testing and planning is essential to
formulate the best possible design solutions
for all problems encountered. A physical
prototype house may also be constructed
and tested to highlight any areas of the
construction which need to be altered or
redesigned

Technologies Used

Occupational
Health & Safety

Major Design Project

Research and experimenting in the major


design project can still be thoroughly
conducted. A variety of second hand
sources can be accessed, as well as
performing first hand investigations. Major
limitation on the design process would be
finance and how much the designer is
willing to spend to complete necessary
research. Another constricting factor is the
page limit of the portfolio. Only the most
necessary information can be included in
the design portfolio purely due the eighty
page restriction
The designing and manufacturing of the
The designing of the major design project is
product in an industrial setting would
on a much smaller scale however,
incorporate a range of technology devices.
technology of CAD was used to formulate
Initial stages of the design would utilise CAD the environment and visually represent
programs and computer aided software to
what the product would look like.
establish ideas and visual representations of Characteristics and features could be
the environment. During construction,
displayed. The functions of the product can
precise instrument for measure exact sizes
also be explained using CAD images and
of piece could be used
programs. CAD technology allows small or
significant changes without a cost or effect
caused
Significantly more Occupational Health and Health and safety problems would only
Safety (OHS) requirements are necessary for need to be considered on a minor scale.
industrial practices. Safety for the designer
Areas such as the model construction would
and the manufactures ought to be ensured. possess the most significant safety risks as
More significant costs would also be
power tools are used. Company insurance,
involved with insurance, workers
worker compensation and public liability
compensation and public liability
costs would all be irrelevant to the design
project of this scale

Project Realisation
Life Cycle Analysis
Design Process
Idea Generation and
Initial Acquirements

Life Cycle Analysis


Extraction of raw
materials
Preliminary
sketches
Computer
technology
Research
resources

Impact on the Enviornment


Paper was used to record initial ideas and thoughts of the
design project. Initial sketches of a design were draw.
Information of the target market and the printing of existing
products also consumed paper resources. Note taking and initial
sketches were formulated on the back of scrap paper which
only had one side of text. As a result, the life cycle of the paper
was extended through the reuse of it. Paper is additionally
recyclable, thus causes minimal to no harm on the environment.
Paper that has been reused can be recycled by disposing it in
the paper recycle bins located on the school premises
Computer technology and the internet were used to research
existing designs and constructions. The technology was also

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Research
Resources
Tools
Materials
Techniques

Extraction of raw
materials
Computer
technology
Transport
technology
Telecommunication
Sample Articles

Experimentation and
Testing

Manufacturing
Display Box
Testing
Information
recording

used for research on the potential target market of the product.


Electrical energy was used to operate the technology. To
minimise the energy consumption of the computers used, the
charger was removed and switched off. This ceased the current
draw from the energy source, and allowed the laptop to operate
using the chemical potential energy in the battery. Adequate
sunlight when completing the project also enabled for lights to
turned off. Consequently, additional electrical energy was not
consumed. The plastic and metal components of the computers
can be reused to build new products, or melted down and
recycled. If the components of the technology had no use once
the life cycle has ended, they can be disposed of correctly in
landfills, however the chemical structure of the plastic materials
would slowly degrade, thus impacting the quality of the soil
Computer technology was used to research existing ideas,
information on the building regulation for constructions in
bushfire prone areas, suitable materials for the design
environmental sustainability elements of a building, and many
other areas of research. (For environmental impacts and how
the environmental impact was reduced refer to the idea
generation row)
Fuel was required to travel to a potential property of which
the design was formulated upon. It was also to travel to a
professional in the field of bushfire planning. Fuel is derived
from non-renewable sources: therefore pose harm to the
environment. Emissions from the car were released into the
atmosphere, consequently polluting the air, reducing its quality
and harming the ozone layer. An alternative and much more
efficient, environmentally friendly option, to run vehicles is gas
The technology of a telephone was utilised during the
research of bushfire resistant constructions. It was used to
contact a professional expert in the planning for bushfire
constructions. Electricity is used to function and operate the
technological device. The plastic parts of the phones and the
electrical parts of the phone can be reused, or melted then
recycled, or properly disposed in landfills
Sample materials were acquired for the demonstration of the
physical and aesthetical characteristics of the design. Business
of these sample materials were contacted by telephone (see
environmental impacts above) before they had to be
transported to my home. The transportation of the materials
would have consumed fuel, a non-renewable resource that
negatively impacts the environmental atmosphere and
increased today greenhouse emissions
The construction of display box to enable the audience to
visualise, as well as physically observe and examine the material
that has been investigated, or which will be incorporated in the
design. Raw materials of timber were extracted to complete this
construction. After the end of the life cycle of the display box,
the materials can be reused or appropriately recycled. Timber
could be cut into saw dust procedure different types of timber,
or serve other uses
Paper was used to record or print information during testing

