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ThS. Le Van oan

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DANH CHO HOC SINH LUYEN THI THPT QUOC GIA


BOI DNG HOC SINH GIOI 10, 11, 12
THAM KHAO CHO GIAO VIEN

NHA XUAT BAN AI HOC QUOC GIA HA NOI

MC LC
Phn I. Phng trnh, bt phng trnh v t ........................................ 3
Bi 1. Phng trnh v t c bn ....................................................................... 3
Bi 2. Gii phng trnh v t bng cch a v tch s ............................ 11
S dng php bin i tng ng ................................................. 11
K thut nhn lng lin hp ............................................................. 17
Bi 3. Gii phng trnh v t bng phng php t n ph ................ 64
Dng 1. a. f ( x) b. n f ( x) c 0 ............................................................. 64

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n

Dng 2. a. f ( x) b. g( x) 2ab. f ( x).g( x) h( x) .............................. 76


Dng 3. n a f ( x) m b f ( x) c ................................................. 83

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Dng 4. a n A2 b n A.B c n B2 0 ................................................. 89


Dng 5. a. f ( x) b.g( x) c. f ( x).g( x) ................................................... 92

.c

Dng 6. a. f ( x) b.g( x) c. d. f 2 ( x) e.g 2 ( x) ..................................... 103


n

Dng 7. f ( x) b( x) a( x) n a( x) f ( x) b( x) ................................ 108

ok

Dng 8. (ax b)n p. n cx d q.x r , vi n 2; 3 ........................ 117

bo

Dng 9. x 2a x b a2 b x 2a x b a2 b cx d ....... 122


Dng 10. t n ph khng hon ton ............................................ 124

et

Dng 11. mx n a 1 x b 1 x c 1 x2 ................................. 129


Dng 12. t n ph 3 n da vo hng ng thc ....................... 130

vi

Dng 13. x m x . n x n x . p x p x . m x ........... 132

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a

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Dng 14. t 1 n hoc 2 n a v h phng trnh ................... 134


Dng 15. t n ph bng cch lng gic ha ............................. 152
Bi 4. Gii phng trnh v t bng phng php nh gi ................. 165
S dng tnh n iu ca hm s .................................................... 165
S dng bt ng thc c in .......................................................... 186
a v tng cc s khng m hoc An Bn .................................... 203
Bi 5. Bt phng trnh v t ........................................................................ 212
Bt phng trnh v t c bn............................................................. 212
Bt phng trnh s dng chia khong v tch cn ....................... 214
Nhm bt phng trnh v t c mu s ........................................ 216
a v dng tch s bng php bin i tng ng .................. 222
a v tch s bng k thut lin hp .............................................. 225
S dng phng php hm s ........................................................... 237
S dng phng php t n ph .................................................... 250
Bi 6. Phng trnh, bt phng trnh cha tham s ............................... 251

Bi 2.

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Bi 4.

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Bi 3.

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n

Bi 1.

om

Phn II.

Phng trnh v t cha tham s ...................................................... 252


Bt phng trnh v t cha tham s ................................................ 266
H phng trnh i s, v t .................................................. 272
H phng trnh c bn ..................................................................... 272
H i xng loi I ................................................................................ 273
H i xng loi II ............................................................................... 277
H gn ging i xng loi II ............................................................. 282
H ng cp c bn .............................................................................. 286
Phng php th to phng trnh bc cao hoc ng cp ........... 288
H phng trnh a v tch s ........................................................ 295
K thut tch, ghp, nhm, tam thc bc hai ................................... 295
K thut nhn lng lin hp ............................................................ 308
K thut dng phng php cng a v tch s ..................... 325
Gii h phng trnh bng phng php t n ph .................. 341
Dng 1. t mt n ph a v phng trnh bc 2, 3 .................. 341
Dng 2. t n ph da vo tnh ng cp 1 phng trnh ......... 346
Dng 3. t n ph a v h phng trnh c bn ...................... 353
Bin i 1 phng trnh tm php n ph ........................ 353
Da vo Vit tm ra php n ph ...................................... 366
Chia xc nh lng n ph .......................................... 373
Lin hp pht hin lng n ph ................................. 384
Bin i ng thc c bn tm ra php t n ................. 387
t n ph dng tng hiu .............................................. 390
Dng 4. t n ph bng cch lng gic ha ................................ 405
Dng 5. t n ph bng cch s phc ha ................................... 410
Gii h phng trnh bng phng php nh gi ...................... 423
Phng php nh gi bng hm s ................................................. 423
Mt s dng c bn ...................................................................... 423
H c: ax (ax)2 1 by (by)2 1 1 .......................... 423

H c: a1 x b1 x c1x d1 a2 y b2 y 2 c2 y ................... 426


3

a x3 b x2 c x d (a y b ) c y d
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
H c:
.............. 434
( a1 x b1 ) c1 y d1 (a2 y b2 ) c2 y d2

Mt s k nng lm xut hin hm c trng ......................... 443


Chia xut hin hm c trng ....................................... 443
Php cng tm hm c trng ....................................... 453
Php bin i tng ng tm hm c trng ........ 461
Phng php nh gi bng bt ng thc c in ....................... 468
Bi 5. H phng trnh cha tham s ......................................................... 492
Phn III. Gii chi tit bi tp rn luyn .................................................. 508

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Phan 1. PHNG TRNH BAT PHNG TRNH VO TY

1. PHNG TRNH VO TY C BAN


I. Phng trnh bc bn quy v bc hai
2

e d
1. Dang: ax bx cx dx e 0 vi 0.
a b
3

Phng php gii: Chia hai v cho x2 0, ri t t x


2. Dang: ( x a)( x b)( x c)( x d) e vi a c b d.

d
vi
x
b

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n

om

Phng php gii: Vit lai ( x a)( x c) ( x b)( x d) e


x2 (a c)x ac x2 (b d)x bd e v t t x2 (a c)x.
3. Dang: ( x a)( x b)( x c)( x d) ex2 vi a.b c.d.

.c

abcd
x thi phng trinh
2
abcd abcd
t
x t
x ex2 (c dng ng cp)
2
2

4. Dang: ( x a)4 ( x b)4 c

bo

ok

Phng php gii: t t x2 ab

ab
ab
(t )4 (t )4 c vi

2
2

et

Phng php gii: t x t

vi

5. Dang: ax4 bx3 cx2 dx e 0 , vi b3 8a2 d 4abc.

ng

Phng php gii: t x t

4a

6. Dang: x4 ax2 bx c

(1)

kh
a

Phng php gii: To ra dng A2 B2 bng cach thm hai v cho mt


lng 2k.x2 k 2 , tc phng trinh (1) tng ng:
( x2 )2 2kx2 k 2 (2k a)x2 bx c k 2 ( x2 k)2 (2k a)x2 bx c k 2 .

2 k a 0

Cn v phai co dang binh phng


k?
2
2

VP b 4(2 k a)(c k ) 0

7. Dang: x4 ax3 bx2 cx d

(2)

Phng php gii: To A B bng cach thm v phai 1 biu thc


2

a2
to ra dng binh phng: x2 x k x4 ax3 2k x2 kax k 2 .
2
4

Do o ta se cng thm hai v cua phng trinh (2) mt lng:


3

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


2

2 a

a2
a2 2
2
2
2 k x kax k , th x x k 2 k b x ( ka c)x k d.
2
4
4

a2
2
k

b0

Luc ny cn s k thoa:
k ?
2
( ka c)2 4 2 k a b ( k 2 d) 0
VP

II. Phng trnh v t c bn

B 0
A B

A B

A 0 hay B 0
A B

A B

.v
n

A B C 0

1. Dang:

om

B 0
A B 0 B 0 hoc
3 A B A B3 .

III. Mt s phng trnh v t c bn thng gp

(1)

.c

Bc 1. t iu kin.

ok

Bc 2. Chuyn v hai v u dng, tc (1) A C B


Bc 3. Binh phng hai v A C 2 AC B 2 AC B A C.
3

A3B3C

(2)

bo

2. Dang:

Bc 1. Ly tha: ( 3 A 3 B )3 ( 3 C )3 A B 3 3 AB( 3 A 3 B ) C (2)

A 3 B 3 C , th (2) A B 3 3 ABC C.

A B C D

vi

3. Dang:

et

Bc 2. Th

(3) vi A C B D hoc AC BD.

Bc 1. t iu kin.

ng

Bc 2. Bin i (3) A C B D v binh phng hai v.

kh
a

Lu : Bin i cua 3 dng trn l bin i h qua , do o khi giai xong cn


thay th nghim lai bai va kim tra nhm tranh thu nghim ngoai lai.
V d 1.

Giai phng trinh:

2 x 1 x 2 3x 1 0

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng tng qut:

()
i hc khi D 2006

mx n ax2 bx c , (m, a 0) ta

u gii c theo dng A B. Nu sau khi ly tha ra c nghim hu t th s


tin hnh chia Hocner phn tch thnh tch s (u ri, nhn ti, cng cho). Cn
nu ra nghim v t ta s tin hnh s dng chc nng table ca my tnh b ti
tm lng nhn t chung bc hai, sau chia a thc a v dng tch s bc hai
nhn bc hai m d dng tm c nghim.

Li gii 1. Xem y l phng trinh dng


4

A B.

khangviet.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821


2

x 3x 1 0
() 2 x 1 x 3x 1
2
2

2 x 1 ( x 3x 1)
2
2
x 1

x 3x 1 0
x 3x 1 0
4

3
2
2
2
x 2 2

x 6 x 11x 8 x 2 0
( x 1) ( x 4 x 2) 0
2

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Kt lun: Phng trinh cho c 2 nghim x 1, x 2 2.


Li gii 2. t n ph a v h phng trinh gn i xng loi II.
y 2 2x 1
y 2 2x 1 0

t y 2x 1 0, suy ra:
2
2
y x 3x 1 0
x 3x y 1 0

( y 2 x2 ) ( x y) 0 ( y x)( y x 1) 0 y x hoc y 1 x.

x 0

2x 1 x 2
x 1.

x 2x 1 0

x 1
x 2 2.
Vi y 1 x, suy ra: 2 x 1 1 x 2

x 4x 2 0

.c

om

Vi y x, suy ra:

V d 2.

ok

Kt lun: Phng trinh cho c 2 nghim x 1, x 2 2.


Giai phng trinh: x2 4x 3 x 5

()

bo

Phn tch. kim tra phng trnh c nghim hu t hay v t, ta nhp vo casio:

ng

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et

X2 4X 3 X 5 v bm shift solve 1 (1 l s nguyn bt k nm trong khong


iu kin) c kt qu X 5.192582404 l v t. Khi nh hng tm lng nhn
t bc hai bng chc nng table. Trc tin ta lu bin X A, bng cch nhp
alpha ) shift RCL (). K n ta chuyn v ch table bng cch bm mode setup 7
v nhp f (X) A2 AX bng cch bm: alpha () x2 alpha () anpha ), ri bm = .

Nu casio fx 570 VN plus hoc vina calc, ta s bm tip tc du =, cn fx 570 ES


th khng cn (tc khng nhp g( X) ), cho Start l -9, End l 9, Step l 1 th casio cho

kh
a

X F( X )
ta bng gi tr 14 4 6.1925
15 5
1

v ta ch quan tm n dng c gi tr l s nguyn,

tc dng 15 c X 5, F(X) 1, chnh l h s b, c ca nhn t x2 bx c , tc c

x2 5x 1. Lc ny ta s quyt nh ly tha 2 v theo cng thc A B c


phng trnh bc bn, sau ly phng trnh bc bn ny chia cho lng x2 5x 1
s thu c bc 2 v vit li tch ca 2 bc hai.

Li gii 1. Xem y l phng trinh dng

A B.

x 2 7 x 2 7

x 4x 3 0

() 2

2
4
3
2

( x 4 x 3) x 5
x 8 x 10 x 23x 4 0
2

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

5 29
x 2 7 x 2 7
2
x
hoc x 1.
2
2

( x 5x 1) ( x 3x 4) 0

Kt lun: Phng trinh cho c 2 nghim: x 1, x

5 29

Li gii 2. t mt n ph a v h i xng.
2
2

( y 2) x 5
y 4y x 1 0
2
t: y 2 x 5 0, suy ra: 2
x 4x 3 y 2
x 4x y 1 0

om

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y x
( y 2 x2 ) 3( y x) 0 ( y x)( y x 3) 0

y 3 x
x 2
5 29

Vi y x, suy ra: x 5 x 2 2
x

x 5x 1 0

x 1
x 5 1 x 2
x 1.

x 3x 4 0

Vi y 3 x, suy ra:

.c

5 29

2
Bnh lun. Trong li gii 1, nng ly tha, ta thng s dng hng ng thc 3
s dng (a b c)2 a2 b2 c 2 2.(ab bc ca) khai trin. Tuy cch gii 1 gip

bo

ok

Kt lun: Phng trinh cho c 2 nghim: x 1, x

V d 3.

vi

et

chng ta tch cc a thc bc cao thnh tch s, nhng tnh ton kh phc tp, d dn
n nhng sai lm v mt nhiu thi gian. Do ngi gii ton thng tm nhng
phng php n gin, ngn gn hn v in hnh l li gii 2 ca 2 v d. Phng
php t n ph s tm hiu k bi hc sau vi du hiu nhn dng nht nh.
Giai phng trinh: 2( x2 x 6) 5 x3 8

()

ng

thi th i hc 2013 THPT Chuyn Phan Bi Chu Ngh An


Phn tch. Khc vi hai v d trn, biu thc trong cn thc l bc 3, ta vn gii theo

kh
a

cng thc A B, thu c phng trnh bc bn. Lc vi s h tr ca my


tnh casio, ta s phn tch c thnh tch s dng bc 2 nhn bc 2.
Li gii 1. iu kin: x3 8 0 ( x 2)( x2 2x 4) 0 x 2.
() 8.( x2 x 6)2 25( x3 8) 8x4 41x3 104x2 96x 88 0

x2 6 x 4 0
( x2 6 x 4)(8 x2 18 x 28) 0 2
x 3 13.
8x 18x 28 0 : VN

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trinh cho c 2 nghim l x 3 13.


Lu : Ta c th giai bng phng php t n ph sau khi bin i phng
trinh v dng: 2( x 2) 2( x2 2x 4) 5 ( x 2)( x2 2x 4)

Li gii 2. t u x 2 0, v x2 2x 4 3.
6

(1)

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2

u 1
u
u
u
(1) 2u 2v 5uv 2 5 2 0 2 hoc
v 2
v
v
v
2

x 2 2 x2 2x 4
4 x 2 9 x 14 0
u 2 v

2
x 3 13.
Suy ra:
2 x 2 x2 2 x 4
x 6 x 4 0
2u v

Li gii 3. Chia hai v cho lng dng: x2 2x 4 ( x 1)2 3 3.

.v
n

x2
2
2
x2
x2
x 2x 4
(1) 2 2
5 2
20

x 2x 4
x 2x 4
x2
1
2

x 2x 4 2

V d 4.

Giai phng trinh:

om

x 2 4( x2 2 x 4)

x 3 13.
2
4( x 2) x 2 x 4

7 x2 x x 5 3 2 x x 2

()

.c

A 0 hay B 0
A B
, khi c
A B
2 phng n chn A 0 hay B 0. Da vo c im ca bi ton, ta nn chn
phng n no n gin nht, tc chn B 3 2x x2 0 v c li gii nh sau:
2

3 2 x x 0
Li gii. Phng trinh ()
2
2

7 x x x 5 3 2 x x
3 x 1

x 2 (do x 0 khng l nghim cua phng trinh)


x5
x

ng

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bo

ok

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng c bn:

kh
a

3 x 1
2 x 0
3 x 1

x2

0
2 x 0
x 1 x 1.
x

3
x 4
2
2
x x 16 x 16 0

x
(
x
5)2 ( x 2)2

Kt lun: Phng trinh cho c nghim duy nht x 1.

V d 5.

()

Giai phng trinh: 2 3x 1 x 1 2 2x 1

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng c bn

A B C , ta s t iu kin, chuyn

v sao cho 2 v u dng v bnh phng hai v a v dng

A B.

Li gii. iu kin: x 1. Khi : () 2 3x 1 x 1 2 2 x 1


4(3x 1) x 1 4(2x 1) 4 ( x 1)(2x 1)

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x 1
4 2 x 2 3x 1 3x 9
x 5.
2

23x 102 x 65 0
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trinh c nghim duy nht x 5.

V d 6.

Giai phng trinh:

4 x2 7 x 2 2 x2 x 1 1

()

.v
n

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng ging v d trn, ta dm la chn hng bnh
phng 2 v ln l do sau khi ly tha, bc cao nht 4x 2 s trit tiu v c li gii sau:
1
Li gii. iu kin: x hoc x 2.
4
() 4x2 7 x 2 1 2 x2 x 1 ( 4 x2 7 x 2 1)2 4( x2 x 1)

om

29 4 67
3x 5 0
2 4 x2 7 x 2 3x 5 2
x

7
7
x

58
x

33

Giai phng trinh:

x2 x 2 x2 x2 2 x 0

()

ok

V d 7.

29 4 67

.c

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trinh l x

A.B A. B khi A 0, B 0 v

et

thc tch cn hp l, tc:

bo

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng tng t nh v d trn, nhng khi bnh phng
ln th s khng trit tiu c bc cao nht. Nhn thy rng biu thc trong cc cn
thc c chung mt nghim x 0 nn ta s dng phng php chia khong v
tch cn. Ngha l i tm iu kin, da vo cc khong iu kin p dng cc cng
A.B ( A) (B)

vi

A. B khi A 0, B 0. T , ta c li gii chi tit nh sau:


x2 x 0, x2 0
x 1

x 0 hoc
2

x 2
x 2x 0

ng

Li gii. iu kin:

Khi () x( x 1) x( x 2) 2 x2

(1)

kh
a

Trng hp 1. Nu x 0 thi (1) lun ung nn x 0 l 1 nghim cua (1).


Trng hp 2. Nu x 1 th (1) x x 1 x x 2 2 x x
x 1 x 2 2 x ( x 1 x 2)2 (2 x )2

9
, (do : x 1).
8
Trng hp 3. Nu x 2 x 1 0; x 2 0 nn:
2 x2 x 2 2 x 1 x

(1) x x 1 x x 2 2 x x 1 x x 2 2 x
( 1 x x 2)2 (2 x )2 2 x2 x 2 1 2x : v nghim.

Kt lun: Phng trinh cho c 2 nghim l x 0; x


8

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V d 8.

Giai phng trinh:

()

x 1 3 3x 1 3 x 1

A 3 B 3 C , khi hng x l l lp
phng hai v v thng s dng hng ng thc (a b)3 a3 b3 3ab(a b), ri
Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng c bn
3

thay th

A 3 B 3 C vo phng trnh thu c sau khi lp phng v gii

phng trnh h qu dng

f ( x) g( x) f ( x) g( x) . T c li gii sau:

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
4x 2 3. 3 ( x 1)(3x 1) ( 3 x 1 3 3x 1) x 1
3 ( x 1)(3x 1).( 3 x 1 3 3x 1) ( x 1)
3

x 1 3 3x 1 3 x 1 vo (1), suy ra:

(1)

( x 1)(3x 1)( x 1) ( x 1)

om

Th:

.v
n

() ( 3 x 1 3 3x 1)3 ( 3 x 1)

( x 1)4x2 0 x 1 hoc x 0.

.c

( x 1)(3x 1)( x 1) ( x 1)3 ( x 1). (3x 1)( x 1) ( x 1)2 0


Vi x 1 thi phng trinh () sai nn loi nghim x 1.

ok

Vi x 0 thi phng trinh () ung nn nhn nghim x 0.

Kt lun: Phng trinh cho c nghim duy nht x 0.


10x 1 3x 5 9x 4 2x 2

bo

V d 9.

Giai phng trinh:

()

et

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng: A B C D vi A C B D, c th:


(10x 1) (2x 2) (9x 4) (3x 5) 12x 1, nn ta s chuyn v a v dng:

kh
a

ng

vi

A C D B v bnh phng hai v. Nhng do khi chuyn v v bnh


phng l ta gii phng trnh h qu, v vy khi gii xong ta cn thay th nghim
vo phng trnh u bi nhm nhn, loi nghim thch hp.
5
Li gii. iu kin: x , th () 10x 1 2x 2 9x 4 3x 5
3
( 10x 1 2x 2)2 ( 9 x 4 3x 5)2
12x 1 2 (10x 1)(2x 2) 12x 1 2 (9x 4)(3x 5)

6
(10x 1)(2 x 2) (9 x 4)(3x 5) 7 x2 15x 18 0 x 3, x
7
Kt lun: So vi iu kin v th vo (), phng trinh c nghim x 3.

V d 10. Giai phng trinh:

4 x 1 x 7 2 2 x 3 5x 6

()

Phn tch. Nu bin i 2 2x 3 8x 12 th phng trnh cho a v ging


nh th d trn vi (8x 12) ( x 7) (5x 6) (4x 1) 9x 5 v c li gii sau:

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

iu kin: 2x 3 0. Khi : () x 7 8x 12 5x 6 4x 1
( x 7 8x 12)2 ( 5x 6 4x 1)2

13
, x 2.
4
13
Kt lun: So vi iu kin v th vo (), phng trinh c nghim x
4
( x 7)(8 x 12) (5x 6)(4 x 1) 12 x2 63x 78 0 x

x3 1
x 1 x 3 x2 x 1
()
x3
thi th i hc nm 2014 THPT Hu Lc 2 Thanh Ha

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng

.v
n

V d 11. Giai phng trinh:

A B C D vi A.C B.D, c th ta c

x 1
( x 3) ( x 1)( x2 x 1) x3 1, nn s vit v dng A C D B
x3
v bnh phng gii phng trnh h qu. T c li gii sau:
Li gii. iu kin: x 1.

x2 x 1 x 1

x3 1
x3 1
x32
x 3 x2 x 1 x 1 2 x2 x 1 x 1
x3
x3

bo

ok

x3 1

()
x3
x3

.c

om

x3 1 ( x 3)( x2 x 1) x2 2x 2 0 x 1 3 hoc x 1 3.

et

Kt lun: So vi iu kin v th vo () nghim cn tim l x 1 3.

vi

BI TP RN LUYN

Giai phng trinh: 2x2 6x 1 4x 5.

BT 2.

Giai phng trinh: 2x2 5x 1 7 x3 1.

BT 3.

Giai phng trinh:

9x2 42x 49 1 3 x2 6x 6.

BT 4.

Giai phng trinh:

2x2 10x 8 x2 1 2x 2.

BT 5.

Giai phng trinh:

2x2 3x 1 x2 x 2 3x2 4x 1.

BT 6.

Giai phng trinh:

BT 7.

Giai phng trinh:

2x2 1 x2 3x 2 2x2 2x 3 x2 x 2.

BT 8.

Giai phng trinh:

x 3 3x 1 2 x 2x 2.

BT 9.

Giai phng trinh:

x 3 3x 2 x 3
x 1 x 3 x2 4x 3.
x3

kh
a

ng

BT 1.

BT 10. Giai phng trinh:


10

x 1 3 x 2 3 x 3 0.

8 x3 1
2x 1 4 x2 2 x 1 2 x 3.
2x 3

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2. GIAI PHNG TRNH VO TY


BANG CACH A VE TCH

.v
n

I. S dng php bin i tng ng


Dung cc phep bin i , ng nht kt hp vi vic tach , nhm, ghep thich
hp a phng trinh cho v dang tich s n gian hn va bit cach
giai, chng hn nh: A.B 0 A 0 hoc B 0...
Mt s bin i thng gp:
f ( x) ax2 bx c a.( x x1 )( x x2 ) vi x1 , x2 l 2 nghim cua f ( x) 0.
Dung cc hng ng thc c ban, lu cc bin i thng gp sau:
+ u v 1 uv (u 1) v(u 1) 0 (u 1)(1 v) 0 u v 1.

om

+ au bv ab vu a(u b) v(u b) 0 (u b)(a v) 0.


V d 12. Giai phng trinh: ( x 3) 10 x2 x2 x 12

()

.c

Phn tch. Thy v phi phn tch c thnh tch s: x2 x 12 ( x 3)( x 4)


da vo f ( x) ax2 bx c a.( x x1 )( x x2 ) vi x1 , x2 l 2 nghim ca phng

ok

trnh f ( x) 0, nn s c nhn t x 3 vi v tri v c li gii sau:

Li gii. iu kin: 10 x2 0 10 x 10.

vi

et

bo

() ( x 3) 10 x2 ( x 3)( x 4) ( x 3). 10 x2 ( x 4) 0

x 3 0

x 4
x 3.

x 3 hoc 2
2

10 x x 4
2 x 10 x 6 0
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trinh c nghim duy nht x 3.

ng

V d 13. Giai phng trinh:

x x 1 x2 x 1

()

kh
a

Phn tch. Vi iu kin x 0 th phng trnh x x 1 1 x x 1 v


c dng u v 1 uv (u 1)(v 1) 0 u v 1 v c li gii sau:

Li gii. iu kin: x 0.
() x x 1 1 x x 1 ( x 1) ( x 1 x x 1) 0
( x 1)(1 x 1) 0 x 1 hoc

x 1 1 x 1 hoc x 0.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trinh cho c 2 nghim x 0, x 1.


V d 14. Giai phng trinh: x 2 7 x 2 x 1 x2 8x 7 1
Phn tch. S dng phn tch

()

x2 8x 7 ( x 1)(7 x) v ghp tng cp li

vi nhau s xut hin nhn t chung v a c v tch s.


Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 7.
11

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

() ( x 1) 2 x 1 2 7 x ( x 1).(7 x) 0

x 1( x 1 2) 7 x (2 x 1) 0

x 1 2
x 5
( x 1 2).( x 1 7 x ) 0

x 1 7 x
x 4
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trinh cho c 2 nghim l x 4, x 5.

V d 15. Giai phng trnh: x 2 5 x 2 x 2 10 3x x2 2

()

Phn tch. Tng t th d trn, thy

.v
n

Hc sinh gii tnh Kin Giang nm 2014 2015


10 3x x2 ( x 2)(5 x) nn ghp cc

om

biu thc thch hp vi nhau s a c v phng trnh tch s v c li gii sau:


Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 5.
() ( x 2) ( x 2)(5 x) 2 5 x 2 x 2 0

.c

x 2( x 2 5 x ) 2( x 2 5 x ) 0

ok

3
x2 5x
x
( x 2 5 x )( x 2 2) 0

x 2 2
x 2

bo

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trinh cho c 2 nghim l x


x 2 3x 2 x 2 2 x x

vi

et

V d 16. Giai phng trinh:

ng

Phn tch. Nu quy ng v phn tch

6
5
x

3
, x 2.
2

()

6
x 2 5x 6
( x 2)( x 3)
5

,
x
x
x

x2 3x x( x 3) s xut hin nhn t v c li gii sau:

ri nhm vi cm

kh
a

Li gii. iu kin: x 0.

( x 2)( x 3)
() x( x 3)
(2 x 2 2 x) 0
x

x2
x 3 x
2( x 2 x) 0

x3

x x2
x

x3

2( x 2 x) 0 ( x 2 x)
2 0

x2 x
x2 x 2 0
x 2

x 3 2 x
x 1
x 3 4x
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trinh c 2 nghim x 1, x 2.

12

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V d 17. Giai: x 2x 3 3( x 5 1) 3x 2x2 13x 15 2x 3


Phn tch. Nu quan st k, phng trnh ch cha 2 cn thc
khi phn tch

2x 3,

()

x 5 sau

2x 13x 15 (2x 3)( x 5) v nhm nhn t chung ph hp s


2

xut hin phng trnh tch s v c li gii sau:


Li gii. iu kin: 3x 2 0.
() ( x 2x 3 3x) (2 x 3)( x 5) 2 x 3 3( x 5 1)

x( 2x 3 3) 2x 3( x 5 1) 3( x 5 1)

.v
n

x( 2x 3 3) ( x 5 1)( 2x 3 3) ( 2x 3 3)( x x 5 1) 0

om

2x 3 3
x 3

x 5 x 1 x 4
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trinh cho c 2 nghim l x 3, x 4.

()

.c

V d 18. Giai phng trinh: 3x2 3x 2 ( x 6) 3x2 2x 3

ok

Phn tch. Do biu thc trong v ngoi du cn cng l bc hai, nn ta ngh n vic
phn tch biu thc ngoi du cn theo biu thc trong du cn, c th y ti vit:
3x2 3x 2 (3x2 2x 3) 5( x 1) v xut hin thm hng t c cha ( x 1),

bo

nn phn tch: ( x 6) 3x2 2x 3 ( x 1) 5 3x2 2x 3, ri phn phi v


ghp hng t ph hp s a c v phng trnh dng tch, t c li gii 1.

vi

et

1 10
1 10
hoc x

3
3
Li gii 1. Tch ghep a v phng trinh tich s.

iu kin: 6 x

ng

() (3x2 2x 3) 5 ( x 1) ( x 1) 3x2 2x 3 5 3x2 2x 3

kh
a

( 3x2 2x 3)2 5 3x2 2x 3 5( x 1) ( x 1) 3x2 2x 3 0

3x2 2x 3( 3x2 2x 3 5) ( x 1)(5 3x2 2x 3) 0

3x 2 2 x 3 5
( 3x2 2 x 3 5)( 3x2 2 x 3 x 1) 0
3x 2 2 x 3 x 1

2
3x 2 x 28 0

1 85
1 85

x
x
x 1

3
3
2 x 2 4 x 4 0

x 1 3 x 1 3

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trinh l x 1 3, x

1 85

Li gii 2. t n ph khng hon ton.


13

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

t t 3x2 2x 3 0 t 2 3x2 2x 3 3x2 t 2 2x 3. Khi :


(1)
() t 2 2x 3 3x 2 ( x 6).t t 2 ( x 6).t 5( x 1) 0
Xem (1) l phng trinh bc 2 vi n l t v c bit s:
t ( x 6)2 20( x 1) x2 8x 16 ( x 4)2 , suy ra: t x 1 hoc t 5.
3x 2 2 x 3 5
Do :
v giai tng t nh cch giai 1.
3x 2 2 x 3 x 1

Bnh lun. Phng trnh c dng ax2 bx c (mx n). ax2 px q , ta s gii

() ( x 6)( 3x2 2x 3 5) 3x2 2 x 28

om

.v
n

bng phng php t n ph khng hon ton nu bit s l s chnh phng. Bn


cht ca phng php cng l mt hnh thc a v tch s.
Li gii 3. Lin hp sau khi s dng casio tim c nhn t chung cua
phng trinh l 3x2 2x 28.
3x2 2 x 28 0
( x 6)(3x 2 x 28)

3x2 2 x 28
x6
2
1
3x 2 x 3 5
3x2 2 x 3 5

ok

.c

et

bo

3x2 2 x 28 0
v giai tng t nh cch 1.

3x2 2 x 3 x 1
Nhn xt. i vi bi ton trn, ti khng tm c lng nhn t chung bng chc
nng table ca casio. Khi ta s tm hai nghim v da vo nh l Vit tm ra

nhn t chung nh sau: nhp 3X 2 3X 2 (X 6) 3X 2 2X 3 v bm shift

ng

vi

solve 100 c nghim l X 2,739848152, gn nghim ny vo bin A, tc


bm Ans A, ( Ans / shift / RCL / ()). Tm nghim th hai bng cch nhp li

kh
a

phng trnh v bm shift solve 100 ta c nghim X 3.406514819, ri cng lu


nghim ny vo bin B: Ans B, ( Ans / shift / RCL / ,,,). Khi ta tnh tng, tch
2
28
v AB
nn theo Vit th A, B l
3
3
2
28
2 nghim ca X2 SX P 0, tc c nhn t x2 x
hay 3x2 2x 28.
3
3

ca A v B c A B 0,6666666667

V d 19. Giai phng trinh: x2 4x ( x 3) x2 x 1 1 0

()

Phn tch. Do biu thc trong v ngoi du cn cng l bc hai, nn ta ngh n vic
phn tch biu thc ngoi du cn theo biu thc trong du cn, c th y ti vit:
x2 4x 1 ( x2 x 1) 3x v xut hin thm hng t c cha 3x , nn s phn
tch: ( x 3) x2 x 1 x x2 x 1 3 x2 x 1 v ghp hng t ph hp s xut
hin nhn t chung v a c v phng tnh tch s. T c li gii 1.
14

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1 5
1 5
hoc x

2
2
Li gii 1. Tch ghep a v tich s.
() ( x2 x 1) x x2 x 1 (3x 3 x2 x 1) 0

iu kin: x2 x 1 0 x

( x2 x 1)2 x x2 x 1 3( x x2 x 1) 0

x2 x 1( x2 x 1 x) 3( x x2 x 1) 0

om

.v
n

x2 x 1 x
( x2 x 1 x) ( x 2 x 1 3) 0
x2 x 1 3

x 0
x 1

:
x 1 41 thoa mn iu kin.
x2 x 1 9

1 41
1 41
, x

2
2

ok

Li gii 2. t n ph khng hon ton

.c

Kt lun: Phng trinh cho c 3 nghim l x 1, x

t t x2 x 1 0, suy ra: t 2 x2 x 1 x2 t 2 x 1. Khi :

bo

() t 2 x 1 4x ( x 3).t 1 0 t 2 ( x 3).t 3x 0

(1)

et

Xem (1) l phng trinh bc hai vi n l t v c bit s:


t x
t ( x 3)2 12x x2 6x 9 ( x 3)2 , suy ra:

t 3

ng

vi

Vi t x2 x 1 v giai ra cng c kt qua nh trn.


Li gii 3. Ghep lin hp sau khi tim nhn t x2 x 10 bng casio.
() ( x2 x 10) ( x 3) x2 x 1 3 0

kh
a

( x2 x 10)

( x 3).( x2 x 10)
x2 x 1 3

x2 x 10 0

1 41
x2 x 10 0


x3
2
2
1
0

x 1
x2 x 1 3

V d 20. Giai phng trinh: 2x2 6x 10 5.( x 2) x 1 0

()

Phn tch. Khc vi cc th d trn, biu thc trong cn thc l bc nht v c dng
tng qut l ax2 bx c (dx e). x . Khi s phn tch biu thc ngoi du
cn theo biu thc tch mang du cn bng ng nht thc, ngha l biu din
2x2 6x 10 m.( x 2)2 n.( x 1)2 mx2 (n 4m).x (n 4m) v so snh h

15

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

s trc x2 , x v h s t do c m n 2. Khi , ta c 2 hng x l thng gp


l tch ghp a v tch s hoc t 2 n ph a v phng trnh ng cp, hoc chia
cho lng dng a v phng trnh bc 2.
iu kin: x 1. Khi : () 2( x 2)2 2( x 1)2 5( x 2) x 1 0 (1)

Li gii 1. Tch ghep a v tich s.

.c

om

.v
n

(1) 2( x 2)2 ( x 2) x 1 2( x 1)2 4( x 2) x 1 0

( x 2) 2( x 2) x 1 2 x 1 x 1 2( x 2) 0

x 1 2( x 2)
2( x 2) x 1 ( x 2) 2 x 1 0

2 x 1 x 2
x 2
x 2

2
2
x 3
x 1 4( x 4 x 4)
4 x 17 x 15 0

x8

2
x

4( x 1) x 2 4 x 4
x 2 8 x 0

ok

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trinh cho c 2 nghim x 3, x 8.


Li gii 2. t 2 n ph a v phng trinh ng cp.
t a x 2, b x 1 0. Do x 1 l nghim nn b x 1 0, th:
2

bo

a 2b
a
a
(1) 2a 2b 5ab 0 2 5 2 0

b
b
2a b
Th vo v giai tng t nh trn cng c nghim l x 3, x 8.
Li gii 3. Chia cho lng dng a v phng trinh bc 2.
2

et

vi

Do x 1 l nghim nn chia hai v cho ( x 1)2 0 th:


2

kh
a

ng

x2
x2
x2
x2
1
(1) 2
20
2 hoc

5
x1 2
x1
x1
x1
Giai tng t nh trn cng c x 3, x 8.
Li gii 4. Ghep bc nht ax b vi cn thc nhn lng lin hp sau
khi s dng casio nhm c 2 nghim x 3, x 8.
() ( x 2). ( x 7) 5 x 1 x2 11x 24 0

2
( x 2)( x 11x 24)

( x2 11x 24) 0
5 x1 x7
x2 11x 24 0

x2
( x2 11x 24)
1 0
5 x 1 x 7 2 x
5 x1 x7

Giai tng t nh trn, ta cng c kt qua x 3, x 8.

16

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II. K thut nhn lng lin hp a v tch s

A
3

A
3

A B

AB
3

A B
A B2
AB
A B

A2 3 AB 3 B2
3

AB

A B3

A B AB
2

A2 3 AB 3 B2

2
3

A 2 B 3 A B2

Phn tch bi ton v hng t duy i n li gii (tng t cho

f ( x ))

f ( x) g( x) h( x) 0

Gi

f ( x) g( x)

ng

h( x)

f ( x) g( x)

3x 2 x 1 2x2 x 3,

(3x 2) ( x 1) 2x 3

2x 3
f ( x) g( x)

2x2 x 3 (2x 3)( x 1)


h( x),

PP
x xo
ghp h ng s .

ng .

f (X) g(X) h(X)

x xo .
( f (X) g(X) h(X)) : ( X xo )

x xo
x xo

m, n
m

f ( xo ), n g( xo )

x xo

[ f ( x) m] [n g( x)] h( x) m n 0

h( x) m n.
17

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

cu:

3x 1 6 x 3x2 14x 8 0.

x 5 nn

m 3.5 1 4

n 65 1

( 3x 1 4)

x 5.

(1 6 x )

3x 14x 5 ( x 5)(3x 1)

x 5.

p x x1 , x x2 ghp ax b.
PP

ng

ax b
a, b
f ( x ) ax b
1
1
a, b

f ( x2 ) ax2 b

f ( x)

g( x). Th d gi i: 2 3x 4 3 5x 9 x2 6x 13.

ax b

x 0, x 1

ax b

3x 4

b 2
3.0 4 a.0 b

a1

3.( 1) 4 a.( 1) b

2 3x 4 ( x 2)

3. 5x 9 ( x 3) .

5x 9

l sau hi nhn lng lin hp

( x xo ) f ( x) 0

(ax2 bx c). f ( x) 0.
nh f ( x) 0,

f ( x)

f ( x) 0,

f ( x)

x
f ( x)), suy ra f ( x)

f ( x) 0
( A B,

A B ,...)

A B k)

18

f ( x) 0

x.

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821

. Lin hp vi phng trnh c nghim hu t hoc d xc nh nhn t .


Nhm I: Ghp hai cn thc lin hp v phn tch biu thc cn li

3x 2 x 1 2 x 2 x 3

V d 21.

()

Hc sinh gii tnh Qung Nam nm 2014


x

Li gii
()

( 3x 2 x 1)( 3x 2 x 1)
3x 2 x 1
2x 3
3x 2 x 1

2 x2 x 3

(2 x 3)( x 1) 0

3
x 2

1
(2 x 3)
( x 1) 0
1

3x 2 x 1

x 1 (1)
3x 2 x 1

2
5
2
(2)
x
f ( x) x 1 1 1
3
3
3
3
1
2
g( x)

0, x
g( x) 3x 2 x 1
3
2 3x 2 2 x 1
2

1
1
g( x)
3 ; nn h( x) g( x)
3x 2 x 1

2
15
h x h
1 hay h( x) 1
3 ; max
5

23 ;
3

(3)

f ( x) h( x)
x 3/2.
f ( x) trong (2x 3). f ( x) 0

Kt lun
Bnh lun. S
1
3X 2 X 1

( X 1)

f ( x)

f ( x)

V d 22. Gi

g( x)

g( x) h( x)

x 1 1 4 x 2 3x

()

thi th i hc khi D nm 2013 THPT L Xoay Vnh Phc


19

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

3x ( x 1) 2x 1

Phn tch. Khi ghp

4x 1 (2x 1)(2x 1)
2

A B

( A B )( A B )
A B

x 0.

Li gii

2x 1

() (4 x2 1) ( 3x x 1) 0 (2 x 1)(2 x 1)

3x x 1

1
1
(2 x 1) 2 x 1
0 2x 1 0 x
2
3x x 1

0, x 0

Kt lun

()

3.(2 x 2) 2x x 6

V d 23. Gi

Hc Vin K Thut Qun S


Phn tch R

() 2.(3 x) x 6 3 x 2 x 6 9 x 18 v

3x

ghp ( x 6) (9x 18) 8x 24 8.(3 x)

Li gii

x 2 0
x 2.

x 6 0
8.(3 x)

() 2.(3 x) x 6 9 x 18 2.(3 x)

x 6 9 x 18
x 3 (TM)

4
(3 x) 1
0
x 6 9 x 18

x 6 9 x 18 4

(1)

(1) 10x 12 2 ( x 6)(9 x 18) 16 9 x2 36 x 108 14 5x

14
14
11 3 5
x
x

x
(TM)
5
5
2
9 x2 36 x 108 (14 5x)2
16 x2 176 x 304 0

x 3, x

Kt lun
V d 24.

2 x2 x 9 2 x2 x 1 x 4

Phn tch

20

()

x 4 0 x 4

11 3 5

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821

: (2x2 x 9) (2x2 x 1) 2( x 4)

x4

x 4 0 x 4.

Li gii
()

( 2 x2 x 9 2 x2 x 1)( 2 x2 x 9 2 x2 x 1)
2 x2 x 9 2 x2 x 1

x4

(do : 2x2 x 9 2x2 x 1 2x 8 x 4, x 4)

2( x 4)
2x x 9 2x x 1
2

x 4 2 x2 x 9 2 x2 x 1 2

(1)

2x2 x 9 2x2 x 1 2
2
2x x 9 2x2 x 1 x 4

(),

2 2x2 x 9 x 6 4(2x2 x 9) ( x 6)2

7 x2 8 x 0 x 0

8
:
7
x 0, x

Kt lun
Bnh lun

x 4,

f ( x) 0
a v h tm

?! T
TL

f ( x) g( x) ax b.

f ( x) g( x), (hay ax b f ( x))

Li gii

x2 9x 24 6x2 59x 149 5 x

V d 25. Gi
Phn tch

()

(6x2 59x 149) ( x2 9x 24) 5x2 50 125 5( x 5)2


x5

D .

() 6x2 59x 149 x2 9x 24 x 5

5.( x 5)2

x5
6 x2 59 x 149 x2 9 x 24

5.( x 5)
( x 5)
1 0
2
2

6 x 59 x 149 x 9 x 24

21

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x5

6x2 59x 149 x2 9x 24 5.( x 5)

(1)

2
2

(2)
x 9 x 24 6 x 59 x 149 5 x

2
2
(3)

6 x 59 x 149 x 9 x 24 5.( x 5)

19
x 5
x2 9 x 24 2 x 10 2
x
3

3x 31x 76 0

(), (1),

(2) (3), suy ra:

19

x 5, x

Kt lun
3

V d 26.

x 2 x 1 x 2 2 3 2 x 3 3x

( x2 x 1) (2x 3) x2 3x 2

Phn tch
3

A3B

( 3 A 3 B ) ( A2 3 AB B2 )
3

( A AB B )
3

x2 3x 2,

D .

Li gii

()

AB

( A 3 AB 3 B2 )
3

a 3 x2 x 1; b 3 2x 3

() ( 3 x2 x 1 3 2x 3) ( x2 3x 2) 0

x2 3x 2

( x x 1) ( x x 1)(2 x 3) (2 x 3)
2

( x2 3x 2) 0

x 1

( x2 3x 2) 2
1 0 x2 3x 2 0
2
a ab b

x 2

Nhn xt T

a A , b B.
3

: (a b).(a2 ab b2 ) a3 b3

V d 27. Gi

: a2

x 2 3 x 1 3 2x2 3 2x2 1

()

D .

Li gii.

() ( 2x x 1) ( 3 2x2 1 3 x 2) 0
3

b 3b2
ab b2 a
0.

2
4

(1)

a 3 2x2 , b 3 x 1, m 3 2x2 1, n 3 x 2.

2 x2 x 1
2 x2 x 1

0
a2 ab b2 m2 mn n2

1
1
(2 x2 x 1) 2
2
2
a

ab

b
m

mn
n2

(1)

Kt lun
22

1
x
0 x1 h
2

x 0,5 v x 1.

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()

( x 3 x 1)( x2 x2 4x 3) 2x

V d 28.
Nhn xt

( x 3) ( x 1) 2

x 3 x1 0
x 0 ?!

Li gii

() x2 ( x 1)( x 3) x.( x 3 x 1)

( x2 x x 3) ( x 1)( x 3) x x 1 0

x( x x 3) x 1( x 3 x) 0 ( x x 3)( x x 1) 0

x3 x
1 5

x
2
x 1 x

1 13
2
x

Kt lun

1 5
1 13
, x

2
2

()

V d 29. Gi i: ( x2 x 1 4x2 x 1).( 5x2 1 2x2 1) 3x2


(5x2 1) (2x2 1) 3x2

Phn tch

Li gii

:
D .

x0

x 0, ta c: ()

x2 x 1 4x2 x 1
5x 1 2 x 1
2

3x2 3x2

4 x x 1 x x 1 5x 2 1 2 x 2 1
2

(1)

Do x 0 th

x2 x 1 4x2 x 1 v 5x2 1 2x2 1 nn:


3x2
3x2
(1)

4 x2 x 1 x2 x 1
5x2 1 2 x2 1
1
1

2
2
2
4x x 1 x x 1
5x 1 2 x 2 1
4 x 2 x 1 x 2 x 1 5x 2 1 2 x 2 1
(2)
2
2
2
2
4 x x 1 x x 1 5x 1 2 x 1 (3)
(1), (2), suy ra:
4 x2 x 1 x2 x 1 5x2 1 2 x2 1 (4)
(3) (4) 4x2 x 1 5x2 1 x2 x 0 x 0

Kt lun

x 1 (TM)

x 0, x 1.
23

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

5.( x 3)

()
2 x2 18
thi th i hc 2013 THPT Chuyn Nguyn Tri Hi Dng
x1 2 4 x

V d 30. Gi

Phn tch. C

x 1 2 4 x x 1 16 4x v ( x 1) (16 4x) 5.( x 3)

sau:

1 x 4.

Li gii

() 2x2 18.( x 1 16 4 x ) 5.( x 3)

x 3 : TMK
5.( x 3)
2
x 1 16 4 x
2 x 18 x 1 16 4 x (1)

5.( x 3) 2 x2 18

(1) 2x2 3x 1 4 ( x 1)(4 x) 4 x2 3x 4 2 x2 3x 1

(2)

x 1, x

Nhn xt S
( x 1).(2x 3) 2x2 x 3,

3
, hay
2
:

AB

Hng 1

1
2 x2 3x 1 0
x 1 x
(2) 4

3
2
( x 1)(2 x 3)(2 x2 7 x 21) 0
4 x 12 x 29 x 42 x 63 0

3
x 1
x :
2
2x2 x 3.
Hng 2
(3)
(2) (2 x2 x 3) 4. ( x 1) x2 3x 4 0

x 1

Xt x 1 x2 3x 4 0 x 1
Xt x 1 x2 3x 4 0 x 1,
(3) (2 x2 x 3)

4.(2 x x 3)
2

x 1 x 2 3x 4

x (1; 4].
0

x 1

4
2
(2 x x 3) 1

0 2 x x 3 0

2
x 3
x 1 x 3x 4

2
2

0, x ( 1;4].

a n bn

Hng 3.

(2) 4 2.2. x2 3x 4 ( x2 3x 4) x2 6 x 9

24

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2 x2 3x 4 x 3
(2 x2 3x 4)2 ( x 3)2
2 x2 3x 4 x 3

x 2 3x 4 x 2
3

x 1 x
2
2
x 3x 4 x 5 0 : VN x 1; 4
o

2x 4 2 2 x

V d 31. Gi

()

x2 4

(2x 4) (8 4x) 6x 4

Phn tch.

Li gii

6x 4

2 x 2.

() x2 4.( 2 x 4 8 4 x ) 6 x 4

(6 x 4)

(6x 4) x2 4

6x 4
2x 4 8 4x

x2 4
x 3

1 0

2x 4 8 4x

2 x 4 8 4 x x2 4 (1)

(1) 2x 12 2 (2x 4)(8 4 x) x2 4 4 8 2 x2 x2 2 x 8


2 x 2
x 2

x 4 x 2

x 2.
f (2) 0
f ( x) x 4 4 x 3 20 x 2 32 x 64 0

Kt lun
Nhn xt Q

31

2
, x 2.
3

Nhm II: S dng casio, tm nghim duy nht x xo ghp hng s.


PP

()

3x 1 6 x 3x2 14x 8 0

V d 32. Gi

i hc khi B nm 2010
Phn tch

3X 1 6 X 3X2 14X 8 v
X 5.

( 3X 1 6 X 3X 2 14X 8) : ( X 5) v
shift solve 2 = th cho q

25

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

: ( 3x 1 m) (n 6 x ) 3x 14x 8 m n 0
2

x 5,

m, n

m 3x 1 3.5 1 4

n 6 x 6 5 1

( 3x 1 4) (1 6 x ) 3x2 14x 5 0

( )

( x 5)

3x 1 0
1
x 6.

3
6 x 0

Li gii

() ( 3x 1 4) (1 6 x ) 3x2 14 x 5 0

3( x 5)

x5

(3x 1)( x 5) 0
3x 1 4 1 6 x

3
1
( x 5)

3x 1 0 x 5.
3x 1 4 1 6 x

1
Do x ; 6 , suy ra:
3
Kt lun

3
3x 1 4

1
1 6 x

3x 1 0.

x 5.
()

3x2 10x 3x 3 x3 26 5 2x

V d 33. Gi

x2

Phn tch S

: ( 3x 3 m), ( 5 2x n)

m 3x 3 3.2 3 3, n 5 2x 5 2.2 1

3x 3 0
5
1 x

2
x

0
2

Li gii

() ( 3x 3 3) (1 5 2x ) x3 3x2 10 x 24 0

3( x 2)

2( x 2)

( x 2)( x2 x 12) 0

3x 3 3 1 5 2 x

3
2
( x 2)

( x2 x 12) 0
5 2x 1
3x 3 3

3
2
x2

x2 x 12
(1)
3x 3 3
5 2x 1
5
1
f ( x) x2 x 12
1; 2 c f ( x) 2 x 1 0 x 2

5
33 1
49
M f ( 1) 10, f , f Suy ra: max f ( x) 10.
5
2
2
2
2
1; 2

26

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VP(1) f ( x) 10, m VT(1)

3
3x 3 3

5
0, x 1; ,
5 2x 1
2
2

x 2.

Kt lun
V d 34. Gi i:

3x 2 4 x 2 3 x 1 2 x 1 6 x 3 7 x 2 3 0

()

x1

Phn tch S

x 1,

2 x 1 0; 3x 1 0
1

x
2
2

3x 4 x 2 0

Li gii.

() ( 3x2 4x 2 1) ( 3x 1 2) ( 2 x 1 1) 6 x3 7 x2 1 0

3x2 4 x 1
3x 4 x 2 1
( x 1)(3x 1)
2

3x 3
3x 1 2
3( x 1)

2x 2
2x 1 1
2( x 1)

6 x3 7 x2 1 0
( x 1)(6 x2 6 x 1) 0

3x 1 2
2x 1 1
3x 4 x 2 1

3x 1
3
2
( x 1)

6 x2 6 x 1 0

2
3x 1 2
2x 1 1
3x 4 x 2 1

x 1

3x 1
3
2

6 x2 6 x 1 0 (1)
3x2 4 x 2 1
3x 1 2
2x 1 1

1
f ( x) 6x2 6x 1 trn ; c f (t ) 12 x 6 0, x
2
2

1 7
2 ; , suy ra: f ( x) f 2 2

3x 1
3
2
1
M g( x)

0, x
2
3x 1 2
2x 1 1
3x 2 4 x 2 1
VT(1) f ( x) g( x) 0,

f ( x)

x 1.

Kt lun:

x2 15 3x 2 x2 8

V d 35. Gi

x 1,

Phn tch S

: () x 15 x2 8 3x 2
2

gh
v c

()

x2 15 x2 8 0, x

()

3x 2 0. V

27

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Li gii 1
() x2 15 4 x2 8 3 3x 3

( x 1)

x 1

VT(1) ( x 1)

x 1 0
nn VT(1) 0 3 VP1
2
2
x

15

x 1.

Kt lun

: () x 15 x2 8 3x 2 0

Li gii 2

2
c:
3
x2 8 x2 15
2
3 0, x
2
2
3
( x 8)( x 15)

f ( x) x2 15 x2 8 3x 2 v

f ( x)

x2 1

3( x 1)
x2 15 4
x2 8 3

x1
x1

3 0

x2 15 4
x2 8 3

x1
x1
(1)

3
2
2
x 15 4
x 8 3

1
1
x2 8 x2 15 1

(
x

1)

x2 15 4
x2 8 3
( x2 15 4)( x2 8 3)

2
, suy ra:
3

x2 1

x
x2 15

3 x.

x2 8
x

x>

; v c f (1) 0, nn x 1
3

f ( x)

V d 36. Gi

x 9 2 x 2 3x 5x 1 1

()

Hc sinh gii Tp. H Ni 2013

x 1.

Phn tch S

5x 1 0 x

Li gii 1
() ( 3 x 9 2) (2 5x 1) 2x2 3x 5 0

28

x 1
( x 9) 2 x 9 4
3

5( x 1)
5x 1 2

( x 1)(2 x 5) 0

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1
5
( x 1)

2x 5 0 x 1 :
2
3
5x 1 2
( x 9 1) 3

1
5
5 2
1
Do

2 x 5 5 0, x
2
3
2 5
5
( x 9 1) 3
5x 1 2

Nhn xt

( x xo ). f ( x)

f ( x)

f ( x)

i vi loi ghp h ng s
phng php truy ng c d u

f ( x)

i vi phng trnh c nghim duy nh t

Bc 1.

() x 9 5x 1 2x2 3x 1 0
3

Bc 2

ax
3

x 9 2 ( x 1)

1
( x 9) 2 3 x 9 4
2

( x 9) 2 3 x 9 4
2

2 5x 1

5(1 x)
2 5x 1

( m A ) thnh

( x 1)

5
2 5x 1

A ( A m)),

5x 1 ( 5x 1 2)

5( x 1) 5x 1
5x 1 2

5x 1( 5x 1 2) 5x 1 2 5x 1

5x 1

Li gii 2. Ta c: () 2 x 9 2 5x 1 4x 6x 2 0
2

2( 3 x 9 2) 5x 1( 5x 1 2) 4 x2 x 5 0

x 1
( x 9) 2 x 9 4
3

5( x 1) 5x 1
5x 1 2

( x 1)(4 x 5) 0

1
5 5x 1
( x 1)

(4 x 5) 0 x 1 0 x 1.
2
3
5x 1 2
( x 9 1) 3

V d 37. Gi

x 2 4 x 2 x 5 2 x 2 5x

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn Nguyn Th Minh Khai S c Trng


5
x 4.
2
Phn tch v li gii 1. (L

:S

x3
:
29

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

( x 2 m), ( 4 x n), ( 2x 5 p)

m, n, p

x 3,
m x 2 1, n 4 x 1, p 2x 5 1.
() ( x 2 1) ( 4 x 1) ( 2x 5 1) 2x2 5x 3

x3

3x

2( x 3)

( x 3)(2 x 1)
x2 1
4 x 1
2x 5 1

1
1
2
( x 3)

(2 x 1) 0
4 x 1
2x 5 1
x2 1

x 3

1
2
1

2x 1
(1)
x 2 1
2x 5 1
4 x 1

1
2
1 2

3
VT(1)
5

x2 1
2x 5 1 1 1
(1) v nghi m do x ; 4 c
1
5
2
VP 2 x 1
2 x 1 2. 1 6
(1)

2
4x 1
Kt lun: So v
u ki
m duy nh t x 3.
Phn tch v li gii 2. (T
c d u): Sau khi chuy n v sao cho h s

th () 2x2 5x x 2 4 x 2x 5 0 nu ghp v lin

th c lun

ng th (1 x 2)

(1 2 x 5)

2(3 x)
1 2x 5

3x
1 x 2

( a), (1 4 x )

(c) th y bi u th c (a), (c) b

x3
1 4 x

(b) v

c d u so v i bi u th c

c l i theo d ng m A A( A m) v c li gii 2.

( b)

() 2x2 5x x 2 4 x 2x 5 0

x 2( x 2 1) (1 4 x ) 2x 5( 2x 5 1) 2x2 8x 6 0

( x 3) x 2

x3

2( x 3) 2 x 5

2( x 3)( x 1) 0
x2 1
1 4 x
2x 5 1
x2

1
2 2x 5
( x 3)

2( x 1) 0
2x 5 1
x 2 1 1 4 x

x 3
5

0 : VNo x ; 4 .
x2
1
2 2x 5
0

2(
x

1)
2

x 2 1 1 4 x
2x 5 1

Kt lun: So v
u ki
m duy nh t x 3.

30

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()

x3 5x2 6x ( x 2)( 2x 2 5 x )

V d 38. Gi

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 S Gio Dc & o To tnh Bc Liu

1 x 5.
() x( x 5x 6) ( x 2)( 2x 2 5 x )
2

x( x 2)( x 3) ( x 2)( 2x 2 5 x )

x( x 3) 2x 2 5 x

(1)

(do: : x 2 0, x
1; 5

x 1.

Li gii 1
(1) ( 2x 2 2) ( 5 x 2) ( x 3x 4) 0
2

2( x 1)

1 x

( x 1)( x 4) 0
2 5x
2
1
x 1
(2)

x4
2x 2 2 2 5 x

2
2
1
VT(2)

2x 2 2 2
Ta c: x
1; 5
1
VP
x4x43
(2)

2 5x
2x 2 2

x 1.
( x 1). f ( x) 0 c f ( x) 0.

Kt lun
Li gii 2
(1) x2 3x 2x 2 5 x 0

2x 2( 2x 2 2) 2(2 5 x ) 2 x2 4 x 6 0

( x 1) 2 x 2
2x 2 2

x 1 ho c 0

( x 1)
2 5x
2x 2
2x 2 2

( x 1)( x 3) 0

1
2 5x

x 3 0 v nghi m x 1; 5 .

x 1.

Kt lun
3

V d 39. Gi

()

x 6 x 1 x2 1

x 1 0 x 1.
Li gii 1.

x 2,

() ( x 6 2) ( x 1 1) x 4
2

x2

( x 6) 2. x 6 4
2

x2
x 1 1

( x 2)( x 2)

1
1
( x 2)

x 2 0
2
3
x 1 1
( x 6 1) 3

(1)

31

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Do

( x 6 1) 3
x 1 1
(1) x 2 0 x 2.
2

x2

1
2
1 x 2 x 0, x 1 nn:
3
3

x 2.

Kt lun

Phn tch v li gii 2. Chuyn v th () 4x2 4 4 3 x 6 4 x 1 0 v

m 3 A

A ( 3 A2 m2 )

(2) x 6 x 1 x 1
2

4x2 5x 6 3 x 6 3 ( x 6)2 4 4 x 1( x 1 1) 0

( x 2)(4 x 3)

( x 2)( x 14) 3 x 6
3

( x 6) 4 x 6 16
2

4( x 2) x 1
x 1 1

( x 14) 3 x 6
4 x 1
( x 2) 4 x 3

0 x 2 0 x 2.
( 3 x 6 2)2 12
x 1 1

0, x 1

x 2.

Kt lun

x3 2x2 x2 2x 5 2 4x 5 5x 4 ()

V d 40. Gi

5
x 2x 5 0
x

4
4
x

Phn tch v li gii 1. S

x 1,
:

() x 2x 5x 4 (2 x 2x 5) 2(3 4 x 5) 0
3

( x 1)( x2 x 4)

x2 2x 1

4x 4

0
4x 5 3

x 1
8
( x 1) x2 x 4

4 x 5 3
x2 2 x 5 2

x2 2 x 5 2

(1)

f ( x)

( x 1)2 4 2 ( x 1)2 x 1 x 1

5
x , suy ra
4

32

8
4x 5 3

x 1
( x 1)2 4 2

8
8
8

3
3
4x 5 3

1 (2)

(3)

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2

11
1
1
5
f ( x) x x 4 x
0, x
3
2 12
4
2

(4)

(1) x 1 0 x 1.

x 1.

Kt lun
Phn tch v li gii 2.
2 4 x 5( 4 x 5 3)

8( x 1) 4 x 5
4x 5 3

5
4

( ax b) x2 2x 5

(2 x 2x 5)
2

m.( x 1)

4x 5 3

0, x

3 4x 5

2 4x 5( 4x 5 3) 2(4x 5) 3.2 4x 5

8 4x 5

a1

2
( x b) x2 2x 5 (2b 2)x b 5

x b x2 2x 5
m 2b 2

2
m b 5

b1

:

x2 .
m.( x 1)

b1

b 3.

() 3x3 6x2 15x 12 3 x2 2x 5 6 4x 5 0

3( x 1 x2 2x 5) 2 4x 5( 4x 5 3) 3x3 6x2 4x 1 0

12( x 1)

8( x 1) 4 x 5

4x 5 3

( x 1)(3x2 3x 1) 0

x 1 x 2x 5

12
8 4x 5
( x 1)

3x2 3x 1 0 x 1.
x 1 x2 2x 5

4x 5 3

x 1.
Kt lun
2

()

(5x 4) 2x 3 (4x 5) 3x 2 2

V d 41. Gi

Chn i tuyn VMO nm 2015 Tnh ng Nai

x 6.

Phn tch S

(2x 3)(5x 4)2 (3x 2)(4 x 5)2 2

A B C

Li gii.

() (5x 4) 2x 3 2 (4x 5) 3x 2

50x3 155x2 152x 48 48x3 152x2 155x 46 4(4x 5) 3x 2

33

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

2x3 3x2 3x 2 4(4x 5) 3x 2 0

(1)

(4x 5) 3x 2.( 3x 2 4) 2x 15x 20x 12 0


3

3( x 6)(4 x 5) 3x 2

(2)

( x 6)(2 x2 3x 2) 0

3x 2 4
3(4 x 5) 3x 2

( x 6)
2 x 2 3x 2 0 x 6
3x 2 4

Do

3(4 x 5) 3 x 2

3x 2 4
Kt lun
Bnh lun T

2 x2 3x 2 0, x

x 6.

4(4x 5)(4 3x 2) thnh (4x 5) 3x 2.( 3x 2 4)


( x 1) x 2 ( x 6) x 7 x2 7 x 12

V d 42. Gi

x 2.
Phn tch v li gii 1. S

()

x 2,
( x 1).( x 2 m), ( x 6).( x 7 n).

() ( x 1)( x 2 2) ( x 6)( x 7 3) ( x2 2x 8) 0

( x 1)

x2
x2 2

( x 6)

x2
x7 3

( x 2)( x 4) 0

x1

x6
( x 2)

x 4 0 x 2.
x2 3
x2 2

Do x 2, suy ra: x 2 0, x 6 0 v lc ny, ta lun c:


x2
x2 x6
x6
x4

2 x7 3
2
x2 2
x7 3
x2 2
1
x2 x2 x6 x6
1
x6
1

0
2
2
3
2
6
x2 2
x2 2
x2 2
x 2.
Kt lun
( x 1)( x 2)
Phn tch v li gii 2. Nu lin h p d ng ( x 1)( x 2 2)
x2 2
x1
x 2

2

( x 2)( x 1) sau khi


x1

x6

x 1, x 2

( x 2)( x 1)

34

( ax b) x 2

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( x 2)( x 1)),

1
4
khi x 2 x 2 2 2 2 ax b 2a b
a , b

3
3

khi x 1 x 2 1 2 1 ax b a b

4
( x 1) x x 2
3
3

( x 1)( x2 x 2) ( x 2)( x 1)2

( x 1) ( x 4) 3 x 2

x43 x2
x43 x2
( x 6)( x 2)
( x 1)2
:
: ( x 6)(3 x 7 )
0, x 2.
x43 x2
3 x7

x60

x 2,

: ( x 6)(3 x 7 )

( x 6) x 7( x 7 3)

( x 2)( x 6) x 7

( x 6) x 7

x7 3
:

x7 3

0, x 2.

() ( x 1)( x 4 3 x 2) ( x 6) x 7( x 7 3) x2 3x 10 0

( x 1)2 ( x 2)

( x 6) x 7

x2

( x 2)( x 5) 0
x43 x2
x7 3

( x 1)2
( x 6) x 7
( x 2)

x 5 0 x 2.
x7 3
x 4 3 x 2

0, x 2

x 2.

Kt lun

( x 1) 4x 5 2( x 5) x 3 3x 14x 13 ()
2

V d 43. Gi
4x 5 0.
Li gii 1.

x1

() ( x 1)( 4x 5 3) 2( x 5)( x 3 2) 3x2 7 x 10

4( x 1).( x 1)

2( x 5)( x 1)

( x 1)(3x 10) 0
4x 5 3
x3 2
4( x 1)

2( x 5)
( x 1)

(3x 10) 0 x 1.
x3 2
4x 5 3

5 4 x 5 0

Do x
4 x 5 0

4( x 1)
4x 5 3

2( x 5)
x3 2

(3x 10)

4x 5
4x 5
2( x 5)
5x 25
5

3
3
x3 2
4x 5 3
4x 5 3

4x 5 4x 5 2( x 5) 5x 25
5
2 x 10
5

0
3
3
2
3
3
4x 5 3
4x 5 3

35

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

c nghi m duy nh t x 1.

Kt lun
Li gii 2.

() 2( x 1). ( x 2) 4 x 5 2( x 5) x 3.( x 3 2) 2 x2 6 x 8 0

2( x 1)2 ( x 1)

2( x 5)(x 1) x 3

2( x 1)( x 4) 0
x 2 4x 5
x3 2
2( x 1)2

2( x 5) x 3
( x 1)

2( x 4) 0 x 1.
x3 2
x 2 4 x 5

2( x 1)2

2( x 5) x 3

5
2( x 4) 0, x
4
x 2 4x 5
x3 2
Kt lun
m duy nh t x 1.
Sai lm thng gp
i v i cch gi i 1, sai l
ng g p c a h c sinh l
4( x 1)
2( x 5)
4
2

(3x 10) ( x 1) ( x 5) (3x 10)


3
2
4x 5 3
x3 2
2 x 23
5
5

0, x B i l v i x th d u c a x 1 c
nh m
3
4
4
t.

Do

V d 44. Gi

Li gii.

3x 2 x 3x 2 2 2 x 2 1

()

() ( 3 3x 2 2) 2 x( 3x 2 2) 2 x 2 2 x2 1
( 3 3x 2 2) x( 3x 2 2) 2 ( x 1) 2 x2 1 0

3( x 2)
3x( x 2)
2 x( x 2)

0
3
3x 2 2 x 1 2 x 2 1
(3x 2)2 2 3 3x 2 4

3
3x
2x
0
( x 2)

3 (3x 2)2 2 3 3x 2 4
3x 2 2 x 1 2 x 2 1

3
x(3 2 x2 1 2 3x 2 3x 1)
( x 2)

0
2
3
2
( 3x 2 1) 3 ( 3x 2 2)( x 1 2 x 1)

18 x 2 12 x 17

x
3x 1

3
3 2 x2 1 2 3x 2

0
( x 2)

2
3
2
( 3x 2 2)( x 1 2 x 1)
( 3x 2 1) 3

f ( x)
8 x2 x 7
2
x 2 0 x 2. Do x
nn f ( x) 0.
3
x

36

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x 2.

Kt lun

()

x2 x 18 (2x 9) x 3 2 5x 1 0

V d 45. Gi
1

5
Li gii 1. Lin h
x

ng.

() (2x 9)( x 3 2) 2(2 5x 1) x2 3x 4 0

(2 x 9)

x 1
x3 2

10.(1 x)
5x 1 2

( x 1)( x 4) 0

2x 9

10
( x 1)

x 4 0
5x 1 2
x3 2

2x 9
10
f ( x)

x 4 trn ;
x3 2
5x 1 2
5

f ( x)

2x 3 8 x 3
2 x 3( x 3 2)

f ( x)

5
5x 1( 5x 1 2)

1 0, x

5 ; , suy ra f ( x)

x 1 0 x 1.

(1)

1 227 94 5
f
0 (2)
10
5

x 1.

Kt lun
Li gii 2

c d u.

() x 3(4x 18 11 x 3) 2 5x 1( 5x 1 2) ( x 1)(2 x 1) 0

x3

( x 1)(16 x 39)

10( x 1) 5x 1

( x 1)(2 x 1) 0
4 x 18 11 x 3
5x 1 2
(16 x 39) x 3

10 5x 1
( x 1)

(2 x 1) 0 x 1.
5x 1 2
4 x 18 11 x 3

Do x

(16 x 39) x 3
10 5x 1
1

2 x 1 0.
, suy ra:
5
4 x 18 11 x 3
5x 1 2

x 1.

Kt lun

Nhm III: C nghim p x x1 , x x2 ghp bc nht ax b.


PP

x2 x 2x2 x 3 21x 17

V d 46. Gi

()

X2 X 2X 2 X 3 21X 17

Phn tch. S

X 2.
(X X 2X 2 X 3 21X 17 ) : ( X 2)
2

X 1.
37

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

( x 2)( x 1) x2 3x 2

: 2x2 x 3 (ax b) , (cx d) 21x 17

khi

khi

khi

khi

a , b, c , d

x 1 2 x2 x 3 2.12 1 3 2 ax b a b

a 1

v
x 2 2 x x 3 2.2 2 3 3 ax b 2a b b 1
2

x 1 21x 17 21.1 17 2 cx d c d

c d 2
c 3

2
c

5
x 2 21x 17 21.2 17 5 cx d 2c d
d 1


:
21x 17 0.
Li gii.
2
() 2x x 3 ( x 1) (3x 1) 21x 17 ( x2 3x 2) 0


2
2
x 3x 2
9( x 3x 2)

( x2 3x 2) 0
2
2 x x 3 x 1 3x 1 21x 17

1
9
(1)
( x2 3x 2)

1 0

2
2 x x 3 x 1 3x 1 21x 17

17
1
9
Do x
, suy ra:

1 0 nn:
2
21
2 x x 3 x 1 3x 1 21x 17
(1) x2 3x 2 0 x 1
Kt lun
V d 47. Gi

x 2.
x 1, x 2.
2 3x 4 3 5x 9 x2 6x 13

()

3x 4 0
4
x
u ki n:
3
5x 9 0
Phn tch S
: x 0, x 1.

2. 3x 4 ( ax b) , 3. 5x 9 (cx d) ,

a 1
khi x 0 3x 4 3.0 4 2 ax b a.0 b b
:

b2

khi x 1 3x 4 3.( 1) 4 1 ax b a.( 1) b a b

c 1
khi x 0 5x 9 5.0 9 3 cx d c.0 d d

d3
khi
x

5
x

5.(

1)

cx

c
.(

1)

Li gii. Ta c: () 2 3x 4 ( x 2) 3 5x 9 ( x 3) x2 x

2
2
2( x x)
3( x x)

( x2 x) 0
3x 4 x 2
5x 9 x 3
x 0

2
3
( x 2 x)

1 0 x2 x 0

5x 9 x 3
3x 4 x 2

x 1

38

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4
Do x , suy ra:
3
Kt lun

2
3x 4 x 2

1 0.
5x 9 x 3
x 1, x 0.

3 2 x 1 x 5 4 x2 4 x2

V d 48. Gi

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Chuyn Bnh Long Bnh Phc


x

Phn tch S

1
, x1
2

1
1
1
x 2 x 1 2 1 0 ax b a b a 2
2x 1 th

2
2
2
b 1
x 1 2 x 1 2.1 1 1 ax b 1.a b

1
1
2
khi x 5 4 x 5 1 2 ax b a b a 2
2
2

5 4x th
khi x 1 5 4 x2 5 4.12 1 ax b a b b 3

1
5
x

2
2

Li gii

( a)

1
2

1
2 x 1 2 x 1 0 th:
2
() 3 2 x 1 (2 x 1) x. 5 4 x2 ( 2 x 3) 3(2 x2 3x 1) 0

6(2 x2 3x 1)

4 x(2 x2 3x 1)

3(2 x2 3x 1) 0

2x 1 2x 1
5 4x 3 2x

6
4x
(2 x2 3x 1)

3 0
2x 1 2x 1

5 4 x2 3 2 x

1
2 x2 3x 1 0 x (lo i) ho c x 1.
2
1
x 1, x
Kt lun
2
Nhn xt T

1
2x 1 2x 1 0 x
2

V d 49. Gi

3x 5 2 3 19x 30 2x2 7 x 11

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn Nguyn Th Minh Khai S c Trng

39

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x 2, x 3

Phn tch S

5
3x 5 0 x
3

Li gii

( a)

() 3x 5 ( x 1) 2 ( 3 19 x 30 x) 2 x2 10 x 12

2
3x 5 ( x 1)
19 x 30 x3

2
2( x 2)( x 3)
3
3x 5 x 1
(19 x 30)2 x 3 19 x 30 x2

( x 2)( x 3)
3x 5 x 1

( x 2)( x 3)( x 5)
3

(19 x 30)2 x 3 19 x 30 x2

2( x 2)( x 3)

1
2( x 5)
( x 2)( x 3)

2 0
3x 5 x 1 3 (19 x 30)2 x 3 19 x 30 x2

0, x ( a )

( x 2)( x 3) 0 x 2 ho c x 3.

x 2, x 3.

Kt lun

( x 1) 3x 1 x3 2x2 1 2 x2 x 1 6x ()

V d 50.

1
3x 1 0
x
2
3

x x 1 0

Phn tch v li gii 1 S

2
x( x 1) x x. D
2

x 0, x 1,

: ( x 1). 3x 1 (ax b) , 2. (cx d) x2 x 1

Khi

Khi

Khi

Khi

x 0 3x 1 1 ax b b

a 1

x 1 3x 1 2 ax b a b b 1

x 0 x2 x 1 1 cx d d

c 0

T
x 1 x2 x 1 1 cx d c d d 1

() ( x 1) 3x 1 ( x 1) 2(1 x2 x 1) x3 3x2 4 x 0

( x 1)( x2 x)
2( x2 x)

( x2 x)( x 4) 0
2
3x 1 x 1
x x11

x 0
x1
2
( x 2 x)

x 4 0

3x 1 x 1

2
x x1 1
x 1

x1
2
x1
1
Do

x4
2 x 4 x 1 0, x
2
x1
3
3x 1 x 1
x x1 1

Kt lun
40

x 0, x 1.

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f ( x) trong ( x2 x). f ( x) sau khi

Phn tch v li gii 2 V

: 2.(1 x2 x 1)

lin
3x 1 ( x 1)

2. x2 x 1.( x2 x 1 1)

f ( x) p

3x 1.( x 1 3x 1)

() 2 x2 x 1( x2 x 1 1) 3x 1( x 1 3x 1) x3 x 0

2( x2 x) x2 x 1

( x 2 x) 3 x 1

( x2 x)( x 1) 0

x 1 3x 1
x x1 1
2 x2 x 1

x 0
3x 1
( x 2 x)

x 1 0 x2 x 0

x2 x 1 1 x 1 3x 1

x 1

1
2 x2 x 1
3x 1
Do x , suy ra:

x 1 0.
3
x2 x 1 1 x 1 3x 1
x 0, x 1.
Kt lun

3 x x 2 x3 x2 4x 4 x x 1 ()

V d 51.

x 1, x 2

Phn tch v li gii. S

( x 1)( x 2) x2 x 2.

2 x 3.
() ( 3 x x 1) ( 2 x x ) ( x 2)( x2 x 2)

x2 x 2
3 x x 1

x2 x 2
x2 x

( x 2)( x2 x 2) 0

1
1
( x2 x 2)

x 2 0
3 x x 1

x2 x

2
x 2.
x x 2 0 x 1
Kt lun

x 1, x 2.

2. Lin hp vi phng trnh c nghim v t hoc c s bin i


Nhm I: t n ph n gin hn hoc c s bin i, ri lin hp
(8x 13) 4x 7 2( x 2) 2x 3 12x 35

V d 52. Gi

Phn tch. S

2x,
1

()

1
N
2

q
t 2x 3 2x t 3.
2

41

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

() (4t 2 1) 2t 2 1 t 3 6t 2 t 17 0

2x 3 0.

Li gii

t 2,

t 2x 3 0 2x t 2 3.

() (4t 2 1) 2t 2 1 t 3 6t 2 t 17
(4t 2 1) 2t 2 1 (t 1) 3t 3 2t 2 16 0

2
2
(4t 1)(t 2t )

(t 2)(3t 2 4t 8) 0
2
2t 1 t 1

1
1
(t 2)
3t 2 4t 8 0 t 2 0 t 2 x

2
2
2t 1 t 1

0, t 0

Kt lun
Bnh lun

t 2x 3 0

t2

(4t 2 1)( 2t 2 1 3) (t 2)(t 2 4t 7)

(4t 1)( 2t 1 3)
(4t 1). 2t 2 1 (t 1)

TL
t 0,

t 1,

t 1 ?!
t.(t 2)

t 0, t 2)

ax b

(4t 1)(t 1) 4t 4t t 1
2

3t 2t 16 (t 2)(3t 4t 8) c 3t 3t 8 0, t , (do : 0, a 3 0).


3

(8x3 6x 1) 4x2 21 16x4 12x2 2x 21 ()

V d 53. Gi

Chn i tuyn VMO nm 2014 Tnh Ngh An

x 1. Nh

Phn tch S

Li gii

2x,
t 2x
t 2x.

() (t 3 3t 1) t 2 21 t 4 3t 2 t 21
(t 3 3t 1) t 2 21 t(t 3 3t 1) 21

42

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(t 3 3t 1).( t 2 21 t ) 21

21.(t 3 3t 1)
t 2 21 t

21

t 3 3t 1 t 2 21 t (t 3 3t 2) (t 3 t 2 21) 0

6
0 (t 2) (t 1)2
0
t 3 t 2 21
t 3 t 2 21

t 2, suy ra: t 2x 2 x 1.
x 1.
Kt lun
(t 2)(t 1)2

6(t 2)

()

(28 4x3 ) 2x3 15 2x4 3x3 14x 16

V d 54. Gi

Phn tch. 28 4 x3 4(7 x3 ); 2 x4 14 x 2 x( x 3 7);

2 x 3 15 2( x 3 7) 1

t x3 7 x3 t 7 x 3 t 7

2 x3 15 0 x

Li gii

15

() 2x( x3 7) 3( x3 7) 5 4(7 x3 ) 2( x3 1)

t x3 7 x 3 t 7

(1)

2 x3 15 0 2t 2 x3 14 1 t

(1) 2t 3 t 7 4t 2t 1 3t 5 2t( 3 t 7 2) 4t( 2t 1 1) 5(t 1) 0

2t(t 1)

Do:

(t 7) 2 t 7 4
2

2t
3

(t 7) 2 t 7 4
2

8t(t 1)
2t 1 1
8t
2t 1 1

5(t 1) 0 t 1 x 2.

5 0, t

x 2.

Kt lun
V d 55. Gi i

x2 91

x4 2x2 x 2 x 93 2 x4 2x2 x 2 x 93

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Phn Chu Trinh Nng

x 2

4
2

x 2 x x 2 x 93 2 0

Li gii

t x4 2x2 x 2 x 93 0.

Suy ra: t 2 x4 2x2 x 2 x 93 ( x2 x 2)2 91.


2
2
2
x2 x 2 t 2 91

( x x 2) t 91

2
2
2
2

x 91 t 2 t
t t 2 x 91

xt
( x t )( x t )
( x, t 2)
( x t )( x t )

0
2
x2 t2
t 91 x2 91

43

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1
xt
( x t) x t

0 x t.

x2 t2
t 2 91 x2 91

Suy ra:

x2 91 x 2 x2 ( x2 91 10) ( x 2 1) ( x2 9)

( x 3)( x 3)

x3

( x 3)( x 3)
x2 1
x 91 10

x3
1
( x 3)

( x 3) 0 x 3 :
2
x2 1
x 91 10

x3
1
x3
1
Do:

( x 3)

( x 3) 0, x 2.
10
x2 1
x2 1
x2 91 10
2

x 3.
Kt lun
Bnh lun. Trong bi gi
t n ph
h
i x ng
lo i II, ta s tm hi u d u hi u nh n d
th nh ng bi h
n a, qua bi ny ti mu n g i m
p r ng: khi g p h
i x ng
lo i II ch
c th sau khi l y v tr v s lin h p lun nh
c x y , ho c
c th s d

ng nhn t
x3

V d 56. Gi

3 x1 x 3

x y.

2 9x
x

()

Phn tch
q

2
f ( x) ax bx c a.( x x1 )( x x2 )

f ( x) 0

x1 , x2

x x x 2 x x
x

: x x 2 2 x
x

2
2
x x
x
x


:
x 1 0; 9 x 0
1 x 9

3 x 1 x 3 0.
Li gii

x 0
x 0

()

( x 1 2)( x 1 2)
( x 1 1)( x 1 2)

2 9x
( x 1 1)( x 1 1)

( x 1 2)( x 1 1) 2 9 x x 3 3 x 1 2 9 x 0

x 1( x 1 3) 2(1 9 x ) 0

44

( x 8) x 1
x1 3

2( x 8)
1 9 x

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x80 x 8:
Do:

x1
x1 3

2
1 9 x

0, x
1; 9 \0 .

x 8.

Kt lun
( x 6) x 1 8 2 x

V d 57. Gi

x 3 x 1

2x 1 5
2

()

x 1, th ta c:

Li gii V

x x x 2 x x
x

x 6 x 8 x x 5 x x 6

3
2

( x 1) 2( x 1) 5 x 1 6 ( x 1 2)( x 1 3)( x 1 1)

x 1
x 1

x 2
x 1 1 0

()

( x 1 2)( x 1 3)( x 1 1)
( x 1 1)( x 1 2)

2x 1 5
2x 1 5
x1 3
2
2

x 5 nn c tch ghp:
( 2 x 1 3) 2
1 2( x 1 2) ( 2 x 1 3)
2

2( x 5)
2( x 5)
1
1

( x 5)

0
x 1 2
2x 1 3
2x 1 3
x 1 2
x 5 0
x 1

x5
:

2 x 1 1 x 1 0
2 x 2 2 x 1 x 1
x 1 2

x 5.

Kt lun
9x2 14x 25

V d 58. Gi

3x 3 4 2 x 1

( x 1 1)(2 x 4)
x

()

x 1, suy ra: 3x 3 4 2x 1 0. Ta c:
Phn tch v li gii
(3x 3) 4 2x 1 (3x 3) 4 2 x 1 (3x 3)2 16 2 x 1 9 x2 14 x 25

(3x 3) 4 2 x 1

() 3x 3 4 2 x 1

9 x2 14 x 25
3x 3 4 2 x 1

( x 1 1)(2 x 4)
x

3x2 3x 4x 2x 1 (2x 4) x 1 2x 4
3x2 5x 4 4x 2x 1 2( x 2) x 1 0

45

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

:
A B
2
4x 2.2x. 2x 1 (2x 1) ( x 2) 2.( x 2). x 1 ( x 1) 0

(2x 2x 1)2 ( x 2 x 1)2 0 (2x 2x 1)2 ( x 2 x 1)2

2x 2x 1 x 2 x 1
x 1 2x 1 x 2

2 x 2 x 1 2 x x 1
3x 2 x 1 2 x 1 0
1
x1
:

(1)
(2)

(1) 3x 2 2 ( x 1)(2x 1) x2 4x 4 2 ( x 1)(2 x 1) x2 x 6


Cauchy

Do x 1, suy ra: 2 ( x 1)(2x 1) 2 x.2x 2 2.x x2 2 x2 x 6


x 1,

(2) x 1 2x 1( 2x 1 1) ( x 1) 0

x 1

2( x 1) 2 x 1
2x 1 1

(2)

( x 1) 0

2 ( x 1)(2 x 1)

x 1 1
x 1 0 x 1 0 x 1.
2x 1 1

0, x 1

x 1.

Kt lun

3 3 2x2 x3 9x2 4x 4 2x 2 4x2 x 1 ()

V d 59.

() 16x2 4x 4 9x2 4x 4 3 3 2x2 x3 2x 0

(1)

3 3 2x2 x3 2x 0 35x3 54x2 0 x 0


TH 1 V
TH 2 V

x0
54
x 0;
35

x0

54

35

x 0,

1 1
1 1
2
(1) 16 4 2 9 4 2 3 3 1
x
x
x
x
x

2
1 t3 1
2

1, suy ra: t 3 1
x
x
x
2

(2) t 6 15 t 6 8 3t 2 0

( t 6 15 4) (3 t 6 8) 3t 3

46

(2)

u ki n: 3t 2 0)
t6 1
t 6 15 4

t6 1
t6 8 3

3(t 1)

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(t 3 1)(t 2 t 1) (t 3 1)(t 2 t 1)

(t 1)

3 0 t 1 x 1.
t 6 15 4
t6 8 3

t 6 15 4 t 6 8 3

Suy ra:

(t 3 1)(t 2 t 1)

t 6 15 4
TH 3 V x (; 0),

(t 3 1)(t 2 t 1)
t 6 15 4

(t 3 1)(t 2 t 1)

3 0, t

t6 8 3
ho x 0,

(t 3 1)(t 2 t 1)
t6 8 3

1
1
1
(1) 16 x2 4 x 4 9 x2 4 x 4 3. 3 2 x2 x3 2
x
x
x

1 1
1 1
2
9 4 2 16 4 2 3 3 1
x
x
x
x
x

(3)

2
1 t3 1
2
Do x 0 t 3 1 t 1.
1, suy ra: t 3 1
x
x
x
2

(3) t 6 8 t 6 15 3t 2 0

(4)

f (t) t 6 8 t 6 15 3t 2 trn (; 1),

1
f (t ) 3 3t 5

0, t 1.
6
t 6 15
t 8

f (t )

trn (; 1), suy ra: f (t) t 6 8 t 6 15 3t 2 f(1) 2


5
Kt lun

(5)

x 0, x 1.
x2 6x 1 (2x 1) x2 2x 3

V d 60.

()

Hc sinh gii tnh Long An nm 2014


T
nh: D .
Phn tch v li gii 1 S
a 0 : (2x 1)( x2 2x 3 a) x2 6x 1 2ax a

p: (2 x 1)

x2 2 x 3 a2
x 2x 3 a
2

x2 (6 2a)x 1 a.

a 2
2 6 2a
:

a2
2
3 a 1 a
3 4 1 2

() (2 x 1)( x2 2 x 3 2) x2 2 x 1

(2 x 1)( x2 2 x 1)
x 2x 3 2
2

x2 2x 1

47

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x2 2x 1 0

2x 1
( x 2 x 1)
1 0
2

x2 2 x 3 2 x 1
x 2x 3 2

x 1 2
x 1 2

2 x 1 0
3 15
x
2
2

x 2 x 3 (2 x 1)
3

x 1 2 , x

Kt lun

3 15

Li gii 2.
Do x

1
2

() x2 2 x 3 2

x2 6 x 1
2
2x 1

x 1 2
x2 2x 1 0
x2 2x 1

3 15
2
2
2
x

1
2 x 2 x 3 2 x 1 x
x 2x 3 2
3

ax b
Bnh lun V
q

q

h s x2 ng nhau nn
n gin c th thm h ng s a T
3
phng
php t n s ph khng hon ton (nn lm khi l s chnh phng):
x2 2x 1

t x2 2x 3 2 x2 t 2 2x 3
t (2x 3)2 t 2
() t 2 (2x 1) t 4x 2 0

Li gii 3

x2 2 x 3 2
x 1 2
Suy ra:
x2 2 x 3 2 x 1

x2 x 1

V d 61.
Phn tch

t 2x 1.

3 15
3

x 3 2 x 2 3x 1
x2 2

()

( x2 2) x2 x 1 (ax b) x3 2x2 (3 a)x 1 b

D .
5x 3
5x 3
() x2 x 1 x 2 2
x2 x 1 ( x 2) 2

x 2
x 2

Li gii

x2 x 1 x 2 0 x2 x 1 x 2 :

x2 x 1 x 2 0

48

(1)

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(1)

(5x 3)
x x1 x 2
2

5x 3
3
0x
2
5
x 2

(2) x2 x 1 x2 x x

1
x x1 x 2
2

1
(2)
x 2
2

1 3 2 5

2
3
1 3 2 5
x , x

5
2

Kt lun

2x2 16x 18 x2 1 2x 4

V d 62.

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn Thoi Ngc Hu An Giang

2 x 1
Phn tch v li gii 1 S
x 1.
2

x 1.
x 1,
x 1,

x 1
2

2x 16x 18 (2x 4)

2x 4 0. T

2
2

() 2 x 16 x 18 (2 x 4) x 1 0

2
2( x 1)

x2 1 0
2
2 x 16 x 18 2x 4

2 x2 1
0
x2 1 1
2

2
x

16
x

18

2
x

1:

x2 1 0 x 1
2x2 16x 18 2x 4 2 x2 1
2
2

2 x 16 x 18 x 1 2 x 4
(),(1)
3 x2 1 4 x 8
2
2

2 x 16 x 18 2 x 1 2 x 4
4 x 8 0
x 2
32 3 57

2
2
x

2
7
9( x 1) (4 x 8)
7 x 64 x 73 0

x 1, x

Kt lun
Phn tch v li gii 2

a 4, b 1

(1)

32 3 57

2x2 16x 18 a.( x 2) b.( x2 1)


() 4( x 2)2 2( x2 1) 2( x 2) x2 1

Do x 2

(1)

x 2 0,

49

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

(1) 4 2

x2 1
x2 1
(2)
2
2
x2
( x 2)

x2 1
0
x2

t 0
0 t 2
(2) 4 2t 2 t
4
2
2
t
4 2t (2 t)
3
2

t 0

x2 1
0 x2 1 0 x 1 :
x2

4
x2 1 4
32 3 57

3 x2 1 4( x 2) x
:
3
x2
3
7

x 1, x

3 57 32

1 2
1 2
1 x 2 x 2 1 x 2 x 2 5 ()
x

V d 63.

Li gii

x 0.

1
() x2 2 x 2 x2 2 x 2 ( x2 2 x 2 x2 2 x 2) 5
x
1
4x
x2 2x 2 x2 2 x 2
5
x x2 2x 2 x2 2 x 2
4
x2 2x 2 x2 2 x 2
5
2
x 2x 2 x2 2 x 2

t x2 2x 2 x2 2x 2 ( x 1)2 1 ( x 1)2 1 2.
(1) t

4
5 t 2 5t 4 0 t 1
t

Suy ra:

x2 2x 2 x2 2x 2 4 x2 2 ( x2 2x 2)( x2 2x 2) 8

t4

6 x 6
6 x 6
2 6

x4 4 6 x2 4

4
2
2
3
x 4 x 12 x 36
12 x 32

Nhm II: S dng chc nng table ca casio tm nhn t bc hai, bc ba


V

V d 64. Gi

50

2.

x2 x 1
2
x2 4
2
x4
x 1

()

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Phn tch

X2 X 1
2
SHIFT / CACL / 9 /
X2 4
X4
X2 1
X 1.732050808. T
TABLE
: casio fx 570 ES PLUS)
: ALPHA / ) / SHIFT / RCL / ()
2
: MODE SETUP / 7 / ALPHA
f (X) A AX

2.

XA

/ () / x 2 / / ALPHA / () / ALPHA / ) / / / 9 / / 9 / / 1 /
X F( X )
: 9 1 4.732 ,
q
dng c
10

x2 3

0 3

: X 2 bX c .
F( X )
casio fx 570 VN PLUS ho c Vinacal 570es flus:
g( x)
: MODE SETUP / 7 /

ALPHA /() / x 2 / / ALPHA / () / ALPHA / ) / / / / 9 / / 9 / / 1 /


T


:
x2 x 1
0 x 4 0 x 4.
x4

Li gii

x2 x 1

2
() ( x2 3) 2.
1 1
0


x4
x 1

x2 x 1
1
x2 1 2
x4
( x 2 3) 2.

0
x2 x 1
x2 1
1
x4

( x2 3)

2.( x2 3)
( x 4)( x2 x 1) x 4

x2 3

x2 1.( x2 1 2)

x 3
2
1
0
( x2 3) 1

x 3
( x 4)( x2 x 1) x 4 x2 1 2 x2 1

Do 1

2
( x 4)( x x 1) x 4
2

1
x 1 2 x2 1
2

0, x 4.

x 3, x 3.

Kt lun
x2 3,

Bnh lun: S

1
51

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x2 3

x2 x 1
,
x4

x2 x 1
a v
x4

x2 x 1 2 x2 (1 a2 )x 1 4a2
a

x4
x4
x2 3 nn t

a 1.

x 3
2

x9
2
x2 1

4
x2 x 2
x2 3

V d 65. Gi

x2 7

Phn tch S
T

9 x 3

Li gii

()

x 3.

( x2 7) 8
2
x9

2
0
2
4
x x2
x 3

1
2
x9
( x2 7) 1
1
0

4
x2 3
x2 x 2

()

1
x2 3 2
x2 x 2 x 9
( x2 7)

0
4
x2 3
x2 x 2
1
x2 7
x2 7
( x2 7)

0
4
x2 3.( x2 3 2) x2 x 2 ( x 9)( x2 x 2)

1
1
0
( x2 7)

2
x2 3.( x2 3 2) x2 x 2 ( x 9)( x2 x 2)
x2 7 0 x 7
x 7.
1
1
1
Do

0, x ( a).
2
x2 3.( x2 3 2) x2 x 2 ( x 9)( x2 x 2)
x 7.

Kt lun
Bnh lun Q

V d 66. Gi

:
2(1 x) x2 2x 1 x2 2x 1

x 1 2
x2 2 x 1 0

x 2 1

52

()

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ax2 bx c (dx e). ax2 fx g

Phn tch B
T

x 2x 5
x2 2x 5.
2

Li gii

() ( x2 2x 5) 2( x 1)( x2 2x 1 2) 0

( x 2 x 5)
2

2( x 1)( x2 2 x 5)

(1) x 1 6

x 2x 1 2
2

x2 2x 5 0
0
x2 2 x 1 2 x

(1)
(2)

x 1 6.

(2) x2 2x 1 2x :

x 1 6.

Kt lun
3

V d 67. Gi

x3 7 x2 11x 5 x2 x 3 5x 7

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Chuyn Bo Lc Lm ng

x2 x 3

Phn tch S
T

5x 7

n ghp (ax b) 5x 7

x x 3. V
a 1, b 2

: x2 x 3 (5x 7) ( x 2)2 . H

x2

7
x
5

Li gii

x2
:

a 3 x3 7 x2 11x 5, b x 2.

() ( x2 x 3) 3 x3 7 x2 11x 5 ( x 2) ( x 2) 5x 7 0


2
2
x x3
x x3
x2 x 3 2

0
2
a ab b
x 2 5x 7

1
1
1 13
( x2 x 3) 2

1 0 x

2
2
x 2 5x 7
a ab b

1
1
7

1 0, x
Do: 2
2
5
a ab b
x 2 5x 7
x

Kt lun
3

V d 68.

12x2 46x 15 3 x3 5x 1 2x 2

X2

Phn tch S

1 13

()

( 12X 46X 15 3 X 3 5X 1 2X 2) : (X 2)
3

solve 9 =

x 2x 1.
2

53

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

( x 2)( x2 2x 1) x3 5x 2

a 3 12x2 46x 15, b 2x 1, c 3 x3 5x 1.


() 3 12 x2 46 x 15 (2 x 1) ( 3 x3 5x 1 1) 0

Li gii

8 x3 40 x 16 x3 5x 2
8( x3 5x 2) x3 5x 2

2
0
a2 ab b2
c2 c 1
a2 ab b2
c c1
x 2

8
1

( x3 5x 2) 2

2
c2 c 1
a ab b
x 1 2

0, a , b , c

x2

Kt lun
3

V d 69. Gi

x 1 2.

x3 16x2 62 x 78 x2 7 x 36

X 1

Phn tch S

174
x5

()

3 3
174
2
2
x 16x 62 x 78 x 7 x 36
: ( X 1) v
x
5

9=

x2 3x 11.

:
( x 1)( x2 3x 11) x3 4x2 8x 11,
x 5.

Li gii

() ( x 5) x3 16x2 62x 78 x3 2x2 x 6


3

x3 4x2 8x 11 ( x 5) 3 x3 16x2 62x 78 2x2 9x 5

x3 4x2 8x 11 ( x 5) 3 x3 16x2 62x 78 ( x 5)(2x 1)


x3 4x2 8x 11 ( x 5). 3 x3 16x2 62x 78 (2 x 1)

( x3 4x2 8x 11) ( x 5). (2 x 1) 3 x3 16 x2 62 x 78 0

a 2x 1, b 3 x3 16x2 62x 78.

7( x 5)( x3 4x2 8x 11)


0
a2 ab b2

7( x 5)
( x3 4 x2 8 x 11) 1 2
0
2
a ab b
( x3 4x2 8x 11)

a 3a 2
b

7( x 5)

2
4

3
2
( x 4 x 8 x 11)
0
2

a 3a 2
b 2 4

54

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2

a 3
2
b 2 4 (2 x 1) 7( x 5)

( x 3 4 x 2 8 x 11)
0
2

a 3a 2
b 2 4

a 12 x 2 16 x 143
b

2
4

3
2
( x 4 x 8 x 11)
0
2

a 3a 2
b 2 4

x3 4x2 8x 11 0 x 1

3 53

2
2

12 x 2 16 x 143 0, x

2
2
V:
a

a 3a 2
0
b 0; b
2
2
4

a 12 x 2 16 x 143
b

2
4

0.
2

a 3a 2
b 2 4

Kt lun

x 1, x

V d 70. Gi

3 53

()

x3 3x2 x 2 2x2 x 4 2x 11

x2 2 x 7
Phn tch S

x 4.
Li gii
2
() x ( x 3) 2 x 4 ( x 2) 2x 1 0

( x 3) 2 x 4 ( x 2) 2x 1 0

:
(1)

x 1 2 2 :
x 1 2 2 ( x 3) 2 x 4 ( x 2) 2x 1 0

2
2
2
x ( x 2 x 7)
x 2x 7
(1)

0
x 3 2 x 4 x 2 2x 1

x2
1
( x2 2 x 7)

0
x 3 2 x 4 x 2 2x 1

x2 2 x 7 0 x 2 2 1.

x2 ( x 2 2 x 1) x 3 2 x 4 0
(2)
3
2
2

x 3x x 2 2 x x 4 2 x 11
(2), (),
3
2
2

x 2 x x 3 x 2 x 11 2 x 4

x2 1 2x2 x 4 x2 2x 11 2x 11 2 x 4 x2 2.( 4) 11

55

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x2 3 x2 1

x 2 2 1.