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Preliminary design
protoype, testing of
design solutions

Manufacturing
Model
Extraction of raw
materials
Manufacturing
energy
Use, recycling and
maintenance of
product

Production of final
design

Extraction of raw
materials
Manufacturing waste
Product
operation/life
Energy
consumption
Termination of
product
Use, recycling of
product materials

of design ideas. Note taking and initial sketches were formulated


on the back of scrap paper which only had one side of text. As a
result, the life cycle of the paper was extended through the
reuse of it. Paper is additionally recyclable, thus causes minimal
to no harm on the environment
The prototype of the desing was constructed mainly out of
timber. Adhesive products such as glue and metal screws were
additionally used to fix the piece of the model. Timber is a
recyclable materials if disposed correctly. The correct disposal of
timber can extend the life cycle of the materials as it can be
used for another purpose or be transformed into resources
suchs as saw dust and mulch. Timber scraps from the
construction of the model were placed in the green waste bin
where they would be recycled appropriately
Metal screws used to fix the pieces of the model can be
recycled and reused by being melted down to form new
products
Paint utilised to give the model aesthetical characteristicsis
non-toxic and water based, thus has minimal impact on the
environment and individual. Excess paint can be mixed with
water and pouring onto grass or into gardens. Paint that
remained on the burshes was washed in water and poured into
the garden
The design of the bushfire resistant construction would
require extensive amount of building materials. The building
materials of the design vary to that of a normal dwelling due to
the construction requirements of the design. The extraction of
raw materials of clay to produce bricks and timber for the
framework of the house, would contribute the largest impact to
the environment. To reduce the waste of materials, carefully
analysis of draft drawings and CAD software, ought to be
conducted to generate the specific quantity required
The manufacturing and building of the dwelling would
produce waste materials. To minimise the waste, carefully
ordering of materials is essential (see above for more detail).
Waste materials that occur during construction would be
recycled appropriately so the materials can serve another
function or be transformed into a different material to extend
its lifetime
The operation of the dwelling would inevitably produce
environmental impacts. Energy would be utilised to light, heat,
cool and operate appliances inside the dwelling, as a resulting
consuming the Earth non-renewable resources, and emitting
greenhouse emissions. Solar panels that have been incorporated
on the design convert the Suns renewable ultra-violet radiation
into electrical energy for the occupants to live in comfort.
Consequently, the energy usage of the building is reduced. The
passive design of the dwelling allows air to circulate throughout.
The air circulating in the construction lowest to cost of energy
involved with cooling the building. Strategically positioned and
ranked eaves additionally provide adequate shade on the
windows during different times of the year. Again this ten
diminishes the energy in cooling and heating. Extensive

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consideration in the position of large windows enables sufficient


amounts of light to enter the design, reducing light costs and
energy consumption
The product is comprised of a range of materials. At the end
to the environments life majority of the materials can be
recycled appropriately. The bricks and the concrete slap can be
taken to a recycling plant where it is crushed into road base and
driveway resources. Steel can be melted down and formed into
other products, whilst timber can be processed to produce
different types of timber. Glass from the windows can also be
melted down and transformed into another product. The reuse
and recycling of materials reduced the amount of raw materials
required to be extracted, lowers the embodied energy and
extended the life time of the resource

Project Evaluation
Evaluation
Evaluation is the act of considering or examining something in order to judge its value, quality,
importance, extent or condition. Evaluation is exceptionally critical throughout the entire portfolio,
documenting and recording the decisions made, problems confronted, time assessment, actions undertaken,
and the success of the design. It is equally as important for the analysis and evaluation of functional and
aesthetic aspects of the design, judgement of achievement of the criteria to success, whether the design meets
the needs of the target market and if the project has accomplished the designers expectations. Progressive
evaluation is essential as it allows ongoing decision and application to be made that will affect the overall
design. Progressive evaluation for this portfolio was completed throughout. An orange box or bold orange
writing highlights the evaluation made, the results of research, and how these conclusions will be applied into
the design. Majority of the evaluations made during the portfolio are in regards to bushfire resistant
components, and functional and aesthetical qualities of dwelling.