Kt lun

8 3x 2 x 3 3x 1

V d 71. Gi

x2 x 1

Phn tch S

()

8 3
8 3
x

3
3
() ( x 1)( x2 x 1) (2 x) 8 3x2 0

2
4( x x 1)
( x 1)( x2 x 1)
0
2 x 8 3x 2
x2 x 1 0
(1)

2
( x x 1) x 1
4
0

x 1
0 (2)
2 x 8 3x 2

2 x 8 3x2

Li gii

8 3x 2 0

(1) x2 x 1 0 x

1 5
:
2

(2) ( x 1)(2 x 8 3x2 ) 4 0

8 3x 2 x 3 3x 1

( x 1)(2 x x3 3x 1) 4 ( x 1)( x3 4x 3) 4 0

( x4 4x2 4) x3 x 4 0 0 ( x2 2)2 x3 x 4 0 :
x

Kt lun
V d 72. Gi

Li gii

1 5
1 5
, x

2
2

(3x2 11) x2 1 3 3.x3 8x2 11 3.x 4 ()

3 3.x3 8x2 11 3.x 4 0

(1)

() (3x2 11) x2 1 3.x(3x2 11) 8 x2 4

(3x2 11)( x2 1 3.x) 4(1 2 x2 )

(3x2 11)(1 2 x2 )

4(1 2 x2 )

x 1 3.x
2

3x 11
(1 2 x2 )
4 0 (1 2 x2 )(3x2 11 4 x2 1 4 3 x) 0
2

x 1 3.x

(1 2x2 ) ( x2 1 2. x2 1.2 22 ) 2( x2 2 x. 3 3) 0

2
1 2 x 0

2
2
2
2
2
(1 2 x ) ( x 1 2) 2( x 3) 0
x 1 2 0

x 3 0

56

(2)

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2
x 3
x

x 3

1
2

x 3.
x

Kt lun
Bnh lun T

A 0
A 2 B2 0

B 0

: 4 x 3x 3 4 x x 3 2 2 x 1
2

trnh

2
, x 3.
2

: (4 2.2. x 3 x 3) (1 2 2 x 1 2 x 1) 0

2 x 3 0
(2 x 3)2 (1 2 x 1)2 0
x 1. S

1 2 x 1 0
x 1,

sau: 4x( x 3 2) 2( 2x 1 1) 4x2 5x 1

x 1

( x 1)(4 x 1)
4x
4

4x 1 0
x3 2
2x 1 1
x 3 2
2x 1 1
T
q q

4 x( x 1)

4( x 1)

x2 2 x 2
x3 x2 8 x 2 0

Phn tch S
Li gii

()

x3 x2 8x 2 2 3 x3 20 2( x 1)

V d 73. Gi

( a)

() x x 8x 2 2 (2x 4) 2 x 20
3

x3 x2 8 x 6
x3 x2 8x 2 2
( x 3)( x2 2 x 2)
x3 x2 8x 2 2

(2 x 4)3 8( x3 20)
(2 x 4)2 2(2 x 4) 3 x3 20 3 ( x3 20)2
48( x2 2 x 2)
(2 x 4)2 2(2 x 4) 3 x3 20 3 ( x3 20)2

x2 2x 2 0 x 1 3

48
x3

(1)

3 3
2
3
2
3
2
3
(2
x

4)

2(2
x

4)
x

20

(
x

20)
x

8
x

57

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

48
0
VT1
2
3

( x 3 20)2 3 3 ( x3 20)2
(2 x 4)

x 3
(1) : VN o .
2
4

x3

0
VP1
3
2
x x 8x 2 2

3 3

2 x 2 2 x 20 0
x 3
() :
3
2
x

8
x

x 1 3.

Kt lun

( x3 3x 5) 2x2 5x 3x3 5x2 2x 5

V d 74. Gi

2 x 2 5x 0 x

Li gii

5
2

()

x 0.

() ( x3 3x 5)( 2x2 5x 1) 3x3 5x2 2 x 5 ( x3 3x 5)

2 x2 5x 1

( x3 3x 5)

2 x 5x 1
2

x (2 x2 5x 1)

2 x2 5x 1 0
x 3 3x 5

(1)
(2 x2 5x 1)
x 0

3
2
2
(2)
2 x 5x 1

x 3x 5 x( 2 x 5x 1)
(1) x

5 33
4

5 33
:
4
2

(2) x3 2x 5 x 2x2 5x x3 (2x 5) ( x x . 2x 5)2


( x3 )2 2x3 (2x 5) (2x 5)2 x3 (2x 5)
( x3 )2 x3 (2x 5) (2x 5)2 0

2 x 3 2 x 5 0

2x 5 3

2
x3
:
(2 x 5) 0
2 4

2 x 5 0
2

5 33
5 33
, x

4
4

(3x3 5x2 2x 5) ( x3 3x 5) x(2x2 5x 1)


x

Kt lun
Bnh lun

2 x2 5x 1

V d 75. Gi

58

2 x2 5x 1

2 x 2 5x 1

2 x 5x 1
2

ra
(3x2 5x 6) 2 x 3x2 6 x 5

()

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32 6
2 x 0
x

2
3
3
x

6
x

Li gii

() (3x2 5x 7) 2 x 3x2 6 x 5 2 x

3x 2 5x 7
3x 2 6 x 5 2 x

1
(3x2 5x 7) 2 x
0

3x 2 6 x 5 2 x

2
3x2 5x 7 0
5 109
3x 5x 7 0 x

6
1

2x
2
(2 x)(3x 6 x 5) x 1 : VN

3x2 6 x 5 2 x

Kt lun

5 109

( x2 3) x2 x 1 x3 3x2 4x 1

V d 76. Gi

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn Lng Vn Chnh Ph Yn


D .
x 3x 4 x 1
7x 8
() x2 x 1
( x 3) 2
2
x 3
x 3
7x 8 2
7
x

8
7x 8
2
x x 1 ( x 3) 0 2

x 3
x 3
x2 x 1 x 3

8
1

1
x 7
(7 x 8) 2

x 3
x2 x 1 x 3

x2 x 1 x 2 x (1)

Li gii.

1 3
3
t x x 1 x
t 2 x2 x 1.
2 4
2

(1) t 2 t 1 0 t

Kt lun

1 5
1 3 2 5
2 x2 2 x 1 5 0 x

2
2
8
1 3 2 5
x , x

7
2

BI TP RN LUYN

(x )

BT 11. Gi

10x 1 3x 5 9x 4 2x 2.

BT 12. Gi

3x2 5x 1 x2 2 3( x2 x 1) x2 3x 4

BT 13. Gi

2x 3 x 1 3x 1 2x 3.

BT 14. Gi

( x 1) x2 5 x x2 1.

(x )

(x )
59

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

BT 15. Gi

x 2 2x 10 2x 3.

(x )

BT 16. Gi

2x 3 x 2x 6.

(x )

BT 17. Gi i

4x2 5x 1 2 x2 x 1 9x 3.

(x )

BT 18. Gi

x 2x 1 1 x 2.

BT 19. Gi

x 2 x2 3x 2 x 2.

BT 20. Gi

4 x 1 3x 2

BT 21. Gi
BT 22. Gi

x3

5
3x 1
4x 1 x 2

9( 4x 1 3x 2) x 3.

(x )
(x )

(x )
(x )
(x )

BT 23. Gi

2x2 3x 5 2x2 3x 5 3x.

(x )

BT 24. Gi i

2x2 x 1 x2 x 1 3x.

(x )

BT 25. Gi
BT 26. Gi
BT 27. Gi
BT 28. Gi

3x

3x 1 1.

(x )

x 1 3x 1.

(x )

3x 10
x
x2

9x2 8x 1 3 x2 x 1 8 x.
4
1
5
x x 2x
x
x
x

(x )

(x )

BT 29. Gi

x 2 4 x 2x2 5x 1.

BT 30. Gi

3x 2 x 1 x4 5x3 12x2 15x 3 0.

BT 31. Gi

x2 12 5 3x x2 5.

BT 32. Gi

x2 91 x2 7

BT 33. Gi

x 3 5 x 2x2 7 x 2 0.

(x )

BT 34. Gi

5x 1 x 2 x3 5x2 10x 13 0.

(x )

BT 35. Gi

3x 1 2x 1 x 3 2x3 x2 5x 3 0.

BT 36. Gi
BT 37. Gi
BT 38. Gi

60

10
x 4.
3

3x3 17 x2 8x 9 3x 2 7 x 0.

(x )

(x )

(x )

(x )

3x 2 x 2 x4 2x3 3x2 8x 8 0.
x2 9x 20 2 3x 10.

(x )

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BT 39. Gi

nh:

2( x 1)2
(3 7 2 x )2

6x2

BT 40. Gi

( 2 x 1 1)2
8x

BT 41. Gi

8x 1 1

x 20.

(x )

2 x x 1 1.

(x )

3 2 x 1 1.

(x )

BT 42. Gi

( x 4)( x 1 1)2 x2 .

(x )

BT 43. Gi

( x 7 x 3)(1 x2 10x 21) 4.

(x )

BT 44. Gi

( x 5 x 2)(1 x2 7 x 10) 3.

(x )

BT 45. Gi

( x 1 1)( 1 x 2x 5) x.

(x )

BT 46. Gi

h: 2x2 11x 21 3 3 4x 4.

2 3 3x 4 x 2 5x 4 16.

BT 47. Gi

(x )
(x )

BT 48. Gi

x2 4 x 1 2x 3.

(x )

BT 49. Gi

x 6 x 1 x2 1.

(x )

BT 50. Gi

x2 2. 3 x ( x 4) x 7 3x 28 0.

(x )

3 3 x2 x2 8 2 x2 15.

BT 51. Gi

BT 52. Gi
BT 53. Gi

(x )

x 6 x2 7 x 1.

(x )

x 3 3 5x 3 4.

(x )

BT 54. Gi

2x 3 3x 1 2 x.

(x )

BT 55. Gi

x 2 6 3 5 x x.

(x )

BT 56. Gi

3x 2 3x3 x2 3x 0.

(x )

BT 57. Gi

x 4 2x 7 x2 8x 13 0.

(x )

BT 58. Gi

2x 1 2x 13 4x2 44x 117 0.

(x )

BT 59. Gi

2x 3 ( x 2) x 3 3 6 x 3.

(x )

2x 5 3 2x 3 x3 x 2( x2 1).

(x )

BT 60. Gi
BT 61. Gi

2 3 x2 4x 4 x 2 x 1 4.

(x )

BT 62. Gi

x3 x2 4 2x x 2.

(x )

BT 63. Gi

x2 x 1 2x 1 x2 x 2.

(x )
61

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

(x )

BT 64. Gi

x3 2x ( x2 1) 2x 1 3 2x2 x .

BT 65. Gi

x3 x2 1 x x2 3.

(x )

BT 66. Gi

x2 10 x 1 x2 x 1.

(x )

BT 67. Gi

3x 5 3 x 2x 2.

(x )

BT 68. Gi

BT 69. Gi

x2 2x x 4x 1 3 3x 2.

(x )

BT 70. Gi

x2 x2 5x 5 x 2 3x 2.

(x )

BT 71. Gi

( 2x2 2x 1 x 1)(1 1 x ) x x .

(x )

BT 72. Gi

( x 1)(2 x2 3 x2 ) 3 3x2 5 5x 3.

(x )

BT 73. Gi

(2 x2 2x 5)( x 1) 4x x2 1 2x x2 2x 5

BT 74. Gi

3 3 2x2 x3 9x2 4x 4 2x 2 4x2 x 1.

BT 75. Gi
BT 76. Gi
BT 77. Gi

4
4 x 3 x 3 3x 2 2 3x .
3

2x 11 2x2 16x 28 5 x.
3
x2 4

2
x2 2

62

x2 3x 3
x2 .
3x 2

x2
x2 x 1

2
x3

(x )

(x )
(x )
(x )
(x )

BT 78. Gi

2 3x 2 2( x 1) x 2 3x2 8x 4.

BT 79. Gi

( x 2) x 1 (4x 5) 2x 3 6x 23 0. ( x )

BT 80. Gi

( x 2) 3x 6 2 x2 x 1 3x2 10 0.

BT 81. Gi

( x 1) 4x 5 2( x 5) x 3 3x2 14x 13.

BT 82. Gi

( x 1) 2x 3 2(3x 1) 4x 2 16x2 14x 2.

(x )

BT 83. Gi

3x 1 5x 4 3x2 x 3.

(x )

BT 84. Gi

2x2 5x 7 5x 6 x2 x 3 0.

(x )

BT 85. Gi

( x2 3) x2 x 1 x3 3x2 4x 1.

(x )

BT 86. Gi

x2 x 2x 1 3 3 x3 x2 x 5.

(x )

BT 87. Gi

5 x 1 3 7 x 8 2 x 2x 1.

(x )

BT 88. Gi

( x 1) x2 2x 5 4x x2 1 2( x 1).

(x )

62

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BT 89. Gi

2x 3 3 x 5 x2 x 6.

(x )

BT 90. Gi

(5x 1) x3 3 x3 6x2 2x 3.

(x )

BT 91. Gi

6x x2 x 18 x3 9x x3 10x2 81.

(x )

BT 92. Gi

1
x 1 x x 1 x x.
2
2

(x )

BT 93. Gi

2x

BT 94. Gi
BT 95. Gi

6
1 4 x2 9 2 x 3.
x

(x )

4 x1 x2

3.
3 ( x 2 1)2

(x )

x1

3 6 x2 x 1

46 x 17
2 x 1 4 3x 1

5 8x. ( x )

BT 96. Gi i: ( x2 10x 26) 4 x ( x2 2x 2) x 2 x2 3x 18.


BT 97. Gi
BT 98.

Gi

BT 99.

Gi

( x 3)(2 x 2) 2x 5 3 3x 7.

6 x 2x 6 6x 5 x2 2x 5.

(x )

(x )
(x )

x2 x 3 2 5x 6 x( 5x2 9x 18 2).

BT 100. Gi

x3 4x2 x 3 2x2 x 5 2x 13.

(x )

BT 101. Gi

x3 3x2 x 2 2x2 x 4 2x 11.

(x )

BT 102. Gi

3x 2 2 x 1 2 x 2 3x 3 2 x x . ( x )

BT 103. Gi

x 3 x x2 x 2.

(x )

BT 104. Gi

2 ( x 1)3 3x2 2x 6x3 7 x2 2x .

(x )

BT 105. Gi

x 4 x( x 8) ( x 1 x 1)4 .

(x )

BT 106. Gi

x6
1

x 1.
x 1
x 1

(x )

BT 107. Gi

1 x 2x x2

x
1 x2

(x )

BT 108. Gi

(3x2 5x 6) 2 x 3x2 6x 5.

(x )

BT 109. Gi

2x
2 x 3 3 x 1.
4

(x )

63

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

3. GIAI PHNG TRNH VO TY


BANG CACH AT AN PHU

1. Dng 1. a. f ( x) b. n f ( x) c 0

om

(1)

.v
n

I. t n ph gii phng trnh v t


t n ph l mt hnh thc a bi ton t tnh th phc tp sang tnh th
n gin hn m bit cch gii. C rt nhiu cch t n ph khc nhau ty
thuc vo c im ca tng phng trnh m ta c th t mt n ph, hai n
ph, ba n ph, a v phng trnh hoc h phng trnh. Sau khi t
n ph, ta cn i tm iu kin cho n ph. Ty vo mc ch ca n ph m ta
i tm iu kin cho hp l (d, khng gy sai st).
II. Mt s dng t n ph c bn thng gp v phng php gii.

.c

Nhn dng: Biu thc cha bin trong v ngoi cn thc c mi lin h.
Phng php gii:
Bc 1. t iu kin.

ok

Bc 2. t t n f ( x) t n f ( x) th (1) a.t n b.t c 0 t x.

bo

tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:

()

V d 77. Gii phng trnh: 3x2 12x 5 10 4x x2 12 0

et

Phn tch. Nhn thy nu t t 10 4x x2 0, th biu thc cha bin s ngo|i


cn thc 3x2 12x 3.(4x x2 ) c mi lin h vi nhau nn c li gii sau:

vi

Li gii. iu kin: 10 4x x2 0 2 14 x 2 14.

ng

t t 10 4x x2 0 t 2 10 4x x2 3x2 12x 3(10 t 2 ).

kh
a

t 0
() 3(10 t 2 ) 5t 12 0 2
t 3.

3t 5t 42 0

Vi t 3, suy ra:

10 4x x2 3 x2 4x 1 0 x 2 5.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 2 5.


V d 78. Gii phng trnh: ( x 4)( x 1) 3 x2 5x 2 6

()

Phn tch. Nhn thy nu t t x2 5x 2 0, th biu thc cha bin s ngo|i


cn thc ( x 4)( x 1) x2 5x 4 c mi lin h vi nhau nn c li gii sau:

Li gii. iu kin: x2 5x 2 0.
t t x2 5x 2 0 t 2 x2 5x 2 x2 5x t 2 2.
() t 2 3t 4 0 t 1 (loi) hoc t 4 (nhn).
64

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Vi t 4, suy ra: x2 5x 2 4 x2 5x 14 0 x 2 hoc x 7.


Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c 2 nghim l x 2, x 7.

()

V d 79. Gii phng trnh: 6x2 2x 3 3x2 x 4 10 0

Phn tch. Nhn thy nu t t 3 3x2 x 4 , th biu thc cha bin s ngo|i cn
thc: 6x2 2x 2.(3x2 x) c mi lin h vi nhau nn c li gii chi tit nh sau:

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .

.v
n

t t 3 3x2 x 4 t 3 3x2 x 4 3x2 x t 3 4.


() 2(t 3 4) t 10 0 2t 3 t 18 0 (t 2)(2t 2 4t 9) 0 t 2.
4
3x2 x 4 2 3x2 x 4 0 x 1 hoc x
3
4
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 1, x
3
3

()

3 x x2 2 x x2 1

.c

V d 80. Gii phng trnh:

om

Vi t 2, suy ra:

bo

ok

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng c bn A B C , hng x l thng gp l|


t iu kin, ly tha v| gii phng trnh h qu. Do hai biu thc cha bin trong
cn thc c mi lin h vi nhau, n gin c th t t x2 x v| c li gii sau:
Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 2. t t x2 x. Khi :
() 3 t 2 t 1 3 t 1 2 t 3 t 3 t 2 2 t

vi

et

t 0
t 0
2t t 2

t 1.
t t 2 0
t 1 t 2

ng

Vi t 1, suy ra: x2 x 1 x

1 5
1 5
hoc x

2
2

kh
a

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim x


V d 81. Gii phng trnh: 3 x

3
2 x

2x

1
7
2x

1 5

()

1
1
Phn tch. i vi b|i to{n c dng thun nghch loi f x ; x2 2 0 ta u
x
x

1
1
c th gii bng c{ch t n s ph t x t 2 x x2 2 2.
x
x
x

Li gii. iu kin: x 0, th () 3 x

1
2 x
7
4
x
2 x

(1)

65

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

t t x

Cauchy

2 x

1
2 x

1
1.
4x

2 t2 x

3t 2(t 1) 7
2t 2 3t 9 0

(1)

t 3.
t 2
t 2

1
2 x

3 2x 6 x 1 0 x

3 7
83 7
x

2
2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c 2 nghim l x


V d 82. Gii phng trnh: x 1 x2 4x 1 3 x

83 7

.v
n

Vi t 3 x

()

Phn tch. Nh}n th}y biu thc ngoai cn thc la x 1, biu thc trong cn thc co
x

ok

.c

x 0 c

om

1
1
t2
4 v| t t x
x
x
x
th se biu din ht theo bin mi t v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. iu kin: x 0.
Trng hp 1. Nu x 0 th () 2 0 : sai nn x 0 khng l nghim.

cha x2 1. Nu chia

Trng hp 2. Nu x 0, chia hai v cho

x 0, th:

1 Cauchy
1
1
4 3 0 (1). t t x
2 t 2 x 2.
x
x
x
x
2 t 3
5

(1) t 2 6 3 t 2
t Suy ra:
2
2

t 6t 9 t 6
1
5
1
1
x
2( x )2 5 x 2 0 x 2 x x 4 x
2
2
4
x

bo

ng

vi

et

() x

kh
a

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c 2 nghim x 4, x


V d 83. Gii phng trnh:

2 x2 8 x 5 2 x 2 4 x 5 6 x

()

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng c bn A B C , nhng ta se khng ly


tha ln do sau khi ly tha bc cao nht ca n se khng trit tiu v| se g}y kh khn
cho vic gii. h s ca a, c , (a 2, c 5) ca 2 tam thc bc hai ax2 bx c
trong hai cn thc v tr{i bng nhau, nn ta se chia 2 v cho x 0 sau khi xt
x 0 c phi l| nghim hay khng ? Khi t n ph se a b|i to{n v dng c bn.
Li gii. iu kin: x 0. Do x 0 khng l nghim nn chia hai v ca
phng trnh () cho
() 2 x

66

x 0, ta c:

5
5
8 2x 4 6
x
x

(1)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

t t 2 x

5 Cauchy
2 10. Khi : (1) t 8 t 4 6
x

2t 4 2 (t 8)(t 4) 36 t 2 4t 32 16 t

2 10 t 16
2 10 t 16
2

t 8.
2
36t 288
t 4t 32 (16 t )

Vi t 8, suy ra: 2 x

5
4 6
4 6
hoc x
8 2 x2 8 x 5 0 x

x
2
2

4 6

2
Bnh lun. Trong rt nhiu b|i to{n, php t n ph ch c x{c nh khi qua c{c
php bin i, chng hn: php chia, php ly tha, php ng nht, Sau }y ta cng
xt mt v|i v d v loi n|y.

om

.v
n

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x

1
()
3x 1
x
Hc sinh gii tnh ng Thp nm 2011

.c

V d 84. Gii phng trnh: x2 2 x x

ok

Phn tch. Sau khi chia cho lng x 0, th phng trnh xut hin nhng i
1
1
1
x , x , c mi lin h vi nhau nn se t t x 0.
x
x
x
x 0
x 0

x2 1
x
Li gii. iu kin: 1
1; 0 1; .
x

0
0

x
Chia 2 v ca phng trnh () cho x 0, ta c:

vi

et

bo

lng

1
1

1
1
(1)
3 x 2 x 3 0
x
x
x
x

t 2 2t 3 0
t 1 t 3
1

t 1.
t t x 0, th (1)
x

t 0
t 0

kh
a

ng

() x 2 x

Vi t 1, suy ra:

1
1
1 5
1 x 1 x2 x 1 0 x

x
x
2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x


V d 85. Gii phng trnh:

x8

1 5

9x

6 x 0
()
x8
Hc sinh gii tnh Bn Tre nm 2014

67

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. Nu chia 2 v cho


nghch o ca nhau l|

x8
x

x 0, th phng trnh se to ra 2 i lng c dng


x

x8

T t t

x8

x8

1
v c
t

li gii 1. Nhng , sau khi qui ng v| b mu ta c 10x 8 6 x( x 8) 0,


}y l| dng c bn A B (li gii 2). Ngo|i ra, do h s trc cn thc l| s chn,
nn c kh nng a v dng tng c{c s khng }m, hoc An Bn (li gii 3).
iu kin: x 0.

x 0, ta c:

t t

x8
x

x8
x

x
x8

60

(1)

0, th (1) t

9
6 0 t 2 6t 9 0 t 3.
t

om

()

.v
n

Li gii 1. Do x 0 khng l nghim nn chia 2 v cho

.c

Vi t 3, suy ra: x 8 3 x x 8 9x x 1.
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 1.
Li gii 2.

ok

() 10x 8 6 x( x 8) 0 3 x2 8x 5x 4 x 1 : tha mn iu kin.

Li gii 3.

bo

() 10x 8 6 x( x 8) 0 (3 x )2 2.(3 x ). x 8 ( x 8)2 0

et

(3 x x 8)2 0 3 x x 8 x 1 : tha mn iu kin.

()

vi

4
V d 86. Gii phng trnh: x2 3x 3 4 3x x 1
x

ng

Li gii. iu kin: x 1. Chia 2 v ca () cho x2 0, ta c:

kh
a

1 1 1 1 1 1
() 1 3 2 4 2 3
2
x x x x x x

(1)
2

1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1
1
1
t t
2
2
t 0;
x x
4 x
x 4
4 x 2
2
2
(1) 1 3t 2 (4t 2 3).t 4t 3 3t 2 3t 1 0 (4t 1)(t 2 t 1) 0 t
2

Suy ra:

1 1 1
1 1 1
1 2 3
2
0
x 8 4 3.
x x
4
x
4
x x 16

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 8 4 3.


V d 87. Gii phng trnh:

68

x x2 1 x x2 1 2

()

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Phn tch. Nhn thy

x x2 1 x x2 1 ( x x2 1) ( x x2 1) 1

v| nu t t x x2 1 th

x x2 1

x2 1 0
Li gii. iu kin:
2
x x 1 0

1
nn c li gii sau:
t

( a)

35
12 x

.v
n

1
t t x x2 1 0, khi : () t 2 t 2 2t 1 0 t 1.
t

x 1
Vi t 1, suy ra: x x2 1 1 x2 1 x 1 2
x 1.
2

x 1 ( x 1)
Kt lun: Th vo ( a), suy ra phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 1.
2

om

()
x 1
ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn Phan Ngc Hin C Mau

V d 88. Gii phng trnh: 1

et

bo

ok

.c

Phn tch. Vi iu kin x2 1 0, th v phi dng v| phng trnh c nghim


th cn thm iu kin l| x 0. Lc n|y biu thc trong cn thc c dng bc 2, do
ta cn ly tha hai v to ra dng bnh phng khi 2 v u dng, t nh
hng c php t n ph v| c li gii 1 nh sau:
x2 1 0

x 1.
iu kin:

x 0
Li gii 1. Bnh phng v t 1 n ph.

x 35
x2
2x2
1225
() x
x2 2

x 1
x2 1 12
x2 1 144

x4
x2
1225
(1)
2
2

0
2
x 1
x 1 144

ng

vi

2
1225
0
25
t 2t
t

0, khi : (1)
144
2
12
x 1
t 0

kh
a

t t

x2

25
25
25
25 x2 1 12x2 144 x4 625x2 625 0 x2
x2

12
9
16
5
5
Suy ra: x hoc x
3
4
5
5
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x , x
3
4
Li gii 2. t 2 n ph a v h phng trnh.

Vi t

69

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1
2 1
u
u 2

x
35
x

x
t

() x

(1).

2
2
2
x 1 12
v x 1
v 2 x 1 1 1

x2
x2
x

u2 v2 1
(u v)2 2uv 1

Suy ra: u v 1 v kt hp vi (1) c h 1 1 35 12



(u v) uv
u v 12
35
2

.v
n

7
12
S 2 P 1
t S u v, P uv, (S2 4P). Khi h
S , P

5
25

12S 35P

7
12
4
3
Khi u, v l nghim ca phng trnh: X 2 X
0X X
5
25
5
5

5
4
3
1 4
1 3
5
hoc u hoc x hoc x
4
5
5
x 5
x 5
3

om

Suy ra: u

8
2 x2
5 4 x2

40
x
x2 4 x2

ok

5x

5
5
, x
3
4

4 x2

bo

V d 89. Gii phng trnh:

.c

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x

()

Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 2.

x
4 x2

(1)

4 x2
x2
4 x2
4
x2
, suy ra: t 2

t 2 1.
x
4 x2
x2
x2 4 x2

ng

t t

20

vi

et

4
x2 5
x
4 x2

() 2

x
4 x2 2 4 x2
x

kh
a

5
1
(1) t 2 t 1 0 t 2 hoc t
2
2

Vi t
Vi t

4 x2
x

4 x2

4 x2
x 0
2 4 2 x 4 x2 2
x 2
2
x
x (4 x ) 4

x 0
4 x2
1
1

4 x 4 x2 4
: VNo .
2
x
2
2
x 4 x 64 0

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 2.


V d 90. Gii phng trnh:

70

27 x
8 x 25
2

125
14 0
x2

()

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

b
mx

n 0 . Khi ta thm
x2
ax2 b

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng tng qu{t

mx
ax2 b
x
bt dng: 2 a
na 0
m
n a 0. T
2
2
x
x

ax b
ax2 b
x
ax2 b 1
c php t n t
2 v| gii phng trnh bc ba theo t.
, suy ra:
x2
t
ax 2 b

Li gii. iu kin: x 0.
25

27 x
5(8 x2 25)
5 2 8 54 0

54 0
x2
x

8 x2 25
8 x2 25
x
8 x2 25 1
t t
2 Khi :
0, suy ra:
x2
t
8 x2 25
27 x

(1)

.v
n

()

.c

53 5
53 5
1
hoc t
hoc t

6
6
3
1
, suy ra:
3

Vi t

53 5
, suy ra:
6

8 x2 25

x 0
1

8 x2 25 3x 2
x 5.
3

x 25

ok

Vi t

53 5
(5 3 5) 8 x2 25 6 x
6

bo

5
1
54 0 27t 3 54t 2 5 0 t (27t 2 45t 15) 0
2
t
3

om

(1) 27t

8 x 25
2

53 5
, suy ra:
6

ng

Vi t

vi

et

x 0
x 0

: VNo .

2
2
2
(70

30
5)(8
x

25)

36
x
(560

174)
x

25(70

30
5)

8 x 25
2

53 5
(5 3 5) 8 x2 25 6 x
6

kh
a

x 0
x 0

VNo .
2
2
2
(70 30 5)(8 x 25) 36 x
(524 240 5)x 1750 750 5 0

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 5.


V d 91. Gii phng trnh: 2x2 3x 7 3 3 4x 4 0

()

Hc sinh gii Tp. H Ni nm 2015


Phn tch. Phng trnh c 1 cn thc v| s dng casio tm c 1 nghim duy nht
x 1 nn se c rt nhiu c{ch gii. }y ti xin c trnh b|y phng ph{p t n
s ph bng h s bt nh, tc i tm c{c s a, b, c sao cho tha mn ng nht
thc: 2x2 3x 7 a.(4x 4)2 b.(4x 4) c 16a.x2 (32a 4b).x 16a 4b c.
16a 2; 32a 4b 3
1
7
a , b , c 12.
T ng nht h s thu h:
16
a

4
b

7
8
4

71

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
1
7
() (4 x 4)2 (4 x 4) 3 3 4 x 4 12 0
8
4

(1)

t t 3 4x 4 t 3 4x 4 t 6 (4x 4)2 . Khi :


1
7
(1) t 6 t 3 3t 12 0 t 6 14t 3 24t 96 0
8
4
2 4
(t 2) (t 4t 3 12t 2 18t 24) 0

(2)
(3)

t 14t 24t 96 0
: v nghim khi t 0.
Nu t 0, th (2) 6
3

t 14t 24t 96 0
Nu t 0, th t 4 4t 3 12t 2 18t 24 0, nn (3) (t 2)2 0 t 2.
3

.v
n

om

Suy ra: 3 4x 4 2 4x 4 8 x 1.
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 1.

.c

Bnh lun. Do nhm nghim x 1 bng casio nn d d|ng tm c t 3 4x 4 2


trong c{ch chia Hoocner ca phng trnh (2). Hn na, do tnh cht nghim duy
nht nn ta cn {nh gi{ cm t 4 4t 3 12t 2 18t 24 lun dng nh trn. Bn

ok

cht b|i n|y xut ph{t t VMO 1995: 2x2 11x 21 3 3 4x 4 0, ( x 3).

()

bo

V d 92. Gii phng trnh: x4 2x3 x 2( x2 x) 0

Phn tch. Ta c: x4 2x3 x a( x2 x)2 b( x2 x) ax4 2ax3 (a b)x2 bx v

ng

vi

et

a 1
a 1

T c li gii sau:
ng nht h s c h phng trnh: 2a 2
b 1
a b 1

2
Li gii. iu kin: x x 0 x 0 hoc x 1.

kh
a

() ( x2 x)2 ( x2 x) x2 x . 2 0

(1)

t t x2 x 0 t 2 x2 x t 4 ( x2 x)2 . Khi :
(1) t 4 t 2 t. 2 0 t.(t 3 t 2) 0 t 0 hoc t 2.

Vi t 0, suy ra:

x2 x 0 x2 x 0 x 0 hoc x 1.

Vi t 2 , suy ra: x2 x 2 x2 x 2 0 x 1 hoc x 2.


Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 0, x 1, x 2.
V d 93. Gii phng trnh: ( x2 3x 2) 3x 2 2x3 6x2 4x 0

()

Phn tch. Nh}n th}y , c{c hng t c mi lin h vi nhau bi biu thc 3x 2 nu
bin i : () x2 3x 2 (3x 2) 3x 2 2x3 2x(3x 2) 0. T o ta co th

72

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

gii theo 2 c{ch: mt la chia hai v cho (3x 2) 3x 2 , ri t t, hai la t trc tip
biu thc t 3x 2 0, a v phng trnh ng cp bc ba.
2
iu kin: 3x 2 0 x
3
() x2 3x 2 (3x 2). 3x 2 2x3 2x.(3x 2) 0

(1)

Li giai 1. t mt n ph sau khi chia.


3

Trng hp 1. Nu x

2
2
2
, th (1) 2 0 : sai nn x khng l
3
3
3

.v
n

nghim ca phng trnh (1).


2
Trng hp 2. Nu x , chia 2 v ca (1) cho (3x 2) 3x 2 0 :
3
3

1
, suy ra:
2

x
3x 2

1
3x 2 2 x 4 x2 3x 2 0 : v nghim.
2

bo

Vi t

ok

.c

om

x
x
x
x
0.
(1)
0, (2). t t
1 2
2
3x 2
3x 2
3x 2
3x 2
1
t
(2) 2t 3 t 2 2t 1 0 (
t 1)(2t 2 3t 1) 0 2t 2 3t 1 0 2

0
t 1

x 1
1 3x 2 x x 2 3x 2 0

3x 2
x 2
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 1, x 2.
Li giai 2. t mt n ph a v phng trnh ng cp bc 3, hai bin.
x

vi

et

Vi t 1, suy ra:

ng

t t 3x 2 0. Khi : (1) x2t 2xt 2 t 3 2x3 0

kh
a

Trng hp 1. Nu t 0 3x 2 0 x

Trng hp 2. Nu t 0 x

(2)

2
th (1) khng tha.
3

2
, chia hai v cho (2) cho t 3 0, c:
3

x 3 x 2
x
x
2 2 1 0
3x 2 x
1
x 1
t t
t
(2)
t

3x 2 2 x
x 1
x 2
x
0
t 2

t
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 1, x 2.

V d 94. Gii phng trnh: x4 2x3 2x2 2x 1 ( x3 x)

1 x2
x

()

73

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. Nu t iu kin thng thng th 1 x 1, x 0 v| a x v|o cn


thc trit tiu i mu s trong cn, nhm cho b|i to{n n gin hn th phi chia ra
hai trng hp, rt phc tp. Nhng nu ta biu thc v phi c th bin i:
x4 2x3 2x2 2x 1 ( x2 x)2 ( x 1)2 0, v| lc n|y phng trnh c
nghim th cn thm iu kin ko theo l| x3 x 0 x 0 nn iu kin cui cng
l 0 x 1. Lc a v|o cn thc khng cn chia ra hai trng hp. Ngo|i ra khi
a x v|o cn thc c v phi l| ( x2 1) x x3 , da vo n, ta ph}n tch biu
thc ngo|i cn theo biu thc tch s: x4 2x3 2x2 2x 1 a.( x2 1)2 b.( x x3 )

(1)

x x3
x x3
x x3 1
2
00 2
1 (loi) hoc 2

2
x

1
x

1
x

.c

x x3
(1) 1 2. 2
x 1

om

() ( x2 1)2 2( x x3 ) ( x2 1) x x3 0

.v
n

ax4 bx3 2x2 bx 1 v| ng nht h s c a 1, b 2. Mc ch ca vic


ph}n tch n|y l| d d|ng x{c nh lng chia a v phng trnh bc ba.
Li gii. iu kin: 0 x 1.

ok

2 x x3 x2 1 x4 4x3 2x2 4x 1 0 x2

1
4 x 2 0
2
x
x

1
1
, suy ra: t 2 x2 2 2 nn: (2) t 2 4t 4 0 t 2.
x
x
2

2
x

1 0
1

x 2 1.
Suy ra: x 2
x

0 x 1

et

bo

t t x

vi

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 2 1.


x x2 6

ng

V d 95. Gii phng trnh:

4
x2 x
x 1

()

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D
2; 3 \1 Khi :

kh
a

() (3 x)( x 2)
2 x2 x 2
x 1

2(3 x)
(1)
(3 x)( x 2)
( x 1)( x 2)
x 1
Do x 1, x 2 khng l nghim ca (1), nn chia (1) cho ( x 1)( x 2) 0 :

(1)

1
3x
1
3x
1
3x

th:

1, (2). t t
2
x 1 x 2
x 1 x 2
( x 1) x 2

(2) 2t 2 t 1 0 t 1 hoc t

74

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x 1
2 x 1
3x

1 x 3 x

2
x 1 5
x2

(1

x
)

x 2
2

1
3x

1
Vi t
x 1 x 2

Vi t

1 x 3
1
3x 1
3x

2
x1 3 x
x 2.
x 1 x 2 2
x2
( x 1)2
4
x2

Kt lun: So iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 1, x

1 5
, x 2.
2

BT 110. Gii phng trnh: x( x 4) x2 4x ( x 2)2 2.

.v
n

BI TP RN LUYN DNG 1

(x )

BT 111. Gii phng trnh: ( x 1)( x 3) 2x x 3 2 ( x 1) .


2

om

BT 112. Gii phng trnh: ( x 1) 5 x 2x 4.


2

(x )
(x )

2x2 5x 2 2 2x2 5x 6 1.

(x )

BT 114. Gii phng trnh:

x 1 x2 4x 3 ( x 2)3 .

(x )

.c

BT 113. Gii phng trnh:

3 x
x2

43 x

vi

ng

BT 119. Gii phng trnh: 5 x

(x )

8 3( x 2 x ).

BT 118. Gii phng trnh: 10 x 3


5
2 x

3x
x3
2x

13 x 0.

(x )

1
4.
2x

(x )
(x )

kh
a

BT 120. Gii phng trnh: x2 3 x4 x2 2x 1.


x2 6
6 0.
x

(x )

4x 16x2 9 4x 16x2 9 4.

(x )

BT 121. Gii phng trnh: x2 6 x x


BT 122. Gii phng trnh:
BT 123. Gii phng trnh:

(x )

(x )

6 2 x 5x.

et

BT 117. Gii phng trnh:

3x

bo

BT 116. Gii phng trnh:

ok

BT 115. Gii phng trnh: 3 2x2 2x 12 2 16x x2 6 6 x.

9
2x

1 0.
2
x
2 x2 9

(x )

BT 124. Gii phng trnh: 2x2 11x 21 3 3 4x 4 0.

(x )

BT 125. Gii phng trnh: 4(2x 1) 3( x 2x) 2x 1 2( x 5x). ( x )


2

BT 126. Gii phng trnh: 5.(8x2 11x) 27.(2x 1) 3x 2.

(x )

BT 127. Gii phng trnh: ( x2 x)2 ( x 1)2 ( x2 1) x x3 .

(x )
75

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

BT 128. Gii phng trnh:


BT 129. Gii phng trnh:

2 x2 2
5
2x 1 x2

1
1
4x
x
x2

(x )

x4 x2 1
2 0.
x2 (1 x2 )

(x )

BT 130. Gii phng trnh: x3 3x2 6x 2( x 2) x 2 0.


BT 131. Gii phng trnh:

2 x x2 8

6
x2 x.
x3

(x )

BT 132. Gii phng trnh: x2 7 x 1 4 x4 x2 1.

(x )

.v
n

2. Dng 2. a. f ( x) b. g( x) 2ab. f ( x).g( x) h( x)

(x )

om

Nhn dng: C cha cc hng t loi tng tch hoc hiu tch.
Phng php gii:
Bc 1. t t tng hoc t hiu, suy ra: t 2 ......
Bc 2. Gii phng trnh vi bin mi theo t , suy ra x.

.c

tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:


3 x 6 x 3 (3 x)(6 x)

ok

V d 96. Gii phng trnh:

()

bo

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng tng tch, khi ta se t t 3 x 6 x 0,


suy ra t 2 ( 3 x 6 x )2 9 2 (3 x)(6 x), biu din bin x ht theo t.

et

Li gii. iu kin: 3 x 6.

Suy ra:

t2 9
Khi :
2

t2 9
t 2 2t 3 0 t 1 (loi) hoc t 3 (nhn).
2

ng

() t 3

(3 x)(6 x)

vi

t t 3 x 6 x 0, suy ra:

3 x 6 x 3 9 2 (3 x)(6 x) 9 x 3 hoc x 6.

kh
a

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim x 3, x 6.


V d 97. Gii phng trnh:
Phn tch. Sau khi phn tch

2x 3 x 1 3x 2 2x2 5x 3 16

()

2x2 5x 3 (2x 1)( x 1) th phng trnh c

dng tng tch. Nu t t 2x 3 x 1 0 t 2 3x 2 (2x 3)( x 1) 4,


th phn bin s cn li biu din c ht theo t v| c li gii sau:
Li gii. iu kin: x 1.
t t 2x 3 x 1 0 suy ra: t 2 3x 2 (2x 3)( x 1) 4.

() t t 2 20 t 2 t 20 0 t 5 (nhn) hoc t 4 (loi).


Suy ra:
76

2x 3 x 1 5 3x 4 2 (2x 3)( x 1) 25

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1 x 7
2 2 x2 5x 3 21 3x 2
x 3.

x 146 x 429 0
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 3.

V d 98. Gii phng trnh: 3 2 x 6 2 x 4 4 x2 10 3x

()

i hc khi B nm 2011
Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng hiu tch, nu ta t t 2 x 2 2 x , suy ra:

() 3( 2 x 2 2 x ) 10 3x 4 4 x2

.v
n

t 2 10 3x 4 4 x2 se biu din ht c{c bin cn li theo t v| c li gii sau:


Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 2.

(1)

t t 2 x 2 2 x , suy ra: t ( 2 x 2 2 x ) 10 3x 4 4 x2 .
2

Vi t 0, suy ra:

om

(1) 3t t 2 t 0 hoc t 3.

2 x 2 2 x 2 x 8 4x x

.c

VT 2 x 2
2 x 2 2 x 3 c
, x
2; 2

VP 2 2 x 3 3
nn phng trnh s v nghim khi t 3.
6
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x
5

bo

ok

Vi t 3, suy ra:

()

et

V d 99. Gii phng trnh: 3.( 2x 1 x 2x 11) 4 2x2 x

vi

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng tng tch:

2x 1 x ,

2x2 x (2x 1)x .

ng

Do ta se t t 2x 1 x v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:


Li gii. iu kin: x 0.

kh
a

() 3.( 2x 1 x ) 2.(3x 2 2 x2 x ) 33

(1)

t t 2x 1 x 0, suy ra: t 1 3x 2 2x x .
2

(1) 3t 2(t 2 1) 33 2t 2 3t 35 0 t 5 (nhn) hoc t

7
(loi).
2

Suy ra: 2x 1 x 5 3x 1 2 2x2 x 25 2 2x2 x 24 3x

0 x 8
0 x 8

2
x 4.
2
2
4(2 x x) (3x 24)
x 148 x 576 0

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht l x 4.


V d 100. Gii phng trnh: x 4 x2 2 3x 4 x2

()

thi th i hc 2013 THTP Ng Gia T Bc Ninh


77

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng tng tch, khi ta se t t tng se c li gii 1.
Cn nu t y 4 x2 0 se a c v h i xng loi I v| c li gii 2.

4
4
2 14
2 x
4 x2 x
x

3
3
3
9 x2 12 x 10 0

om

4
Vi t , suy ra:
3

.v
n

iu kin: 4 x2 0 2 x 2.
Li gii 1. t t tng gii phng trnh bc 2 vi n t x.
t2 4
t t x 4 x2 , suy ra: t 2 4 2 x 4 x2 x 4 x2

2
4
t2 4
() t 2 3
3t 2 2t 8 0 t 2 hoc t
3
2

x 0
2x2
Vi t 2, suy ra: x 4 x2 2 4 x2 2 x 2

2 x 4 x 0
x 2

.c

Kt lun: So iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 0, x 2, x

2 14

Li gii 2. t n ph a v h i xng loi I.

ok

x2 y 2 4
( x y)2 2 xy 4

t y 4 x2 0, suy ra:

x y 2 3xy
x y 2 3xy

kh
a

ng

vi

et

bo

10
xy
(2 3xy)2 2 xy 4 0
9( xy)2 10 xy 0
xy 0

x y 2
x y 2 3xy
x y 2 3xy
x y 4

2 14
2 14
x

x
x 0
x 2

3
3

2 14
2 14
y 2
y 0

y
0 ( L)
y

3
3

2 14

3
Li gii 3. t n ph a v h v gii bng phng php th.

x2
y
0

2
2
3x 1

1
x y 4

, x
t y 4 x 0, suy ra:
2
3
x y 2 3xy
x2 x 2 4

3x 1

Kt lun: So iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 0, x 2, x

x( x 2)(9x2 12x 10) 0 x 0, x 2, x

78

2 14

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x 0, x 2
x2
Kt lun: So vi iu kin v thay vo y
0, nghim l
2 14
3x 1
x

V d 101. Gii phng trnh:

1
1

2
x
2 x2

()

Phn tch. t iu kin, qui ng, b mu th () 2 x2 x 2x 2 x2 se tr


v dng c bn tng tch nh trn v| c c{c li gii chi tit nh sau:

(1)

.v
n

Tp xc nh: D ( 2; 2)\0 Khi : () 2 x2 x 2x 2 x2

Li gii 1. t t tng gii phng trnh bc 2 vi n t x.


(1) t t 2 2 t 2 t 2 0 t 1 hoc t 2.

1 3
x 1
2 x2 1 x 2
x

2 x 2 x 1 0
x 2

2 x2 2 x 2
x 1.

2 x 4 x 2 0

.c

Vi t 1, suy ra:

om

t t 2 x2 x , suy ra: t 2 2 2x 2 x2 2x 2 x2 t 2 2.

ok

Vi t 2, suy ra:

bo

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 1, x

1 3

Li gii 2. t n ph a v h i xng loi I.

et

x2 y 2 2
( x y)2 2 xy 2

t y 2 x2 0, suy ra:

x y 2 xy
x y 2 xy

kh
a

ng

vi

1 3

1
2
x

xy

1
2(
xy
)

xy

0
xy

2
x

2
y

1
x

2
xy

1 3

x y 1

2
1 3

2
Li gii 3. t n ph a v h v gii bng phng php th.

x
y 2x 1 0
2
2

1
x y 2

, x
t y 2 x2 0, suy ra:
2
2

x y 2 xy
x2 x 2

2
x

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 1, x

x 1
2 x 2 x 3x 4 x 1 0 ( x 1)(2 x 3 x 1) 0

x 1 3

2
4

79

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Kt lun: So vi iu kin v y

1 3
x

0, nghim l x 1, x
2x 1
2

V d 102. Gii phng trnh: x3 (1 x2 )3 x 2 2x2

.v
n

Nhn xt. Dng tng qu{t ca hai v d n|y l| ax b a2 x2 c dx b a2 x2 . Khi


t2 b
, ta c 2 hng i thng gp, mt l| t t ax b a2 x2 x b a2 x 2
,
2
se thu c phng trnh bc hai theo bin t gii c, t tm bin x. Hai l| t
a2 x 2 y 2 b

n ph y b a2 x2 0, suy ra h
v| gii h n|y theo 2 c{ch kh{c

ax y c dxy
nhau, l| h i xng loi I (a v tng tch) hoc gii bng phng ph{p th.

()

om

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Chuyn Hong L Kha Ty Ninh

ok

.c

Phn tch. Nhn thy phng trnh c dng tch x. 1 x2 nhng thiu tng. ,
2
t2 1
2
2
t

2
x
1

x
1

, lc
nu t t x 1 x2 , suy ra
2
t 3 x 3 (1 x 2 )3 3x 1 x 2 .( x 1 x 2 )

t2 1
t 3 3t
t2 1
t
; x 2 2x2
v| c{c bin biu
2
2
2
din ht theo t. Hng ng thc thng s dng l|: (a b)3 a3 b3 3ab(a b).

bo

c: x3 (1 x2 )3 t 3 3

vi

et

iu kin: 1 x 1.
Li gii 1. t t tng gii phng trnh bc 3 vi n t x.
t2 1
t 3 3t
t t x 1 x2 , suy ra: x 2 2 x2
v x3 (1 x2 )3

2
2

12 12 . x2 1 x2 2 t 1; 2 .

t 3 2t t 2 1

t 3 2t 2 3t 2 0 (t 2).(t 2 2 2t 1) 0
2
2

kh
a

()

Cauchy Schwarz

ng

Ta c: t 1.x 1. 1 x2

t 2 (nhn) hoc t 1 2 (nhn) hoc t 1 2 (loi).

2
x 2
Vi t 2 , suy ra: 1 x2 2 x
x

2
2
2
x

2
2
x

Vi t 1 2 , suy ra:

1 x2 1 2 x x

1 2 2 2 1

2
1 2 2 2 1
, x

2
2
Li gii 2. t n ph a v h i xng loi I.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim l x

80

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


2
2
2

x y 1
( x y) 2 xy 1
t y 1 x 0, suy ra: 3

3
3

x y xy 2
( x y) 3xy( x y) xy 2

S2 1
S2 2 P 1
S x y
P
2

t
, (S 4 P) th h 3
2
P xy
S 3PS P 2
S3 2S2 3S 2 0

S 2
S 1
P

S 1 2

2
1
(S 2)(S2 2 2S 1) 0
P
P 1 2

x y 2
2
1 2 2 2 1

x y 1 2

x
, x

Suy ra:

1
2
2
xy
xy 1 2

Gii phng trnh:


1
4
(4 x 1) 2

9 2x
4x

1 2(4 x)
4x

4x 1

15
2

()

2 4 x 4x 1
4 x . 4x 1

15
2

(1)

vi

(2 4 x 4 x 1)

4x 1

15
1
2
15

2 4 x 4x 1

2
4x
4x 1 2

et

()

4x 3

bo

Li gii. iu kin: x 4.

ok

V d 103.

2
1 2 2 2 1
, x

2
2

.c

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim l x

om

.v
n

t t 2 4 x 4x 1, suy ra: t 2 17 4 4 x . 4x 1
t 2 17
0 t 17.
4

ng

4 x 4x 1

kh
a

M: t 1. 16 4x 1. 4x 1

Cauchy Schwarz

12 12 . ( 16 4 x )2 ( 4 x 1)2 34.

Do iu kin ca t l t 17 ; 34

4t
15
(1) t 2

2t 3 15t 2 26t 255 0 t 5.


t 17 2
Vi t 5, suy ra: 2 4 x 4x 1 5 4 x 4x 1 2 4x2 15x 0
15
x 0 hoc x
4
15
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c 2 nghim l x 0, x
4

81

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Nhn xt. Trong rt nhiu b|i to{n, dng tng tch hoc hiu tch cha xut hin
hoc kh thy m| qua mt v|i php bin i mi ph{t hin c. Hn na trong mt s
trng hp ta cn tm iu kin chnh x{c th vic gii phng trnh bc cao se d
d|ng, c bit l| phng trnh cha tham s. C{ch tm min chn hiu qu nht l| tm
GTLN, GTNN ca t 2 4 x 4x 1, (xem t l| y) bng phng ph{p h|m s.
trn ti s dng BT Cauchy Schwarz dng: ax by a2 b2 x2 y 2 .
BI TP RN LUYN DNG 2
x 2 5 x ( x 2)(5 x) 4.

(x )

BT 134. Gii phng trnh:

x 2 x 2 2 x2 4 2x 2.

(x )

.v
n

BT 133. Gii phng trnh:

BT 135. Gii phng trnh: 2( x 3 10 x ) 30 7 x x2 4.

(x )

2x 3 4 x 3x 6 5x 2x2 12 23.

BT 137. Gii phng trnh:

5 2x 5 2x 5 3 25 4x2 .

om

BT 136. Gii phng trnh:

(x )

BT 138. Gii phng trnh: 3( x 7 6 x ) 2 x x 42 3 0. ( x )


BT 139. Gii phng trnh:

.c

3x 2 x 1 4x 9 2 3x2 5x 2. ( x )

ok

BT 140. Gii: (13 4x) 2x 3 (4x 3) 5 2 x 2 8 16 x 4 x2 15. ( x )

3x 1 (4 3x)

3x 1
4 3x 5.
4 3x

(x )
(x )

et

BT 142. Gii phng trnh:

bo

BT 141. Gii phng trnh: 7 3x 7 (4x 7) 7 x 32.

BT 143. Gii phng trnh: 13x 20 5x 3x2 2 4 3x 1 10 2 x 9.

vi

BT 144. Gii phng trnh: (2 1 x2 )( 1 x 1 x ) 4 1 x2 2 x2 2.

(x )

BT 146. Gii phng trnh: x 26 x2 x 26 x2 11.

(x )

BT 147. Gii phng trnh: 2x 5 4x2 x 5 4x2 2.

(x )

BT 148. Gii phng trnh: 3x 10 9x2 5 x 10 9x2 .

(x )

BT 149. Gii phng trnh: x 17 x2 x 17 x2 9.

(x )

BT 150. Gii phng trnh: 2x2 x x2 3 2x x2 3 9.

(x )

BT 151. Gii phng trnh: x 3 35 x3 ( x 3 35 x3 ) 30.

(x )

kh
a

ng

BT 145. Gii phng trnh: x 5 x2 5x 5 x2 7.

BT 152. Gii phng trnh:


BT 153. Gii phng trnh:

82

6 2x
5x
1 x

6 2x

5x
1 x
4


17 4 x
17 4 x 5

(x )
(x )

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

3. Dng 3. n a f ( x) m b f ( x) c
Nhn dng: Ch s cn thc lch bc hoc ng bc cao.
Phng php gii:
n

un vm a b
u n a f ( x)
u a f ( x)

t
m

, suy ra u, v x.
m b f ( x)
u v c
v

f
(
x
)

tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:


Gii phng trnh: 5 x 1 2 3 7 x 6 4

()

.v
n

V d 104.

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn Nguyn Ch Thanh k Nng


Phn tch. B|i to{n c 2 cn thc lch bc nhau, nn ta se t hai n ph l| 2 cn

ok

.c

om

u2 x 1 (1)
u x 1 0

thc, tc t
. Khi , ta cn c}n bng h s trc
3
3
(2)
v

7
x

6
v

7
x

x, tc phng trnh (1) se nh}n 2 v cho 7 sau khi tr (mt s b|i cng) nhm trit
tiu x se thu c 1 phng trnh mi vi n l| u, v. Cn phng trnh th 2 c

ly t b|i tc lun c 5u 2v 4. Khi gii h n|y tm c u, v x.

bo

Li gii. iu kin: x 1 0 x 1.

(1)

T phng trnh () 5u 2v 4

(2)

et

u2 x 1
7u2 7 x 7
u x 1 0

t
3
3
7 u2 v 3 1
3

v 7 x 6
v 7 x 6
v 7 x 6

kh
a

ng

vi

2v 4
u
7u2 v 3 1
5
(1), (2) suy ra h:

2
5u 2v 4
7 2v 4 v 3 1
5

2v 4

2v 4
u 2
u
u

5
5
v 3
25v3 28v2 112v 87 0
( v 3)(25v2 47 v 29) 0

u 2
, suy ra:
Vi
v 3

x 3
x1 2

x 3.
3
x 3

7x 6 3

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 3.


V d 105.

Gii phng trnh:

7 16x 2. 2x 8 5

()

Hc sinh gii tnh Qung Nam nm 2014 2015

Li gii. iu kin: 2x 8 0 x 4.
83

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


3
3
3

u 7 16 x
u 7 16 x
u 7 16 x
t
2
2
u3 8v2 71

v 2 x 8 0
v 2 x 8
8v 16 x 64

(1)

T phng trnh () u 2v 5

(2)

5u
v

5u

u 8v 71
2

v
(1), (2)

2
2

u 2v 5
u3 8 5 u 71 u3 2u2 20u 21 0

.v
n

1 85
1 85

5u
u

u
u 1
v

2
2

2
11 85
11 85
v 3
(u 1)(u2 u 21) 0

v
v

om

1
x
3

7 16 x 1

2 x 1

2
2x 8 3
x 1

3
1 85
1 85
u
7 16 x
39 11 85

2
2
Vi
, suy ra:
x

16
11 85
11 85

2x 8
v

3
1 85
7 16 x
39 11 85

2
x

16
11 85

2x 8

vi

et

1 85
u

2
Vi
, suy ra:
11 85

v
4

bo

ok

.c

u 1
, suy ra:
Vi
v 3

ng

1
39 11 85
, x

2
16
Nhn xt. Sau khi a v h phng trnh c bn gii bng phng ph{p th, ta nn
chn vic rt u theo v hoc v theo u sao cho khai trin hng ng thc bc 2, khng nn
khai trin hng ng thc bc 3, kh{ phc tp.

kh
a

Kt lun: So iu kin, phng trnh c 3 nghim l x

V d 106.

Gii phng trnh: 2 3 3x 2 3 6 5x 8 0

()

i hc khi A nm 2009
6
5

Li gii. iu kin: 6 5x 0 x
3
3
3

u 3x 2
u 3x 2
5u 15x 10
2
2
5u3 3v2 8.
t
v

5
x
3
v

18

15
x

v 6 5x 0

84

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

2u 3v 8 0
Kt hp vi bi c h phng trnh: 3
2

5u 3v 8

8 2u
u 2
v

3
v 4
15u3 4u2 32u 40 0

u 2
Vi
, suy ra:
v 4

3x 2 8
x 2
3x 2 2

x 2.

6 5x 16
x 2

6 5x 4

Gii phng trnh:

x5 3 x2 1

Tp xc nh: D .
Li gii 1. t 2 n ph gii h phng trnh.

()

om

V d 107.

.v
n

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 2.

.c

u3 x 5
u3 v3 7
u v 1
u x 5

t
3

2
2
3
u v 1
(u v)(u uv v ) 7

v x 2
v x 2

x 5 8
x 3
x5 2

x 3.
3
x 2 1
x 3

x2 1

bo

u 2
, suy ra:
Vi
v 1

ok

u v 1 u 2
u 1
u v 1

2
(u v) 3uv 7
uv 2
v 1
v 2

ng

vi

et

x 5 1
x 6
x 5 1

x 6.
3
x 2 8
x 6

x 2 2
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 2 nghim x 6, x 3.

u 1
, suy ra:
Vi
v 2

Li gii 2. Ly tha 2 v, th v gii phng trnh h qu (bi hc 1).


(1)

kh
a

() 7 3. 3 ( x 5)( x 2).( 3 x 5 3 x 2) 1

Th

x 5 3 x 2 1 vo (1) 7 3. 3 ( x 5)( x 2) 1

3 ( x 5)( x 2) 2 x2 3x 18 0 x 3 hoc x 6.

Kt lun: Th vo (), phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 6, x 3.


Nhn xt. gii bng phng ph{p ly tha, cn nh hai hng ng thc vit di
( a b)3 a3 3a2 b 3ab2 b3 a3 b3 3ab(a b)

dng:
v| kim tra li nghim.
3
3
2
2
3
3
3

( a b) a 3a b 3ab b a b 3ab(a b)

V d 108.

Gii phng trnh:

x2 1 3 x2 18 5

()

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
85

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


3 2
3
3

u3 x2 1

u 5 v
u x 1

v u 19

t
3

2
2
3 2
u v 5
2v 15v 75v 144 0
v x 18

v x 18

u 2

, suy ra:
v 3

3 2

x2 1 8
x 3
x 1 2

2
x2 9

3 2

x 3
x 18 3
x 18 27

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 3, x 3.


V d 109.

Gii phng trnh:

56 x 4 x 41 5

()

Li gii. iu kin: 41 x 56.

om

.v
n

u4 56 x
u4 v4 97
(u2 v2 )2 2(uv)2 97
u 56 x 0

t
4

4
u v 5
u v 5

v x 41
v x 41 0
2(uv)2 100(uv) 528 0
uv 44
uv 6
u 3
u 2

u v 5
u v 5
v 2
v 3
u v 5

ok

.c

u 3
56 x 81 x 25
, suy ra:

x 25.
Vi
v 2
x 41 16
x 25
4

u 2
56 x 16
x 40
56 x 2
, suy ra:
Vi

x 40.
4
v 3
x 41 81
x 40

x 41 3

Gii phng trnh:

()

x8 4 x7 3

et

V d 110.

bo

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c 2 nghim x 25, x 40.

Li gii. iu kin: x 7.

kh
a

ng

vi

4
4
4
2
2

u4 x 8

u x 8 0

u v 15
(u v)(u v)(u v ) 15
t
4

4
u v 3
u v 3
v x 7

v x 7 0
(u v)(u2 v2 ) 15
v 3 u
u 2

v 1
v 3 u
4u 18u 36u 32 0
4

u 2
x 8 16
x 8
x8 2
, suy ra:
Vi

x 8.
4
x 7 1
x 8
v 1

x7 1

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 8.


V d 111.

Gii phng trnh:

3 x ( x 2 1) x 1

Li gii. iu kin: x 2 0 x 2, suy ra:


() 3 3 x

x1
x 2 1

3 3 x x 2 1.
86

( x 2) 1
2

x 2 1

()

x 2 1 0. Khi :

( x 2 1)( x 2 1)
x 2 1

x 2 1

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


3

u3 3 x
u3 v2 5
v u 1
u 3 x

t:
2

3
2

u v 1
u v 2u 4 0
v x 2 0
v x 2

3 3 x 1

u 1
v u 1

x 2.

2
(u 1)(u 2u 4) 0
x

2
v 2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 2.


V d 112.

()

Gii phng trnh: 3( x 1 3) 3 2 x 10 x

Li gii. iu kin: x 1 0 x 1.
x 1 3 0 x 10 : tha () nn x 10 l 1 nghim ca ().
x 10

Vi x 10 x 1 3 0 th () 3 3 2 x
( x 1 3)( x 1 3)
x 1 3

( x 1)2 32
x 1 3

om

33 2 x

x 1 3

.v
n

Vi

3 3 2 x x 1 3.

u3 2 x
u3 v2 1
v 3u 3
u 2 x

t
2

3
2
3u v 3
u 9u 18u 8 0
v x 1

v x 1 0

ok

.c

bo

v 3u 3
u 1

(nhn) hoc
2

v 0
(u 1)(u 10u 8) 0

u 5 33
(loi).

v 18 3 33 0

vi

Gii phng trnh:

ng

V d 113.

et

2 x 1 2 x 1

x 1.

x 1 0
x

Kt lun: So iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim x 1, x 10.

u 1
, suy ra:
Vi
v 0

7
3

3x 7 4 14x 27 3 4 x 2

Li gii. iu kin: x , suy ra:

x 2 0.

kh
a

Khi chia hai v ca phng trnh () cho


()

()

x 2 0, ta c:

3x 7 4 14 x 27
3( x 2) 1 4 14( x 2) 1

3 4

3
x2
x2
x2
x2

4 3

1
1
4 14
3.
x2
x2

1
4
1
0
u 3
u 4 3
4
4

x2
x 2 u v 17

u v 3
1

v4 14 1
4

v 14 x 2 0
x2

v 3 u
v 3 u
4
4
2
2
3
2
u (u 6u 9) 17
2u 12u 54u 108u 64 0

87

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

u 1
u 2
v 3 u
hoc

2
(u 1)(u 2)(2u 6u 32) 0
v 2
v 1

1
1
3
1
4 3
u 1
5

x2
x2
, suy ra:
Vi

x
2
1
v 2
4
14 1 16

14 x 2 2
x2

.v
n

1
2
3
16
4 3

u 2
25

x2
x2
, suy ra:
Vi

13
1
v 1
4
14 1 1
14 x 2 1
x2

2
Nhn xt. Hnh thc ca 3 v d n|y cng tng t nh c{c v d trn nhng mang
tnh cht giu mt. Khi ta cn bin i kho lo ng thc cng nh s kt hp

om

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x

.c

tinh t c{c biu thc lin hp a v dng: n a f ( x) m b f ( x) c.

BT 154. Gii phng trnh: 2 3x 7 5. 3 x 6 4.

(x )

BT 155. Gii phng trnh: 2 6 5x 3 3 7 6x 5.

(x )

BT 156. Gii phng trnh: 4. 3 2x 1 7 x 2 1.

(x )

BT 157. Gii phng trnh: 4 5x 4 10 9x 5.

(x )

et

bo

ok

BI TP RN LUYN DNG 3

5 4x x 7 3.

(x )

24 x 12 x 6.

(x )

3 2x 3 5 3x 3.

(x )

BT 161. Gii phng trnh: 2 3 1 x2 1 x2 3.

(x )

vi

BT 158. Gii phng trnh:

ng

BT 159. Gii phng trnh:

kh
a

BT 160. Gii phng trnh:

BT 162. Gii phng trnh:

1 x 3 1 x 2.

BT 163. Gii phng trnh: 2 3 5x 8 3 3 22 2x 12.

(x )
(x )

BT 164. Gii phng trnh:

5 x x 1 2.

(x )

BT 165. Gii phng trnh:

5 x 12 x 3.

(x )

BT 166. Gii phng trnh:

47 2x 4 35 2x 4.

(x )

BT 167. Gii phng trnh:

x 1 x2 2x 5 2.

(x )

BT 168. Gii phng trnh:

x2 x 2 2x2 2x 3 3.

(x )

3 2x .(2 3x 2 1) 3(4 x 3).

(x )

BT 169. Gii phng trnh:


88

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

(x )

BT 170. Gii phng trnh: 3 3 3x 2.(7 4x 3) 26 2x.


4 3x

8 5x

(x )

BT 171. Gii phng trnh:

BT 172. Gii phng trnh:

3x 1 4 4x 1 2 4 x 1.

BT 173. Gii phng trnh:

9 x 4 4 3x 2 2 4 1 6 x .

BT 174. Gii phng trnh:

x 12x 3 x 3x 3 x .

(x )

BT 175. Gii phng trnh:

7 x 2x 13 x 3 3x x 8.

(x )

BT 176. Gii phng trnh:

x 4x 6 x x 3 2 x 2.

(x )

x 4 x 17
4 x 5x 26
1 4

2
x x 17
x2 x 7

(x )

2 5x 4

4. Dng 4. a n A2 b n A.B c n B2 0
Phng php gii: c 2 hng x l

om

BT 177. Gii phng trnh:

(x )
4

.v
n

(x )

.c

Hng 1. t 2 n ph u n A , v n B , a v phng trnh ng


cp bc hai dng a.u2 b.uv c.v2 0.

ok

Hng 2. Chia trc tip cho lng khc 0, chng hn

B2 0,

bo

A
A
c phng trnh bc hai dng: a n b n c 0.
B
B

et

tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:

()

Gii phng trnh: 4 3 ( x 2)2 7 3 4 x2 3 3 (2 x)2 0

vi

V d 114.

Tp xc nh: D .

ng

Li gii 1. t 2 n ph a v phng trnh ng cp bc hai.


t u 3 x 2, v 3 2 x . Khi : () 4u2 7uv 3v2 0

(1)

kh
a

Do x 2 khng l nghim ca () nn xt x 2, suy ra: v 3 2 x 0 v chia


2 v phng trnh (1) cho v2 0, ta c:
2

u
u
u
u 3
(1) 4 7 3 0 1 hoc u v hoc 4u 3v.
v 4
v
v
v

Vi u v, suy ra:

x 2 3 2 x x 2 2 x x 0.

Vi 4u 3v, suy ra: 4 3 x 2 3 3 2 x 64( x 2) 27(2 x) x

74

91

74

91
Li gii 2. Chia v t n ph a v phng trnh bc hai.

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c hai nghim l x 0, x


Do x 2 khng l nghim ca () nn chia 2 v cho

(2 x)2 0, ta c:

89

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


2

x2
x2
() 4 3
30
7
2x
2
x

x2
1 hoc
2x

Gii tng t ta c 2 nghim cn tm l x 0, x

x2 3

2x 4

74

91

()

Gii phng trnh: 2 4 (1 x)2 3 4 1 x2 4 (1 x)2 0

V d 115.

iu kin: 1 x 1.
Li gii 1. t 2 n ph a v phng trnh ng cp bc hai.
t u 4 1 x 0, v 4 1 x 0. Khi : () 2u2 3uv v2 0

.v
n

(1)

Do v 0 1 x 0 x 1 khng l nghim nn chia 2 v cho v 0 :


2

Vi u v, suy ra:

om

u
u
u
u 1
(1) 2 3 1 0 1 hoc u v hoc 2u v.
v 2
v
v
v

1 x 4 1 x 1 x 1 x x 0.

.c

Vi 2u v, suy ra: 2. 4 1 x 4 1 x 16(1 x) 1 x x

15

17

ok

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 0, x

15

17

Li gii 2. Chia v t n ph a v phng trnh bc hai.

bo

Do x 1 khng l nghim ca phng trnh nn chia 2 v cho


2

vi

et

1 x
1 x
1 x
() 2 4
1 0 4
1 hoc
3 4
1 x
1 x
1 x

(1 x)2 0 :

1 x 1

1 x 2

V d 116.

ng

Gii tng t, ta tm c 2 nghim ca phng trnh l x 0, x


Gii phng trnh:

15

17

(2 x)2 3 (7 x)2 3 (7 x)(2 x) 3

()

kh
a

Phn tch. Thng thng th hc sinh nhm ln gia v d n|y vi hai v d trc,
n khng thuc dng: a n A2 b n A.B c n B2 0 do v phi l| hng s 0. i
vi dng n|y, ta thng t 2 n ph a v h c bn.
Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
3
3

a 2 x
a 2 x 3
t:
3
a b3 9. Kt hp vi c h phng
3

b 7 x
b 7 x

a 3 b3 9
( a b)( a2 ab b2 ) 9
a b 3
a 1 a 2

trnh 2

2
2
2
a b ab 3
a ab b 3
ab 2
b 2 b 1

a 1
Vi
, suy ra:
b 2

90

2 x 1
2x 1

x 1.
3
7x8
7

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


3

2 x 8
2x 2

x 6.
3
7 x 1

7x 1
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 1, x 6.

a 2
, suy ra:
Vi
b 1

V d 117.

()

(1 x)3 (1 x)3 2 1 x2

Gii phng trnh:

Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 1.

a 2 b2 2
( a b)2 2ab 2
a 1 x 0

t
3

3
3
a b 2 ab
( a b) 3ab( a b) 2 ab
b 1 x 0

(1)
(2)

.v
n

(1) 2ab 2 (a b)2 v th vo (2) c: (a b)3 (a b)2 6(a b) 6 0

1
1 3
1 3
3
v do a 0 a 1 x
0X
x

2
2
2
2

.c

X2 X

om

Suy ra: a b 1 hoc a b 6 hoc a b 6.


1
Vi a b 1 ab Theo Vit th a, ( b) l 2 nghim ca phng trnh
2

ok

Vi a b 6 (a b)2 6 ab 2 (loi do ab 0).


3

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim ca phng trnh l x

bo

BI TP RN LUYN DNG 4
BT 178. Gii phng trnh: 5 4 (3 x)2 2. 4 9 x2 7 4 ( x 3)2 0.
3

( x ).

( x 2)2 3 3 ( x 2)2 4 3 x2 4.

et

BT 179. Gii phng trnh:

( x ).

vi

BT 180. Gii phng trnh: 4 3 (2x 1)2 3 3 (1 2 x)2 8 3 4 x2 1.

ng

BT 181. Gii phng trnh:

( x ).

x2 6x 9 4 3 6x x2 9 5 3 9 x2 0. ( x ).

BT 182. Gii phng trnh: 2 3 (3x 1)2 3 3 (4 x 1)2 5 3 12 x2 7 x 1. ( x ).

kh
a

BT 183. Gii phng trnh:

( x ).

1 x 3 1 x 3 3 1 x2 5.

BT 184. Gii phng trnh: 3 3x 2 4 4x 3 7 12x2 17 x 6.


4

1 1 x2 (1 x)3 (1 x)3 2 1 x2 .

BT 185. Gii:

( x ).

BT 186. Gii phng trnh: 2 1 x 2 1 x2 5. 4 ( x 1)( x 1)2 .


BT 187. Gii:

BT 189. Gii phng trnh:

1
1 1 x
3

1
1 1 x

3x 2 3 4 3x

1
1 x2
2

( x ).

(3x 2)(4 3x)

( x ).
( x ).

(3x 2)2 3 (11 3x)2 3 (3x 2)(3x 11) 3.

BT 188. Gii phng trnh:

( x ).

( x ).
91

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

()

5. Dng 5. a. f ( x) b.g( x) c. f ( x).g( x)

Du hiu nhn dng: Phng trnh c 1 cn thc v biu thc trong cn


thc phn tch c thnh tch s.
Phng php gii: c 2 hng x l

Hng 1. t 2 n ph u

f ( x), v g( x), a v phng trnh

ng cp bc hai dng: a.u2 b.v2 c.uv.


Hng 2. Chia trc tip cho lng dng, chng hn g( x) 0,
f ( x)
f ( x)
c
b 0.
g( x)
g( x)

.v
n

c phng trnh bc hai dng: a

om

Mt s lu :
bi thng cho gii phng trnh vi cc dng thng gp sau y:
ax2 bx c (dx e) mx n.

ax2 bx c d mx3 nx2 px q .

.c

ax2 bx c d mx2 nx p .

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

ax2 bx c mx2 nx p dx2 ex f .

(5)

bo

ok

ax2 bx c d mx4 nx3 px2 qx r .

vi

et

Trong dng (5) ta cn chuyn v sao cho 2 v u dng v ly tha


s a v mt trong cc dng (2), (3), (4).
Thng thng, cc biu thc trong cn thc cha phn tch thnh tch s
sn m ta phi phn tch vi cc dng phn tch hay c s dng sau:
f ( x) ax2 bx c a ( x x1 ) ( x x2 ) vi x1 , x2 l 2 nghim ca f ( x) 0.

ng

Chia Hoocner i vi a thc bc cao khi nhm c nghim p.


a3 b3 (a b)(a2 ab b2 ), a2 b2 (a b)(a b).

kh
a

x4 x2 1 ( x2 1)2 x2 ( x2 1 x)( x2 1 x).


x4 1 ( x2 1)2 2x2 ( x2 x 2 1)( x2 x 2 1).

4x4 1 (2x2 1)2 4x2 (2x2 2x 1)(2x2 2x 1) ......


tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:

V d 118.

Gii phng trnh: 2x2 6x 10 5.( x 2) x 1 0

()

thi th i hc 2013 THPT L Hu Trc 1


Phn tch. Bi ton c dng c bn (1), khi ta s phn tch biu thc ngoi cn thc
theo biu thc tch s, tc tm hai s a, b tha: 2x2 6x 10 a.( x 2)2 b.( x 1)2
a 2, b 4a 6
a 2
ax2 (b 4a)x 4a b v ng nht h s c h:

4a b 10
b 2

92

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Lc ta vit li () 2( x 2)2 2( x 1)2 5.( x 2) x 1 0 v c 2 hng x


l, mt l t 2 n ph a v phng trnh ng cp, hai l chia trc tip a v
phng trnh bc hai. Ngoi ra, s dng casio ta tm c 2 nghim l x 3, x 8
nn s ghp bc nht lin hp a v nhn t ( x 3)( x 8) x2 11x 24 v c
li gii 3. Ngoi ra ta c th gii ly tha 2 v a v phng trnh bc bn v do
bit c nhn t bc hai x2 11x 24 nn s ly bc bn chia bc hai ny, thu c
bc hai phn tch thnh tch s dng bc hai nhn bc hai hoc chia Hoocner phn
tch sau khi bit 2 nghim x 3, x 8 v c li gii 4.

.v
n

iu kin: x 1. Khi : () 2( x 2)2 2( x 1)2 5.( x 2) x 1 0 (1)

Li gii 1. t 2 n ph a v phng trnh ng cp bc hai.

t a x 2, b x 1 0 th (1) 2a2 2b 5ab 0 v do x 1 khng l

om

nghim ca (1) nn chia hai v (1) cho b ( x 1)2 0 ta c phng trnh:


2

bo

ok

.c

a
a
a
a 1
2 5 2 0 2 hoc a 2b hoc 2a b.
b
2
b
b
b

x 2

x 8.
Vi a 2b, suy ra: 2 x 1 x 2 2

x 8x 0

x 2
Vi 2a b, suy ra: x 1 2( x 2) 2
x 3.

4 x 17 x 15 0

Li gii 2. Chia cho lng dng a v phng trnh bc hai.


2

et

Do x 1 khng l nghim nn chia hai v (1) cho ( x 1)2 0, ta c:

kh
a

ng

vi

x2
x2
1
x2
x2

() 2
20
2 hoc
5
x1 2
x1
x1
x1
Gii tng t nh trn ta c 2 nghim l x 3, x 8.
Li gii 3. Ghp bc nht lin hp sau khi bit x 3, x 8 l 2 nghim.
() ( x2 11x 24) ( x 2) ( x 7) 5 x 1 0

2
( x 2)( x 11x 24)
( x2 11x 24)
0
x7 5 x1

x2
( x2 11x 24) 1
0
x7 5 x1

x2 11x 24 0
x 3 x 8
x 3

x2
1
0
5 x 1 5 2 x : VN o x 1 x 8

x 7 5 x 1

Li gii 4. Ly tha. iu kin: x 2, (do : 2x2 6x 10 0).


() 2x2 6x 10 5.( x 2) x 1

93

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

(1) (2x2 6x 10)2 25( x 1)( x2 4x 4) 4x4 49x3 151x2 120x 0


5
x(4 x3 49 x2 151x 120) 0 x 0 x x 3 x 8.
4
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 3, x 8.
Nhn xt. Trong li gii 4, nu khng t iu kin cht ch th d dng nhn thm
5
hai nghim ngoi lai x 0, x , m 2 nghim ny khng tha mn phng trnh.
4
Gii phng trnh: 2( x2 x 6) 5 x3 8
()
thi th i hc 2013 THPT Chuyn Phan Bi Chu Ngh An

Phn tch. Nhn thy

.v
n

V d 119.

x3 8 ( x 2) ( x2 2x 4), do ta cn phn tch biu

thc: 2( x2 x 6) a( x 2) b( x2 2x 4) bx2 ( a 2b)x 2a 4b v ng nht

om

h s c a b 2. Khi () 2( x 2) 2( x2 2 x 4) 5 ( x 2)( x2 2 x 4)
c dng ng cp v t c cc li gii chi tit 1 v 2 nh sau:

.c

iu kin: x 2 th () 2( x 2) 2( x2 4 x 4) 5 ( x 2)( x2 4 x 4) (1)

Li gii 1. t 2 n ph a v phng trnh ng cp bc hai.

ok

t a x 2 0, b x2 2x 4 3, th (1) 2a2 2b2 5ab v chia hai v


2

ng

vi

et

bo

a
a
a
a 1
cho b 0 ta c phng trnh 2 5 2 0 2
b
b 2
b
b
a
Vi 2, suy ra: x 2 2 x2 2x 4 4x2 9x 14 0 : v nghim.
b
a 1
Vi , suy ra: x2 2x 4 2 x 2 x2 6x 4 0 x 3 13.
b 2
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 3 13.
Li gii 2. Chia cho lng dng a v phng trnh bc hai.
Cho hai v ca phng trnh (1) cho x2 2x 4 0, ta c:
2( x 2)
x2
x2
5 2
20
2
2
x 2x 4
x 2x 4
x 2x 4

kh
a

(1)

x2
1

2
x 2x 4
2

Gii tng t nh trn, ta cng c 2 nghim cn tm l x 3 13.


Li gii 3. Lin hp sau khi s dng table tm c nhn t x2 6x 4.
() 2( x2 6x 4) 5 x3 8 10 x 20 2( x2 6 x 4) 5 x3 8 (2 x 4)

Do x 2 khng l nghim nn xt x 2 x3 8 2x 4 0 th:


x3 4x2 16x 8
5( x 2)( x2 6 x 4)
2( x2 6 x 4) 5
2( x2 6 x 4)
x3 8 2 x 4
x3 8 2 x 4
x2 6 x 4 0
x 3 13

5( x 2)
( x2 6 x 4) 2
0

3
x3 8 2 x 4

x 2 ( L)
2 x 8 x 2
94

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Li gii 4. Ly tha c bc 4 v tch v bc hai nhn bc hai sau khi xc


nh c lng nhn t l x2 6x 4 bng php chia a thc.
Do x2 x 6 0 nn x3 8 0 x 2. Khi :
() (2x2 2x 12)2 25x3 200 4x4 33x3 52x2 48x 56 0
( x2 6x 4)(4x2 9x 14) 0 x 3 13.

V d 120.

Gii phng trnh: 2x2 5x 1 7 x3 1


()
ngh Olympic 30/04/2007
x3 1 ( x 1) ( x2 x 1), do ta cn phn tch biu

Phn tch. Nhn thy

.v
n

thc: 2x2 5x 1 a.( x 1) b.( x2 x 1) bx2 (a b)x b a v ng nht h s


ta c: a 3, b 2. Khi () 3.( x 1) 2.( x2 x 1) 7 ( x 1) ( x2 x 1)

() 3( x 1) 2( x2 x 1) 7 ( x 1) ( x2 x 1)

om

c dng ng cp v t c cc li gii sau:


iu kin: x3 1 0 x 1 v do x 1 khng l nghim nn ch xt x 1.
(1)

.c

Li gii 1. t 2 n ph a v phng trnh ng cp bc hai.

ok

t a x 1 0, b x2 x 1 0, th phng trnh:
2

a
a
a
a 1
(1) 3a 2b 7 ab 3 7 2 0 2 hoc
b
b
b 3
b
a
Vi 2, suy ra: x 1 2 x2 x 1 4x2 3x 5 0 : v nghim.
b
a 1
Vi , suy ra: 3 x 1 x2 x 1 x2 8x 10 0 x 4 6.
b 3
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 4 6.
Li gii 2. Chia cho lng dng a v phng trnh bc hai.
Cho hai v ca phng trnh (1) cho x2 x 1 0, ta c:
2

x 1
x 1
7 2
20
x x1
x x1
2

kh
a

(1) 3

ng

vi

et

bo

x 1
2
x x1
2

x 1
1

x x1 3
2

Gii tng t nh trn, ta c 2 nghim cn tm l x 4 6.


Li gii 3. Lin hp sau khi s dng table tm c nhn t x2 8x 10.
() 2( x2 8x 10) 7 x3 1 21x 21 2( x2 8x 10) 7( x3 1 3x 3)

2( x2 8 x 10)
2( x2 8 x 10)

7( x3 9 x2 18 x 10)
x 3 1 3x 3
7( x 1)( x2 8 x 10)
x 3 1 3x 3

x 2 8x 10 0
x 4 6
x 4 6

x 4 6.
2 x 3 1 x 1 4 x 3 x 2 2 x 5 0
x 1 (Loai)

95

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 4 6.


Li gii 4. Ly tha c bc 4 v tch v bc hai nhn bc hai sau khi xc
nh c lng nhn t l x2 8x 10 bng php chia a thc.
() (2x2 5x 1)2 49( x3 1) 4x4 29x3 21x2 10x 50 0
( x2 8x 10)(4x2 3x 5) 0 x 4 6.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 4 6.


V d 121.

Gii phng trnh:

()

30.(3x2 2x 2) 6 x3 3x2 4x 2

.v
n

Li gii. iu kin: x3 3x2 4x 2 0 ( x 1)( x2 2x 2) 0 x 1.


() 30 3( x2 2x 2) 8( x 1) 6 ( x 1)( x2 2 x 2) 0

x1
30

10
x 2x 2
2
100( x 1) 30( x2 2x 2) 30x2 40x 40 0 x 2 hoc x
3
2
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 2, x
3
2

om

V d 122.

ok

.c

8 30

x1
x1
6 2
3 30 0
x 2x 2
x 2x 2

(1)

Gii phng trnh: 3 81x4 4 27 x2 42x 6

()

bo

Phn tch. Biu thc: 81x4 4 (9x2 )2 2.9x2 .2 22 36x2 (9x2 2)2 (6x)2

vi

et

(9x2 6x 2) (9x2 6x 2) v 27 x2 42x 6 a(9x2 6x 2) b(9x2 6x 2),


ng nht h s ta c a 5, b 2 nn c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
() 3 (9x2 6x 2) (9x2 6x 2) 5(9x2 6x 2) 2(9x2 6x 2)

kh
a

ng

9x2 6x 2
9x2 6x 2
9x2 6x 2

1 x 0.
9 x2 6 x 2
9 x2 6 x 2
9 x2 6 x 2
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 0.
5

V d 123.

Gii phng trnh:

x2 ( x2 1) 1 3( x2 1) 3 3.x

()

thi hc gii tnh Tuyn Quang nm 2014 2015

Phn tch. Biu thc: x2 ( x2 1) 1 x4 x2 1 ( x4 2x2 1) x2 ( x2 1)2 x2


3( x2 3x 1) 3. a( x2 x 1) b( x2 x 1)
v ng nht h s tm c a 2, b 1 nn c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .

( x2 x 1) ( x2 x 1). Khi

() ( x2 x 1)( x2 x 1) 3. 2( x2 x 1) ( x2 x 1) 0

2 3

96

x2 x 1
x2 x 1
x2 x 1
3

2
2
2
3
x x1
x x1
x x1

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

3( x2 x 1) x2 x 1 2x2 4x 2 0 x 1.
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 1.
V d 124.

Gii phng trnh: 3x2 4x 23 3 x4 8x 63

()

Li gii. iu kin: x4 8x 63 0.
Ta c: x4 8x 63 ( x2 )2 2.x2 .8 64 (16x2 8x 1) ( x2 8)2 (4 x 1)2

( x2 4x 9)( x2 4x 7) v c: 3x2 4x 23 2( x2 4x 7) ( x2 4x 9).


() 2( x2 4x 7) ( x2 4x 9) 3 ( x2 4 x 9)( x2 4 x 7)

x2 4 x 7
x2 4 x 7
x2 4x 7
x2 4x 7 1

x2 4 x 9
x2 4x 9
x2 4x 9
x2 4x 9 2

.v
n

om

x2 4 x 7 x2 4 x 9
1
10 43
hoc x
2
x

2
4
3
4(
x

4
x

7)

4
x

()

Gii phng trnh: x2 3x 4 3 x3 6x2 11x 6

ok

V d 125.

.c

1
10 43
Kt lun: Th vo iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x , x

4
3

kh
a

ng

vi

et

bo

( x 1).( x 2 5x 6)

Phn tch. C: x 3 6 x 11x 6 ( x 1)( x 2)( x 3) ( x 2).( x 2 4 x 3)

( x 3).( x 2 3x 2)

2
2
x 3x 4 a( x 1) b( x 5x 6)
(1)
2
2
(2)
Nn s c 3 phn tch: x 3x 4 a( x 2) b( x 4 x 3)
x 2 3x 4 a( x 3) b( x 2 3x 2)
(3)

S dng h s bt nh, nhn thy ch c (1) tn ti a, b vi a 2, b 1.


Ngoi cch s dng h s bt nh ny, ta c th da vo iu kin phn tch, ngha
x 3
T
l c iu kin: x3 6 x 11x 6 0 ( x 1)( x 2)( x 3) 0
1 x 2

x3 6x 11x 6 x 1. x2 5x 6 s tha mn 2 khong iu kin nn


A 0
chn (1) ng nht hoc da vo A.B A B khi
lun c: x 1 0.
B 0
s vit:

x 3

Li gii. iu kin: x3 6 x 11x 6 0

1 x 2

() 2( x 1) ( x2 5x 6) 3 ( x 1)( x2 5x 6)

(i)

Do x 1 khng l nghim ca ( i ) nn chia 2 v ca ( i ) cho x 1 0, c:


97

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

(i)

x 2 5x 6
x 2 5x 6
x 2 5x 6
3
20
2
x 1
x 1
x 1

x 2 5x 6
1
x 1

x2 5x 6 4( x 1)
x2 9x 10 0
9 41
hoc x 3 2.
2
2
x
2
x 5x 6 x 1
x 6 x 7 0

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x


V d 126.

Gii phng trnh:

9 41
, x 3 2.
2

5x2 14x 9 x2 x 20 5 x 1

()

.v
n

HSG cc trng chuyn khu vc Duyn Hi v ng Bng Bc B nm 2010


Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng c bn A B C , do ta s t iu kin v
chuyn v sao cho 2 v u dng, sau ly tha, rt gn th thu c phng

om

trnh: 2x2 5x 2 5 ( x 1)( x2 x 20) v c x2 x 20 ( x 5)( x 4) nn c

et

bo

ok

.c

( x 1)( x 2 x 20)

cc phng n ( x 1)( x2 x 20) ( x 1)( x 5)( x 4) ( x 5)( x 2 5 x 4)

( x 4)( x 2 4 x 5)

2
2 x 5x 2 a.( x 1) b.( x 2 x 20) (1)

Lc cng c 3 ng nht tng ng 2 x2 5x 2 a.( x 5) b.( x 2 5x 4) (2)


2 x 2 5x 2 a.( x 4) b.( x 2 4 x 5) (3)

v ch thy phng n (3) l tn ti 2 s a, b vi a 3, b 2 tha mn ng nht.

ng

vi

9
x 5 x 1
5x 2 14 x 9 0

Li gii 1. iu kin: x2 x 20 0 x 4 x 5 x 5.
x 1 0
x 1

kh
a

() ( 5x2 14x 9)2 (5 x 1 x2 x 20)2

5x2 14x 9 25( x 1) x2 x 20 10 ( x 1)( x2 x 20)

2x2 5x 2 5 ( x 1)( x 4)( x 5)

(i)

3( x 4) 2( x2 4x 5) 5 ( x 4)( x2 4x 5)

x2 4 x 5
x2 4 x 5
5
30
x4
x4

x2 4 x 5
x2 4 x 5 3
1

x4
x4
2

x2 4 x 5 x 4
5 61
7
2
x
x8 x
2
4
4( x 4 x 5) 9( x 4)

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x


98

5 61
, x 8.
2

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Li gii 2. Nhn lng lin hp sau khi xc nh nhn t x2 5x 9 bng


chc nng table ca casio ca phng trnh 2x2 5x 2 5 ( x 1)( x2 x 20).
(i) 2( x2 5x 9) 5 ( x 1)( x2 x 20) ( x 4)

3
2
5( x x 29 x 36)
2( x2 5x 9)
( x 1)( x2 x 20) x 4

om

.v
n

5( x 4)
0
( x2 5x 9) 2

( x 1)( x2 x 20) x 4
x 5
x 5
2

x 5x 9 0
x 2 5x 9 0

2
(
x

1)(
x

4)(
x

5)

3(
x

4)

2 ( x 1)( x 5) 3 x 4

5 61
hoc x 8.
2

.c

Lu . Nu nhp 2X 2 5X 2 5 ( X 1)( X 2 X 20) vo my tnh v bm shift

ok

solve 9 th phng trnh cho ta nghim X 8. kim tra cn nghim hay khng
ta sa li cu trc: (2X 2 5X 2 5 ( X 1)( X 2 X 20)) : ( X 8) v bm shift

Gii phng trnh:

ng

V d 127.

vi

et

bo

solve 9 th cho nghim v t X 6.405124838 nn s lu bin li v s dng chc


nng table cho c nhn t x2 5x 9 (xem li bi hc 1). T tch ghp v c li
gii 2 nh trn. Hn na do xc nh c lng nhn t x2 5x 9, ta hon ton
c th gii bng phng php ly tha 2 v thu c phng trnh bc bn v a v
tch s ca hai phng trnh bc hai (chia a thc dnh cho bn c).
7 x2 25x 19 x2 2x 35 7 x 2

()

Tp ch Ton hc & Tui tr S 410 (8 2011)

kh
a

Li gii. iu kin: x 7.
() ( 7 x2 25x 19)2 (7 x 2 x2 2x 35)2

7 x2 25x 19 49( x 2) x2 2x 35 14 ( x 2)( x2 2x 35)

3x2 11x 22 7 ( x 2)( x 7)( x 5)

3( x2 5x 14) 4( x 5) 7 ( x 5)( x2 5x 14) 0

x 2 5x 14 4

x 5x 14
x 5x 14
x5
3
3
7
40
x 2 5x 14
x5
x5

x5
2

99

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x 7
x 7

61 11137

x
2
2

9( x 5x 14) 16( x 5) 9 x 61x 206 0

18
x2 5x 14 x 5
x2 6 x 19 0

x 3 2 7


Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 3 2 7 , x
V d 128.

Gii phng trnh:

61 11137

18

()

x3 2x2 27 x 12 2 x 1 x3

3
2

x 2 x 27 x 12 0

x 1

() ( x3 2x2 27 x 12)2 ( 1 x3 2 x )2

om

x3 2x2 27 x 12 x3 x 3 2 (1 x3 )( x 2)

.v
n

Li gii. iu kin:

2x2 26x 9 2 ( x 1)( x2 x 1)( x 2)

x 2 3x 2
x 2 3x 2

50
x2 x 1
x2 x 1
1
x 2 3x 2 x 2 x 1 x
4

x 2 3x 2
1
x2 x 1

bo

ok

.c

7( x2 3x 2) 5( x2 x 1) 2 ( x2 x 1)( x2 3x 2)

Gii PT:

4x2 24x 35 x2 3x 2 x2 7 x 12

()

vi

V d 129.

et

1
Kt lun: Th vo iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht l x
4

kh
a

ng

x 2 x 1
x 4
x2 3x 2 0

2
7
5
5

Li gii. iu kin 4 x 24 x 35 0 x x x 2
2
2
2
x 2 7 x 12 0

x 1
() ( 4x2 24x 35)2 ( x2 7 x 12 x2 3x 2)2

4x2 24x 35 2x2 10x 14 2 ( x2 7 x 12)( x2 3x 2)

2x2 14x 21 2 ( x 4)( x 3)( x 1)( x 2)

2 ( x2 6x 8)( x2 4x 3) 3( x2 6x 8) ( x2 4x 3)

(i)

3a b 0

t a x2 6x 8, b x2 4x 3. Khi (i) 2 ab 3a b
2

4ab (3a b)

3a b 0
3a b
3a b
3a b 0
2


2
(
a

b
)(9
a

b
)

0
a

b
9a 10ab b 0

9a b

100

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

3( x 2 6 x 8) x 2 4 x 3

73 25
5

x 2 6 x 8 x 2 4 x 3 x hoc x
2
8
2
2
9( x 6 x 8) x 4 x 3

73 25

8
Bnh lun. Trong bi gii trn, ti t a x2 6x 8, b x2 4x 3 thay th cho

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x

Gii phng trnh: 2x3 x2 x ( x2 6x 6) x 1

Li gii. iu kin: x 1 0 x 1.

.c

() 2x3 x( x 1) x2 6( x 1)2 x 1 0

()

om

V d 130.

.v
n

vic t a x2 6x 8 , b x2 4x 3 do cha khng nh c 2 cn thc ny


dng vi mi x tp iu kin. Hn na, do vic cha khng nh ny nn khng
th chia 2 v cho lng dng c. Nu lm nh th ta phi chia theo tng khong
ca iu kin v gii tng trng hp, di dng, phc tp, d gy sai st.

2x3 x( x 1)2 x2 x 1 6( x 1)3 0 (do x 1 khng l nghim)


3

et

bo

ok

x x
x
x
3
2
60
x 3.


2
x1
x1
x1 x1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 3.
Bnh lun. Khc vi cc th d trn, phng trnh khng a v dng ng cp bc 2
a.u2 b.uv v2 0 m a v dng ng cp bc ba a.u3 b.u2 v c.uv2 v3 0 v

d nhn nhn ta c th t y x 1 khi c 2x3 xy2 x2 y 6 y 3 0. Loi ny

vi

ta tm hiu phn t mt n ph dng 1: a. f ( x) b. n f ( x) c 0.

ng

BI TP RN LUYN DNG 5

( x ).

BT 191. Gii phng trnh: 3x 13x 37 8( x 3) x 2.

( x ).

BT 192. Gii phng trnh: 7 x2 x 2 7 x x2 x 2.

( x ).

BT 193. Gii phng trnh: 3( x 1) x2 12 9x2 20x 2.

( x ).

kh
a

BT 190. Gii phng trnh: 3( x2 1) 4x 4x 4x 3.


2

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Chuyn Bc Liu Bc Liu


BT 194. Gii phng trnh: 15x2 12x 12 10(2x 1) x2 3.

( x ).

BT 195. Gii phng trnh: 3x2 2x 7 3( x 1) x2 3.

( x ).

BT 196. Gii phng trnh: 2( x2 18) 7 x3 27.

( x ).

BT 197. Gii phng trnh: 10 x3 8 3x2 3x 18.

( x ).

BT 198. Gii phng trnh: x2 5x 7 7 x3 1.

( x ).
101

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

( x ).

BT 200. Gii phng trnh: 5x2 11x 2 2 x3 4x .

( x ).

BT 201. Gii phng trnh: 4x2 11 5 8x3 12x2 6x 7.

( x ).

BT 202. Gii phng trnh: x2 6x 7 4 x3 x2 7 x 20.

( x ).

BT 203. Gii phng trnh: 2x2 13x 36 7 x3 24x 32.

( x ).

BT 204. Gii phng trnh: 2x2 5x 2 4 2( x3 21x 20).

( x ).

BT 205. Gii phng trnh: 3( x2 4x 5) 10 x3 5x2 9x 6.

( x ).

.v
n

BT 199. Gii phng trnh: 3x2 10x 56 x3 64.

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 THPT Trn Quc Tun Kon Tum


BT 206. Gii phng trnh: 3x2 x 2 3 3 x4 1.

om

BT 207. Gii phng trnh: 8x2 20x 1 64x4 1.

( x ).
( x ).
( x ).

BT 209. Gii phng trnh: 5x2 x 5 5 x2 ( x2 1) 1.

( x ).

3( x2 3x 1) x4 x2 1.

( x ).

ok

BT 210. Gii phng trnh:

.c

BT 208. Gii phng trnh: x2 4x 1 x4 x2 1.

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn Hng Vng Bnh Dng

bo

BT 211. Gii phng trnh: 20x2 3x 5 5 16x4 x2 1.

( x ).

x8 14x4 1 x4 12x2 1.

( x ).

BT 213. Gii phng trnh:

2x 3x2 38 x2 5x 6 x 4.

( x ).

BT 214. Gii phng trnh:

x2 x 6 3 x 1 3x2 6x 19 0. ( x ).

BT 215. Gii phng trnh:

x2 2x 3x2 4x 1 2x 1.

ng

vi

et

BT 212. Gii phng trnh:

( x ).

2x2 3x 2 18x2 16x 39 5 x 1. ( x ).

BT 217. Gii phng trnh:

3x2 11x 27 x2 1 3 x 2.

kh
a

BT 216. Gii phng trnh:

( x ).

BT 218. Gii phng trnh: 2 x 1 3x2 5x 2 18x2 18x 5. ( x ).


BT 219. Gii phng trnh:

10x2 50x 3 2x2 5x 2 3 x 5. ( x ).

BT 220. Gii phng trnh:

3(9x2 20x 9) 2 6x2 11x 3 x 2.

BT 221. Gii phng trnh:

x(8x 15) 4x2 5x 1 2 x 2.

( x ).

BT 222. Gii phng trnh:

x3 2x2 7 x 6 x x3 1.

( x ).

BT 223. Gii phng trnh:

x3 5x2 7 x 2 x3 x 2 2x 1. ( x ).

BT 224. Gii phng trnh: 2 x2 x 1 1 3x2 3(5x2 2 x 3). ( x ).


BT 225. Gii phng trnh: 3 2x2 x 2 3x2 2 2 9x2 3x 8. ( x ).
102

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

BT 226. Gii phng trnh:

9x2 29x 11 2 x2 3x x2 3x 2. ( x ).

BT 227. Gii phng trnh: (3x2 8x 5) x2 1 ( x2 4x 5) x 1. ( x ).