Significant Problems Encountered and Decisions Made to Rectify Issues


During the design, development and the realisation of the project, several problems were encountered.
Some of these issues arose from other design solutions that had been included. One of the major issues involved
with the designing of the dwelling was the guttering and drainage system. Initial thoughts and ideas comprised
of a gutter less roof system, but having ground gutters. The incorporation of the water feature around the
building for the bushfire sprinklers created another problem with the gutter less system. Water splash and the
noise from the cascading water from the roof could have potentially been uncomforting for the occupants.
Consideration was taking to solve this problem. The advantage of the gutter less roofing system for the
occupants is that the constant maintenance and clean-up of organic matter from the gutters was not required. It
would have also produced a curtain of water that would significantly reduce the radiant heat transfer to the
dwelling during a bushfire attack. This curtain of water also plays an eye-catching and attention seeking
aesthetical charactering of the building. However, even with advantages the noise and splash factor are
disadvantages. Experimentation was conducted to determine the amount of splash produced from the gutter
less system. The results proved that minimal water splash would reach the exterior of the building, and
insignificant amounts would leap over the surrounding ground gutter. The noise produced would also be
reduced as the bushfire shutters on the windows diminish the noise transfer by up to 80%. In the end, a decision
was made based on the positives and negatives. The gutter less roof and ground drainage system proved to be
the most efficient, maintenance saving and aesthetically pleasing design solution.
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Another problem that was encountered when producing the three dimensional physical prototype of the
environment was the difficulty cutting the mini Colourbond steel pieces. Mini Colourbond sheet was utilised in
the model to produce a real impression and aesthetic of what the dwelling roof would look like. The exterior
cuts of the pieces were easily cut using a grinder however the major roof spans four internal cuts poses more
difficulty. Several methods including tin snips, a small vibrating cutter and a drill widener were all trialled,
however no provided a straight and effective cutting technique. After considering other methods of cutting, a
metal cutting blade was attached to the jigsaw used for cutting the timber. This method was the most accurate
and time saving was of removing the waste from the internal cuts. The resolving of this problem enabled the
piece to be successfully cut and give the model aesthetical characteristics that will captive the audiences
attention.

Alternative Evaluation System


Evaluation is fundamental to the integrity of the design portfolio. Many strategies have been established
to make the most of the evaluation, display it clearly and precisely, as well as to reach the optimum benefit of
progressive evaluation. The technique of progressive evaluation of a small highlighted text boxes to provide
information on the evaluation made, the application of conclusion assumed, and how the result of the
experimenting, research or testing will be incorporated into the design. However, there are numerous other
alternative evaluations systems and techniques. One technique that can be considered for the next project is to
have an A4 logbook, where all documents, records, findings, evaluation is written down. This would be beneficial
during all times as you would not require the availability of a computer to type evaluations in a document. Any
documentation can be completed at any time since only a pen is required. It would also not be subject to the
risk of accidently losing the file on the computer, or not being able to be printed and presented. Ideas and
thoughts can still be organised and arranged in a creative or particular layout with careful thought conducted
before the evaluation is started. I believe the alternative evaluation system of a logbook can potentially be just
as effective, if not more effective than the existing progressive evaluation system and technique incorporated in
this design portfolio.