6. Dng 6. a. f ( x) b.g( x) c. d. f 2 ( x) e.g 2 ( x)
Phng php gii:
t 2 n ph u f ( x), v g( x), a phng trnh cho v dng c bn

A B, vi c. d.u2 e.v2 a.u b.v hoc chia cho lng dng g( x) 0

om

.v
n

f ( x)
f ( x)
f ( x)
c c. d.
bi ton n gin hn.
b v t t
e a.
g( x)
g( x)
g( x)
Lu . Biu thc trong cn thc (cn thc ln) cha phn tch sn, ta cn
phn tch biu thc ny theo tng ca cc biu thc bn ngoi bng ng
nht thc quen thuc.

tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:


Gii phng trnh:

()

4 x2 x 6 4 x 2 7 x 1

.c

V d 131.

ok

thi th i hc 2013 THPT Chuyn Quc Hc Hu


Phn tch. Phng trnh () 4x2 x 6 2(2x 1) 7 x 1 v biu thc

et

bo

trong cn ln: 4x2 x 6 khng phn tch c thnh tch s. Nhng nu phn
tch biu thc trong cn thc ny bng tng bnh phng ca biu thc ngoi du cn,
ta hon ton c th a c v dng 6, c th cn i tm 2 s a, b tha ng nht:
4x2 x 6 a(2x 1)2 b( x 1)2 4ax2 (b 4a)x a b v ng nht c h

ng

vi

4a 4
a 1

th PT (2x 1)2 5( x 1)2 4(2 x 1) 7 x 1. Lc


b 4 a 1
b

a b 6

kh
a

ta c th t u 2x 1, v x 1, nhng n gin, ti thng gii cch 2 bng


cch chia 2 v cho lng dng a v phng trnh dng A B mt bin.
Li gii. iu kin: x 1. Do x 1 khng l nghim nn ch xt x 1.
() (2x 1)2 5( x 1)2 2(2 x 1) 7 x 1 (chia 2 v cho

x 1 0)

2x 1
2x 1

7
5 2
x1
x1

(i)

7
t
t 2.
, th (i) t 5 2t 7
t t
2
x1
3t 2 28t 44 0

2x 1

103

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Suy ra:

1
2 7
x
2 2 x 1 1 2 x
x

2
2
x1
4 x 2 8 x 3 0

2x 1

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht l x


Gii phng trnh: x 2 x2 2x 2 2 x 1

V d 132.

2 7

()

thi th i hc 2014 THPT Chuyn KHTN H Ni


x2 2x 2 a( x 2)2 b( x 1)2 ax2 (4a b) 4a b

.v
n

Phn tch. Cn ln:

a 1
a 1

v ng nht h s c
nn c li gii sau:
4a b 2
b 6

om

1 x 1 3
iu kin:
Nhn thy x 1 l mt nghim ca phng trnh.
x 1 3

A B.

ok

Li gii 1. t n ph a v dng

.c

Khi ta xt x 1, tc trn tp xc nh: D 1;1 3 1 3; .



2

(i)

bo

x2
x2
() x 2 ( x 2)2 6( x 1)2 2 x 1
2
6
x1
x1

5
t 2
, th (i) t 2 6 t 2 2
t
2
2
x1

t 4t 4 t 6
x 2
x2 5
3

5 x 1 2( x 2) 2
x3 x
Suy ra:
4
x1 2

4 x 9 x 9 0
3
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c 3 nghim l x 1, x 3, x
4
Li gii 2. Chia trc tip t n ph.
x2

kh
a

ng

vi

et

t t

() x 1

t t x 1

x1
1

x 1

x1

1
4 2
x1

Cauchy

2, suy ra: t 2 x 1

(i ) t t 2 6 2 t 2 6 t 2 t

Suy ra:

x1

1
x1

(i)

1
2. Khi :
x1

5
3
2( x 2) 5 x 1 x 3 x
2
4

Li gii 3. Lin hp sau khi s dng casio tm c 2 nghim x 1, x 3.


() ( x2 2 x 2 1) 2 x 1 ( x 1) 0

104

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x2 2 x 3

x2 2 x 3

0
x2 2 x 2 1 2 x 1 x 1

1
1
( x2 2 x 3)

0
2
x 2x 2 1 2 x 1 x 1
x2 2 x 3 0 x 1 x 3

x2 2 x 2 2 x 1 x
( i)

x 2x 2 2 x 1 x 2
(), (i)

x 2x 2 2 x 1 x

V d 133.

Gii phng trnh:

3
x2 2 x 2 x 1 x
4

.v
n

2 x 2 3x 1 1 3 x 2 x 2 1

()

om

Tp ch Ton hc & Tui tr S 439 (1 2014)

ok

.c

1
x 1
x 1 x

2 x 2 3x 1 0

2
Li gii. iu kin:

x 1
1
1

3
x

x
2
3

() 2( x2 1)2 ( 1 3x )2 2 x2 1 1 3x
2

bo

1 3x
1 3x
1 3x
2
2 t 2 2 t vi t
0
2
x2 1
2
x 1
x2 1

ng

vi

et

t 2

2
t 1. Suy ra: x2 1 1 3x x 0 x 3.
2
t

4
t

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c 2 nghim l x 0, x 3.


Nhn xt. Qua bi ton ny, ta nhn c 1 kinh nghim nh, l gp phng trnh

kh
a

v t c bn dng A B C , ta ng vi ly tha m nn nhp th biu thc


trong cn ln c phn tch thnh tng ca cc biu thc ngoi cn hay khng ?! Nu
khng, ta hy ly tha xem chng thuc loi c bn no hc v nh hng i.
V d 134.

Gii phng trnh: 4x x3 4x2 5 2x3 4x2 10

()

3
2

x 4x 5 0

Li gii. iu kin: 3
2

2 x 4 x 10 0

() 2( x3 4 x2 5)2 (2 x)2 2.2 x x3 4 x2 5

(i)

t u 2x, v x3 4x2 5 0 th (i) 2u2 v2 2u v


2u v 0
2u v 0
2u v 0

2
5u 4uv v 0
(u v)(5u v) 0
u v u v 0

105

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

2 x 0
x 0
x 0

3
3
3
x 3 5.
2
2

x 5

x 4x 5 0

x 4x 5 2x

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 3 5.


Nhn xt. Trong bi gii trn, do iu kin cha c tng minh nn ti chn
phng n t 2 n ph u, v thay cho vic chia ri t mt n ph t. Hin nhin cc
th d trn vn gii c bng cch t 2 n ph a v phng trnh ng cp.
Hn na trong php phn tch: 5u2 4uv v2 0 (u v)(5u v) 0, bn cht l
u
v
v th vo, qui ng c nhn t (u v)(5u v) 0. Ta cng phn tch tng t i
vi biu thc c dng ng cp bc ba thay cho vic tch, ghp v nhm thng thng.

2 x 1 0

Li gii. iu kin: x3 2 x 7 0
3x 3 18 x 27 0

om

Gii phng trnh: 2 2x 1 x3 2x 7 3x3 18x 27

()

.c

V d 135.

.v
n

gii phng trnh ng cp, tc phn tch: 5X2 4X 1 (X 1)(5X 1) vi X

ok

() 6( 2x 1)2 3( x3 2 x 7 )2 2 2 x 1 x3 2 x 7

(i)

bo

t u 2x 1 0, v x3 2x 7 0. Khi : (i) 6u2 3v2 2u v (ii )

6u2 3v2 4u2 4uv v2 2u2 4uv 2v2 0 (u v)2 0 u v.

2x 1 x3 2x 7 x3 6 x 3 6.

et

Suy ra:

vi

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 3 6.


Nhn xt. Trong cch gii phng trnh (ii ) do 2 v u dng nn ti bnh

V d 136.

A B.

ng

phng m khng cn t iu kin. Nu cha bit du nn gii theo ng


Gii:

()

5x3 13x2 4x 10 x3 3x2 x 2 3 2x2 x

kh
a

5x 3 13 x 2 4 x 10 0

Li gii. iu kin: x 3 3x 2 x 2 0

2 x 2 x 0

() 5( x3 3x2 x 2) (2x2 x) 3 2 x2 x x3 3x2 x 2

t u 2x2 x 0,

(i)

x3 3x2 x 2 0. Khi : (i) 5v2 u2 3u v

3u v 0
3u v 0
3u v 0

2
2

2
2
2
2

(u v)(5u 2v) 0
5v u 9u 6uv v
5u 3uv 2v 0
3u v 0
3u v 0
3u v 0

u v
u v
x 3 3x 2 x 2 2 x 2 x
x 1.
5u 2v 0
u v 0
x 3 3x 2 x 2 2 x 2 x 0

106

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 1.


BI TP RN LUYN DNG 6
BT 228. Gii phng trnh:

BT 229. Gii phng trnh:

3x x
1 2( x2 3x 4)

x x2 2 x 3
4 x2 2 x 3

(x )

1.

(x )

1.

(x )

BT 231. Gii phng trnh: x 1 2x 1 3x2 8x 4.

(x )

BT 232. Gii phng trnh:

.v
n

BT 230. Gii phng trnh: x 2 4 x2 x 2 2 6x2 x 14.

(x )

x4 x2 1 3 x2 1 x2 .

BT 233. Gii phng trnh: x 1 2x 3 5x2 12x 8.

om

BT 234. Gii phng trnh: 2x 2x 1 1 4x2 2x 4.

(x )

BT 235. Gii phng trnh: x 1 2x 1 2x2 4.

(x )
(x )

2x2 14x 4 3x 2 x 2.

(x )

BT 237. Gii phng trnh:

5x 2 8 x 1 2 x 1 x 2 2 x .

(x )

BT 238. Gii phng trnh:

2x2 10x 16 x 1 x 3.

(x )

BT 239. Gii phng trnh:

3x 2 2 x 2x 3 5x 7 x 13.

(x )

ok

.c

BT 236. Gii phng trnh:

bo

(x )

BT 241. Gii phng trnh: 6 3x x 2 3x 14x 12.

(x )

BT 242. Gii phng trnh: 2 x 3x 3 x 1 9x 23x 19.

(x )

vi

et

BT 240. Gii phng trnh: x 1 x 7 x2 17 x 7.


2

1 x 1 2x 2 14x 12x 1.

(x )

BT 244. Gii phng trnh:

x x 6 x 3x 4x 18.

(x )

BT 245. Gii phng trnh:

x 2 x x 2 5x 9x 10.

(x )

BT 246. Gii phng trnh:

2x 1 x 3x 1 x 9x 4.

(x )

kh
a

ng

BT 243. Gii phng trnh:

BT 247. Gii phng trnh: 2 2x 3 x 3x 4 x 19x 28.

(x )

BT 248. Gii phng trnh: x x x 2 3x 4x 6.

(x )

BT 249. Gii phng trnh:

x 2x 3 2x 2 5x 4x 18x 11.
3

BT 250. Gii PT: 2 x x 1 x3 x2 x 3 6x3 9x2 9x 16.


2

BT 251. Gii phng trnh: x 3 x3 6x 9 x3 3x2 24x 36. ( x )


BT 252. Gii phng trnh:

x3 3x2 2 x3 x2 4 2 x3 2x2 3.

BT 253. Gii phng trnh:

x3 2x x2 2x 4 x3 3x2 8x 12.
107

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


n

7. Dng 7. f ( x) b( x) a( x) n a( x) f ( x) b( x)

(i)

Phng php gii:

u f ( x)
t
vn a( x) u b( x) v kt hp vi bi c
n a( x). f ( x) b( x)
v

v a( x) u b( x)
h phng trnh i xng loi II : n
(ly v tr v).

u a( x) v b( x)
i da vo ng nht thc quen thuc a v (i ).

.v
n

Lu . Bi ton thng cha c bin i v dng (i ), do ta cn bin


tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:

()

Gii phng trnh: 4x2 3x ( x 2) 2x2 2x 1

om

V d 137.

Phn tch. Dng: mx2 nx p (qx r ) x2 x thng th ta s ngh n

.c

dng ng cp, tc i tm 2 s a, b tha: 4x2 3x a( x 2)2 b( 2x2 2x 1)2 ,

ok

nhng s khng tn ti a, b. K n, s ngh n vic t n ph khng hon ton, tc

bo

t t 2x2 2x 1, nhng phng php ny khng kh thi do khng l s chnh


phng. Lc , cc bn hy ngh n vic a v dng 7 bng cch so snh bi vi
dng tng qut, tc vit: (2x m)2 b( x) ( x 2). ( x 2)(2 x m) b( x), (i). Lc
ny ta cn xc nh m v biu thc b( x) bng ng nht thc da vo vic so snh

et

gia ( i ) v (). Do biu thc trong cn ca (), (i) u c 2x 2 nn ta c th khng

vi

nh c rng b( x) s c dng bc nht m ta gi l b( x) nx p. Khi biu thc

ng

(i ) c vit li l: (2x m)2 (nx p) ( x 2). ( x 2)(2x m) (nx p) hay vit


4x2 (4m n)x m2 p ( x 2) 2x2 (m n 4)x 2m p , so snh vi () c

kh
a

4m n 3
m 1
2
m p 0

n 1 Khi phng trnh cho c vit li


h phng trnh:
m n 4 2
p 1

2m p 1

l () (2x 1)2 ( x 1) ( x 2). ( x 2)(2x 1) ( x 1) v t 2 n ph nh


phn l thuyt s a v h i xng loi II v c li gii 1 nh sau:
1 3
1 3
hoc x

2
2
Li gii 1. t n ph a v h.

iu kin: 2 x2 2 x 1 0 x

() (2x 1)2 ( x 1) ( x 2). ( x 2)(2x 1) ( x 1)

108

(i)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


2

(1)
u 2 x 1
v ( x 2) u ( x 1)
t
2
(2)

u ( x 2) v ( x 1)
v ( x 2)(2 x 1) ( x 1) 0
Ly (1) (2) v2 u2 ( x 2)(u v) ( v u)( v u) ( v u)( x 2) 0

u v
( v u)( v u x 2) 0

u v x 2 0

1
3 5
x
2
x

Vi u v, suy ra: 2 x 2 x 1 2 x 1
2
2
x2 3x 1 0

Vi u v x 2 0, suy ra:

.v
n

2x2 2x 1 1 3x : v nghim.

3 5

om

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x

Li gii 2. Nhn lin hp.

bo

ok

.c

() 2( x2 3x 1) ( x 2) (2 x 1) 2 x2 2 x 1 0

2
2( x 2)( x 3x 1)
2( x2 3x 1)
0
2 x 1 2 x2 2 x 1

x2 3x 1 0
3 5
x

2
x2
1
0
2 x2 2 x 1 1 3x : VN
2x 1 2x2 2x 1

3 5

2
Nhn xt. Thot nhn vo li gii 2 n gin v ngn gn, nhng thc s c c
tch ghp lin hp nh vy ta cn qua cc giai on trung gian nh s dng table ca
casio tm nhn t x2 3x 1 v cn c s kho lo, kt hp vi kinh nghim ng

ng

vi

et

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x

nht thc ghp c biu thc (2x 1) 2x2 2x 1 nh trnh by !!!. Hin

kh
a

nhin do xc nh c nhn t x2 3x 1 nn ta c th gii cch 3 bng phng


php ly tha ln c bc bn, ri chia cho x2 3x 1, suy ra 2 tch s bc 2.
Nhng cn tm iu kin chnh xc trnh thu nghim ngoi lai.
V d 138.

Gii phng trnh: x2 7 x 16 (2x 3) 2x2 2x 16

()

2 x2 2 x 16 0
33 1

iu kin: Do x2 7 x 16 0, x , suy ra
2

2 x 3 0 ?!
Li gii 1. t n ph a v h.
() ( x 3)2 ( x 7) (2x 3) (2 x 3)( x 3) ( x 7)

(i)

2
u x 3

u ( x 7) (2 x 3) v
2
t
v (2 x 3)( x 3) ( x 7) 0
v ( x 7) (2 x 3) u

109

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

u v
u2 v2 (2 x 3)( v u) (u v)(u v 2 x 3) 0

u v 2 x 3 0

x 3
Vi u v, suy ra: 2 x2 2 x 16 x 3 2
x 2 29.

x 4 x 25 0

Vi u v 2x 3 0, suy ra:

2x2 2x 16 3x 0 : v nghim.

(2 x 3)( x2 4 x 25)
2 x2 2 x 16 x 3

( x2 4 x 25) 0

.c

om

x 2 29
x 2 4 x 25 0

x 0
2
: VN o
2 x 2 x 16 3x
2
7 x 2 x 16 0

.v
n

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 2 29.


Li gii 2. Nhn lin hp sau khi s dng casio c nhn t x2 4x 25.
() (2 x 3). 2 x2 2 x 16 ( x 3) ( x2 4 x 25) 0

V d 139.

ok

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 2 29.

()

Gii phng trnh: 8x2 11x 1 ( x 1) 4x2 6x 5

bo

Phn tch. Vit (3x n)2 b( x) ( x 1) ( x 1)(3x n) b( x) v do biu thc trong


cn thc ca () l 4x 2 nn b( x) s c dng bc hai loi: b( x) x2 px q. Khi :

et

(3x n)2 ( x2 px q) ( x 1) ( x 1)(3x n) ( x2 px q) v khai trin c:

vi

8x2 (6n p)x n2 q ( x 1) 4x2 (n p 3)x n q . ng nht h s c h

kh
a

ng

6n p 11
n 2
2
n q 1

p 1 v c cc li gii chi tit nh sau:

n p 3 6
q 3

n q 5

Li gii 1. Tp xc nh: D .
() (3x 2)2 ( x2 x 3) ( x 1) ( x 1)(3x 2) ( x2 x 3)

(i)

u 3x 2
u ( x x 3) ( x 1) v

t
2
2
2

v ( x x 3) ( x 1) u
v ( x 1)(3x 2) ( x x 3) 0

u v
u2 v2 ( x 1)( v u) (u v)(u v x 1) 0

u v x 1 0
2

Vi u v, suy ra:

110

14 3
3x 2 0
4 x 2 6 x 5 3x 2 2
x

5
5
x

6
x

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Vi u v x 1 0, suy ra:

4x2 6x 5 4x 3 x

9 33

12

14 3
9 33
, x

5
12

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x

Li gii 2. t n ph khng hon ton.


t t 4x2 6x 5 0 t 2 4x2 6x 5.
() (4x2 6x 5) ( x 1) 4 x2 6 x 5 12 x2 17 x 6 0

bit s t ( x 1)2 4(12x2 17 x 6) (7 x 5)2 .


Do : t

.v
n

t 2 ( x 1)t 12x2 17 x 6 0 v xem y l phng trnh bc hai vi


x 1 7 x 5
x 1 7 x 5
3x 2 hoc t
4 x 3.
2
2

om

4 x2 6 x 5 4 x 3
14 3
9 33
x
, x

Suy ra:
2
5
12
4 x 6 x 5 3x 2

Gii phng trnh: 2x2 7 x 16 (2x 1) x2 10x 4

.c

V d 140.

()

ok

Tp xc nh: x2 10x 4 0 x 5 21 hoc x 5 21.


Li gii 1. t n ph a v h phng trnh.

bo

() ( x 4)2 ( x2 x) (2x 1) (2x 1)( x 4) ( x2 x)

ng

vi

et

2
2

u x 4
u ( x x) (2 x 1) v

t
2
2
2

v ( x x) (2 x 1) u
v (2 x 1)( x 4) ( x x) 0

u v
(u2 v2 ) (2 x 1)( v u) (u v)(u v 2 x 1) 0

u v 2 x 1 0

x 4
x2 10 x 4 x 4
x 6.
10 x 4 8 x 16

kh
a

Vi u v, suy ra:

Vi u v 2x 1 0, suy ra: x2 10x 4 3x 5 : v nghim.


Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 6.
Li gii 2. t n ph khng hon ton.
() x2 10x 4 (2x 1) x2 10x 4 3x2 17 x 20 0

(i)

t t x 10x 4 0, suy ra: t x 10x 4.


2

(i) t 2 (2x 1).t (3x2 17 x 20) 0, c bit s: t (4x 9)2 .


t x2 10 x 4 x 4
x 6.
Do :
t x2 10 x 4 3x 5

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 6.

111

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

V d 141.

()

Gii phng trnh: 4x 6 ( x 1) 6x2 x 6

Phn tch. Khc vi cc th d trc, biu thc ngoi cn l bc nht nn s dng


ng nht: (mx n)2 (m2 x2 px q) ( x 1) ( x 1)( mx n) ( m2 x2 px q)
(2mn p)x n2 q ( x 1) (m m2 )x2 (n m p) q n v ng nht h s

Li gii. iu kin: 6x2 x 6 0 x

om

.v
n

m 3; 2 m 2
2mn p 4

2
m 2
4n p 4
n q 6

n 1
n 2 q 6

Trong php ng nht


c h m m2 6
n m p 1 n p 1
p 0

q 5
q n 6
q n 6

trn, ti chn m 2 c cc s cn li chn, nu chn m 3 th s l.


1 145
1 145
hoc x

12
12

.c

() (2x 1)2 (4x2 5) ( x 1) ( x 1)(2x 1) (4x2 5)

ok

2
2
u 2 x 1

u (4 x 5) ( x 1) v

2
2
2
v (4 x 5) ( x 1) u
v ( x 1)(2 x 1) (4 x 5) 0

ng

vi

et

bo

u v
u2 v2 ( x 1)( v u) (u v)(u v x 1) 0

u v x 1 0
2 x 1 0
7

x
Vi u v, suy ra: 6 x2 x 6 2x 1 2
2

2 x 5x 7 0

x 0
Vi u v x 1 0, suy ra: 6 x2 x 6 3x 2
v nghim.

3x x 6 0

kh
a

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x


V d 142.

Gii phng trnh: 6x 9 (2x 1) 15x2 x 9 0

()

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
() 6x 9 (2 x 1) 15x2 x 9

(3x 1)2 (9x2 10) (2x 1) (2x 1)(3x 1) (9x2 10)


2
2

u 3x 1
u (9 x 10) (2 x 1) v

t
2
2
2
v (9 x 10) (2 x 1) u

v (2 x 1)(3x 1) (9 x 10) 0

u v
u2 v2 (2x 1)( v u) (u v)(u v 2 x 1) 0

u v 2 x 1 0

112

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1
x
15x x 9 3x 1
: v nghim.
3
6 x 2 7 x 8 0

Vi u v, suy ra:

10
9
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht l x
10

Vi u v 2x 1 0, suy ra:

V d 143.

15x2 x 9 5x x

Gii phng trnh: x3 7 x2 16x 5 (1 2x) 3 3x2 7 x 5

()

.v
n

Phn tch. Xt dng tng qut: ( x m)3 b( x) (1 2x). 3 (1 2x)( x m) b( x) v


thy trong cn thc c 3x2 nn chn b( x) ( x2 nx p). Lc ny vit biu thc li

om

l ( x m)3 ( x2 nx p) (1 2x). 3 (1 2x)( x m) ( x2 nx p) hay

x3 (3m 1)x2 (3m2 n)x m3 p (1 2x) 3 3x2 (2m n 1)x m p. ng

bo

ok

.c

3m 1 7
2
m 2
3m n 16
3

n 4 T c li gii chi tit nh sau:


nht h s c h: m p 5
2m n 1 7

p 3

m p 5

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .

et

() ( x 2)3 ( x2 4x 3) (1 2 x). 3 (1 2 x)( x 2) ( x2 4 x 3)

vi

3
2

u x 2
u ( x 4 x 3) (1 2 x) v

3
2
2
3

v ( x 4 x 3) (1 2 x) u
v (1 2 x)( x 2) ( x 4 x 3) 0

ng

u3 v3 (1 2x)(v u) (u v)(u2 uv v2 1 2x) 0

kh
a

u v hoc u2 uv v2 1 2x 0.

Vi u v, suy ra:

3x2 7 x 5 x 2 x3 9x2 19x 3 0

x 3 hoc x 3 2 2.
2

u 3
Vi u uv v 1 2x 0 v u2 1 2x 0
2 4

u 3u2 4 8 x

u 3x2 4 x 16
v
0 v
0 : v nghim do ta
2
4
2
4

lun c 3x2 4x 16 0, x .
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 3 nghim l x 3, x 3 2 2.
Lu . i vi dng cn thc bc 3 (n 3) th ta ch c 1 trng hp u v.
113

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1
Gii phng trnh: 8 x2 13x 7 1 3 3x2 2
()
x

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 THPT Chuyn Hng Vng Bnh Dng

V d 144.

Li gii. iu kin: x 0.
() 8x3 13x2 7 x ( x 1). 3 3x2 2

(2x 1)3 ( x2 x 1) ( x 1) 3 ( x 1)(2x 1) x2 x 1.

om

.v
n

3
2

u 2 x 1
u ( x x 1) ( x 1) v
t

3
2
2
3

v ( x x 1) ( x 1) u
v ( x 1)(2 x 1) x x 1
u v

2
2
2
(u v)(u uv v x 1) 0
u 3 2
v

u x1 0

2 4

bo

ok

.c

1
8 x3 15x 2 6 x 1 0
x 1 x 8

2
u 3(2 x 1)2 4 x 4
2

12
x

8
x

7
v

0 : VN o
v
2
4

2
4

1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c 2 nghim l x 1, x
8

et

()
V d 145. Gii phng trnh: 8x3 10x 17 8 3 30x 24x2 7
ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 THPT Chuyn Tin Giang Tin Giang

vi

Phn tch. Xt dng tng qut: (2x m)3 b( x) 8 3 8.(2x m) b( x). Do biu thc

ng

trong cn thc l bc hai dng: 24x2 30x 7 v so snh vi 8.(2x m) b( x) nn

kh
a

chn b( x) 24x2 14x n. Vn cn li l chn m, n th bi ton gii quyt. So


snh cc biu thc ngoi cn thc, cc biu thc trong cn thc vi nhau v h s tng
bc ta c h: m 2, n 9 v c li gii nh sau:
Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
() (2x 2)3 24x2 14x 9 8. 3 8(2 x 2) (24 x2 14 x 9)
3
2

u (2 x 2)
u 24 x 14 x 9 8v

3
2
2
3
v 8(2 x 2) (24 x 14 x 9)
v 24 x 14 x 9 8u

u3 v3 8(u v) (u v)(u2 uv v2 8) 0 u v.

Suy ra:

30 x 24 x2 7 2 x 2 8 x3 6 x 1 4 x3 3x

1
2

Xt x 1 v t x cos t , t [0; ] th (i) 4 cos3 t 3cos t


114

(i)
1
1
cos 3t
2
2

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

5 7
k 2
t 0;
t ;
;

Do

9
9
3
9 9

5
7
Suy ra: x cos x cos
x cos
: l cc nghim nghim cn tm do
9
9
9
phng trnh bc ba ( i ) c ti a ba nghim.
t

5
7
Kt lun: Cc nghim cn tm l x cos , x cos , x cos
9
9
9

V d 146.

Gii phng trnh: 9x2 11x 6 ( x2 x 3) 3x3 x2 8x 4 ()

.v
n

Li gii. iu kin: 3x3 x2 8x 4 0.

() (3x 2)2 (2 x) ( x2 x 3) ( x2 x 3)(3x 2) (2 x).

om

2
2

u 3x 2
u (2 x) ( x x 3) v
t

2
2
2
v (2 x) ( x x 3) u
v ( x x 3)(3x 2) (2 x) 0

.c

u v
u2 v2 ( x2 x 3)( v u)

2
u v x x 3 0

ok

x 0
3x 2 0


Vi u v 3x x 8 x 4 3x 2 3
5 37
2

3x 10 x 4 x
x
3
2

bo

et

Vi u v x2 x 3 0 3x3 x2 8x 4 ( x 1)2 4 : v nghim.

Gii phng trnh: x4 6x 1 2( x 4) 2x3 8x2 6x 1

()

ng

V d 147.

5 37

vi

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c 3 nghim l x 0, x

Li gii. iu kin: 2x3 8x2 6x 1 0.

kh
a

() ( x2 )2 (6x 1) (2x 8) (2x 8)x2 (6x 1).


2
2

u x 0
u (6 x 1) (2 x 8) v
t
2
2
v (6 x 1) (2 x 8) u

v (2 x 8)x (6 x 1)

u v
u2 v2 (2 x 8)( v u) (u v)(u v 2 x 8) 0

u v 2 x 8 0

Vi u v, suy ra:

2 x3 8 x2 6 x 1 x2 x4 2 x3 8 x2 6 x 1 0 ( i )

( x2 4x 1)( x2 2x 1) 0 x 1 hoc x 2 5.
Vi u v 2x 8 0, suy ra:

2x3 8x2 6x 1 ( x 1)2 7 : v nghim.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 1, x 2 5.


115

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Nhn xt. Trong cch gii phng trnh bc bn (i ), ti s dng chc nng table
ca casio tm nhn t x2 4x 1 v da vo nhn t ny a v tch. Nu khng
nh th, ta c th bin i: x4 2x3 x2 9x2 6x 1 ( x2 x)2 (3x 1)2 cng
a c v tch ( x2 4x 1)( x2 2x 1) 0 (gii phng trnh bc cao bi 1).
BI TP RN LUYN DNG 7
BT 254. Gii phng trnh: x2 3x (3 x) x2 x 4.

( x ).

BT 255. Gii phng trnh: x2 8x 26 ( x 1) x2 6x 6.

( x ).

BT 256. Gii phng trnh: x x 6 (2x 3) 2x 10x 4.

( x ).

.v
n

BT 257. Gii phng trnh: 4x 9x 1 (4x 1) 8x 3x 1.

( x ).

BT 258. Gii phng trnh: 4x 19x 6 x 2x 4x 3.

( x ).

om

BT 259. Gii phng trnh: 4x 23x 23 ( x 2) 2x 6x 12.

( x ).

BT 260. Gii phng trnh: 16x 11x 1 ( x 4) 4x 18x 4.

( x ).

BT 261. Gii phng trnh: 2x2 2x 3 (2x 3) x2 5x 7.

( x ).

BT 262. Gii phng trnh: x2 4x 2 (5x 3) 5x2 6x 2.

( x ).

3
2 x2 8 x 4.
x1

bo

BT 263. Gii phng trnh: 4 x 5

ok

.c

( x ).
( x ).

BT 265. Gii phng trnh: 9x 25 ( x 1) 2x 5x 5.

( x ).

et

BT 264. Gii phng trnh: 5x 3 x 2x2 x 1.


30

2x 7 x 9 9

vi

BT 266. Gii phng trnh:

( x ).

x 1.

( x ).

ng

BT 267. Gii phng trnh: x 10 ( x 3) 2x2 5x 7.


BT 268. Gii phng trnh: x 2x 2x 3 (1 2x). 3x 5.
3

( x ).

kh
a

BT 269. Gii phng trnh: 8x3 14x2 9x 2 (4 2x). 3 6x2 3x 3.


BT 270. Gii phng trnh: x3 5x2 4x 5 (1 2x). 3 6x2 2x 7.

( x ).

BT 271. Gii phng trnh: x2 x 3 ( x 1)2 x3 2x 4.

( x ).

6 x 15x 12
( x ).
x3 7 x2 15x 13.
x2 5x
2 x4 x3 9x2 7 x 4
( x ).
BT 273. Gii phng trnh:
3 x3 x2 x .
x2 x 3
2 x 3 3x 2 2 x 5
BT 274. Gii phng trnh:
x4 x3 4x2 4x 1. ( x ).
x3
2

BT 272. Gii phng trnh:

BT 275. Gii phng trnh: 2x2 x 1 ( x4 2x 1) x5 x2 1.


116

( x ).

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

8. Dng 8. ( ax b)n p. n cx d q.x r vi n 2; 3


Phng php gii:
t ay b n cx d nu tch s p.c 0.
t (ay b) n cx d nu tch s p.c 0.
Khi ta s a v c h i xng loi II hoc gn i xng loi II.
Lu . Trong mt s trng hp, ta c th tip cn php t n ph bng
cng c o hm hoc gii c bng phng php hm s.

.v
n

tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:


x7
()
3
HSG Ton 10 Huyn Hc Mn Tp. H Ch Minh ngy 13/04/2013

Gii phng trnh: 3x2 6 x 3

1
7
1
x 6 v c p.c 1. 0 nn s t
3
3
3

.c

Phn tch. Bin i () 3( x 1)2 1.

om

V d 148.

1
7
x , kt hp vi bi a v h i xng loi II.
3
3
Li gii. iu kin: x 7.
2
2

x7
3( y 1) x 7
3 y 6 y x 4 0
2
t y 1
0, c h: 2
3

3 x 6 x 3 y 1
3 x 6 x y 4 0
y x

2
2
3( y x ) 7( y x) 0 ( y x)(3 y 3x 7) 0

y 7 x
3

vi

et

bo

ok

n ph y 1

x7
73 5
x 1
x1 2
x

3
6

3x 5x 4 0

ng

Vi y x, suy ra:

kh
a

7
Vi y x , suy ra:
3

4
x7
4
7 69
x
x
x

3
3
3
6
9 x2 21x 5 0

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x

73 5
7 69
, x

6
6

Bnh lun. Vi n 2, chng hn: ax2 bx c d. mx n , trong nhiu trng hp


ta c th tip cn bng cng c o hm nh sau: f ( x) ax2 bx c c o hm cp I
b
b
b
l
Khi ta s t y mx n khi
2a
2a
2a
b
s nguyn v t 2ay b mx n nu
c dng phn s. C th trong bi ton
2a

l f ( x) 2ax b 0 x

117

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

trn, xt f ( x) 3x2 6x 3 f ( x) 6x 6 0 x 1 nn s tm ra c php


x7
Cn i vi n 3, ta s ly n o hm cp II.
3

t n ph l y 1
V d 149.

Gii phng trnh: 4x2 3x 1 5 13x

()

Phn tch. Bin i () (2x 3)2 3x 1 ( x 4) c p.c 1.3 0 nn s t


(2 y 3) 3x 1 hay 3 2 y 3x 1 v c li gii sau:

.v
n

Li gii. iu kin: x t 3 2 y 3x 1 0, y
2
3

4 x 3 2 y 5 13x
4 x 2 y 13x 8 0
Suy ra h phng trnh:
2
2
(3 2 y) 3x 1
4 y 12 y 3x 8 0

om

x y
4( x2 y 2 ) 10( y x) 0 ( x y)(2 x 2 y 5) 0

2 y 5 2x

.c

3
15 97
x
3x 1 3 2 x
x

2
8
4 x2 15x 8 0

x 1
11 73

Vi 2 y 5 2x, suy ra: 3x 1 2 x 2 2


8

4 x 11x 3 0

bo

ok

Vi y x, suy ra:

15 97
11 73
, x

8
8

Gii phng trnh: 8x3 36x2 53x 3 3x 5 25

vi

V d 150.

et

Kt lun: So iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x

()

ng

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn Nguyn Thng Hin TP. HCM


Phn tch. Bin i () (2x 3)3 3 3x 5 x 2 c p.c 1.3 0 nn s tm ra

kh
a

php t n ph l 2 y 3 3 3x 5. Hn na, nu xt f ( x) 8x3 36x2 53x 25


c f ( x) 24 x2 72 x f ( x) 48 x 72 0 x

3
cng tm ra php t n ph
2

l 2 y 3 3 3x 5, t c li gii 1 nh sau:
Tp xc nh: D .
Li gii 1. t n ph a v h phng trnh gn i xng loi II.
3

(2 y 3) 3x 5
() (2x 3)3 3 3x 5 x 2. t 2 y 3 3 3x 5
3

(2 x 3) 2 y x 5

(2 y 3)3 (2x 3)3 2( x y)


(2 y 2x) (2 y 3)2 (2x 3)(2 y 3) (2 x 3) (2 y 2 x) 0

118

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


2

2x 3 3
2
2( y x) 2 y 3
(2 x 3) 1 0 y x.
2 4

Vi y x, suy ra:

3x 5 2x 3 (2 x 3)3 3x 5 x 2 hoc x

5 3

5 3

4
Li gii 2. ng nht a v dng m.u3 n.u m.v3 n.v.

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 3 nghim l x 2, x

() (2x 3)3 (2x 3) ( 3 3x 5)3 3 3x 5

(i)
3

.v
n

t u 2x 3, v 3x 5 th (i) u u v v (u v ) (u v) 0
3

Suy ra:

om

v 3
(u v)(u2 uv v2 1) 0 (u v) u v 2 1 0 u v
2 4

3x 5 2x 3 (2 x 3)3 3x 5 x 2 hoc x

5 3

.c

Nhn xt. Bi ton c dng tng qut: ax3 bx2 cx d p. 3 qx r , ngoi cch gii

ok

1, ta c th s dng ng nht thc a v dng m.u3 n.u m.v3 n.v. Khi c


th gii quyt bng cch t hai n ph hoc s dng phng php hm s. C th

bo

cch gii 2 trn, ta lun xt: (2x b)3 n.(2x b) ( 3 3x 5)3 n. 3 3x 5 v so snh
vi thy n 1. Cng vic cn li l ng nht thc tm b c b 3.
4
()
x2
3
ngh Olympic 30/04/2010 Trung Hc Thc Hnh HSP Tp. HCM
3

81x 8 x3 2 x2

et

Gii phng trnh:

vi

V d 151.

kh
a

ng

4
4
Phn tch. C f ( x) x3 2 x2 x 2 f ( x) 3x2 4x f ( x) 6x 4 0
3
3
2
x Do tm ra c php t n phu l 3y 2 3 81x 8.
3
Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .

4
3y x3 2x2 x
3
2

3 y 2 x 2 x x 2

3
3
t 3y 2 81x 8 , suy ra:

3
(3 y 2)3 81x 8
3x y 3 2 y 2 4 y

4
3( y x) ( x3 y 3 ) 2( x2 y 2 ) ( x y)
3
2
2

( y x) 3( y xy x ) 6( y x) 13 0.

5
32 6
Vi y x, suy ra 3x 2 3 81x 8 x3 2 x2 x 0 x 0, x

3
3

119

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Vi 3( y2 xy x2 ) 6( y x) 13 0 3x2 3( y 2)x 3y2 6 y 13 0 (i )


Xem y l phng trnh bc hai vi n l x v y l tham s th c bit s:
x 9( y 2)2 12(3y2 6 y 12) 27 y2 36 y 120 0, y .
Do phng trnh ( i ) v nghim.
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 3 nghim l x 0, x
V d 152.

32 6

()

Gii phng trnh: 5x2 13x 4 x4 3x3 0

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn Trn Hng o Bnh Thun

.v
n

Phn tch. Biu thc trong cn phn tch c thnh tch s: x4 3x3 x2 ( x2 3x),

om

hng suy ngh u tin l a v dng ng cp bng cch ng nht thc biu thc
ngoi cn theo biu thc tch, tc tm 5x2 13x 4 a.x2 b.( x 2 3x), nhng s

.c

khng tn ti hai s a, b. Casio cng chu thua vi hnh thc ny !!. Nhng biu
1
thc trong cn thc l bc 4, ta hon ton c th t n ph x bin phng
t
1
1
1
1
13 4 4 3 3 0 4t 2 13t 5 3t 1 0.
2
t
t
t
t
4
3
Li gii. iu kin: x 3x 0 x 0.

ok

trnh v dng 5

1
0.
t

1
1
1
1
13 4 4 3 3 0 4t 2 13t 5 3t 1 0
2
t
t
t
t

et

() 5

bo

Do x 0 khng l nghim ca phng trnh nn ch xt x 0, v t x

ng

vi

3
t 2 y 3 1 3t , y , suy ra:
2

(2 y 3)2 1 3t

4t 13t 5 2 y 3 0

kh
a

4 y 2 12 y 3t 8 0 (i)
y t

2
( y t) 2( y t) 5 0

4t 13t 2 y 8 0
2 y 2t 5

Vi y t , th (1) 4t 2 15t 8 0 t
Suy ra: y
Do : x

15 97
15 97
hoc t

8
8

15 97
15 97
3
(loi do y ) hoc y
(nhn).
8
8
2

1 15 97

t
16

Vi 2 y 2t 5, th (1) 4t 2 11t 3 0 t
Suy ra: y
120

11 73
11 73
hoc t

8
8

73 9
9 73
(nhn) hoc y
(loi).
8
8

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Do : x

1 11 73

t
6

Kt lun: So iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x

15 97
11 73
, x

16
6

BI TP RN LUYN DNG 8
BT 276. Gii phng trnh: x2 4x x 6.

(x )

BT 277. Gii phng trnh: 2x2 6x 1 4x 5.

(x )

BT 278. Gii phng trnh: x2 4x 3 x 5.

(x )

.v
n

x3

(x )

BT 280. Gii phng trnh: x2 2x 2 2x 1.


BT 281. Gii phng trnh: 4x 4x 3 2x 5.
2

BT 282. Gii phng trnh: 9x 6x 5 3x 5.

.c

om

BT 279. Gii phng trnh: 2 x2 4 x

(x )
(x )
(x )
(x )

BT 284. Gii phng trnh: 9x2 12x 2 3x 8.

(x )

ok

BT 283. Gii phng trnh: 18x2 6x 29 12x 61.

Hc sinh gii khi khng chuyn Tp. H Ch Minh

bo

BT 285. Gii phng trnh: x2 x 2004.( 1 16032x 1).

Hc sinh gii tnh Bc Giang

BT 286. Gii phng trnh: x x 1000. 1 8000x 1000.

et

2
37
4 x 1 9 x2 26 x
0.
3
3

vi

BT 287. Gii phng trnh:

ng

BT 288. Gii phng trnh: x3 3x2 3 3 3x 5 1 3x.

kh
a

BT 289. Gii phng trnh:

(x )
(x )

(x )
(x )

x 2 8x 60x 151x 128.

(x )

x 9 x3

3x2 9 x 7.
3
3

(x )

BT 290. Gii phng trnh:

BT 291. Gii phng trnh: 27 x3 23x 1 3 26x 1.

(x )

3x 4 x3 3x2 x 2.

(x )

BT 292. Gii phng trnh:

BT 293. Gii phng trnh: 1 6x 2x2 8x4 x3 .

(x )

BT 294. Gii phng trnh: 3x2 2x 1 3x4 x3 0.

(x )

9. Dng 9.

x 2a x b a2 b x 2a x b a2 b cx d , (a 0)

(i)

Phng php gii:


t t x b 0, suy ra: x t 2 b. Khi :
121

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

(i) t 2 2at a2 x2 2at a2 c.(t 2 b) d


(t a)2 (t a)2 c.(t 2 b) d t a t a c.(t 2 b) d

t a t a c.(t 2 b) d, (do : t , a 0) t a c.t 2 t bc d a.

B 0
S dng cng thc: A B
hoc ph tr tuyt i da vo
A B

.v
n

A khi A 0
nh ngha A
gii.
A khi A 0
Lu . Cng c ch yu l s dng hng ng thc v nh ngha A .

tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:


Gii phng trnh: 2 x 2 2 x 1 x 1 4

om

V d 153.

iu kin: x 1 0 x 1. Suy ra:

()

x 2 2 x 1 0, x 1.

.c

Li gii 1. t t x 1 0 t 2 x 1. Khi :

ok

() 2 t 2 2t 1 t 4 2 (t 1)2 t 4 2 t 1 t 4

2(t 1) t 4, (do : t 1 0) t 2, suy ra:

x 1 2 x 3.

bo

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 3.

Li gii 2. Xem y l dng

A B C v ly tha.

() (2 x 2 2 x 1) ( x 1 4)2

et

vi

4( x 2 2 x 1) x 17 8 x 1 3x 9 x 3.

Li gii 3. S dng hng ng thc, kt hp nh ngha tr tuyt i.

ng

() 2 ( x 1)2 2 x 1 1 x 1 4 0

kh
a

2 ( x 1 1)2 x 1 4 0 2 x 1 1 x 1 4 0

2 x 1 2 x 1 4 0, (do : x 1 1 0) x 1 2 x 3.

V d 154.

Gii phng trnh:

x 1 2 x 2 x 1 2 x 2 1

i hc S Phm Vinh

Li gii. iu kin: x 2 0 x 2. Do : x 1 2 x 2 0.
() ( x 2)2 2 x 2 1 ( x 2)2 2 x 2 1 1
( x 2 1)2 ( x 2 1)2 1

x 2 1

122

()

x2 1

x 2 1 1

x 2 1 1, (do : x 2 1 0, x 2)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x 2 1 x 2
9
x 2 1 x 2
2 x2 1 x
4
x 2 1 x 2
9
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht l x
4
Lu . Bn c c th gii theo 2 cch khc nh th d trn.

V d 155.

Gii phng trnh:

x 2 x 1 x 2 x 1 2

()

Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng Tp. H Ch Minh


() ( x 1)2 2 x 1 1 ( x 1)2 2 x 1 1 2

x 1 1

x 1 1 2

x 1 1

x1 1 2

om

( x 1 1)2 ( x 1 1)2 2

.v
n

Li gii. iu kin: x 1 0 x 1. Lc ny x 2 x 1 0.

x 1 1 x 1 1

Gii phng trnh:

()

x 14x 49 x 14x 49 14

et

V d 156.

bo

ok

.c

x 1 1 0 x 1 1 x 2.
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, khong nghim ca phng trnh l x 2; .
Bnh lun. bi ton trn, nghim ca phng trnh khng l mt gi tr c th m
l mt khong on nghim. i vi trng hp ny, ta s dng cng thc tr tuyt
i A A khi A 0. Cn A A khi A 0, ta cng tm hiu th d sau:

Phn tch. So vi dng tng qut, bi ton thiu s 2 trong cn thc nh. Do , ta s

2 , nhng v phi l

vi

ngh n vic nhn 2 v cho

14 v n gin, ta s nhn 2

14x 14 14x 49 14x 14 14x 49 14, v c li gii.


7
Li gii. iu kin: x Khi :
2

ng

14 c

kh
a

v cho

() ( 14x 49)2 14 14x 49 7 2 ( 14 x 49)2 14 14 x 49 7 2 14


( 14x 49 7)2 ( 14 x 49 7)2 14

14x 49 7 14x 49 7 14

14x 49 7 ( 14x 49 7)

14x 49 7 0 14x 49 7 14x 49 49 x 7.

7
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, b nghim ca phng trnh l on x ;7
2

BI TP RN LUYN DNG 9
BT 295. Gii phng trnh:

x 2 x 1 x 2 x 1

x3

(x )
123

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

BT 296. Gii phng trnh:

x 2 x 1 x 3 4 x 1 1.

(x )

BT 297. Gii phng trnh:

x 5 4 x 1 x 2 2 x 1 1.

(x )

BT 298. Gii phng trnh:

2x 4 2 2x 5 2x 4 6 2x 5 14.

BT 299. Gii phng trnh:

5
5
x2 1 x2
x2 1 x2 x 1.
4
4

om

.v
n

10. Dng 10. t n ph khng hon ton.


Khi t n phu t th bin x vn tn tai va ta xem x l tham s . Thng
thng thi o la phng trinh bc hai theo t. Ta s gii bng cch lp
nu l s chnh phng, cn khng th ta s phn tch chn h s cho
m ca m.t 2 thch hp l s chnh phng. Khi t n ph khng
hon ton th vic tm iu kin cha cht, nn th li phng trnh
kim tra.
Cc v d c l s chnh phng

V d 157.

bo

ok

.c

ax2 bx c (dx e). mx 2 nx p

Ta thng bt gp cc dng c bn sau:


ax3 bx c (dx e). mx3 nx p

Gii phng trnh: 2x2 3x 7 ( x 5) 2x2 1

()

et

Hc sinh gii tnh Long An nm 2015

ng

vi

iu kin: x 5 0 ?! x 5.
Li gii 1. t n ph khng hon ton.
t t 2x2 1 1, suy ra: t 2 2x2 1 2x2 t 2 1. Khi :
() t 2 ( x 5).t 3x 6 0 v xem y l phng trnh bc hai vi n t c

kh
a

bit s t x2 10x 25 12x 24 x2 2x 1 ( x 1)2 .


x 5 x 1
x2
t
2
Do :
, suy ra:
t x 5 x 1 3

2 x2 1 x 2
x2 4 x 3 0

2
2 x2 1 3
2 x 8

x 2 7 hoc x 2.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin v th vo (), nghim l x 2 7 , x 2.

Li gii 2. Nhn lin hp khi s dng casio tm c nhn t x2 4x 3.


( x 5)( x2 4 x 3)
() x2 4 x 3 ( x 5) 2 x2 1 ( x 2) x2 4 x 3

2 x2 1 x 2

124

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x2 4 x 3 0
x 2 7

x5
( x 4 x 3) 1

2
2
2 x 1 3
x 2
2x 1 x 2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin v th vo (), nghim l x 2 7 , x 2.


Bnh lun. Cng c lin hp t ra kh hiu qu khi gii quyt phng trnh v t. Vn
t ra l hc sinh cn thnh tho cc k nng lin hp, k nng xc nh nghim,
xc nh lng nhn t vi s h tr ca my tnh b ti v s tch ghp tinh t da
vo vic xc nh y s tm c li gii nhanh chng v p mt.
Gii phng trnh: x2 4x ( x 3) x2 x 1 1 0

()

.v
n

V d 158.

1 5
1 5
hoc x

2
2
Li gii 1. t n ph khng hon ton.

om

iu kin: x2 x 1 0 x

t t x2 x 1, suy ra: t 2 x2 x 1 x2 t 2 x 1. Khi :

t ( x 3)2 12x x2 6x 9 ( x 3)2 .

ok

1 41
x2 x 1 3
x

x2 x 1 x

x 1

bo

3xx3
3
t
2
Do :
, suy ra:
t 3 x x 3 x

.c

() t 2 x 1 4x ( x 3)t 1 0 t 2 ( x 3).t 3x 0.

1 41
, x 1.
2
Li gii 2. Nhn lin hp khi s dng casio tm c nhn t x2 x 10.

vi

et

Kt lun: So vi iu kin v th vo (), nghim l x

() ( x2 x 10) ( x 3)( x2 x 1 3) 0

( x 3)( x2 x 10)

ng

( x2 x 10)

x x 1 3
2

x3
0 ( x2 x 10)
1 0
2

x x 1 3

kh
a

1 41
x2 x 10 0
x

x2 x 1 x
x 1

Kt lun: So vi iu kin v th vo (), nghim l x


V d 159.

1 41
, x 1.
2

Gii phng trnh: (4x 1) x3 1 2x3 2x 1

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn L Qu n Ninh Thun

Li gii. iu kin: x3 1 0 x 1.
t t x3 1 0, suy ra: t 2 x3 1 x3 t 2 1. Khi :
() (4x 1)t 2(t 2 1) 2x 1 2t 2 (4x 1).t 2x 1 0

125

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

t (4x 1)2 8(2x 1) 16x2 24x 9 (4x 3)2 .


4x 1 4x 3
2x 1
t
4
Do :
, suy ra
t 4 x 1 4 x 3 1

4
2

x 0 hoc x 2 hoc x 3

x3 1 2 x 1 x3 4x2 4x 0

3
1
3
x 3
x

4
2

4
3

.v
n

Kt lun: So vi iu kin v th vo (), nghim l x 2 hoc x 3


Cc v d c khng l s chnh phng

3
Gii phng trnh: 5x2 x 3 (1 3x) 2 x2 1
2

()

om

V d 160.

ok

.c

3
Phn tch. Bin i: () (2 x2 1) (1 3x) 2 x2 1 3x2 x 2 0 v t n
2
3
ph: t 2x2 1 0, th phng trnh t 2 (1 3x)t 3x2 x 2 0 c bit s
2
(1 3x)2 12x2 6x 8 9 3x2 khng l s chnh phng. Do ta cn iu

ng

vi

et

bo

3
chnh h s m ca m.t 2 , tc PT mt 2 t 2 mt 2 (1 3x).t 3x 2 x 2 0 v
2
3
c t 2 2x2 1 th PT mt 2 2x2 1 m(2x2 1) (1 3x)t 3x2 x 2 0
2
3x
3x
mt 2 (1 3x)t (5 m)x2
3 0 c t (1 3x)2 4m((5 m)x2
3)
2
2
hay t (8m2 20m 9)x2 (6 6m)x (12m 4m2 1) v t c dng chnh

phng th phng trnh t 0 phi c nghim kp tc x b2 4ac 0 hay cn

kh
a

gii phng trnh: (6 6m)2 4(8m2 20m 9)(12m 4m2 1) 0 tm m. Do h


s m ny thng l p v m 0, nn nht phng trnh ny vo casio v shift solve
s thu c ngay kt qu m 2. T c li gii sau:

Li gii. iu kin: 2 x2 1 0 x
() 2.(2 x2 1) (1 3x) 2 x2 1 x2

2
2
hoc x

2
2

3
x 1 0
2

t t 2x2 1, suy ra: t 2 2x2 1. Khi :


3
(i) 2t 2 (1 3x) t x2 x 1 0
2
2
2
t (1 3x) 8x 12x 8 x2 6x 9 ( x 3)2 .
126

(i)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1
6 1
2
x
2x 1 x 2
2

2 2 15
2x2 1 1 x 1
x

1 3x x 3
1
x
t
4
2 , suy ra:
Do :
t 1 3 x x 3 1 x 1

4
2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin v th vo (), nghim l x


V d 161.

6 1
2 2 15
, x

2
7

()

Gii phng trnh: (3 8x) 2x2 1 3x2 x 3

Li gii. iu kin: 3 8x 0 ?!
() 3(2x2 1) (3 8x) 2 x2 1 x 3x2 0

.v
n

(i)

t t 2x2 1, suy ra: t 2 2x2 1, th (i) 3t 2 (3 8x) t x 3x2 0

om

t (3 8x)2 12( x 3x2 ) 100x2 60x 9 (10x 3)2 .

bo

ok

.c

3 8 x 10 x 3 1

1
2
x
t
2x 1 3 x
6
3
x 0.
Do :
, suy ra:
t 3 8 x 10 x 3 1 3x
2 x2 1 1 3x

6
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 0.
Bnh lun. Trong li gii trn, lm tng t nh v d trc, ta c phng trnh
(48 4m)2 4(8m2 12m 64)(4m2 12m 9) 0 v nhp vo my tnh b ti:

(48 4X)2 4(8X2 12X 64)(4X2 12X 9), bm shift solve th phng trnh cho

et

ta nghim X 0 nn ta s loi (do : m 0). kim tra nghim cn li ca phng


trnh ta sa li cu trc: ((48 4X)2 4(8X2 12X 64)(4X2 12X 9)) : X v bm

ng

vi

shift solve th phng trnh cho ngay nghim X 3 v c li gii nh trn.


BI TP RN LUYN DNG 10

(x )

BT 301. Gii phng trnh: x x(3 x 2) 1 2 x 2.

(x )

BT 302. Gii phng trnh: 2 2x 4 4 2 x 9x 16.

(x )

BT 303. Gii phng trnh: x3 6x2 2x 3 (5x 1) x3 3 0.

(x )

BT 304. Gii phogn trnh: ( x 4) x 9 x x 12.

(x )

x 1
1
1
1 3 x
x
x
x

(x )

kh
a

BT 300. Gii phng trnh: 10x2 9x 8x 2x2 3x 1 3 0.


2

BT 305. Gii phng trnh: 2 x

(IMO Shortlist)

127

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

11. Dng 11. mx n a 1 x b 1 x c 1 x2


Phng php gii:
Biu din: mx n (1 x) (1 x) ( ).x ( ) v ng nht
m
h s c h:
, . Sau t u 1 x 0, v 1 x 0,
n
a v phng trnh hai n u, v c th gii bng cch a v tch s
hoc n ph khng hon ton (xem u l bin s v v l hng s hoc
ngc li).

V d 160.

.v
n

tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:

Gii phng trnh: 3 1 x2 4 1 x 4 1 x 3 x

()

om

Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 1.
Ta c: 3 x (1 x) (1 x) ( ) x v ng nht h s c h

.c

1 2
phng trnh

Khi vit: 3 x 2(1 x) (1 x) v


3
1

ok

() 3 (1 x)(1 x) 4 1 x 4 1 x 2(1 x) (1 x)

(i)

t u 1 x 0, v 1 x 0, th (i) 3uv 4v 4u 2u v
2

bo

(i) 3uv 4v 4u 2u2 v2 v2 (4 3u)v 2u2 4u 0

et

Xem y l phng trnh bc hai vi n l u v v l hng s th c:


(4 3u)2 4(2u2 4u) u2 8u 16 (u 4)2 .

kh
a

ng

vi

3u 4 u 4
2u 4
1 x 2 1 x 4
v
2
Do :
x 0.
, suy ra:
1 x 1 x
v 3u 4 u 4 u

2
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht l x 0.

V d 161.

Gii phng trnh: 3x 1 4 x 1 2 1 x 1 x2

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Chuyn Long An Tnh Long An

Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 1.
Ta c: 3x 1 (1 x) (1 x) ( ) x v ng nht h s c
3
1

Khi vit: 3x 1 (1 x) 2(1 x).


h phng trnh:
1
2
() (1 x) 2(1 x) 4 x 1 2 1 x (1 x)(1 x)

t u 1 x 0, v 1 x , th (i) u2 2v2 4v 2u uv
u2 (2 v) u 4v 2v2 0

128

(i)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Xem y l phng trnh bc hai vi n l u v v l hng s.


u (2 v)2 4(4v 2v2 ) 9v2 12v 4 (3v 2)2 .

2 v 3v 2
2v
u
2
Do :
, suy ra:
u 2 v 3 v 2 2 v

3
1 x 2 1 x
x

1 x 2 1 x
x 0

3
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim ca phng trnh l x , x 0.
5

Gii phng trnh: 3x2 1 4 1 x2 2 1 x2 1 x4

()

.v
n

V d 162.

Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 1.

om

Bn cht ca bi ton ny cng ging hai th d trc khi thay x 2 bi x.


Ta c: 3x2 1 (1 x2 ) (1 x2 ) ( ) x2 v ng nht h s

.c

3
1

Khi vit: 3x2 (1 x2 ) 2(1 x2 ) v:


c h:

() (1 x2 ) 2(1 x2 ) 4 1 x2 2 1 x2 (1 x2 )(1 x2 )

(i)

ok

t u 1 x2 0, v 1 x2 0, th (i) u2 2v2 4v 2u uv

bo

u2 (2 v) u 4v 2v2 0 c bit s u (3v 2)2 .

vi

et

2 v 3v 2
2v
1 x2 2 1 x2
u
2
x 0.
Do :
, suy ra:
1 x2 2 1 x2
u 2 v 3 v 2 2 v

2
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 0.

ng

BI TP RN LUYN DNG 11

(x )

BT 307. Gii phng trnh: x 6 4 1 x 5 1 x 3 1 x2 .

(x )

BT 308. Gii phng trnh: (4 1 x ) 1 x 1 3x 2 1 x.

(x )

kh
a

BT 306. Gii phng trnh: x 3 1 x 2 1 x 3 1 x2 .

12. Dng 12. t ba n ph da vo hng ng thc.


tng bi ton v phng php gii:
Xut pht t hng ng thc: (a b c)3 a3 b3 c3 3(a b)(b c)(c a).
Khi nu phng trnh c dng: (a b c)3 a3 b3 c 3 th ta lun
khng nh c rng lng 3(a b)(b c)(c a) trong hng ng thc s
bng 0. Khi ta ch cn gii phng trnh tch s (a b)(b c)(c a) 0.

129

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:


V d 163.

Gii phng trnh:

7 x 1 3 x2 x 8 3 x2 8 x 1 2

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/1999

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
t a 3 7 x 1; b 3 x2 x 8; c 3 x2 8x 1.

Suy ra: 8 8 3(a b)(b c)(c a) (a b)(b c)(c a) 0

.v
n

a b c 2

T c h: a3 b3 c 3 (7 x 1) ( x 2 x 8) ( x 2 8 x 1) 8
( a b c)3 a3 b3 c 3 3(a b)(b c )(c a)

Gii:

()

1945x 1975 3 60x 15 3 15 x 3 2004x 2005

Hc sinh gii tnh Gia Lai

bo

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .

ok

V d 164.

.c

om

3 7 x 1 3 x2 x 8
a b 0
a b
x 1 x 9

3 2
3 2

b c 0 b c x x 8 x 8 x 1 x 1

3 2
c a 0
c a

3
x 8x 1 7 x 1
x 1 x 0

Kt lun: Th vo (), nghim cn tm l x 0, x 1, x 9.

t a 3 7 x 1; b 3 x2 x 8; c 3 x2 8x 1.

kh
a

ng

vi

et

a b c 3 2004 x 2005

Suy ra h: a3 b3 c 3 2004 x 2005


( a b)(b c)(c a) 0
( a b c)3 a3 b3 c 3 3( a b)(b c)(c a)

3 1945x 1975 3 60 x 15
a b

1990
30
1990

b c 3 60 x 15 3 15 x
x
, x , x

2005
59
1944
3
3
c a
15 x 1945x 1975
1990
30
1990
Kt lun: Th vo (), nghim cn tm l x
, x , x

2005
59
1944

BI TP RN LUYN DNG 12
3

x2 7 x 8 3 x2 6x 7 3 2x2 13x 12 3.

(x )

BT 310. Gii:

8x 5 9x x 15 x 17 x 7 3.

(x )

BT 311. Gii:

3x2 x 2013 3 3x2 7 x 2014 3 6x 2015 3 2014.

BT 312. Gii:

x2 4x 3 3 4x2 9x 3 3 3x2 2x 2 3 2x2 3x 2.

BT 309. Gii:

BT 313. Gii: x2 6x 29 2 3x2 10x 3 (10 2x)( x 3 3x 1).


130

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x2
x 1 x 1
1
x2
x 1

(x )
x 1
x2
x2
x 1
x 1
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn Nguyn Bnh Khim Vnh Long

BT 314. Gii:

13. Dng 13. x m x . n x n x . p x p x . m x


Trong m, n, p ln lt l cc s t nhin lin tip theo th t .

om

.v
n

Phng php gii:


a m x 0

t b n x 0 , bnh phng v kt hp vi bi ta c h mi l:

c p x 0
x m a2 ab bc ca
a2 ab bc ca m
( a b)( a c) m (1)

2
(2)
x n b ab bc ca b ab bc ca n ( a b)(b c ) n
x p c 2 ab bc ca
c 2 ab bc ca p
(b c)( a c) p
(3)

.c

(1),(2),(3) ( a b)(b c)( c a) mnp ( a b)(b c)( c a) mnp (4)

et

bo

ok

mnp
b c

m
mnp
mnp

b a

mnp
(4) (4) (4)

m
n
Ly
,
,
c a

a , b , c x.
(1) (2) (3)
n
a b mnp

mnp
p

a b
p

Gii: x 3 x 4 x 4 x 5 x 5 x 3 x

ng

V d 165.

vi

tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:

()

Hc sinh gii tnh Qung Bnh nm 2014

kh
a

Li gii. iu kin: x 3.
t a 3 x 0, b 4 x 0, c 5 x 0.
x 3 a2 ab bc ca
a2 ab bc ca 3
( a b)( a c) 3 (1)

2
Suy ra: x 4 b ab bc ca b ab bc ca 4 ( a b)(b c) 4 (2)
x 5 c 2 ab bc ca
c 2 ab bc ca 5
(b c)( a c) 5 (3)

Ly: (1).(2).(3) ( a b)(b c)(c a) 60 ( a b)(b c)(c a) 2 15

(4)

131

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

2
b c

(4) (4) (4)


2
Lp:
,
,
c a
(1) (2) (3)

2
a b

15

3
15
b a
15

6 b 17 15 x 671

4
60
240
2 15

ab

15
5

Kt lun: So iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x


Gii: x 2 x . 3 x 3 x . 4 x 4 x . 2 x 1

.v
n

V d 166.

671

240

()

ok

.c

om

Nhn xt. Bi ton c dng tng t nhng thay th x bng x 1.


a 2 x 0 a2 2 x

Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 2. t: b 3 x 0 b2 3 x

2
c 4 x 0 c 4 x
x 1 1 a2 ab bc ca
a2 ab bc ca 1
( a b)( a c) 1 (1)

2
x 1 2 b ab bc ca b ab bc ca 2 ( a b)(b c) 2 (2)
x 1 3 c 2 ab bc ca
c 2 ab bc ca 3
(b c)( a c) 3 (3)

Ly: (1).(2).(3) ( a b)(b c)(c a) 6 ( a b)(b c)(c a) 6

bo

b a
6

2
a b
6

3
6

ng

vi

et

b c

(4) (4) (4)


,
,
c a
Lp:
(1) (2) (3)

a b

(4)

6
2 b 5 6 x 47
12
24
6
3

kh
a

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, v th li phng trnh thy x

47
khng tha
24

mn nn phng trnh cho v nghim.


Nhn xt. Do vic bin i trong cc gii l bin i h qu. Do khi gii
xong ta cn th li nghim.
BI TP RN LUYN DNG 13
BT 315. Gii: x 5 x . 6 x 6 x . 7 x 7 x. 5 x.

(x )

BT 316. Gii: 2x 2 x 10 4x 5 2x 6 2x 2 3 x 2 x 1.

132

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

14. Dng 14. t 1 hoc 2 n ph a v phng trnh tch hoc h c bn.


Phng php gii:
trn, ti nu nhng dng ton t n ph vi nhng dng ton c
du hiu nhn dng tng i. dng ny, ti xin trnh by mt s cch
t n ph dng khc m khng theo nguyn tc nht nh no c, n
ch yu da vo tnh ch quan ca ngi ra . Hin nhin cch gii cn
phi i hi cht kinh nghim v phn on chnh xc ca ngi gii.
tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:

()

.v
n

Gii phng trnh: ( x 3) x2 8x 48 x 24

V d 167.

Olympic 30/04/2013
iu kin: x 8x 48 0 12 x 4.
Li gii 1. t 2 n u, v a v hng ng thc: (u v)2 k 2 , ( k const).

om

ok

.c

u2 x 2 8 x 48
(1)
2

2
u x 8 x 48 0
2
(2)
t:
v x 6 x 9
v x 3
2uv 2 x 48

(3)

(phng trnh (3) c c l do nhn s 2 hai v ca () )

x2 8x 48 6 x x 5 31.

vi

Vi

et

bo

u v 3

Ly (1) (2) (3), suy ra: (u v)2 9 32


u v 3

x 0
x 2 2 7.
Vi u v 3, suy ra: x2 8 x 48 x 2

x 4 x 24 0

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 2 2 7 , x 5 31.

ng

Li gii 2. a v dng A2 B2 A B.

kh
a

() 2( x 3) x2 8x 48 2x 48
(x2 8x 48) 2( x 3) x2 8x 48 x2 6x 9 9

x2 8 x 48 x
x 2 2 7
( x2 8 x 48 x 3)2 32

x2 8 x 48 x 6

31

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 2 2 7 , x 5 31.


Li gii 3. t n ph khng hon ton.
() 2( x 3) x2 8x 48 2x 48
(x2 8x 48) 2( x 3) x2 8 x 48 x2 6 x 0

(i)

t t x 8x 48 0, suy ra: t x 8x 48. Khi :


(i) t 2 2( x 3) t x2 6x 0 c t ( x 3)2 ( x2 6x) 9.
2

133

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

t x
Do :
, suy ra:
t x 6

x2 8 x 48 x
x 2 2 7

x2 8 x 48 x 6

31

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 2 2 7 , x 5 31.

Li gii 4. Lin hp sau khi s dng casio tm nhn t x2 4x 24.


() ( x2 4 x 24) ( x 3) x2 8 x 48 x 0

x2 8x 48 x 0 x 2 7 2 khng l nghim (i ) .

Nu x 2 7 2 th (i) ( x2 4 x 24)

x2 4x 24 0

2( x 3)( x2 4x 24)
x2 8 x 48 x

.v
n

Nu

(i)

x2 8x 48 x 6 x 2 2 7 x 5 31.

V d 168.

om

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 2 2 7 , x 5 31.


Gii phng trnh: ( x 2) x2 2x 3 x 3

()

.c

iu kin: x2 2x 3 0 3 x 1.
Li gii 1. t 2 n u, v a v hng ng thc: (u v)2 k 2 , ( k const).

bo

ok

u2 x 2 2 x 3
u x 2 2 x 3 0

v 2 x 2 4 x 4
t
v x 2
2uv 2 x 6

(1)
(2)
(3)

kh
a

ng

vi

et

u v 1

Ly (1) (2) (3), suy ra: (u v)2 1


u v 1
x 3

x 1.
Vi u v 1, suy ra: x2 2 x 3 x 3 2

x 4x 3 0
x 1

x 2 1.
Vi u v 1, suy ra: x2 2x 3 x 1 2

x 2x 1 0

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim ca phng trnh l x 1, x 2 1.

Li gii 2. a v dng A2 B2 A B.
() 2( x 2) x2 2x 3 2x 6 0

(x2 2x 3) 2( x 2) x2 2x 3 x2 4x 4 1

x2 2 x 3 ( x 2) 1
2
2
2

x 2 x 3 ( x 2) 1

x2 2 x 3 ( x 2) 1

x2 2 x 3 x 3
x 1

x2 2 x 3 x 1
x 2 1

134

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Li gii 3. t n ph khng hon ton.


() 2( x 2) x2 2x 3 2x 6 0
(x2 2x 3) 2( x 2) x2 2x 3 x2 4x 3 0

(i)

t t x 2x 3 0, th (i) t 2( x 2) t x 4x 3 0 c:
2

() ( x 2)( x2 2x 3 2) ( x 1) 0

( x 2)( x2 2 x 1)

( x 1) 0

( x 2)( x 1)2

( x 1) 0
x2 2 x 3 2
x2 2x 3 2
x 1

x2 3x 2
( x 1) 1
0

2
2

(i)
x2 2 x 3 2

x 2 x 3 x 3x

om

.v
n

x 1
t x 3 x 2 2 x 3 x 3
t 1

x 2 1
t x 1 x2 2 x 3 x 1
Li gii 4. Lin hp sau khi nhm c 1 nghim x 1.

.c

Do s dng table tm c nhn t x2 2x 1 ca phng trnh ( i ) nn:

bo

ok

(ii )
(i) ( x2 2x 1) x2 2x 3 ( x 1) 0

x 1

x 1 2 v nghim ny
Xt: x2 2 x 3 ( x 1) 2

2 x 4 x 2 0
khng tha phng trnh (ii).

(ii) ( x2 2 x 1)

et

x2 2x 3 ( x 1) 0 x 1 2, th:

2( x2 2 x 1)

vi

Vi

x2 2 x 3 x 1

ng

x2 2x 1 0

x 2 1.
2
x 2 x 3 x 3 : VNo

kh
a

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim ca phng trnh l x 1, x 2 1.


Nhn xt. Dng tng qut l (mx n) ax2 bx c px q , (a 0), khi ta
thng t 2 n ph u, v a v dng (u v)2 k 2 , ( k const), tng ng vi
li gii 1. Nu gii c bng phng php ny th ta hon ton gii c bng cch 2
(a v dng A2 B2 A B) hoc cch 3 (t n ph khng hon ton). Cn
cch gii 4 bng phng php lin hp t ra kh mnh m, nhng i hi s h tr ca
my tnh b ti v kinh nghim tch ghp khi gii ton. Nhng vn y l nu t
2 n ph m khng a v dng (u v)2 k 2 , ( k const) th s x l nh th no ?!.
tr li cu hi ny, ta cng tm hiu v d sau:
V d 169.

Gii phng trnh: ( x 1) 2x2 7 x 9 9x 39

()
135

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

iu kin: 2 x2 7 x 9 0 x

9
hoc x 1.
2
2

Li gii 1. t hai n ph a v dng: (a m.b)2 f ( x) .


a2 x 2 2 x 1

t
4b2 8 x2 28 x 36
2

b 2 x 7 x 9 0 4ab 36 x 156

(1)
(2)
(3)

.v
n

a 2b 3x 11
Ly (1) (2) (3) ( a 2b)2 9 x2 66 x 121 (3x 11)2

a 2b 3x 11

om

Vi a 2b 3x 11 x 1 2 2x2 7 x 9 3x 11 2x2 7 x 9 x 5

3 145
x 5
x 5
2
2
x

2
2
2 x 7 x 9 x 10 x 25
x 3x 34 0

.c

x 3

: VNo .
Vi a 2b 3x 11 2 x2 7 x 9 2 x 6 2

2 x 17 x 45 0

ok

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim cn tm ca phng trnh l x

3 145

bo

Bnh lun. a v dng (a m.b)2 f ( x) , ta cn nhn thm h s ca phng


trnh (2) khi cng (1) vi (2) c h s trc x 2 l s chnh phng (1,4,9,16,...)
2

vi

et

v kh nng rt thp xut hin hin dng: ( a m.b)2 f ( x) . Cch ra dng ny


ch yu da vo tnh ch quan ca ngi ra .
Li gii 2. t hai n ph a v h i xng loi II vi ba bin.
() ( x 5)2 ( x2 x 14) ( x 1) ( x 1)( x 5) ( x2 x 14)

(i)

kh
a

ng

2
2

u x 5
u ( x x 14) ( x 1) v

t
2
2
2
v ( x x 14) ( x 1) u
v ( x 1)( x 5) ( x x 14) 0

u v
u2 v2 ( x 1)( v u) (u v)(u v x 1) 0

u v x 1 0
x 5
3 145

Vi u v, suy ra: 2 x2 7 x 9 x 5 2
2

x 3x 34 0

Vi u v x 1 0, 2x2 7 x 9 2x 6 : v nghim.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim cn tm ca phng trnh l x

136

3 145

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


n

Bnh lun. Bi ton ny c dng f ( x) b( x) a( x) n a( x) f ( x) b( x) ta tm


hiu dng 7: a v h i xng ba n. N khc vi hai v d trc l h s trc x 2
trong cn thc l s dng ( a 0) m ta cn phi phn bit.
V d 170.

Gii phng trnh: 3x2 5x 2 2( x 1) 2x2 3x 1 0

()

1
hoc x 1.
2
Li gii 1. t 2 n u, v a v hng ng thc: (u v)2 k 2 , ( k const).

iu kin: 2 x2 3x 1 0 x

.v
n

u2 x2 2x 1
u2 v2 3x2 5x 2
u x 1

2
2
2
v 2 x 3x 1
2uv 3x 5x 2
v 2 x 3x 1 0

om

u v 2
( u v) 2 4

u v 2

3 41
x 3
2 x 2 3x 1 3 x 2
x

x 3x 8 0
x 1

: v nghim.
Vi u v 2, suy ra: 2 x2 3x 1 1 x 2

x 5x 0

ok

.c

Vi u v 2, suy ra:

bo

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x

3 41

Li gii 2. a v dng A2 B2 A B.

et

() (2x2 3x 1) 2( x 1) 2x2 3x 1 x2 2x 1 4

ng

vi

2 x 2 3x 1 3 x
3 41
( 2 x2 3x 1 x 1)2 2 2
x

2
2
2 x 3x 1 x 1

kh
a

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x

3 41

Li gii 3. t n ph khng hon ton.


() (2x2 3x 1) 2( x 1) 2x2 3x 1 x2 2x 3 0

(i)

t t 2x2 3x 1 0, th (i) t 2 2( x 1) t x2 2x 3 0 c t 4.
t 2 x 2 3 x 1 3 x
3 41
x

Suy ra:
2
2
t 2 x 3 x 1 x 1

3 41

2
Li gii 4. Lin hp sau khi s dng casio tm c nhn t x2 3x 8.
() ( x2 3x 8) 2( x 1) 2x2 3x 1 ( x 3) 0
(i)

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x

137

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Xt
Xt

x 3
2 x2 3x 1 ( x 3) 0 2 x2 3x 1 x 3 2
: VNo .

x 3x 8 0
2( x 1)( x2 3x 8)
0
2x2 3x 1 ( x 3) 0 th (i) ( x2 3x 8)
2 x 2 3x 1 3 x

x2 3x 8 0
3 41

2
2
2 x 3x 1 x 1 : VNo
3 41

2
Bnh lun. Qua v d trn v cc v d ca cc dng trc, nhn thy rng phng

.v
n

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x

trnh c dng mx2 nx p (ax b) cx2 dx e c rt nhiu cch gii, chng hn:

om

t n ph khng hon ton, t mt n (hoc hai) a v dng ng cp, lin hp,


t hai n ph a v h i xng ba bin, t hai n ph a v dng (u v)2 k 2 ,

.c

a trc tip v dng A2 B2 hoc tng cc s khng m, Ty thuc vo c im


ca bi ton m ta chn phng n ph hp, theo kinh nghim ca ti, bn nn chn
phng php gii theo th t phng php trn.

Gii phng trnh:

2 3x

13 6 x

bo

V d 171.

ok

Lp bi ton t 1 hoc 2 n ph a v h i xng hoc h c bn

et

Nhn xt. Bi ton c dng tng qut

a bx
c dx

2 3x
13 6 x

a bx
c dx

36
5

()

e. Khi ta thng t

kh
a

ng

vi

hai n ph u c dx 0, v c dx a v h i xng loi I.


13
13
Li gii. iu kin: x
6
6

u2 13 6 x 2
u 13 6 x 0
t
2
u v2 26
v 13 6 x 0
v 13 6 x

(1)

13 u2
v2 13
2
36
13 u
v 13
2
2

Ta li c: x
nn ()

6
6
u
v
6
2
2
17 u 17 v
36
17 1 1 36 1


( u v)
2u
2v
5
2 u v 5 2
2

17(u v) 1
36
( u v)
2uv
2
5
2
2
u v 26
(u v)2 2uv 26

T (1), (2) 17 u v u v 36 17 u v u v 36



2
5
2
5
2 uv
2 uv

138

(2)
( I)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

13 6 x 1

13 6 x 1
x 2

x 2.
13 6 x 5
13 6 x 25
x 2
13 6 x 5

13 6 x 25
x 2

x 2.
13 6 x 1
13 6 x 1
x 2

om

u
Vi

u
Vi

.v
n

2 P S2 26
S2 2 P 26
S u v 0

t
, (S2 4 P), th ( I ) 17S S 36 17S
5S 72


P uv 0

2
10
2P 2 5
S 26
3
2
5S 72S 330S 1872 0
S 6

: tha S2 4P.
S2 26
P

5
P

2
u 1
u 5
Theo Vit th u, v l nghim ca X 2 6X 5 0

v 5
v 1

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 2.

7 6 x 0

Li gii. iu kin:

x2

7 6x

1 x

11
8

.c

Gii phng trnh:

13 6 x

ok

V d 172.

13
7
x
6
6

bo

13 6 x 0
11
3 (2 x 1)
3 (2 x 1)
()

4
10 3(2 x 1)
10 3(2 x 1)

et

(1)

11
3t
3t

4
10 3t
10 3t

(2)

vi

t t 2x 1 th: (1)

u 10 3t 0
t
, suy ra: u2 v2 20

v 10 3t 0

ng

()

(3)

kh
a

10 u2
v2 10
3
11
10 u
v 10
3
3

Mt khc, ta c: t
nn (2)

3
3
4
u
v
33 19 u2 19 v2
1 1 33
19(u v) 33

19
uv

u v
4
u
v
uv
4
u v 4
2

19(u v) 33

uv

Kt hp vi (3) c h phng trnh: uv


4
u2 v2 20

76(u v) 33uv 4(u v)uv

S u v 0

76S 33P 4SP

2
vi
2

P uv 0
(u v) 2uv 20
S 2 P 20

139

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


2
2

152S 33.2 P 2 P.4S


152S 33(S 20) 4S(S 20)

2
2
2 P S 20

2 P S 20
3
2
2

S 6
4S 33S 232S 660 0
(S 6)(4S 57S 110) 0

2
2

P 8
2 P S 20
2 P S 20; S, P 0
u 4
v 2
Theo Vit th u, v l nghim ca X 2 6X 8 0

v 2
u 4

10 3t 4

10 3t 2
10 3t 4

, suy ra: t 2 x 1 2 x

.v
n

3
, suy ra: t 2 x 1 2 x
2
10 3t 2

om

u
Vi

u
Vi

3
1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x , x
2
2

x2 2 x 14

(7 2 x)(2 x 3)

3
7
2
2
13 ( x 1)2

()

13 ( x 1)2
25 4( x 1)2

4 x2 8 x 29

bo

Li gii. iu kin: x

12 2 x x2

.c

Gii phng trnh:

25 4( x 1)2

20

()

ok

V d 173.

20

(1)
(2)

t u 25 4t 0, v 25 4t 0, suy ra: u2 v2 50

(3)

ng

vi

et

25
13 t
13 t
t t ( x 1)2 , 0 t th (1)

20
4
25 4t
25 4t

25 u
v 25
13
13
25 u2 v2 25
4
4

20
Mt khc: t
nn (2)

u
v
4
4
77 u2 77 v2
77(u v)
(4)

80
u v 80
u
v
uv
u2 v2 50
(u v)2 2uv 50

(I )
T (3),(4) 77(u v)
u v 80

154(u v) 2uv(u v) 160uv

uv
t S u v 0, P uv 0, (S2 4P) th

kh
a

2 P S2 50

2 P S 50
(I)

2
2

154S S(S 50) 80(S 50)


154S 2 P.S 80.2 P

140

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


3
2

S 8
S 80S 204S 4000 0

P 7
2 P S 50; S, P 0

.v
n

u 7
u 1
Theo Vit th u, v l nghim ca X 2 8X 7 0

v 1
v 7

u 25 4t 7
Vi
, suy ra: t ( x 1)2 6 : v nghim.

v 25 4t 1

u 25 4t 1
Vi
, suy ra: t ( x 1)2 6 x 1 6.

v 25 4t 7

om

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 1 6.


Nhn xt. Bn cht ca bi ton l tc gi thay th x bi ( x 1)2 . Khi cn chn
mt i lng lm chun th dn v tm ra cc i lng cn li da vo dng tng
qut ca bi ton m phn tch.
1

1
2
x

.c

()
2x
Chn i tuyn VMO nm 2014 2015 tnh Bnh Thun

Gii phng trnh:

ok

V d 174.

Li gii. iu kin: x ( 2; 2)\0.

et

bo

x2 y 2 2
( x y)2 2 xy 2

t y 2 x2 0 1 1

x y 2 xy
y x 2

vi

x y 1
x y 2
( x y) ( x y) 2 0

hoc
2 xy x y
2 xy 1
xy 1

kh
a

ng

2x2 2x 1 0
y x 1
y x 2
1 3
2
x 1, x

hoc
x
(
x

2)

1
2
x
(
x

1)

1
2

x 2 x 1 0
1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 1, x (1 3).
2

V d 175.

Gii cc phng trnh sau:

a) x 1 3. 3x 1.
2

b) x3 1 2. 3 2x 1.

Nhn xt. Dng tng qut ca bi ton l xn b a. n ax b . Khi ta lun t n


n

ax y b
ph y n ax b 0
v y l h i xng loi II (ly v tr v).
n

ay x b
2

3x y 1
3( x y) ( y 2 x 2 )
Li gii cu a). t y 3x 1
2

3 y x 1
141

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

y x
3 5
( x y)( x y 3) 0
3x 1 x x

0
:
VN
2
o

Kt lun: Nghim ca phng trnh l x

3 5

2 x y 3 1

2( x y) y 3 x 3
3
2
y

Li gii cu b). t y 3 2 x 1

( x y)( x2 xy y 2 2) 0 x y 3 2 x 1 x x 1 x

Gii cc phng trnh sau:

om

V d 176.

1 5

.v
n

Kt lun: Nghim ca phng trnh l x 1, x

1 5

a) x 2014 2014 x .

b) x (2015 x )(1 1 x )2 .

ok

.c

Nhn xt. Dng c bn ca 2 bi ton l x a a x . Khi ta cng t mt n

y a x
ph y a x a
v y l h i xng loi II.
x

Li gii cu a). iu kin: x 2014. t y 2014 x 2014 2014.

et

bo

x 2014 y
Suy ra:
x y x y 0 ( x y ) ( x y 1) 0

y 2014 x
1 8057
2

4029 8057
: tha mn iu kin.
2

ng

vi

x y x y nn x x 2014 0 x

kh
a

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht l x

4029 8057
.
2

Li gii cu b). iu kin: 0 x 1. t y 1 x , (0 y 1).


Suy ra: y2 1 x x 1 y 2 x (1 y2 )2 nn:

0 y 1
0 y 1
()

2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(1 y ) (2015 y )(1 y)

(1 y) (1 y) (2015 y )(1 y)

0 y 1
0 y 1

y 1
2
2
2
2
2
(1 y) (1 y) y 2015 0
(1

y
)
(
y

1007)

Vi y 1 x (1 y2 )2 0 : tha mn iu kin.

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht l x 0.


142

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

V d 177.

Gii phng trnh: ( x2 1 x)3 ( x2 1 x)3 4x2 2 0

()

Hc sinh gii tnh Ph Yn nm 2014 2015


2

a x 1 x

2
2
2

a b 2 x 1 ( a b) 4 x 4

2
2
2

b x 1 x
ab ( x 1 x)( x 1 x) 1
ab 1

Kt hp vi (), c h phng trnh: 3


3
2

a b ( a b) 6 0

ab 1
ab 1

3
2
3
2
( a b) 3ab( a b) ( a b) 6 0
( a b) ( a b) 3( a b) 6 0

.v
n

Li gii. t:

om

a b 2
nn theo Vit th a, b l nghim ca: X2 2X 1 0

ab

.c

2
2
a 1
a x 1 x 1
x 1 1 x

x 0.
Suy ra:
b 1
b x 2 1 x 1
x2 1 1 x

bo

ok

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht l x 0.


Bnh lun. Vic phng trnh c cha cp s m tch ca chng bng hng s k th
hng x l bng php t 2 n ph l hon ton kh thi, mt li i thng gp.
V d 178. Gii: ( ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Phan Chu Trinh Nng)

x4 2x2 x 2 x 93 2 x4 2x2 x 2 x 93

et

x2 91

vi

Li gii. iu kin: x 2 v

()

x4 2x2 x 2 x 93 2 0.

ng

t t x4 2x2 x 2 x 93 0, suy ra: t 2 x4 2x2 x 2 x 93


t 2 ( x2 x 2)2 91 x2 x 2 t 2 91

kh
a

() x2 91 t 2 t 2 t 2 t 2 x2 91

(1)
(2)

x2 t 2 ( x 2 t 2) ( t 2 91 x2 91)

x 2; t 2

xt
( x t )( x t )

0
( x t )( x t )

x2 t2
t 2 91 x2 91
t 2; x 2

1
xt

( x t ) x t
0

x t.
x2 t2
t 2 91 x2 91

x 2; t 2

Suy ra:

x2 91 x 2 x2 ( x2 91 10) ( x 2 1) ( x2 9)

143

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

( x 3)( x 3)

x3

( x 3)( x 3)
x2 1
x 91 10

x3
1
( x 3)

( x 3) 0
2
x2 1
x 91 10

x3
1
x3
1
Do:

( x 3)

( x 3)
2
10
x2 1
x2 1
x 91 10
2

(3)

9
1
( x 3)
0 nn (3) x 3.
10
x2 1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht l x 3.

Lp bi ton t 2 n ph a v phng trnh tch s

.v
n

V d 179.

ok

.c

om

Trc ht, ta tm hiu lp bi tp m sau khi biu i v t n ph a c v loi


m.a2 n.a m.b2 n.b
phng trnh i xng 2 bin vi cc dng sau: 3

2
3
2
m.a n.a p.a m.b n.b p.b
Khi ta s bin i v tch s bng php nhm ph hp. Nhng trong rt nhiu
trng hp, ta khng th a v 1 trong 2 dng trn nhng vn t 2 n ph a
c v phng trnh tch s. Ta cng xt cc v d sau hiu k hn v vn ny:
Gii phng trnh: x2 2x 2x 1 x2 1

()

et

bo

1
iu kin: x
2
Nhn xt & li gii 1. t 2 n ph a v tch s.

vi

Nhn thy: x2 2x ( x2 1) (2x 1) ( x2 1)2 ( 2x 1)2 nn c:


() ( x2 1)2 ( 2 x 1)2 2 x 1 x2 1

ng

( x2 1)2 x2 1 ( 2x 1)2 2x 1

(i)

t a x 1 1, b 2x 1 0 th (i) a a b b
2

kh
a

(a2 b2 ) (a b) 0 (a b) (a b 1) 0 a b, (do : a b 1 0)

Suy ra: x2 1 2x 1 x2 2x 0 x 0 hoc x 2.


Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c 2 nghim l x 0, x 2.
Nhn xt & li gii 2. Ghp cn thc lin hp.
Nhn thy: ( x2 1) (2x 1) x2 2x c nhn t vi v tri nn ghp 2 cn
thc li vi nhau lin hp v a v tch s dng: ( x2 2x). f ( x) 0.
() ( x2 2 x) ( x2 1 2 x 1) 0 x2 2 x

x2 2 x

x2 1 2 x 1

x 0
1
( x 2 2 x) 1
0 x2 2 x 0

x2 1 2 x 1
x 2

144

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

V d 180.

()

Gii phng trnh: 3x3 x2 8x 4 2 2x 1 x 3x 1


2 x 1 0

Li gii. iu kin:

3x 1 0

() 3x3 x2 8x 4 8x 4 3x3 x2
( 3x3 x2 )2 3x3 x2 ( 8x 4)2 8x 4

(i)

t: a 3x3 x2 0, b 8x 4 0 th (i) a2 a b2 b
(a2 b2 ) (a b) 0 (a b) (a b 1) 0 a b, (do : a b 1 0)
2

.v
n

Suy ra:

3x3 x2 8 x 4 3x3 x2 8 x 4 0 x 2 x 1 x

3
Bnh lun: Vn t ra l ti sao bit c cn bin i v dng i xng t
c 2 n ph a v tch s ?! Rt n gin, do ta s dng casio tm c 2
2
nghim ca phng trnh l x 1, x v gi tr ca hai biu thc cha cn thc ti
3

ok

.c

om

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c 2 nghim l x 1, x

Gii phng trnh:

4
1
5
x x 2x
x
x
x

et

V d 181.

bo

2 v tr nghim ny u bng nhau, tc lun c 3x3 x2 8x 4 , nn s lun c


a b. Hin nhin khi d on c 2 nghim, ta hon ton c th ghp bc nht
lin hp cng dn n p s tng t (dnh cho bn c).

5
hoc 1 x 0.
2

ng

vi

Li gii. iu kin: x

()

kh
a

5
1
4
5
1
Nhn thy 2x x x nn t a 2 x 0, b x
x
x
x
x
x

Suy ra: a2 b2 x

4
4
5
1
th () x 2 x x 0 a2 b2 a b 0
x
x
x
x

( a b)( a b 1) 0 a b 2x

x 2
5
1
4
x x 0

x
x
x
x 2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 2.


V d 182.

Gii phng trnh: x3 3x2 5x 3 ( x2 3) x2 1

()

Phn tch. VP() ( x2 3) x2 1 ( x2 1)2 2 x2 1 ( x2 1)3 2 x2 1.

Do ta hy vng v tri ca () s phn tch thnh dng: ( x m)3 2( x m). Khai


trin v ng nht h s, ta s tm c ngay m 1. Nhng ng nht thc th di,
145

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

nn ta s khc phc u bng cch tm 1 nghim ca phng trnh l x 0. Khi


cn vit: x3 3x2 5x 3 ( x m)3 2( x m), v cho x 0 vo phng trnh ny
cng tm c m 1 v c li gii chi tit nh sau:

Li gii. iu kin: x3 3x2 5x 3 0 ?! x 1.


() ( x 1)3 2( x 1) ( x2 1)3 2 x2 1

(i)

t a x 1 0, b x2 1 2 th (i) a3 2a b3 2b
(a3 b3 ) 2(a b) 0 (a b)(a2 ab b2 2) 0 a b.

.v
n

Suy ra: x2 1 x 1 0 x 0.
Lu . Ta c th gii bi ton ny bng phng php lin hp khi s dng casio tm
c 1 nghim x 0. Ngoi ra, t (i) f ( x 1) f ( x2 1) vi hm c trng

om

f (t) t 3 2t lun n iu 1 chiu nn x 1 x2 1 x 0. Dng ny ta s tm

hiu k phn gii phng trnh bng phng php nh gi bng hm s.


Gii phng trnh: ( x 1 1)( x 5 2 x 1) 2( x 1) 2x 1 ()

.c

V d 183.

ok

iu kin: 2x 1 0.

bo

Phn tch. VP() 2( x 1) 2x 1 ( 2x 1)2 3 2x 1 ( 2 x 1)3 3 2 x 1

2
v VT() ( x 1 1) ( x 1) 2 x 1 1 3 ( x 1 1) ( x 1 1)2 3

et

( x 1 1)3 3( x 1 1) s a () v dng i xng a3 3a b3 3b sau khi

t n ph a x 1 1, b 2x 1 v c li gii chi tit sau:

vi

Li gii. Ta c: () ( x 1 1)3 3( x 1 1) ( 2x 1)3 3 2x 1 (i )

ng

t a x 1 1, b 2 x 1, a 0, b 0, do : x

1
. Khi :
2

kh
a

(i) a3 3a b3 3b (a3 b3 ) 3(a b) 0 (a b)(a2 ab b2 3) 0


a b, (do : a2 ab b2 3 0, a, b ).

x 1 1 2x 1 x 1 2x 1 1 x 1 2x 2 2x 1

x 1
2 2x 1 1 x 2
x 5 2 5.

x 10 x 5 0

Suy ra:

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim ca phng trnh l x 5 2 5.


V d 184.

Gii phng trnh: (8x 6) x 1 (2 x 2)( x 4 x 2 3) ()

Li gii. iu kin: x 2. Ta c:
VP() (2 x 2) ( x 2)2 4 x 2 22 1 (2 x 2) ( x 2 2)2 1

146

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

(2 x 2)3 (2 x 2).
VT() (4x 3) 4x 4 ( 4x 4)2 1 4x 4 ( 4x 4)3 4x 4. Nn:

() ( 4x 4)3 4x 4 (2 x 2)3 (2 x 2)

(i)

t a 4x 4 0, b 2 x 2 2. Khi : (i) a a b b
3

(a3 b3 ) (a b) 0 (a b)(a2 ab b 1) 0 a b.

.v
n

22
x 2
x

Suy ra: 2 x 2 4 x 4 2 x 2 3x 6 2
9

9 x 40 x 44 0
x 2

V d 185.

22
, x 2.
9

om

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x


Gii phng trnh: x3 4x2 5x 6 3 7 x2 9x 4

()

Phn tch. S dng casio, ta tm c phng trnh c 1 nghim x 5. Do s th

.c

xt phn tch: ( x m)3 ( x m) 7 x2 9x 4 3 7 x2 9x 4 v phng trnh c 1

bo

ok

nghim bng x 5 nn th vo v s dng shift solve ca casio, tm c ngay


m 1, (hoc s dng ng nht h s vi sau khi khai trin). Do s t 2 n ph
a v dng i xng v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. Tp xc nh: D . Ta c:
() ( x 1)3 ( x 1) 7 x2 9x 4 3 7 x2 9x 4

et

(i)

7 x2 9x 4 x 1 ( x 5)( x2 x 1) 0 x 5 x

ng

Suy ra:

vi

t a x 1, b 3 7 x2 9x 4 th (i) a3 a b3 b a b.

1 5

kh
a

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c cc nghim l x 5, x


V d 186.

1 5

Gii phng trnh: 7 x2 13x 8 2x2 3 x(1 3x 3x2 )

()

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D . Do x 0 khng l nghim () nn:


()

7
1
8
1 3
13 2 3 2 3 2 3
x
x
x
x
x
3

2
1 3

1 3
1 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 3
x
x
x
x

x
x

t a

2
1, b
x

(i)

1 3
3 th (i) a3 2a b3 2b a b.
x2 x

147

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Suy ra:

x 1
1 3
2
3
2
3 1 3x 3x 13x 8 0

x 5 89
x
x2 x

5 89

4
Bnh lun. Trn y l cc v d nu cc em hc sinh nhn nhn c im ca mi bi
s tm ra cu trc chung v d dng a c v dng i xng, dn n phng
trnh tch s. Nhng rt nhiu bi ton khng chun mc nh th, khi ta cn phn
tch ph hp v t n ph. minh chng iu , ta cng xt cc v d k sau y:

V d 187.

Gii phng trnh:

.v
n

Kt lun: Cc nghim cn tm ca phng trnh l x 1, x

()

2x2 5x 3 2x2 x( x 3 2 2x 1)

om

Nhn xt. Bi ton ch c hai cn thc, nu t a x 3, b 2x 1 th s thu


c phng trnh ng cp dng ab 2x2 x(a b) v c li gii chi tit sau:
1
2

.c

Li gii. iu kin: x

ok

a x 3 0
t:
ab ( x 3)(2 x 1) 2 x2 5x 3. Khi :

b 2 x 1 0

bo

() ab 2x2 x(a b) (ab ax) (2x2 2bx) 0 a(b x) 2x( x b) 0

Gii: 2x ( x 1) x2 2x 3 ( x 2) x2 4x 6 3 0

ng

V d 188.

vi

et

x 0
x 3 2x
b x

(b x)( a 2 x)

4 x2 x 3 0 x 1.
2 x 1 x
a 2x
x2 2 x 1 0

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 1.

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 THPT Mc nh Chi, Q.6, Tp. H Ch Minh

kh
a

Tp xc nh: D .
Li gii 1. t 2 n ph a v phng trnh tch s.
() ( x 1) ( x 1) x2 2 x 3 ( x 2) ( x 2) x2 4 x 6 0

( x 1)(1 x2 2x 3) ( x 2)(1 x2 4x 6 0
2
2
a x2 2 x 3 0 a2 x 2 2 x 3 b a 2 x 3
2

t
b2 a2 3 . Suy ra:
2
b x2 4 x 6 0 b x 4 x 6 x

b2 a 2 1
b2 a 2 1
(1 a)
(1 b) 0
2
2
(1 a) (b2 a2 1) (1 b) (b2 a2 1) 0

(1)

148

(1)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

(1 a)(b2 a2 ) (1 b)(b2 a2 ) b a 0 (b2 a2 )(a b 2) (b a) 0


(b a) (a b)(a b 2) 1 0 b a 0 a b.

0, a ,b 0

Suy ra:

x2 2 x 3 x2 4 x 6 x

3
2

Li gii 2. Bin i v dng A2 B2 .


() 4x 2( x 1) x2 2x 3 2( x 2) x2 4x 6 6 0

( x 1)2 2( x 1) x2 2x 3 x2 2x 3

x 2 x2 4 x 6 x 1 x2 2 x 3

x 2 x2 4 x 6 x2 2 x 3 x 1

om

( x 2 x2 4x 6)2 ( x 1 x2 2x 3)2

.v
n

( x 2)2 2( x 2) x2 4x 6 ( x2 4x 6)

()

Gii: (2 2x 1 4)x2 (7 4 2 x 1)x 2 x 1 3 0

bo

V d 189.

ok

.c

0 1 x2 4 x 6 x2 2 x 3 0 : VN

x
2x 3
2
2
x

x2 4x 6 x2 2 x 3

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn Bc Qung Nam Qung Nam

et

1
2

vi

Li gii. iu kin: x

() (2x2 4x 1) 2x 1 4x2 7 x 3 (2x2 4x 1) 2x 1 (4 x 3)( x 1)

ng

a 2 x 2 2 x 1
2a 2 1 2 x 2 4 x 1
a x 1

2
2
t
th:

b 2 x 1
2b 1 4 x 3
b 2 x 1 0

kh
a

PT (2a2 b 2b2 a) (a b) 0 2ab(a b) (a b) 0 (a b)(2ab 1) 0

a b hoc 2ab 1 0.

x 1

2x 1 x 1 2
x 2 2.

x 4x 2 0
Nu 2ab 1 0 2( x 1) 2 x 1 1 0 ( 2 x 1) 2 1 2 x 1 1 0

Nu a b, suy ra:

( 2x 1)3 2x 1 1 0 t 3 t 1 0 ( i ) vi t 2x 1 0

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 t 1 trn 0; c f (t ) 3t 2 1 0 t

1
3

vi t 0.

149

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

f (t )

3
0

f (t )

1
92 3
9

.v
n

1 92 3
T bng bin thin VT( i ) f (t ) f
0 nn ( i ) v nghim.

9
3

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 2 2.


BI TP RN LUYN DNG 14

(x )

(x )

.c

om

BT 317. Gii phng trnh: ( x 3) x2 8x 48 28 x.

BT 319. Gii phng trnh: 2( x 5) x2 5x 4 5x 20.