Analysis and Evaluation of Functional and Aesthetic Aspects of the Design


A product can only be successful if adequate thought and consideration was taken into account. These
thoughts would consists of the criteria necessary for the product to be successful, explanation of these sets of
criteria, and how it will be determined if the final product met or does not meet it. High priority criteria to
determine success encompassed the bushfire resistant of the construction, environmentally sustainability,
aesthetical characteristics, functional attributes and the compliance with bushfire planning and construction
regulations. All of these criteria were obliged to be fulfilled to ensure that the product could be potentially
successful. Functional characteristics of the bushfire resistant construction included the suitability for the target
market, the durability of the dwelling, and the location and positioning. These are key elements of the
functionality of the design, and have a weighting integrity on the successfulness of the environment. Through
adequate research and testing, the design of the house has been formulated to better suit the life, wants and
needs of the target market. For instance, research of the target market had shown that the people most likely to
purchase the product are medium income earners with families of 2-3 children. An average of 2-3 cars was also
shown. This prompted the inclusion of a triple garage to effectively park the cars in a sheltered and protected
environment. Another features added to the design to suit the lifestyle of the target market is the covered
indoor/outdoor patio area. The outdoor lifestyle of families living in bushland areas is embraced in the wide and
open area looking out into the bush. The large transparent bi-fold doors open up to generate a sense of the
bushland extending inside home. The durability and strength of the dwelling are essential elements of the
designs functionality. Strong materials of brick, coated in a concrete render produced a stable and secure shell
supporting and strengthening the building. The centred location of the dwelling on the property used allows fire
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and emergency vehicle access if required. All of these functional attributes combine to play an integral role of
the products success.
Aesthetic characteristics and features are fundamental to the success and triumph of a bushfire resistant
home. Aesthetics are typically the determining factor which will convince the audience to purchase the product.
Aesthetically, the design fits into modern trends and also the trends of new developments in the area of which
its intended design is situated. First hand investigations the local area of which this design is situated, provided
me with appropriate guidance of colour and style the dwelling accordingly. The aesthetics of the final product
are suitable and appropriate to changing social trends and exemplify a range of cultural diversity. This will
enable the products target market to be further expended into different ethnical cultures and groups, and
potentially attracting new developers of buyers to the area. This conclusion has been formulated through asking
the people of different cultural backgrounds and of different ages with the target market of their thoughts and
opinions ion the overall look and appeal of the house. The design follows and suit modern homes through the
simplistic linear appeal, with a range of interchanging vector line. The tall narrow vertical windows and the long
thin horizontal windows are common feature of modern and contemporary home designs. Research and first
and investigations conducted has enabled me to observe the trends of modern dwellings and incorporated it in
the environment. The larger window at the height of the roof pitch also produced a wow factor from the
audience. Not only does this component serve an aesthetical role, it also has a functional role in allowing
adequate air to enter the dwelling, circulating and cooling the interior. Another wow factor is evident with it is
raining of the fire protection sprinklers are activated. A curtain of cascading water would be produced, an
element that is not present on many other dwellings. The construction assimilates and embraces the
surrounding environment as it incorporates the four natural elements, water, wind, earth and fire. Water is
encompassed through the duck and fish pond water feature around the dwelling. The passive design and
louvered windows allow wind to flow through. Earth components, through the surrounding landscaping, stone
feature pillars, and earthly bulk head colours. Fire is embraced as the design is located in a bushfire prone area,
and it is a construction developed to withstand the destructive forces of a bushfire attack.
The design project of the bushfire resistant construction also has hindrances and shortcoming of the
functional and aesthetical characteristics. For this product, only one colour has been selected. Although other
colours for the finishing of the building can be selected by the occupants, they havent been tested to determine
the best pairings. A colour range of the product therefore cannot be created. A fault in the functionality of the
design it that restricted ability to clean the exterior of the windows. An object would need to be placed in the
water feature to provide a safe and dry area to stand on whilst cleaning the windows. This would have to be
repositioned for each window and would potentially become an inconvenience. Another hindrance of the
building is the gutter less roofing system. Although is has many advantages such as a cascading curtain of water
when it is raining, it also produces a noise disturbance that cannot be completed eliminated.
An imperative specification stated in the design brief, and the criteria to evaluate success is the products
bushfire resistant. To ensure that the product can withstand the forces of a bushfire attack, construction
guidelines were strictly adhered to, and a professional consultant in developing dwellings in bushfire prone
areas was investigated. Initially, a consultant was arranged with the expert in the field to discuss the necessary
components of the construction. After following the requirements he had stated, as well as the requirements
stated in Australian Standards 39592009 for constructions in bushfire prone areas a design solution was
formulated. This design solution upon completion was brought back to the consultant where he confirmed that
appropriate bushfire construction requirements and standards have been fulfilled in the design. The subsequent
letter is addressed to my design and technology teacher as it talks about a good understanding of the principles,
aims and objectives for developments in constructions located in bushfire prone areas.

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A major element of the designing of the environment was the sustainability. This required the
sustainability of all stages throughout the project development. Materials have been research and located to
lower the embodied energy that is involved with the dwelling. Passive design elements such as louvered
windows to allow air flow, north-facing upward ranked eaves, large open windows, a large water storage
system, strategic building positioning and solar panels all combined to make the house more environmentally
sustainable. The design process has also impacted the environment in a negative way, however recycling option
that are available will be utilised, to again reduce the overall environmental impact. The design possesses
impacts on society. Its aesthetical and functional characteristics will attract the attention of some consumers,
whilst also being neglected by others. The house has been constructed so it will suit most of the target market
which makes up the society. Negative impacts that would be stimulates as a result of the construction would be
the traffic of wide vehicles and trucks on the narrow local streets within the local community.

Final Evaluation
Overall, the project design, production and portfolio were an achieving success. Each component has
been completed in such a way that achieves personal goals, satisfactions as well as legal requirements. The aim
of the project was the design a bushfire resistant construction to combat the problem of homes and other
buildings being destroyed by the effects of a bushfire. Safety, security and protection of life and assets were a
major goal of the project and I and expert opinions believe that these goals have successfully been achieved.
Specifications in the design brief and the criteria to evaluate success have been accomplished through the
development of the design project. The analysis of functional, aesthetical and bushfire resistant aspects of the
design plus the criteria to evaluate success identifies, explains and provides evidence to how the final finished
project has satisfied what I have stated in the project proposal section. It supports the project proposal and
demonstrates how the statements have been achieved in the final environment. Largely, I have enjoyed all time
and effort consumed in completing the design. The completion of this task has enabled me to broaden my
perspective on all the innovative design solutions available combat difficult problems within society. The design
project has further advanced knowledge and experience in the worlds design institution.
Bushfire Resistant ConstructionJoshua Maltese

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