(x )

BT 320. Gii phng trnh: ( x 2). x 2x 3 x 3.

(x )

BT 321. Gii phng trnh: 5x 4( x 2) x x 1 1.

(x )

BT 318. Gii phng trnh: ( x 1) x2 4 x 5 3x

ok

bo

BT 322. Gii phng trnh: 2x 4x 21 2(1 x) x 2x 3.

(x )

BT 323. Gii phng trnh: 2x 6x 3 2( x 2) x 2x 0.

(x )

BT 324. Gii phng trnh: 5x 20x 12 4( x 2) x 4x 5 0.

(x )

et

vi

BT 325. Gii phng trnh: x 2x 4 ( x 1). x 2x .

ng

BT 326. Gii phng trnh:

kh
a

BT 327. Gii phng trnh:


BT 328. Gii phng trnh:

5x
5 2x
1

10 x
1 x

5x
5 2x
1
10 x
1 x

(x )

8.

2x

17 4 x
17 4 x
2x
2x
20

BT 329. Gii phng trnh:


20 x
20 x 3
1
1
7
BT 330. Gii phng trnh:


2 x 1 2 6 x x2 12
4 x2 4 x 11
9 4x 4x2

32.
BT 331. Gii phng trnh:
2 ( x 3)(2 x)
4 x2 4 x 26

150

(x )

(x )
(x )
(x )

(x )
(x )

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

BT 332. Gii phng trnh:

1
1
7

7x 1
(7 x 11) (9 7 x) 24

(x )
(x )

BT 333. Gii phng trnh: x4 2x2 3 x 3 3 0.


BT 334. Gii phng trnh: x 1 (2x 1) 2 x 1.
BT 335. Gii: 2x2 2x 2 2015 2015. 2 4x 2015 4030.
3

5 x 3 2 x x2 3x 10 1 0.

(34 x) x 1 ( x 1) 34 x
3

BT 337. Gii phng trnh:

34 x 3 x 1

1
1
1
30
30
x 30
4
4
4

om

BT 338. Gii phng trnh: 4 x 30

30.

(x )
(x )
(x )

.v
n

BT 336. Gii phng trnh:

(x )

BT 339. Gii phng trnh: 2(4 x x2 2 3) 3 4( x2 2 x) 0. ( x )

.c

BT 340. Gii phng trnh: 8x2 8x 1 3x 1 x .

(x )
(x )

BT 342. Gii phng trnh: 8x2 2x 5 6 2x2 x 1 3 2x 1.

(x )

3x 2 2.(3x 2) 2 x 1 1

2x 1
2 (2 x 1)3

bo

BT 343. Gii phng trnh:

ok

BT 341. Gii phng trnh: 2x2 2x 4 5 x2 1 5 3 x .

et

BT 344. Gii phng trnh: ( x 5) x 1 1 3 3x 4.


BT 345. Gii phng trnh: x3 15x2 78x 141 5 3 2x 9.

(x )
(x )

(x )

vi

BT 346. Gii phng trnh: x3 6x2 12x 7 3 x3 9x2 19x 11. ( x )

ng

BT 347. Gii phng trnh: (5x2 4x 3). x ( x 3). 5x2 4x .

(x )

kh
a

15. Dng 15. t n ph bng phng php lng gic ha


tng bi ton v phng php gii:
Mt lp cac phng trinh v ty co th giai c bng phng phap
chuyn v phng trinh lng giac . Du hiu nhn bit la trong phng
1 x2 , x2 1, x2 1,... Li th ca
trnh xu t hin cac biu thc
phng phap nay la a phng trinh ban u v mt phng trinh
lng giac c ban a bit cach giai nh
: phng trinh ng cp , i
xng, c in , V hm lng gi c la tun hoan , nn khi t iu kin
cc biu thc lng gic tht kho lo sao cho lc khai cn khng c gi
tr tuyt i , c nghia l lun lun dng (da vo iu kin v vng
trn lng gic ). Tuy nhin, nhc im cua ph ng phap nay la khi
chuyn v lng giac lai kho tim c nghim tng minh cua phng
trnh.

151

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Mt s du hiu v phng php lng gic ha thng gp:


x a sin t , t ;
2
2
2
P
t:
Cha: a x
2 2
x a cos t , t 0;

Cha:

a x

P2

Cha:

( x a)(b x)


t 0; \
2

x a tan t ,
t:
x a cot t ,

.v
n

x2 a2

t ; \0
2 2


t ;
2 2

t 0;

om

Cha:

a
,
x
sin t

t:
x a ,

cos t

t: x a (b a)sin2 t.

ax
P2

t: x a cos t , cos t
1;1 .
ax
Bn cht ca phng php l li dng cc cng thc lng gic, ch yu
1
1
l sin 2 t cos2 t 1, 1 tan 2 t
, 1 cot 2 t
khai cn d hn.
2
cos t
sin 2 t

bo

ok

.c

Cha:

tm hiu k dng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:


Gii cc phng trnh sau:

a) 4x 3x 1 x2

( a)

b) x3 3x x 2

( b)

vi

et

V d 190.

kh
a

ng

Phn tch. Cu a) qu r rng, v phi c cha 1 x2 , nn ta c 2 phng n


la chn n ph. Mt l t x sin t , hai l t x cos t , nhng ta s chn phng
n 2, tc t x cos t , cho v tri c dng cng thc 4cos3 t 3cos t cos 3t s
d dng hn. Cn vi cu b), t x 2cos t , th VT 2(4cos3 t 3cos t) 2cos 3t
t
Khi chn iu kin thch hp s
2
khai cn thc d dng v a v nhng phng trnh lng gic c bn.
Li gii cu a). iu kin: 1 x 1.
t x cos t , do x
1;1 nn t 0;

v v phi l

Suy ra:

x 2 2(1 cos t ) 2 cos2

1 x2 1 cos2 t sin 2 t sin t sin t , do : t 0; sin t 0 .

k
t 8 2

() 4 cos t 3cos t sin t cos 3t sin t cos t
, k
2
t k

4
3

152

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Do t 0; , suy ra: t

1 cos 2t
1 cos 2t
nn:
x cos t
2
2

Vi: t x cos
8
8

5
5
Vi: t
x cos

8
8

5
4 2 2 , do : cos 5 0

2
2
8

1 cos

3
3
2
x cos

4
4
2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim l x

2 2
2 2
2
, x
, x

2
2
2

.c

Li gii cu b). iu kin: x 2.

om

Vi: t

4 2 2 , do : cos 0

2
2
8

1 cos

.v
n

Ta c: cos2 t

5
3
t
t

8
8
4

ok

Vi: x 2 x3 3x x x.( x2 4) 2x x 2 nn () v nghim.

Vi: 2 x 2, t x 2cos t , t 0; . Suy ra:

bo

t
t
t
t
2 cos 2 cos , do : 0;
2
2
2
2 4
t
t
t
() 2(4 cos 3 t 3cos t) 2 cos 8 cos 3 t 6 cos t 2 cos cos 3t cos
2
2
2
t
k 4
k 4
t
hoc t
3t k 2 hoc 3t k 2 t
, k .
2
5
7
2
t 0;
4 4

4
4
Do , suy ra: t 0; ; nn x 2 cos t 2; 2 cos ; 2 cos
7
5
7 5

k
4
4
Kt lun: Cc nghim cn tm l x 2, x 2 cos , x 2 cos
7
5
Nhn xt. Trong li gii trn, ti s dng cng thc nhn ba l cng thc m rng
trong chng trnh ph thng hin hnh. Cc cng thc ny chng minh nh sau:
cos 3t cos(2t t) cos 2t cos t sin 2t sin t (1 2sin 2 t)cos t 2sin 2 t cos t

kh
a

ng

vi

et

x 2 2(1 cos t) 2.2 cos 2

cos t 4sin2 t cos t cos t 4(1 cos 2 t)cos t 4cos 3 t 3cos t cos 3t .

sin 3t sin(t 2t) sin t cos 2t cos t sin 2t sin t(1 2sin 2 t) 2cos 2 t sin t
sin t 2sin 3 t 2(1 sin 2 t)sin t 3sin t 4sin 3 t sin 3t .
sin 5t sin(3t 2t) sin 3t cos 2t cos 3t sin 2t

(3sin t 4sin3 t)(1 2sin2 t) (4cos3 t 3cos t)2sin t cos t

153

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

3sin t 6sin3 t 4sin3 t 8sin5 t 8sin t cos4 t 6sin t cos2 t


8sin5 t 10sin3 t 3sin t 8sin t(1 sin 2 t)2 6sin t(1 sin 2 t)
8sin5 t 10sin3 t 3sin t 8sin t(1 2sin 2 t sin 4 t) 6sin t 6sin 3 t
16sin5 t 20sin3 t 5sin t sin 5t .

V d 191.

x 1 32x3 48x2 18x 1

Gii phng trnh:

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 THPT Chuyn Tin Giang Tin Giang

Li gii. iu kin: x 1.

.v
n

() 4x 4 64x3 96x2 36x 2 (4x 2) 2 (4 x 2)3 3(4 x 2) (i )

t t 4x 2, do x 1 nn t 4x 2 2. Khi : (i) t 2 t 3 3t (ii )

om

Vi: t 2 th t 3 3t (t 3 4t) t t(t 2 4) t 2 t 2 (t 2 t 2) t 2


(t 1)(t 2) t 2 t 2 , nn (ii ) v nghim khi t 2.

Vi: 2 t 2, t t 2cos u, u 0; . Suy ra:

.c

u
u
u
u
2 cos 2 cos , do : 0;
2
2
2
2 2
u
u
k 4
k 4
(ii) 2 cos 8 cos 3 u 6 cos u cos 3u cos u
u
, ( k ).
2
2
7
5
4 4

4
4
;
Do u 0; , k , suy ra: u 0;
Nn t 0; 2 cos ; 2 cos
5
7
5
7

bo

ok

t 2 2(1 cos u) 2 cos 2

Gii phng trnh: 2x (4x2 1) 1 x2 4x3 1 x2

ng

V d 192.

vi

et

1
4
1
4
Kt lun: Cc nghim cn tm l x 0, x 1 cos , x 1 cos
2
5
2
7

kh
a

Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 1. t x sin t , t ;


2 2


1 x2 1 sin 2 t cos 2 t cos t cos t , do : t ;
2 2

2
3
() 2sin t (4sin t 1)cos t 4sin t cos t

Suy ra:

2sin t 4sin2 t cos t 2cos t 2sin3 t 0


(sin t cos t) 2sin2 t(sin t cos t) 0 (sin t cos t)(1 2sin 2 t) 0


k
sin t 0
2 sin t cos 2t 0
t
, k .
4
4
4 2

cos 2t 0

154

()

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

2
Do t ; , suy ra: t nn x sin t

2
2
4
2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x

V d 193.

Gii:

2
1 x2
1 1 x2 (1 x)3 (1 x)3

3
3

()

Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 1. t x cos t , t 0; .

.v
n

1 x 2 1 cos 2 t sin 2 t sin t sin t


3

t
t
t
(1 x) ( 1 cos t ) 2 cos 2 2 2 cos 3 2 2 cos 3

2
2
2

om

t
t
2 t
(1 x) ( 1 cos t ) 2 sin 2 2 sin 3 2 2 sin 3

2
2
2

.c

t
t
t
t
t
t
1 sin t sin cos sin cos sin cos
2
2
2
2
2
2

ok

Suy ra:

bo

t
t 1
() 1 sin t 2 2 cos 3 sin 3
(2 sin t)
2
2
3

et

t
t
t
t
t
t 1
2 2 sin cos cos sin 1 sin cos
(2 sin t)
2
2
2
2
2
2
3

ng

vi

t
t
1
1
2 2 cos2 sin 2 1 sin t
(2 sin t)
2
2
2
3

1
(2 sin t) 0 (2 sin t) 2 cos t
0
3
3

1
1
1
2 cos t
0 cos t
x

3
6
6
1

kh
a

2 cos t 2 sin t

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht l x


V d 194.

Gii phng trnh:

2 2 1 x2 x(1 1 x2 )

()

2 2 1 x 2 0

0 x 1.
Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 2 0
x 0 ?!

155

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


t x sin t , t 0; , suy ra:
2

1 x2 1 sin2 t cos2 t cos t cos t.

() 2(1 cos t) sin t(1 cos t) 4 sin 2

sin

t
t
2 sin t cos 2
2
2

t
t
t
t
t
t
2 sin cos 3 sin 2 sin cos 3 0
2
2
2
2
2
2

x sin t 0

3
4 1
x sin t 3 4 1

om

t 0

sin t 2 sin t cos t

2
2

.v
n

t
t k 2, k , t 0;
sin 0

2
t
t

2
sin 1 2 cos 3 0

3
2
2
cos t 1
t
1
4 1

sin

2
3
3
2
2
4
2

.c

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x 0, x

4 1.

ok

Bnh lun. Trong li gii trn, nu ta tm iu kin khng chnh xc, tc x


1;1
2 2 1 x2 sin

bo


th khi t x sin t , t ; th biu thc
2 2

t
s khng b
2

du tr tuyt i c ngay m cn chia ra 2 trng hp gii.


1 2 x 1 x2
1 2 x2
2

et

Gii phng trnh:

vi

V d 195.

()

ng

iu kin: 1 x 1 th 1 2x 1 x2 ( x 1 x2 )2 0 : lun ng.

Li gii 1. t x cos t , t 0; , suy ra: 1 x2 sin2 t sin t sin t.

kh
a

() (cos t sin t)2 2 1 2cos 2 t cos t sin t 2 cos 2t




cos t cos 2t cos t cos( 2t ) cos 2t
4
4

3


Nu t 0; t ; cos t 0 th
4 4 2
4
4

t

(i) cos 2t cos t
4

156

5 k 2

t
12
3
3
t
k 2

5
12 , do : t 0; 3

3
4
4

(i)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

6 2
cos sin
x cos
12
12
4
2 12
Suy ra:

2
x cos

4
2
3
3

Nu t ; t ; cos t 0 th:
4
4
2
4

Li gii 2. a v hng ng thc v s dng

6 2
2
, x

4
2

om

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l x

.v
n

t 4 k 2
3

(i) cos 2t cos t
: k t ;
4
4

t k 2
12
3

A2 A .

.c

() ( x 1 x2 )2 2(1 2 x2 ) x 1 x2 2(1 2 x2 )

bo

ok

1 2 x 2 0
1 2 x 2 0

x 1 x 2 2(1 2 x 2 ) x 1 x 2 2( 1 x 2 x)( 1 x 2 x)

2
2
2
2
2

2(1

2
x
)

x 1 x 2( 1 x x)( 1 x x)

Gii phng trnh:

kh
a

V d 196.

ng

vi

et

1 2 x2 0

x
2
2

( x 1 x ) 1 2( 1 x x) 0
2

6 2

2
2
x
( x 1 x ) 1 2( x 1 x ) 0

1 x2

x
4x 1
2

()
2

Li gii. iu kin: x
1;1 \ 2 t x cos t , t 0; \ 3 ; 3

() 1 cos2 t

cos t
(4 cos 2 t 1) sin 2 t cos t
2
4 cos t 1


sin t 4(1 sin 2 t) 1 cos t 3sin t 4 sin 3 t cos t sin 3t sin t
2

8 2 , k , t 0; \ ; 2 t t 5 t

3 3

8
8
4

k
4

157

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Ta c: cos2 t

1 cos 2t
1 cos 2t
cos t
Nn:
2
2

Vi t x cos
8
8

4 2 2 , do : cos 0

2
2
8

1 cos

5
4 2 2 , do : cos 5 0

2
2
8

1 cos

5
5
Vi t
x cos

8
8

2
x cos

4
4
2

V d 197.

2 2
2 2
2
, x
, x

2
2
2

om

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim l x

.v
n

Vi t

Gii phng trnh: (16x4 12x2 1) 1 x2 x

()

ok

() (16cos4 t 12cos2 t 1)sin t cos t

.c

Li gii. iu kin: x cos t , t 0; 1 x2 1 cos2 t sin t.


sin t 16(1 sin2 t)2 12(1 sin2 t) 1 cos t

bo

sin t(16sin4 t 20sin2 t 5) cos t 16sin5 t 20sin 3 t 5sin t cos t

3
2
x cos

4
4
2

kh
a

Vi t

1 cos 2t
1 cos 2t
cos t
Nn:
2
2

ng

Ta c: cos2 t

vi

et


k
k
sin 5t cos t sin 5t sin t t

hoc t

2
12
3
8 2

5
5
3
Do t 0; v k nn t
t
t
t
t

12
8
12
8
4

6 6 2 , do : cos 0

2
4
12

1 cos

Vi t
x cos
12
12

Vi t x cos
8
8

5
5
Vi t
x cos

12
12

158

4 2 2 , do : cos 0

2
2
8

1 cos

5
6 6 2 , do : cos 5 0

2
4
12

1 cos

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

5
5
Vi t
x cos

8
8

Kt lun: Cc nghim l x
V d 198.

5
4 2 2 , do : cos 5 0

2
2
8

1 cos

6 2
2 2
2 2
2
, x
, x
, x

4
2
2
2

Gii phng trnh:

1 x2

()

2 1 x2


do : t ;
2 2

.c

1
1
1

,
cos2 t cos t cos t

ok

1 x2 1 tan 2 t

om

.v
n

Phn tch. Trong phng trnh c cha 1 x2 gip ta lin tng n cng thc
1
lng gic 1 tan 2
v cc bin cn li u biu din c v cc hm
cos2
lng gic c bn, do ta chn hng lng gic ha x tan t v c li gii:
0 cos t 1

Li gii. t x tan t , t ; , suy ra:

2 2
1 sin t 1, sin t 0

1
5cos t
1
5cos t sin t

tan t

0 2 5cos 2 t 2 sin t 0
cos t
2
cos t
2
cos t
3
5sin2 t 2sin t 3 0 sin t 1 (loi) hoc sin t (nhn).
5
4
sin
t
3
Suy ra: cos t 1 sin 2 t x tan t

5
cos t
4
3
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht l x
4

Gii phng trnh:

kh
a

V d 199.

ng

vi

et

bo

()

x2 1

x2 1 ( x2 1)2

2x
2 x(1 x2 )

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014


Li gii. iu kin: x 0, x 1. t x tan t , t ; \ 0;


4
2 2

1
1
2
2
x2 1
x 1 tan t 1
2
cos t
cos t

sin t
1
2x
x2 1
1

sin
2
t

2
cos
t

2
tan
t
.

cos t
2x
sin 2t
1 tan 2 t x 2 1
Ta c:

2
1 tan 2 t 1 x 2
cos 2t 2 cos 2 t 1
1

1 tan 2 t
1 tan 2 t 1 x 2

4 x(1 x 2 )
2
( x 2 1)2

2 sin 2t cos 2t

sin 4t 2 x(1 x 2 )

( x 2 1)2

159

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1
1
2
1
1
1

0
cos t sin 2t sin 4t
cos t 2 sin t cos t 2 sin t cos t cos 2t
1
1
1

0 2 sin t(1 2 sin 2 t) (1 2 sin 2 t) 1 0


2 sin t 2 sin t(1 2 sin 2 t)

()

2sin3 t sin2 t sin t 0 sin t 0 (loi) sin t 1 (loi) sin t


sin t

5
sin t k 2 hoc t
k 2, k .
2
6
6
6

.v
n

3
Do t ; \ 0; , suy ra: t x tan

4
6
6
3
2 2

x 1

2 2

x2 1, nu ta t x

ok

Phn tch. Phng trnh c cha

x
2

.c

Gii phng trnh: x

om

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x


V d 200.

()

sin t
1
x2 1
sin t
cos t

bo

th cc bin cn li c biu din ht theo hm lng gic. Cng vic cn li l chn


iu kin thch hp b gi tr tuyt i. Thng thng th hc sinh t iu kin:
x2 1 0 x 1 x 1 t (0; ) th sint dng, nhng cn cost cha xc

et


nh c dng hay m v lc cn phi chia ra hai khong x 0; v khong
2

vi


x ; . Nhng nu iu kin ko theo l x 0, tc lun c x 1. Khi
2

kh
a

ng


iu kin t s l t 0; : thuc gc phn t th nht th sin t , cos t 0. T c
2
li gii 1 chi tit nh sau:
x2 1 0
x 1 x 1

x 1.
iu kin:

x 0
x 0 ?!

Li gii 1. t x
x2 1
()

160

1
sin t 0
, t 0;

sin t
2 cos t 0

1
1 sin 2 t
cos2 t cos t cos t

Khi :
sin t sin t
sin 2 t
sin 2 t
sin 2 t

1
1 sin t

2 2 sin t cos t 2 2 sin t cos t


sin t sin t cos t

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

2 sin t 2 sin 2t sin 2t sin t t k 2, k .


4
4

1

2.
Do t 0; v k nn t x

4
2

cos
4

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 2.

a 2 b2 1
a2 x 2
a x 1

Li gii 2. t

2
2
b x 1
b x 1 0
ab a 2 2b

.c

om

.v
n

2 2b

2 2b
, do : b 0
a
, b 0, a 1

a
b

b1
2
3
2
8b
4
b2 1
b 2 b 6 b 2 b 1 0
b2 2b 1

2 2b
x 2
b 1
, b 0, a 1
a

x 2.
b1
2
a 2
x

1
(b 1)2 (b2 4b 1) 0

Gii phng trnh: x


x 3

Li gii. iu kin:

36
x

()

, t 0; \ sin t 0.
cos t
2

9
9(1 cos 2 t)
sin 2 t
sin t
sin t

3
3
3

2
2
2
cos t
cos t
cos t
cos t
cos t

vi

x2 9

x 9
2

t x

et

x 3

3x

bo

V d 201.

ok

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 2.

kh
a

ng

cos t 0
sin t 3sin t
x2 9 3

Vi t 0;
th:
cos t
cos t
2 tan t 0
1
1

4 cos t sin t cos t 4 cos 2 t sin t


cos t sin t
sin t
cos t 4 cos2 t sin t

tan t(1 tan 2 t) (1 tan 2 t) 4 tan t


3
3
3
cos t cos t
cos t

()

tan3 t tan t 3tan t 1 0 tan t 1 tan t 1 2.


9
3

9(1 tan 2 t) x
3 1 tan 2 t , do :
0
Ta c:
2
cos
t
cos
t
cos t

Suy ra: tan t 1 x 3 2 v tan t 1 2 x 3 4 2 2 .


cos t 0
3sin t
3sin t
Vi t ;
x2 9

th:
cos t
cos t
2 tan t 0

161

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1
1

4 cos t sin t cos t 4 cos 2 t sin t


cos t sin t
sin t
1
cos t 4 cos2 t sin t

tan t(1 tan 2 t ) (1 tan 2 t) 4 tan t


cos t cos2 t cos3 t
cos3 t

()

tan t 1 hoc tan t 1 2.


9
3
Ta c:
9(1 tan 2 t ) x
3 1 tan 2 t ,
2
cos t
cos t

0
do :
cos t

Suy ra: tan t 1 x 3 2 v tan t 1 2 x 3 4 2 2 .

Phn tch. Trong phng trnh c cha

bng cch t x a cos t. C th

ax
;
ax

1 2x
;
1 2x

1 2x
1 2x

1 2x
1 2x

()

om

1 2x 1 2x

ax
nn ta c th lng gic ha
ax

1
x
2
;
1
x
2

.c

Gii phng trnh:

1 2x

1 2x

ok

V d 202.

.v
n

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim cn tm l x 3 2 , x 3 4 2 2 .

1
x
2
1
x
2

nn ta t:

1
cos t v c li gii 1. Ngoi ra, do hai v khng m v d on phng trnh c
2
mt nghim x 0 nn c th gii bng phng php nh gi bng bt ng thc c
in hoc bt ng thc hnh hc (xem bi hc tip theo).
1
1
iu kin: x
2
2
1
Li gii. t x cos t , t 0; . Khi :
2
t
t
t
t
1 2 x 1 cos t 2 sin 2 2 sin 2 sin , do : 0;
2
2
2
2 2
t
t
t
t
1 2 x 1 cos t 2 cos 2 2 cos 2 cos , do : 0;
2
2
2
2 2

kh
a

ng

vi

et

bo

Suy ra:

1 2x
1 2x
t

tan v
1 2x
2
1 2x

1 2x
t
cot
1 2x
2

t
t
sin cos
t
t
t
t

t
t
2
2
() 2 sin 2 cos tan cot 2 sin cos
t
t
2
2
2
2
2
2

sin cos
2
2

162

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

t
t
2
t
t
sin cos 2
0 sin cos 0 sin t 2 (loi).
2
2
sin t
2
2

t
3

2 cos 0 t
k 2, k , t (0; ) t x 0.
2
4
2
2

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 0.

BI TP RN LUYN DNG 15

(x )

BT 349. Gii phng trnh: x3 1 3x2 3x4 x6 x 2 2x.

(x )

BT 351. Gii phng trnh:

1 1 x

1
1 1 x

1
1 x2

ok

BT 353. Gii phng trnh: 4x3 12x2 9x 1 2x x2 .

BT 355. Gii phng trnh:

et

1 x2

bo

4 x 3x

16 x4 12 x2 1
5x
2
2
4.
2
x
1
x 1

BT 354. Gii phng trnh:

kh
a

ng

vi

x2 25 x

50

x 25
( x2 1)3
BT 357. Gii phng trnh: x2 1 5

6 x 20 x3 6 x

1
2
BT 358. Gii phng trnh: x2 1
4( x 1).

2
x 1

1 x
5
BT 359. Gii phng trnh: 1

2
6
x
x 1

BT 356. Gii phng trnh:

1 1 4 x2 x 1 1 2 1 4 x2 .

2
1 2x x2 1 2x x2

x 1

.c

BT 352. Gii phng trnh:

om

BT 350. Gii phng trnh:

.v
n

BT 348. Gii phng trnh: 2x2 1 x 2x 1 x2 1.

(x )
(x )
(x )
(x )
(x )

(x )
(x )
(x )
(x )

(x )

163

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

.v
n

Bai 4. GII PHNG TRNH BNG PHNG PHP NH GI

Trong bi ny, ti xin gii thiu n qu c gi phng php gii phng


trnh v t bng phng php nh gi vi cc cng c sau y:
S dng tnh n iu ca hm s.
S dng bt ng thc (Cauchy, Cauchy Schwarz, Vct,).
S dng tng cc s khng m hoc bin i v dng An Bn .
Ngoi nhng du hiu nhn dng c trng c nu trong tng v d, ti
xin lu rng, i vi phng trnh c nghim duy nht x xo th c rt nhiu
kh nng s dng phng php nh gi bng hm s hoc bt ng thc c
in hoc lin hp, ty vo c im bi ton, l mt li i thng gp.

om

I. S dng tnh n iu ca ham s gii phng trnh v t.


Vn dng thnh tho kt qu : Nu ham s y f ( x) lin tc v lun n
iu mt chiu trn min D (lun ng bin hoc lun nghch bin ) th s
nghim trn D a
c f ( x) 0 khng nhiu hn mt va
u, v D : f (u) f (v) u v .

V d 203. Gii phng trnh:

ok

.c

1. Cc v d vn dng ham s y f ( x) n iu 1 chiu trn min D th


phng trnh f ( x) 0 c ti a mt nghim.
5x 3 1 3 2 x 1 x 4

()

kh
a

ng

vi

et

bo

Phn tch. Quan st v tri ca phng trnh thy khi x tng th gi tr ca biu
thc trong cn cng tng. T c th d on v tri l hm ng bin, cn v phi
l hng s v s dng casio tm c nghim duy nht x 1, nn y l nhng iu
kin thch hp cho vic s dng phng php hm s gii. Ngoi ra, cng thc o
u

hm sau y thng hay c s dng l ( n u )


n. n un1
1
iu kin: 5x3 1 0 x 3
5
Li gii 1. S dng tnh n iu ca hm s.
() 5x3 1 3 2x 1 x 4 0

x=

5
1

(i)

khng tha mn (i)

xt hm s y f ( x) 5x3 1 3 2x 1 x 4 trn
; c:
3
3
5
5

2
1

15x
2
f ( x)

1 0, x
; . Do hm s y f ( x)
3
3
2
3
2 5x 1 3 (2 x 1)
5

x>

ng bin trn
; v f (1) 0 nn x 1 l nghim duy nht ca (i ).
3
5

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht l x 1.

164

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Li gii 2. S dng bt ng thc Cauchy vi im ri x 1.


Cauchy

1
1 5x3 3 5x3 3
3
3

5x 1 (5x 1) 4
2
2
2
4 Suy ra:
Ta c:
Cauchy
2
x

1
3 (2 x 1).1.1

3
VT() 5x3 1 3 2 x 1 x

5x3 3 2 x 1
15x3 20 x 13

4
3
12

15x3 20 x 13
4 3x3 4x 7 0 ( x 1)(3x2 3x 7) 0 x 1.
12
15x3 20 x 13
Suy ra: 5x3 1 3 2 x 1 x
4 v du " " xy ra khi x 1.
12
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht l x 1.
Li gii 3. Lin hp khi s dng casio tm c x 1 l nghim duy nht.

5( x 1)( x 1)
5x2 1 2

2( x 1)

(2 x 1)2 3 2 x 1 1

( x 2) 0

.c

() ( 5x2 1 2) ( 3 2x 1 1) x 1 0

om

.v
n

M:

et

bo

ok

5( x 1)

2
( x 1)

1 0 x 1.
5x2 1 2 3 (2 x 1)2 3 2 x 1 1
5( x 1)
2
1
Do

1 0, x

3
2
2
3
5
5x 1 2 3 (2 x 1) 2 x 1 1

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht l x 1.


Gii phng trnh: 3( 2x2 1 1) x(1 3x 8 2x2 1)

vi

V d 204.

()

rng:

ng

Phn tch. S dng casio tm c x 0 l nghim duy nht ca phng trnh.


2x2 1 1 2x2 1 1 0 v 8 2x2 1 3x 8 x2 3x 8 x 3x 0

kh
a

nn phng trnh c nghim th iu kin ko theo l x 0. Tm iu kin cht ch


s thun li cho vic nh gi f ( x) lun dng hay m trong cch gii bng hm s.

Li gii. iu kin: x 0.
() 3x2 x 8x 2x2 1 3 2x2 1 3 0

(i)

Xt hm s f ( x) 3x2 x 8x 2x2 1 3 2x2 1 3 trn 0; c:

2 x2
6x
32 x2 6 x 8
f ( x) 6x 1 8 2 x2 1

6x 1

2 x2 1
2 x2 1
2 x2 1

Do: 32x2 6x 8 0, x nn f ( x) 0, x 0. Suy ra hm s f ( x) lun


ng bin trn [0; ) v c f (0) 0 nn x 0 l nghim duy nht ca (i ).
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 0.
165

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

V d 205.

()

Gii phng trnh: x x x 12 12( 5 x 4 x )

Phn tch. S dng casio, tm c x 4 l nghim duy nht ca phng trnh. Vi


iu kin 0 x 4 th nhp o hm v tri thy hm s ng bin, o hm v phi
thy l hm nghch bin. T ngh n vic vn dng ni dung: Nu hai hm s
f ( x) v g( x) n iu ngc chiu trn min D th s nghim trn D ca phng
trnh f ( x) g( x) khng nhiu hn 1 v c li gii chi tit bng hm s nh sau:

Li gii. iu kin: 0 x 4.
Xt hm s f ( x) x x x 12 xc nh v lin tc trn 0; 4 , c:
3
1
x
0, x 0; 4 , nn f ( x) ng bin trn 0; 4 (i )
2
2 x 12

.v
n

f ( x)

.c

om

Xt hm s g( x) 12( 5 x 4 x ) xc nh v lin tc trn 0; 4 , c:

1
1
g( x) 12

0, x 0; 4 . Do hm s f ( x) nghch
2 5x 2 4x
(ii )
bin trn on 0; 4 .

ok

T (i), (ii), suy ra f ( x) g( x) c nghim duy nht v f (4) g(4) 12 nn


x 4 l nghim duy nht ca phng trnh ().

V d 206.

bo

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 4.


Gii phng trnh: ( x 1)(2 x 1 3 3 x 6) x 6

()

et

Hc sinh gii tnh Thi Bnh nm 2010

Li gii. iu kin: x 1.

vi

Do x 1 khng l nghim ca phng trnh nn ch xt x (1; ).

ng

() 2 x 1 3 3 x 6

x6
x 1

(i)

Xt hm s f ( x) 2 x 1 3 3 x 6 trn khong (1; ) c:


1

kh
a
f ( x)

0, x 1 nn hm s f ( x) ng bin trn (1; ).


x6
7
x6
Xt hm s g( x)
0, x 1.
trn (1; ) c g( x)
x 1
( x 1)2
x 1

Do hm s g( x) nghch bin trn (1; ).

Ta li c: f (2) g(2) 8 nn x 2 l nghim duy nht ca (i ).


Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht l x 2.
V d 207.

Gii phng trnh: (4x 1)( 3 3x 5 x 3) 4x 8

Li gii. iu kin: x 3 0 x 3.

166

()

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Do x

1
1
, x 3 khng l nghim ca () nn ch xt x ( 3; )\
4
4

4x 8
4x 8
(i)
3 3x 5 x 3
0
4x 1
4x 1
4x 8
1
Xt hm s f ( x) 3 3x 5 x 3
trn x 3; \ c:
4x 1
4
() 3 3x 5 x 3

f ( x)

1
3

(3x 5)

1
2 x3

36
1
0, x 3; \
2
(4 x 1)
4

ok

.c

om

.v
n

1 1

Suy ra hm s f ( x) ng bin trong cc khong 3; , ; .


4 4

Bng bin thin


1
x

3
4
f ( x)

f ( x)
4
3 4
13

Ta c (i ) l phng trnh honh giao im ca hm s f ( x) v trc Ox c

bo

phng trnh y 0. T bng bin thin, suy ra phng trnh (i ) c ti a hai


nghim v c f (2) f (1) 0 nn x 2, x 1 l 2 nghim cn tm.

Gii:

( x 2)(2x 1) 3 x 6 4 ( x 6)(2x 1) 3 x 2

ng

vi

V d 208.

et

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x 2, x 1.

()

Hc sinh gii tnh Cao Bng nm 2014 2015

1
2

Li gii. iu kin: x

kh
a

() ( x 2)(2 x 1) 3 x 2 ( x 6)(2 x 1) 3 x 6 4

x 2( 2x 1 3) x 6( 2x 1 3) 4

( 2x 1 3)( x 2 x 6) 4

Do

x 2 x 6 0, x

th cn iu kin ko theo l

(i)

1
v v phi dng nn phng trnh (i ) c
2

2x 1 3 0 2x 1 3 x 5.

Xt hm s dng f ( x) 2x 1 3 trn na khong (5; ) c:


f ( x)

1
2x 1

0, x 5 nn f ( x) l hm s dng ng bin (5; ) (1)

Xt hm s dng g( x) x 2 x 6 trn na khong (5; ) c:


167

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

g( x)

1
2 x2

1
2 x6

0, x 5 nn g( x) ng bin trn (5; )

(2)

T (1),(2) h( x) f ( x).g( x) ( 2x 1 3)( x 2 x 6) l hm s ng bin


trn (5; ) v c h(7) 4 nn x 7 l nghim duy nht ca (i ).
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 7.
Nhn xt. Trong th d trn, ti s dng kt qu: "Tch ca hai hm s dng
ng bin (nghch bin) trn D l mt hm ng bin (nghch bin) trn D".
V d 209.

Gii:

( x 1)2 2 3 x 1 ( x 5) x 8 3x 31 0

()

.v
n

Li gii. iu kin: x 8. t t 3 x 1 x t 3 1 8 t 3 7.
() t 2 2t (t 3 4) t 3 7 3t 3 28 0

om

3t 3 t 2 2t 28 (t 3 4) t 3 7 0

(i)

Nhn thy t 3 7 khng l nghim nn ch xt t ( 3 7 ; ).

0, t

t 2 (t 3 4)
3

(t 7)
3

0, t ( 3 7 ; ).

ok

f (t ) (9t 2 2t 2) 3t 2 3 t 3 7

.c

Xt hm s f (t) 3t 3 t 2 2t 28 (t 3 4) t 3 7 trn ( 3 7 ; ) c:

bo

Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn khong ( 3 7 ; ).


Ta li c: f (2) 0 t 2 x 9 l nghim duy nht ca phng trnh.

et

Kt lun. Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 9.


2. Cc v d vn dng ham s y f ( x) n iu 1 chiu trn min D va tn

Gii phng trnh:

ng

V d 210.

vi

ti u, v D th f (u) f (v) u v .
x 2 3 2 x2 1 3 2 x2 3 x 1

()

kh
a

Phn tch. Nu lp phng hai v th phng trnh rt phc tp, nhng nu quan
tm n mi lin h gia cc bin trong cn thc, ta nhn thy: 2x2 1 (2x2 ) 1
v x 2 ( x 1) 1. Tc () 3 ( x 1) 1 3 ( x 1) 3 (2x2 ) 1 3 (2 x2 ) vi v
tri v phi u c dng f (t) 3 t 1 3 t m ta gi y l hm c trng. Khi
phng trnh vit dng f ( x 1) f (2x2 ) nn s s dng phng php hm nh sau:

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
() 3 ( x 1) 1 3 ( x 1) 3 (2 x2 ) 1 3 (2 x2 ) f ( x 1) f (2 x2 )

Xt hm s f (t) 3 t 3 t 1 c f (t )

1
3

3 t

Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn

168

1
3 (t 1)2
3

(1)

0, t \1; 0. 0

(2)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1
T (1), (2) f ( x 1) f (2x2 ) x 1 2x2 x 1 hoc x
2
1
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 2 nghim l x , x 1.
2

V d 211.

Gii phng trnh: 2x3 x2 3 2x3 3x 1 3x 1 3 x2 2 ()

HSG cc trng chuyn khu vc Duyn Hi & ng Bng Bc B 2010


Phn tch. Bc cao nht ca phng trnh l bc ba, thng th ta s xy dng hm
c trng ca bc ba dng f (t) mt 3 nt. Ngha l ta cn vit li phng trnh di

.v
n

dng: 2x3 3x 1 3 2x3 3x 1 x2 2 3 x2 2 (theo biu thc trong du cn)


trng vi m n 1 v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
() 2x3 3x 1 3 2x3 3x 1 x2 2 3 x2 2

om

v xem 2x3 3x 1 ( 3 2x3 3x 1)3 , x2 2 ( 3 x2 2)3 th ta a v hm c

.c

( 3 2x3 3x 1)3 3 2x3 3x 1 ( 3 x2 2)3 3 x2 2

(1)

ok

f ( 3 2x3 3x 1) f ( 3 x2 2)

Xt hm s f (t) t t trn c f (t) 3t 1 0, t .


3

bo

Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn

(2)

T (1), (2), suy ra: f ( 2x 3x 1) f ( x 2) 2x 3x 1 x 2


3

et

2x3 x2 3x 1 0 (2 x 1)( x2 x 1) 0 x

1
1 5
x

2
2

0
()
5x 7
x 1
Hc sinh gii tnh Qung Ninh nm 2011

Gii phng trnh: 24 x2 60x 36

kh
a

V d 212.

ng

vi

1
1 5
Kt lun: Cc nghim cn tm ca phng trnh l x , x

2
2

7
5

Li gii. iu kin: x
() (5x 6)2

1
(5x 6) 1

Xt hm s f (t ) t 2

1
t 1

x2

1
x 1

f (5x 6) f ( x)

trn (1; ) c f (t ) 2t

1
2(t 1) t 1

Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn khong (1; ).


T (1), (2) f (5x 6) f ( x) 5x 6 x x

(1)
0, t 1.

(2)

169

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x


V d 213.

Gii phng trnh:

x3 6x2 15x 13
1
x9
x 12
x2 4 x 7

()

Li gii. iu kin: x 9.
1
1
x9
x 12
x 4x 7
1
1
( x 2)
x9
f ( x 2) f ( x 9) (1)
( x 2)2 3
( x 9)2 3

.v
n

Xt f (t ) t

1
2t
t 4 5t 2 8 (t 1)2

trn
c

f
(
t
)

0, t.
t2 3
(t 2 3)2
(t 2 3)2

Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn

om

() x 2

29 3

.c

T (1), (2) f ( x 2) f ( x 9) x 2 x 9 x

(2)

ok

Kt lun: So vi iu kin phng trnh c nghim duy nht x

29 3

2
(i)
( ii )

bo

ax3 bx2 cx d n 3 ex f
Xt hai dng chun:
ax3 bx2 cx d ( ax b) cx d
Hai dng ny c th xy dng hm c trng 2 v dng f (t) m.t 3 n.t.

et

i vi dng (i ), ta xt: m.( px u)3 n.( px u) m.( 3 ex f )3 n. 3 ex f v ng


nht h s vi bi tm c gi tr m, n, p, u.

vi

i vi dng (ii), ta c th da vo cn thc bin i, t nh hng c dng


Gii phng trnh: x3 15x2 78x 141 5 3 2x 9

kh
a

V d 214.

ng

ca hm s c trng v bin i v cn li. hiu k n, ta cng xt cc v d sau:

()

Olympic 30/04/2011

Phn tch. Xt phng trnh: ( x m)3 5.( x m) ( 3 2x 9)3 5. 3 2 x 9 v khai


trin ta c: x3 3mx2 (3m2 4)x m3 4m 5. 3 2x 9. ng nht h s vi

3m 15

m 5. Khi ta vit phng


phng trnh cho, c h: 3m2 4 78
m3 4m 141

trnh () ( x 5)3 5.( x 5) ( 3 2x 9)3 5. 3 2x 9 f ( x 5) f ( 3 2x 9) vi


hm s c trng hai v c dng f (t) t 3 5t lun n iu trn v c li gii
1. Ngoi ra, ta c th gii bi ton ny bng php t n ph a v h phng trnh
m c hc bi hc 3 (li gii 3).
170

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Tp xc nh: D .
Li gii 1. S dng tnh n iu ca hm s.
() ( x 5)3 5( x 5) ( 3 2x 9)3 5 3 2x 9 f ( x 5) f ( 3 2x 9)

(1)

Xt hm s f (t) t 5t c f (t) 3t 5 0, t .
3

Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn .

(2)

T (1), (2) f ( x 5) f ( 3 2x 9) x 5 3 2x 9 x 4 hoc x


11 5

Li gii 2. t 2 n ph a v phng trnh tch s.


() ( x 5)3 5( x 5) ( 3 2x 9)3 5 3 2 x 9

.v
n

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c cc nghim l x 4, x

11 5

(i)

t a x 5, b 2x 9 th (i) a 5a b 5b a b 5(a b) 0
3

om

( a b)( a2 ab b2 5) 0 a b 3 2x 9 x 5 x 4, x

11 5

.c

11 5

2
Li gii 3. t 1 n ph a v h phng trnh gn i xng loi II.
3

( y 5) 2 x 9
t y 5 3 2 x 9 3
2

x 15x 78x 141 5( y 5)


3
2

y 15y 75y 2x 116 0


3
( y 3 x3 ) 15( y 2 x2 ) 80( y x) 0
2
x

15
x

78
x

5
y

116

y x
( y x) y 2 yx x2 15( y x) 80 0 2
2
y ( x 15)y x 15x 80 0

ng

vi

et

bo

ok

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c cc nghim l x 4, x

11 5

2
Vi y2 ( x 15)y x2 15x 80 0 v xem y l phng trnh bc hai vi

kh
a

Vi y x x 5 3 2x 9 x 4 hoc x

n l y c: y 3x2 30x 95 0, x nn phng trnh v nghim.

11 5

2
Nhn xt. Vic tm ra php t n ph c th tip cn bng cng c o hm thng
qua vic xt hm s ngoi du cn f ( x) x3 15x2 78x 141 f ( x) 3x2 30x 78

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c cc nghim l x 4, x

f 6x 30 0 x 5 v s t y 5 3 2x 9. Hoc ta c th tm ra php t
n ph t dng tng qut (dng 8, bi 3): (ax b)n p. n cx d q.x r vi n 2; 3
th s t ay b n cx d nu p.c 0, t (ay b) n cx d nu p.c 0.
171

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Li gii 4. t n ph n gin hn, ri s dng tnh n iu ca hm s.


3

y 2x 9
t y 3 2 x 9

y 3 5 y x3 15x2 80x 150


3
2
5
y

15
x

78
x

141

3
y 5y ( x 5)3 5.( x 5) f ( y) f ( x 5)
(3)

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 5t c f (t) 3t 2 5 0, t .
Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn .

(4)

11 5

2
Bnh lun. Li gii 4 s gn hn li gii 1 khi ta s dng n ph a v h tm, ri
sau cng hai phng trnh ny li vi nhau (i khi nhn thm hng s ri mi
cng vi phng trnh cn li to ra hm c trng). Hin nhin, chng ta cng
cn n ng nht thc, tc trn cn c y3 5y ( x m)3 5( x m) v khai trin

om

.v
n

T (3), (4) f ( y) f ( x 5) 3 2x 9 x 5 x 4 hoc x

v tri, ng nht vi phng trnh ban u c m 5. Ni chung, cch no cng


c li th ring ca n, ty thuc c im bi ton, s nhy bn ca ngi gii ton.
Gii phng trnh: 16x3 168x2 580x 655 3 5x 19

.c

V d 215.

()

ok

Phn tch. Xt: m( px u)3 ( px u) m( 3 5x 19)3 3 5x 19 v khai trin c:


mp3 x3 3mp2ux2 (3mpu2 p 5m)x mu3 u 19m 3 5x 19. Nu ng nht

et

bo

m 2, p 2
h s bc ba c mp3 16 nn c th chn:
Nu m 2, p 2 v
m 16, p 1
ng nht h s bc hai c 24u 168 u 7 v lc ny phng trnh c

vi

vit li l 2(2x 7)3 (2x 7) 2( 3 5x 19) 3 5x 19. Khai trin v rt gn


phng trnh ny th ging vi bi, chng t hng chn m 2, p 2 l ng

ng

hng. Nu khng khp vi bi th s chn li, nhng thng th m, p l nhng s

kh
a

nguyn. Nhng bc phn tch trn nhn tuy di nhng quen ri th rt nhanh.
Tp xc nh: D .
() 2(2x 7)3 (2x 7) 2(5x 19) 3 5x 19 f (2 x 7) f ( 3 5x 19) (1)

Li gii 1. S dng tnh n iu ca hm s.


Xt hm s f (t) 2t 3 t trn c f (t) 6t 2 1 0, t .
Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn

(2)

T (1), (2) f (2x 7) f ( 5x 19) 2x 7 5x 19


3

8x3 84x2 289x 324 0 ( x 4)(8 x2 52 x 81) 0 x 4, x

13 7

13 7

4
Li gii 2. t n ph n gin hn, ri s dng tnh n iu ca hm s.

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 3 nghim l x 4, x

172

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848


3

(3)
y 5x 19
t: y 5x 19
3
2
(4)

y 16 x 168 x 580 x 655


Nhn xt. Nu cng hai phng trnh li vi nhau th v tri s l y 3 y tc ang
3

xy dng hm c trng f (t) t 3 t v v phi khng a c v hm ny, tc


khng s dng c phng php hm. phng trnh (4) c s 16, theo kinh
nghim th 16x3 2.(2x)3 nn s th nhn phng trnh (3) vi 2, ri cng vi
phng trnh (4) c: 2 y3 y 16x3 168x2 590x 693. Mong mun lc ny l
cn bin i v dng: 2 y3 y 2(2x m)3 (2x m) v ng nht c m 7.

om

.v
n

2 y 10 x 38

2 y 3 y 16 x3 168 x2 590x 693


3
2

y 16x 168x 580x 655


2 y3 y 2(2x 7)3 (2x 7) f ( y) f (2x 7)
(5)

Xt hm s f (t) 2t 3 t trn c f (t) 6t 2 1 0, t .

(6)

.c

Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn

ok

T (5), (6) f ( y) f (2 x 7) y 2 x 7 3 5x 19 x 4, x

13 7

13 7

4
Li gii 3. t 2 n ph a v phng trnh tch s.

bo

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 3 nghim l x 4, x

t a 2x 7, b 3 5x 19 th (1) 2a3 a 2b3 b 2(a3 b3 ) (a b) 0

5x 19 2 x 7 ( x 4)(8 x2 52 x 81) 0 x 4, x

vi

Suy ra:

et

(a b)(2a2 2ab 2b2 1) 0 a b, (do : 2a2 2ab 2b2 1 0)


13 7

ng

13 7

4
Li gii 4. t 1 n ph a v h phng trnh gn i xng loi II.
Phn tch. Xt hm s y 16x3 168x2 580x 655 c y ' 48x2 336x 580 v

kh
a

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 3 nghim l x 4, x

7
nn tm ra php t n ph 2 y 7 3 5x 19.
2
3

(2 y 7) 5x 19
t 2 y 7 3 5x 19
3
2

16 x 168 x 580 x 655 2 y 7


8 y 3 84 y 2 294 y 5x 324 0

3
8( y 3 x3 ) 84( y 2 x2 ) 295( y x) 0
2
8
x

84
x

290
x

324

y x hoc 8 y2 4(2x 21)y 8x2 84x 295 0.


y '' 96 x 336 0 x

173

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

13 7

4
Vi 8 y2 4(2x 21)y 8x2 84x 295 0 c y 48x2 336x 596 0, x

Vi y x 2 y 7 3 5x 19 x 4 hoc x

nn phng trnh v nghim.


Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 3 nghim l x 4, x
V d 216.

13 7

Gii phng trnh: 8x3 13x2 7 x 2 3 x2 3x 3

()

(i) f ( 3 x2 3x 3) f (2x 1)

om

() (2x 1)3 2.(2x 1) ( 3 x2 3x 3)3 2. 3 x2 3x 3


Li gii 1. S dng tnh n iu ca hm s.

.v
n

Phn tch. Xt (2x m)3 2(2x m) ( 3 x2 3x 3)2 2 3 x2 3x 3 v ng nht


h s ta c m 1 nn c li gii 1 nh sau:
Tp xc nh: D .

Xt hm s f (t) t t trn c f (t) 3t 1 0, t .


Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn
2

(1)
(2)

ok

.c

(i)

T (1), (2) f ( 3 x2 3x 3) f (2x 1) 3 x2 3x 3 2x 1

bo

8x3 12x2 3x 2 0 x 1 hoc x

5 89

16

5 89

16
Li gii 2. t n ph n gin hn, ri s dng tnh n iu ca hm
s hoc t n ph.

y 3 x 2 3x 3

y 3 2 y (2 x 1)3 2(2 x 1)
t: y 3 x2 3x 3
3
2

2 y 8 x 13x 7 x
t t 2x 1 th phng trnh y3 2 y t 3 2t y t.

kh
a

ng

vi

et

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 3 nghim l x 1, x

Suy ra: y 3 x2 3x 3 2x 1 x 1, x

5 89

16

5 89

16
Li gii 3. t hai n ph trc tip a v h i xng loi II.

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 3 nghim l x 1, x


() (2x 1)3 ( x2 x 1) 2 3 2(2x 1) ( x2 x 1)

(3)

u3 ( x2 x 1) 2v 3
u 2 x 1

u v3 2( v u)
t

3
2
2
3
v

(
x

1)

2
u
v

2(2
x

1)

(
x

1)

u v 3 x2 3x 3 2x 1 x 1 hoc x

174

5 89

16

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c 3 nghim l x 1, x

5 89

16

Bnh lun. Trong li gii 3, ti a v dng: f ( x) b( x) a( x). n a( x). f ( x) b( x)


v t 2 n ph c tm hiu bi hc 3. iu ny mun nhc ta rng, trong ton
hc c rt nhiu hng i, ty thuc vo c im ca bi ton m ta chn hng i
cho ph hp, hin nhin cn c y phng tin mi n a im cn n.
V d 217. Gii phng trnh: x3 6x2 12x 7 3 9x2 x3 19x 11

()

.v
n

Phn tch. Xt m( px u)3 ( px u) m(9x2 x3 19x 11) 3 9x2 x3 19x 11

(mp3 m)x3 (3mup2 9m)x2 (3u2 mp p 19m)x mu3 u 11m VP v so

.c

om

mp 3 m 1
p 1

2
1
3mup 9m 6

snh h s vi () thu c h: 2
m . Khi phng
2
3u mp p 19m 12

mu3 u 11m 7
u 1

ok

1
1
trnh ( x 1)3 ( x 1) ( 3 9 x2 x3 19 x 11)3 3 9 x2 x3 19 x 11. Khai
2
2
trin v rt gn tthu c phng trnh ging bi nn c li gii 1. Tuy nhin cch

bo

phn tch s di dng, khc phc ta c th t y 3 9x2 x3 19x 11 a v

vi

et

h tm, sau cng li tm hm c trng v c li gii 2.


Tp xc nh: D .
1
1
() ( x 1)3 ( x 1) ( 3 9 x2 x3 19 x 11)3 3 9 x2 x3 19 x 11.
2
2
Li gii 1. S dng tnh n iu ca hm s.

ng

f ( x 1) f ( 3 x3 9x2 19x 11)

kh
a

1
3
Xt hm s f (t ) t 3 t trn c f (t ) t 2 1 0, t.
2
2
Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn

(1)

(2)

T (1), (2) f ( x 1) f ( 3 x3 9x2 19x 11) x 1 3 x3 9x2 19x 11

x3 6x2 11x 6 0 x 1 hoc x 2 hoc x 3.


Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c ba nghim l x 1, x 2, x 3.
Li gii 2. t n ph n gin hn, ri dng tnh n iu ca hm s.
3
3
2

(3)
y x 9x 19x 11
3
3
2
t: y x 9 x 19 x 11
3
2
(4)

y x 6x 12x 7
Nhn xt. Nu cng hai phng trnh li th v tri l hm bc ba, v phi l hm bc
hai, lch bc nhau s khng s dng c phng php hm. Suy ngh rt t nhin, ta

175

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

s nhn phng trnh (4) cho 2, ri cng vi phng trnh (3) s thu c hai v u
c dng bc ba, kh nng s dng c phng php hm s l rt cao.
3
3
2

y x 9 x 19 x 11 3

y 2 y x 3 3x 2 5x 3
3
2

2 y 2 x 12 x 24 x 14
y3 2 y ( x 1)3 2( x 1) f ( y) f ( x 1)
(5)
Xt hm s f (t) t 3 2t trn c f (t) 3t 2 2 0, t .
Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn

(6)

T (5), (6) f ( y) f ( x 1) y x 1 3 x3 9x2 19x 11 x 1

Gii phng trnh: (9x 1) 9x 1 8x3 12x2 10x 3

om

V d 218.

.v
n

x3 6x2 11x 6 0 x 1 hoc x 2 hoc x 3.


Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c ba nghim l x 1, x 2, x 3.

()

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng c bn 2: ax3 bx2 cx d (ax b) cx d nh


nu trn. Khi ta cn bm st vo i lng cha cn phn tch, d kin hm

.c

c trng v bin i v cn li. C th: VT (9x 1) 9x 1 (9x 1) 2 9x 1

ok

( 9x 1)3 2 9 x 1 nn s d kin hm c trng l f (t) t 3 2t. T , s

phn tch v phi: 8x3 12x2 10x 3 (2x m)3 2(2x m) v ng nht h s ta

vi

et

bo

s tm c m 1 v c li gii. Hin nhin ta hon ton c th t hai n ph a, b


a v phng trnh dng i xng (dnh cho lp 10, 11), ri kt thc bng vic
gii phng trnh tch s (bn c t gii).
1
Li gii. iu kin: x
9
() ( 9x 1)3 2 9x 1 (2x 1)3 2(2 x 1) f ( 9 x 1) f (2 x 1)

(1)

ng

Xt hm s f (t) t 2t trn c f (t) 3t 2 0, t .


3

kh
a

Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn

(2)

T (1), (2) f ( 9 x 1) f (2 x 1) 9 x 1 2 x 1 x
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim l x
V d 219.

13 137

13 137

Gii phng trnh: x(4x2 1) ( x 3) 5 2x 0


thi th ai hoc 2013 khi A THPT Tuy Phc

Phn tch. Tng t th d trn, xut pht t ( x 3) 5 2x , c cha 2x trong


cn nn chuyn v v nhn cho 2 s c: (6 2x) 5 2x (5 2x) 1 5 2x

176

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( 5 2x )2 1 5 2 x ( 5 2 x )3 5 2 x v t nh hng phn tch v

2
tri 2x(4x 1) (2x)3 (2x), a hai v v dng hm c trng f (t) t 3 t.

5
2

Li gii. iu kin: x
() (2x)3 (2x) ( 5 2 x )3 5 2 x f (2 x) f ( 5 2 x )

(1)

Xt hm s f (t) t 2t trn c f (t) 3t 2 0, t .


Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn

(2)

T (1), (2) f (2 x) f ( 5 2 x ) 5 2 x 2 x x

21 1

.v
n

21 1

om

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh cho l x

V d 220. Gii phng trnh: (4x 2)(1 x2 x 1) 3x(2 9x2 3) 0 ()


Olympic 30/04 ng Bng Sng Cu Long

.c

Phn tch. Chuyn v ta c: (4x 2)(1 x2 x 1) 3x(2 9x2 3) v li

ok

dng tnh cht ca s chnh phng, ta vit VP ( 3x) 2 ( 3x)2 3 nn hy

bo

vng v tri a c v hm c trng dng: f (t) t.(2 t 2 3). Tht vy, nu c


(4x 2)(1 x2 x 1) (2x 1)(2 4 x2 4 x 4) (2 x 1) 2 (2 x 1)2 3

et

th xy dng c hm c trng dng: f (t ) t.(2 t 2 3) hai v.

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .

kh
a

ng

vi

() (2x 1) 2 (2 x 1)2 1 ( 3x) 2 ( 3x)2 3 f (2 x 1) f ( 3x)

t2
Xt hm s f (t ) t.(2 t 2 3) trn c f (t ) 2 t 2 3
0, t .
t2 3
1
Nn f (t ) lun ng bin trn v f (2 x 1) f ( 3x) 2 x 1 3x x
5
1
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x
5

V d 221. Gii phng trnh: ( x 3) x 1 ( x 3) 1 x 2x 0

()

iu kin: 1 x 1.
Li gii 1. S dng phng php hm s.
() ( x 3) x 1 x 1 (3 x) 1 x 1 x

( x 1) 2 x 1 ( x 1) (1 x) 2 1 x (1 x)
( x 1)3 ( x 1)2 2 x 1 ( 1 x )3 ( 1 x )2 2 1 x

177

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

f ( x 1) f ( 1 x )

(1)

Xt hm s f (t) t t 2t trn c f (t) 3t 2t 2 0, t .


3

Do f (t ) tng trn v f ( x 1) f ( 1 x ) x 1 1 x x 0.
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht l x 0.
Li gii 2. Ghp hng s lin hp sau khi s dng casio tm c x 0.
() ( x 3)( x 1 1) ( x 3)( 1 x 1) 4x 0

x( x 3)
x1 1

x 0
4 x 0 x 3
x3
4
(i)
1 x 1
x 1 1
1 x 1

x( x 3)

.v
n

om

Do x
1;1 , suy ra: VT( i ) 0, VP( i ) 0 nn phng trnh ( i ) v nghim.
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht l x 0.
V d 222. Gii: ( x 1)2 (4 x2 2 x 4) x( x 1)(8 2 4 x2 3)

3 1

2 2x

()

.c

Li gii. iu kin: x 0 . Do x 1 khng l nghim nn vi x 1 ta c:


1
3x 1

( x 1) 2 x

ok

() ( x 1)(4 x2 2 x 4) x(8 2 4 x2 3)

ng

vi

et

bo

3x 1
( x 1) 4 ( x 1)2 3 2 x 4 (2 x)2 3 2

2x 2x
1
1
( x 1) 4 ( x 1)2 3 ( 2 x) 4 ( 2 x)2 3

x 1 2x
1
1
( x 1) 4 ( x 1)2 3
( 2 x) 4 ( 2 x)2 3

x1

( 2 x)
f ( x 1) f (2x).
1
trn \0 c:
t
t2
1
f (t ) 4 t 2 3
2 0, t 0 nn hm s f (t ) ng bin.
2
t 3 t
1
Suy ra: f ( x 1) f ( 2x) x 1 2 x x
3
1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x
3
Nhn xt. Trn y ti trnh by nhng dng chun, c bn trong vic s dng
hm s. Nhng trong rt nhiu bi ton, hm s c trng c che du kh k. Khi
i hi ngi gii cn phi c kinh nghim bin i b i lp ngy trang y, a
v nhng dng c bn quen thuc, ta cng xt cc v d sau minh chng iu ny.

kh
a

Xt hm s f (t ) t(4 t 2 3)

V d 223. Gii phng trnh: 2x3 10x2 17 x 8 2x2 3 5x x3


178

()

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D . Do x 0 khng l nghim nn xt x 0.


Chia hai v () cho x3 0 ta c: () 2

10 17 8
5
2 3 23 2 1
x x
x
x

(i)

1
, (y 0) th (i) 8 y3 17 y 10 y 2 2 3 5 y 2 1
x

t y

(2 y 1)3 2(2 y 1) ( 3 5 y2 1)3 2 3 5 y2 1 f (2 y 1) f ( 3 5 y 2 1)

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 2t c f (t) 3t 2 2 0, t nn f (t ) tng trn v c:


f (2 y 1) f ( 3 5y2 1) 2 y 1 3 5 y 2 1 8 y 3 17 y 2 6 y 0

17 97
1 17 97
x

16
y
12

1 3 9
1

1
2
8
x
8x

()

.c

V d 224. Gii phng trnh: 2 x2 x

17 97

12

om

Kt lun: Cc nghim cn tm ca phng trnh l x

.v
n

y(8 y2 17 y 6) 0 y 0 (loi) hoc y

ok

Li gii. iu kin: x 0. Nhn hai v () cho x , ta c:

bo

1
9x
9x 3 3
9x
() 2 x3 x2 x 3
x2 x3 x3 x x3 x2
x x2
8
8
8
8
3

9x 3 3
9x
9x
x x 3 x3 x2
f ( x) f 3 x 3 x 2
x x2

8
8
8

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 t trn c f (t) 3t 2 1 0, t . Do hm s f (t )

et

ng

vi

9x
9x
3
2
ng bin trn v c f ( x) f 3 x 3 x 2
x x x

8
8

kh
a

1 10
9

2 x3 x2 x 0 x(16 x2 8 x 9) 0 x 0 hoc x
8
4

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c cc nghim l x


V d 225. Gii phng trnh:

5 x 1 x 5 4 x x2

1 10

4
x
x6
2

()

Li gii. iu kin: 5 x 1.
t y 5 x 1 x 0 y 2 6 2 (5 x)(1 x) 5 4 x x2
() y

y2 6

y2 6 x
y2
( x 6)2
x6 y
3 x6
3
2
2
2
2

f ( y) f ( x 6).

179

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Xt hm s f (t ) t

t2
3 trn 0; c f (t) 1 t 0, t 0 nn hm s
2

f (t ) lun ng bin trn 0; v c f ( y) f ( x 6) y x 6.


Suy ra:

5 x 1 x x 6 2 5 4x x2 x x

2 41 8

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x

da vo v tri c hm c trng d kin y

y2
3 v c li gii p nh trn.
2

3 x x 4 2 12 x x2 4x 2 4x 5

om

V d 226. Gii:

x ( x 6)2 6 ( x 6)2

3
2
2
2

.v
n

Nhn xt. S tinh t trong li gii trn l nhn ra

2 41 8

Li gii. iu kin: 4 x 3.

()

.c

t y 3 x x 4 0 y2 7 2 12 x x2 2 12 x x2 y2 7.

ok

() y y2 7 4x 2 4x 5 y y 2 7 4x 5 ( 4x 5)2 7
f ( y) f ( 4x 5).

bo

Xt hm s f (t) t t 2 7 trn 0; c f (t) 1 2t 0, t 0 nn hm s

f (t ) lun ng bin trn 0; v c f ( y) f ( 4x 5) y 4x 5


3 x x 4 4x 5 12 x x2 2 x 1 x

et

Suy ra:

3 229

10

vi

3 229

10
Nhn xt. Mt bi ton c dng tng tch, nhng khi t t tng th bnh phng
ln s khng biu din x ht theo t. Lc bn hy nhp th c a c v dng hm
s hay khng, khi da vo hm c trng d kin bn v phi f (t) t t 2 7, nu

kh
a

ng

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht l x

khng c lc hy suy ngh n cc phng n khc.


V d 227. Gii phng trnh:

1 x2 x2 x 4 x2 x 5 x

()

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D . t u x2 x 4 0. Khi :


() 1 x2 u u2 1 x 1 (x)2 (x) 1 u2 u f (x) f (u).

Xt hm s f (t) t 1 t 2 trn c:
f (t ) 1

1 t2 t

0 t ; (do : 0 1 t 2 t 2 t t ).

1 t
1 t
Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn . Suy ra: f (x) f (u) u x

180

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x 0
x2 x 4 x 2
x 4.
2

x x 4 x
Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 4.

()

V d 228. Gii: 5( x2 x 6) 5x 19 ( x 2)( x 5 4 x 3)( x 3 2)

Li gii. iu kin: x 3.

( 5x 19)3 4. 5x 19 ( x 3 2)3 4.( x 3 2)

(1)

om

f ( 5x 19) f ( x 3 2)

.v
n

() 5( x 2)( x 3) 5x 19 ( x 2) ( x 3)2 4 x 3 2 2 4 ( x 3 2)

(5x 15) 5x 19 ( x 3 2) 4 ( x 3 2), (do : x 2 0, x 3)

2
( 5x 19) 4 5x 19 ( x 3 2)3 4.( x 3 2)

Xt hm s f (t) t 4t c f (t) 3t 4 0, t nn hm s f (t ) lun


3

.c

ng bin trn v c f ( 5x 19) f ( x 3 2) 5x 19 x 3 2

ok

5x 19 x 1 4 x 3 x 3 x 5 x 7.
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 7.

1
x

V d 229. Gii phng trnh:

x 1 x2 3x 2 x x 1

4 4 1 4x

x 1 ( x 1)( x 2)

1
x
2
1

2
x ( x 1)
x 1 x( x 1)2

vi

()

ng

(4 x) (4 x) 1 (4 x)

( x 1) ( x 1)( x 2)

(4 x) (4 x) 1 (4 x)

kh
a

()

et

Li gii. iu kin: x 0.

bo

4(1 1 4 x )

( x 1)

1
1
x2

x1 x1 x1

1
1
1

1
f (4 x)
x1 x1
x1

Xt hm s f (t) t t 1 t trn (0; ) c f (t) 1 1 t

1
f

x 1

t
2 1 t

0 t (0; ).

Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn (0; ).


1
1
1 2
Suy ra: f (4 x) f
4x2 4x 1 0 x

4x
x1
2
x 1

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim x

1 2

181

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

V d 230. Gii:

(2x 1)2 (4 x2 4 x 3)
2x 1 3 2 x 2 4 x 4 x2 3 4.
4

1
2

3
2

Li gii. iu kin: x Phng trnh:


(2 x 1)2 (2 x 1)2
( 2x 1 3 2x ) ( 2x 1 3 2x )

2
2

f (t) 1 2t 0, t 0

.v
n

(2 x 1)2
f ( 2x 1 3 2x ) f
2

Xt hm s f (t) t t 2 trn 0; c

()

et

bo

ok

.c

om

Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn 0; .


(2 x 1)2
(2 x 1)2
Suy ra: f ( 2 x 1 3 2 x ) f
(i)
2x 1 3 2x
2
2

u2 v2 4
2
2

u 2 x 1 0
u v 4

t
2
1 2

2
2
v 3 2 x 0
(u v ) 2 x 1
u v 4 x 2

2
2
u v2 4
2
2

u v 4
2
2 2
Kt hp vi phng trnh (i ), c h

(u v )
2

u v
8 ( u v) ( u v )
8

2
2

(u v)2 2uv 4
S2 2 P 4
u v 4

2
(2 uv)(u v) 4
(2 P)S 8
(u v 2uv)(u v) 8

ng

vi

S u v 0
, (S2 4 P) v gii h ny c:
Vi
P

uv

P 0

S 2

kh
a

u 2
u 0
3
1
2x 1 2
2x 1 0
Suy ra:


x x
v

0
v

2
2
2

3 2x 0
3 2x 2
3
1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin nghim phng trnh l x , x
2
2
2 4 x 4 x 2 3 2 (2 x 1)(3 2 x)

Nhn xt. Do ti nhn ra: 4 ( 2 x 1)2 ( 3 2 x )2


nn

2
2
2
(2 x 1) (4 x 4 x 3) (2 x 1) (2 x 1) 2
mnh dn bin i v (), xy dng hm c trng v s dng phng php hm.

V d 231. Gii phng trnh: 1

182

x3
1 1 x

2x 2
1 2 2x

()

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

iu kin: 1 x 1.
Li gii 1. nh gi bng phng php hm s.
()

x3

1 4 ( x 3)

2x 2
1 4 (2 x 2)

x 1 f ( x 3) f (2 x 2) x 1 ( i )

Nhn thy x 1 l nghim ca phng trnh cho.


Xt hm s f (t )

t
1 4 t

xc nh trn on 0; 4 c:

.v
n

1 4 t
t
1
f (t )

0, t 0; 4 . Do hm s f (t )

2 t

2 4 t (1 4 t )2

lun ng bin trn on 0; 4 .

om

x 3 2x 2
f ( x 3) f (2 x 2)
Nu x

1;1 , suy ra: x 1 0

x 1 0

ok

.c

f ( x 3) f (2 x 2) 0
th phng trnh ( i ) v nghim khi x

1;1 .
x 1 0
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 1.
t

, t 0; 4 nh trn l khng
1 4 t
kh, c th thy ngay t vic quan st biu thc v t iu kin xc nh . trn ti
s dng kt qu : " Nu ham s f ( x) lun ng bin trn D thi
f (u) f (v)

bo

Bnh lun. Vic pht hin ra hm s f (t )

et

u v; u, v D. Nu f ( x) lun nghich bin trn D thi

f (u) f (v) u v;

ng

vi

u, v D ". Hin nhin kt qu trn cng nh vo s nhm c nghim duy nht


x 1 ca phng trnh nn s chng minh trong khong cn li v nghim. Ta hon
ton c th a hn v dng f (u) f (v) u v bng li gii 2 nh sau:

Li gii 2. t n ph, kt hp vi phng php hm s.


x3

kh
a

()

1 4 ( x 3)

2x 2

1 4 (2 x 2)

x1

(i)

u x 3
u
v
t
v u x 1 th (i)

vu
2
1 4 u
1 4 v2
v 2 x 2

u
1 4 u

Xt hm s f (t )

v
1 4 v
t

1 4 t2

v f (u) f ( v)

(1)

t xc nh v lin tc trn on 0; 4 c:

183

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1 4 t2
t t
1

f (t )

1 0, t 0; 4 . Do hm s
2

2 t
4 t (1 4 t 2 )2

(2)
f (t ) lun ng bin trn on 0; 4 .
T (1), (2) f (u) f (v) u v, suy ra: x 3 2x 2 x 1.
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 1.
x2 x 2
1 x x 2
2

x2 x

x2 1 ()

1 x x 4
Hc sinh gii tnh Bnh Phc
2

.v
n

V d 232. Gii phng trnh:

0 x 2 x 2 4
1 17

1 x

2
2

0 x x 4

()

x2 x 2

1 4 ( x x 2)
2

x2 x
1 4 ( x x)
2

x2 1

f ( x x 2) f ( x x) x2 1

Xt hm s f (t )

t
1 4 t

.c

(i)

xc nh v lin tc trn on trn 0; 4 c:

ok

om

Li gii. iu kin:

et

bo

1 4 t
t
1
f (t )

0, t (0; 4).

2 t

2 4 t (1 4 t )2

Suy ra hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn on 0; 4 .

kh
a

ng

vi

x2 x 2 x2 x
f ( x2 x 2) f ( x2 x)

1;1

Nu x

x 1 0
x 1 0
f ( x2 x 2) f ( x 2 x) 0

2
, suy ra (i ) v nghim khi x
1;1 .

x 1 0
1 17
x2 x 2 x2 x
f ( x2 x 2) f ( x2 x)

2
2
Nu x 1;

x 1 0
x 1 0


2
2
1 17

f ( x x 2) f ( x x) 0
2
, suy ra (i ) v nghim khi x 1;

x 1 0

Th trc tip, thy x 1 tha (), nn x 1 l nghim duy nht.

Kt lun: Phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x 1.

184

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II. S dng bt ng thc c in gii phng trnh v t


1. tng gii bi ton
Bin i phng trnh v: f ( x) a, ( a const hoc a h( x)), m trong
ta dng bt ng thc chng minh c kt qu f ( x) a hoc
f ( x) a. Luc , nghim la t}t ca cac gia trix thoa man du" " xy ra.

Bin i phng trnh v dang f ( x) g( x), m| trong ta dng BT

f ( x) a
f ( x) a
chng minh c:
hay
, ( a const hoc a h( x)).
g( x) a
g( x) a

om

.v
n

f ( x) a
Luc , nghim cua phng trinh la cac gia tri x thoa h:

g( x) a
2. Cc bt ng thc c in thng c s dng
Bt ng thc Cauchy:
Vi a, b 0 th: a b 2 a.b. Du " " xy ra a b.

bo

ok

.c

Vi a, b, c 0 th: a b c 3. 3 a.b.c . Du " " xy ra a b c.


Bt ng thc Cauchy Schwarz (Bunhiacpxki):
2
2
2
2
2

( a.x b.y) ( a b )( x y )
Vi a, b, x, y bt k ta lun c:

2
2
2
2

a.x b.y ( a b ).( x y )


a b
x y
Du " " xy ra hay
x y
a b

kh
a

ng

vi

et

2
2
2
2
2
2
2

( a.x b.y c.z) ( a b c )( x y z )


Vi x, y , z bt k th:

2
2
2
2
2
2

a.x b.y c.z ( a b c )( x y z )


a b c
x y z
Du " " xy ra hay
x y z
a b c

Bt ng thc vct: cho u (a; b), v ( x; y), w (m; n) v| khi :




a b
u v u v . Du " " xy ra u, v cng chiu
x y


a b
u v u v . Du " " xy ra u, v cng chiu
x y


a b
u . v u.v. Du " " xy ra u, v cng chiu
x y

a x m
u v w u v w . Du " " xy ra
b y n

Lu . Thng thng, ti s s dng casio i tm nghim ca phng


trnh (im ri). Da v|o im ri n|y ghp hp l khi s dng BT.
185

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Cc v d s dng bt ng thc Cauchy, Cauchy Schwarz


()

x 4 6 x x2 10x 27

V d 233. Gii phng trnh:

Tp ch Ton Hc & Tui Tr s 402


Phn tch. Do VP() x 10x 27 ( x 5)2 2 2 v| nu {nh gi{ c v tr{i
2

VT() x 4 6 x 2 th kh nng s dng bt ng thc gii l| rt cao.

vi cn thc

.v
n

Tht vy VT c dng A B vi A B hng s, l| du hin nhn dng s


dng bt ng thc Cauchy hoc Cauchy Schwarz. Nu s dng Cauchy, th ch s
cn thc by nhiu th trong cn s c by nhiu hng t tch s bng nhau. i
x 4 c mt hng t, cn thm mt hng t hng s dng

m.( x 4)

vi m x 4 5 1 (do d o{n c nghim duy nht x 5 bng casio v| ph hp


6 x.

.c

om

vi du " " xy ra v phi). Ta cng l|m tng t vi cn thc


iu kin: 4 x 6.
ab
Li gii 1. S dng Cauchy dng a.b

2
VP() x2 10x 27 ( x 5)2 2 2

ok

(1)

1 ( x 4)
3 x

2
2 2 VT x 4 6 x 2 (2)

( )
Cauchy
1 (6 x) 7 x
6 x 1.(6 x)

2
2 2

x4 6x 2
, nn nghim phng trnh () l cc gi
T (1), (2), suy ra 2
x

10
x

27

tr du " " trong (1), (2) ng thi xy ra x 5.


Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 5.
Cauchy

x 4 1.( x 4)

ng

vi

et

bo

Li gii 2. S dng Cauchy Schwarz dng a.x b.y (a2 b2 )( x2 y 2 ).

kh
a

Ta c: f ( x) x2 10x 27 ( x 5)2 2 2
M: g( x) 1. x 4 1. 6 x

Cauchy Schwarz

(1)

2 x46x 2

(2)

x4 6x 2
, nn nghim phng trnh () l cc gi
T (1), (2), suy ra 2

x 10 x 27 2
tr du " " trong (1), (2) ng thi xy ra x 5.
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 5.

V d 234. Gii phng trnh: 16x4 5 6 3 4x3 x

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Nguyn Vn Linh Ph Yn

186

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Phn tch. Do VT() 16x4 5 0, x , nn phng trnh c nghim th cn


3

iu kin ko theo l|

4x3 x 3 x(4x2 1) 0 x 0. S dng casio, tm c

1
nn da v|o im ri n|y tm trng s
2
1
hp l sao cho khi {p dng Cauchy m bo du ng thc xy ra ti x i vi
2
2

1
1
mx 4 x 1 m 4
6 3 4 x3 x 6. 3 mx.(4 x2 1).n
Khi x th

T
2
3
2
m.n
n 4 x 1
n 2

c li gii chi tit nh sau:


Li gii. iu kin: x 0.
Cauchy

4x 4x2 3

(1)

om

VP() 6. 3 4x3 x 3. 3 4x(4x2 1).2

.v
n

nghim duy nht ca phng trnh l| x

VT() 16x 5 4x 4x 3 (2x 1) (2x 2x 1) 0 : ung x 0 (2)


4

Do nghim ca phng trnh () l| tt c c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du ca ng

ok

.c

1
4 x 4 x 1 2
x
thc (1) v| (2) ng thi xy ra
2

2 x 1 0

bo

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x


V d 235. Gii phng trnh: x3 3x2 8x 40 8 4 4x 4 0

()

et

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn L Qu n Ninh Thun

vi

Phn tch. Phng trnh x3 3x2 8x 40 8 4 4x 4 v| s dng casio, tm


c nghim duy nht ca phng trnh l x 3. V phi c cn bc bn nn trong

ng

cn thc s c 4 hng t tch s bng nhau. Tc c 8 4 4x 4 4 (4x 4).16.16.16 v

kh
a

c li gii chi tit nh sau:


Li gii. iu kin: 4x 4 0 x 1.
() x3 3x2 8x 40 8 4 4x 4

(1)

4x 52
x 13
4
M: x3 3x2 8x 40 x 13 ( x 3)2 ( x 3) 0 : ung x 1
Cauchy

Ta c: VP(1) 8 4 4x 4 4 (4x 4).16.16.16

(2)
(3)

T (2), (3), suy ra nghim (1) l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du ng thc trong (2) v|
4 x 4 16
x 3.
(3) ng thi xy ra
x 3 0
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 3.
V d 236. Gii phng trnh:

1 3x 1 2 x 2 x 3 2 x 2 1

()
187

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. S dng casio, tm c phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 0. Hnh
thc b|i to{n kh cho vic s dng lin hp, hoc h|m s nn ta s ngh n vic s
dng bt ng thc. Nhng nu s dng Cauchy th biu thc trong cn thc (bc ba)
1
phi dng. Vi iu kin 1 2 x 0 x th 2x3 2x2 1 2x2 ( x 1) 1 0
2
1
1
nn phng trnh c nghim cn iu kin: 3 1 3x . 1 2 x 0 x Do
2
3
s thm bt

(1 3x).a.b ,

(1 2 x).c {p dng BT Cauchy vi im ri l| x 0

ok

.c

om

.v
n

v| c{c hng t tch trong cn thc bng nhau nn a b 1 3.0 1, c 1 2.0 1.


T nhng nh hng n|y, ta c li gii chi tit nh sau:
1
1
Li gii. iu kin: x
2
3
Cauchy

1 3x 1 1
0 3 (1 3x).1.1
1 x nhn

2
3
3
Ta c:
1 3x 1 2 x 1 x (1)
Cauchy
1 2x 1

0 (1 2 x).1
1 x

Du " " trong (1) xy ra khi v| ch khi x 0.


1 1
M: 2x3 2x2 1 1 x2 x2 (2x 3) 0 : ung x ;
(2)
2 3

vi

et

bo

Du " " trong (2) xy ra khi v| ch khi x 0.


2
3

1 3x 1 2 x 1 x
, nn nghim () l| tt c c{c gi{ tr
T (1), (2), suy ra: 3
2
2

2 x 2 x 1 1 x
l|m cho du " " trong (1), (2) ng thi xy ra x 0.

ng

Kt lun: Phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 0.


V d 237. Gii phng trnh:

x2 x 1 x2 x 1 x2 x 2

()

kh
a

Phn tch. S dng casio, nhn thy phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 1. Bi
to{n c dng A B a thc, ta ho|n to|n c th gii bng bt ng thc Cauchy
cho tng cn thc sau cng li v| da v|o chng minh v cn li hoc s dng
trc tip bt ng thc Cauchy Schwarz. Hin nhin c 2 c{ch cn da v|o im ri
x 1 ghp hng s hp l. T nhng ph}n tch n|y, c 2 li gii chi tit nh sau:
2

1 5
5 1
x x 1 0

iu kin: 2
2
2

x x 1 0
ab
Du " " xy ra khi a b.
Li gii 1. S dng Cauchy dng a.b
2

188

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Ta c:

x2 x
2
Cauchy
x2 x 2
x2 x 1 1.( x2 x 1)
2
x 2 x 1 1.( x 2 x 1)

Cauchy

(1)
(2)

VT() x2 x 1 x2 x 1 x 1

(3)

.v
n

Du " " trong (3) xy ra khi v| chi khi du " " trong (1), (2) ng thi xy ra
2
2

x 1 x 2
x x 1 1
x x 2 0
2
2

x 1.
x x 1 1
x x 0
x 0 x 1

Ta li c: VP() x2 x 2 ( x2 2x 1) ( x 1) ( x 1)2 ( x 1) x 1 (4)

.c

om

Du " " trong (4) xy ra khi v| ch khi x 1 0 x 1.

x2 x 1 x2 x 1 x 1
T (3), (4), suy ra:
, nn nghim phng trnh
2
x

() l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du " " trong (3), (4) ng thi xy ra x 1.
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 1.

ok

Li gii 2. S dng Cauchy Schwarch dng a.x b.y (a2 b2 )( x2 y 2 ).


VT() 1. x2 x 1 1. x x2 1 (12 12 )( x2 x 1 x x2 1) 2 x

x 1
x2 x 1 x x2 1

x 1.
1
1
x 1

bo

Du " " xy ra khi v| ch khi

(1)

VP() x2 x 2 2 x ( x 1)2 ( x 1)2 0 : ung x .

et

(2)

kh
a

ng

vi

x 1 0

x 1.
Du Du " " xy ra khi v| ch khi

x 1 0
T (), (1), (2), suy ra nghim phng trnh l| c{c gi{ tr l|m du " " trong
(1), (2) ng thi xy ra x 1.
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 1.

V d 238. Gii phng trnh:

x 3 3x 1 4 5 x 12

1
iu kin: x 5.
3
Li gii 1. S dng bt ng thc Cauchy.
Cauchy

1
1 x7

(
x

3).4

2
2
2

Cauchy
1
1 3x 5

Ta c: 3x 1 (3 x 1).4
2
2
2

Cauchy

4 5 x 2. (5 x).4 9 x

()

(1)
(2)
(3)

189

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Suy ra: (1) (2) (3) x 3 3x 1 4 5 x 12

(4)

T (), (4), suy ra nghim phng trnh l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du ng thc
trong (1), (2), (3) ng thi xy ra x 1.
Kt lun: Phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 1.

Li gii 2. Cauchy Chwarz dng ax by cz (a2 b2 c 2 )( x2 y 2 z2 ).


Cauchy SChwarz

20 4 x
x 1.
2
Kt lun: Phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 1.
x 3 3x 1

3x2 1 x2 x x x2 1 (7 x2 x 4)

om

V d 239. Gii phng trnh:

.v
n

Ta c: 1. x 3 1. 3x 1 2. 20 4 x

12 12 22 . 24 12 (5)
Suy ra nghim l|m cho du ng thc trong (5) xy ra:

2
4

.c

Phn tch. Nhn thy x 1 l| mt nghim ca phng trnh v| v tr{i c nhiu


cn phc tp nn ta s ngh n vic {p dng bt ng thc Cauchy Schwarz b ba
s {nh gi{ VT f ( x). Ri da v|o f ( x) v| im ri x 1 t{ch ghp v phi

ok

nhm chng minh VP f ( x) bng bt ng thc Cauchy dng a b 2 ab .

bo

3
3x 1 0
x
Li gii. iu kin: 2
hoc x 1.
3

x x 0

et

p dng Cauchy Schwarz dng ax by cz (a2 b2 c 2 )( x2 y 2 z 2 ) c:


(i)

12 12 ( x)2 3x2 1 x2 x x2 1

3x2 1 x2 x x x2 1 (5x2 x)( x2 2)

(1)

ng

Suy ra:

vi

1. 3x2 1 1. x2 x ( x) x2 1

2
2
(5x2 x) 2( x2 2) v| {p dng bt ng

4
4
thc Cauchy cho hai s dng (5x2 x); 2( x2 2), ta c:

kh
a

Ta c: VP (7 x2 x 4)

(5x2 x) 2( x2 2)

Cauchy

2 (5x2 x).2( x2 2) 2 2 (5x2 x).( x2 2)

(2)

3x2 1 x2 x x x 2 1 (5x 2 x)( x 2 2)

T (1), (2), suy ra:


, nn c
2
(5x2 x)( x 2 2)
(7 x2 x 4)

4
nghim ca phng trnh a cho l| tt c c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du ng thc
2
2

3x 1 x x
x 1.
trong (1), (2) ng thi xy ra 2
2

5x x 2( x 2)
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 1.

190

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V d 240. Gii phng trnh: x x

1
1
1
x
x

()

(MO Yugoslavia)

Phn tch. S dng casio tm c nghim xu v| ta tip tc s dng casio tm c


nh}n t bc hai dng x2 x 1 bng chc nng table. i vi
v| {p dng Cauchy th du ng thc xy ra khi x
1

1
x 1
x
x

1
1 x2 x 1 0 ph hp
x

1
1

( x 1) v| {p dng bt ng thc Cauchy


x
x

.v
n

vi nh}n t va tm c. Cn

1
x 1 x2 x 1 0. T c li gii nh sau:
x
Li gii. iu kin: x 1.
1
1 x
1

1 Cauchy
x
x 1. x
x
x
2
1
1

Ta c:
VP() x 1 x (1)
x
x
1
x 1
Cauchy
1
1

1
( x 1) x

x
x
2

ok

.c

om

cng t du ng thc ti

bo

Suy ra nghim ca phng trnh () l| tt c c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du ng thc

vi

et

1
1 x

x x2 x 1 0 x 1 5 x 1 5
trong (1) xy ra
2
2
1 x 1

ng

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim l| x

kh
a

V d 241. Gii phng trnh:


Phn tch. Do biu thc:

1 5

6x x2 8 4 x 2 4 4 x 6x 3x x3 30

6x x2 8 4 (4 x)( x 2)

suy ngh n vic {p dng bt ng thc Cauchy dng:

(4 x).( x 2) , gip ta
ab

ab
s ph hp vi
2

im ri x 3 c tm bng casio v 4 x 2 4 4 x thuc dng A B c


A B l| mt hng s nn s {p dng bt ng thc Cauchy Schwarz. Cng vic cn
li l| t{ch ghp 6 x 3x hp l da v|o im ri x 3. Nu da v|o im ri n|y, a
3x
s hc sinh s {p dng 3.x
th s kh khn cho vic cn li. Do ta c lng
2
c tng hai {nh gi{ trn 3, nn ta s {p dng Cauchy cho 6 x 3x sao cho
191

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


Cauchy

6x 3x 27 x3 VT x3 30, tc: 6x 3x 2. 27.x3 27 x3 , vn m bo


du " " xy ra ti v tr x 3 v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 4.
4xx2
1
2
Du " " ca (1) xy ra khi v| chi khi x 3.
4

x2 6x 8

Mt kh{c:

Cauchy

(4 x).( x 2)

x 2 4 4 x 1.

x 2 1.

2 1. x 2 1. 4 x

4x

Cauchy SChwarz

Cauchy SChwarz

2( x 2 4 x )

(12 12 )( x 2 4 x) 2 (2)

Du " " ca (2) xy ra khi v| chi khi x 3.


Cauchy

(3)

om

Ta li c: 6x 3x 2. 27.x3 27 x3
Du " " ca (2) xy ra khi v| chi khi x 3.

(1)

.v
n

Ta c:

(1) (2) (3) VT() 4 x2 6 x 8 4 x 2 4 4 x 6 x 3x x3 30 VP()

8 x2

x2 2
1 x2
5
2
x
2x

bo

V d 242. Gii phng trnh:

ok

.c

Suy ra nghim ca phng trnh l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du " " trong (1), (2),
(3) ng thi xy ra x 3.
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 3.
()

vi

et

Phn tch. S dng casio, tm c phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 2. Do


ta cn thm trng s {p dng c bt ng thc Cauchy m bo du " " xy ra
1
1
(8 x2 ) 4 (chn m 4 do
ti v tr x 2. Vi 8 x2 (8 x2 ) m
m 2

ng

sau khi {p dng Cauchy c du " " ti 8 x2 m, vi x 2 m 4) . Ta s l|m


x2 2
x2 2
1
x2 2 1

2.
v| c li gii sau:
2x2
2x2
2x2 4
m
2 2 x 2
Li gii. iu kin:

2 x 2 2

kh
a

tng t cho

1
(8 x 2 ) 4
2

8 x2

x2 2
x2 2 1

2 x2
2 x2 4

Ta c:

Cauchy

Cauchy

1 12 x 2
x2

3
2
2
4

(1)

x2 2 1 3 1
2
4 4 x
2 x2

(2)

x2 2 15 x2 1

2
(3)
4
4 x
2 x2
Du " " trong (3) xy ra khi du " " trong (1), (2) ng thi xy ra

(1) (2) VT() 8 x2

192

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8 x 2 4
x2 4

x2 2 1 2
x 2.

x 4

2
4
2x
2

1 x2 15 x2 1
x
1 1
Ta li c: 5

2 1 0
x
4
4 x
2
x 2

(4)

.v
n

x
1 0
Du " " trong (4) xy ra khi v| ch khi 2
x 2.
1 1 0
x 2

x2 2 15 x2 1
1 x2

, nn nghim
4
4 x2
x
2 x2
phng trnh () l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du " " trong (3), (4) xy ra x 2.
8 x2

om

T (3), (4), suy ra:

Kt lun: Phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 2.

()

.c

V d 243. Gii phng trnh: x2 . 4 2 x4 1 x4 x3

bo

ok

Phn tch. S dng casio tm c phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 1 v do


1
x 0 khng l nghim nn () 4 2 x4 x x2 2 Nhn thy v phi c dng
x
nghch o gi ta s dng bt ng thc Cauchy, cn v tr{i s dng bt ng thc
Cauchy Cchwarz 2 ln s trit tiu i bin x v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:

et

Li gii. iu kin: 2 x4 0 4 2 x 4 2.

vi

Do x 0 khng l| nghim nn () 4 2 x4 x x2

1
x2

(1)

kh
a

ng

2 1 Cauchy
1
2
(2)

x x2 2 x x2 2
Ta c:
4
4
4
2
4
4

1. 2 x 1.x 2. 2 x x 2. 2. (2 x ) x 2 (3)
Nghim phng trnh (1) l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du " " trong (2), (3) ng
2 1
x 1
x 2
x

thi xy ra
x 1
4 2 x4 x

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 1.

V d 244. Gii phng trnh:

x1

Li gii. iu kin: x 2. Suy ra:

4( x 1 x 2)
3( x 2 1)2

()

x 1 x 2 0, x 2.

193

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

() x 1

4
( x 1 x 2)( x 2 1)

(1)

t a x 1, b x 2, (a b 0). Khi : (1) a


Ta c: a

4
3
( a b)(b 1)2

(2)

4
b 1 b 1
4
( a b)
1

2
2
( a b)(b 1)2
(
a

b
)(
b 1)2

b 1 b 1
4
(3)
4. 4 ( a b)
1 3

2
2 2 ( a b)(b 1)
Suy ra nghim ca phng trnh (2) l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du " " trong (3)
a 2
x1 2
xy ra

x 3.
b 1
x2 1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 3.
4
Nhn xt. Vic {nh gi{ a
3 l| mt k thut t{ch cp nghch o
( a b)(b 1)2
Cauchy

.c

om

.v
n

bo

ok

{p dng c bt ng thc Cauchy kh{ c bn. Vic {p dng n|y da theo tng:
t{ch phn nguyn theo mu s sau khi {p dng bt ng thc Cauchy c hng
s hoc bin s ging (hoc gn ging) v phi. Bn c c th tm hiu v| rn luyn
c{c b|i bt ng thc c bn n|y trong cng hc tp to{n 10 ca cng t{c gi trn
trang web: w.w.w.mathvn.com, trang 115.
3x 1 x 3

et

V d 245. Gii phng trnh:

x 5 2( x2 1)

(1 x) 1 x

33 x
2

()

dng

ng

vi

Phn tch. S dng casio, tm c nghim duy nht ca phng trnh l| x 1. V


tr{i c dng ph}n s vi t s dng cn nn s ngh n vic {p dng BT Cauchy
A B f ( x). Nn cn {nh gi{ mu s ?... c ph}n s cng du v

kh
a

biu thc mu c cha

2( x2 1) (12 12 )( x2 12 ), gi ta s dng bt ng thc

Cauchy Chwarz vit ngc dng:

(a2 b2 )( x2 y2 ) a.x b.y. Kim tra li thy

du " " xy ra khi x 1, ph hp vi d o{n bng casio nn hng i l| ng.


Li gii. iu kin: 0 x 1.
Cauchy

1
1 3x 5
3x 1 (3x 1) 4

2
2
2 3x 1 x 3 x 3
Ta c:
Cauchy
1
1
x

7
x 3 ( x 3) 4

2
2 2
3x 1 4
x 1.
Du " " trong (1) xy ra khi v| ch khi
x 3 4
194

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

M: x 5 2( x2 1) x 5 (12 12 )( x2 12 )

Cauchy Schwarz

x 5 x 1 2( x 3)

Du " " xy ra khi v| ch khi x 1.


1
1
Suy ra:

2
x 5 2( x 1) 2( x 3)
Ly (1) nh}n (2) theo v, suy ra: VT()

(2)
3x 1 x 3

x 5 2( x 1)
2

x3
1

2( x 3) 2

(3)

33 x 1
(1 x)3 (1 x ) 0 : ung x 0;1 (4)
2
2
Du ng thc xy ra khi x 1.
3x 1 x 3
x 5 2( x 1)
2

1
33 x
(1 x) 1 x
, nn nghim
2
2

om

T (3), (4), suy ra:

.v
n

VP() (1 x) 1 x

() l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du " " trong (3), (4) ng thi xy ra x 1.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 1.

5( x2 4x 9)

.c

4
3

1
3

bo

Li gii. iu kin: x

ok

V d 246. Gii phng trnh: 2( x 5) 1 3x 3x 10

et

Ta c: 2 10 6 x 4 3x 2. 10 6 x

8 6x

2 10 6 x 4 3x 1

Cauchy Schwarz

1
18 9.
2

10 6 x
2. 8 6 x x 1.
2
1
1

Nn: 2 10 6 x 4 3x 1 10
2 10 6 x 4 3x 1 10
2
5( x 4 x 9)
5( x2 4 x 9) x2 4 x 9

Suy ra: VP
(1)
10
2
2 10 6 x 4 3x 1

kh
a

ng

vi

Du ng thc xy ra khi v| ch khi

VT 2( x 5) 1 3x 3x 10

x2 4x 9
x2 2 x 29 4( x 5) 1 3x 0
2

( x 5)2 2.( x 5).2 1 3x 4(1 3x) 0 ( x 5 2 1 3x )2 0 : ung.

Du ng thc xy ra khi v| ch khi x 5 2 1 3x 0 x 1.


x2 4 x 9
4 1
Hay: VT 2( x 5) 1 3x 3x 10
, x ;
2
3 3

(2)

T (1), (2), suy ra nghim phng trnh ti v tr du " " (1), (2) x 1.
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 1.

195

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

2
( x2 4 x 1)4
()

x2
16 x4
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn L Qu n Vng Tu

V d 247. Gii phng trnh:

3 2 x2 3

2
0.
x2

1
x 4 2y

2
x 4x 1
x

t y
, suy ra h phng trnh:
2x
3 2 x2 3 2 1 y 4

x2

2 2
Ly (2) 2.(1) ( 3 2 x 2 x) 3 2 y 4 4 y 9

x
x

Cauchy Schwarz

1. 3 2 x ( 2).( x 2)

1 2. 3 2 x 2 x 3

Ta c:
Cauchy Schwarz
2
2
2
2
1. 3
( 2).

1 2. 3 2 2 3
2

x
x
x
x

Li gii. iu kin: 3 2x2 0 v 3

(1)

.c

om

.v
n

(2)

(3)
(4)
(5)

ng

vi

et

bo

ok

2 2
Ly (4) (5) VT(3) ( 3 2 x 2 x) 3 2 6
(6)

x
x

(7)
VP(3) y4 4 y 9 6 ( y 1)2 ( y2 2 y 3) 6 ( y 1)2 ( y 1)2 2 6
Do nghim ca phng trnh (3) l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du ng thc ca
(6), (7) ng thi xy ra du ng thc (4), (5), (7) ng thi xy ra, tc:

x2 4x 1
3 2x x
1
y

2x

2
1

3 2 x 1.
2
2
x
x
3 x2

3 2x x 2

x2 2 x 1 0
x ;

1
1

2
2

kh
a

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 1.


V d 248. Gii phng trnh:

3x2 6x 7 5x2 10x 14 4 x2 2x

()

Phn tch. c{c biu thc trong v| ngo|i cn c th a v dng hng ng thc
dng a2 2ab b2 (a b)2 0 v| kt hp vi d o{n nghim duy nht x 1 bng
casio nn s c li gii chi tit nh sau:

Li gii. iu kin: 4 x2 2x 0 ?! 1 5 x 1 5.
() 3( x 1)2 4 5( x 1)2 9 5 ( x 1)2
2
2

VT 3( x 1) 4 5( x 1) 9 4 9 5
Ta c: (1)
2

VP(1) 5 ( x 1) 5

196

(1)
(2)
(3)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Suy ra nghim phng trnh a cho l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du ng thc trong
(2), (3) ng thi xy ra x 1.
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 1.
4 x2 2. 3 x4 4x3 4x2 ( x 1)2 1 x

V d 249. Gii phng trnh:

()

thi th THPT Quc Gia 2015 ln 2 THPT Chuyn i hc Vinh

Li gii. iu kin: 4 x2 0 2 x 2.
() x 4 x2 x2 2x 2. 3 ( x2 2 x)2 2

42 x
2

4 x2 4, x
2; 2 .

Suy ra: x 4 x2 2, x
2; 2

.v
n

Ta c: x 4 x2

(1)

(2)

om

Du ng thc trong (2) xy ra khi v| ch khi x 0 hoc x 2.


t t 3 ( x2 2x)2 , v do x 2; 2 nn suy ra: t
1; 2 .

.c

Khi : (1) x 4 x2 t 3 2t 2 2 vi t 1; 2

(3)

bo

ok

4
2
Xt h|m s f (t) t 3 2t 2 2 trn
1; 2 c f (t ) 3t 4t 0 t 0 t 3
4 22
Tnh f ( 1) 1, f (0) 2, f
, f (2) 2 max f (t) 2 f (t) 2.

3 27
1;2

Do x2 2x 2 3 ( x2 2x)2 2 2

(4)

ng

vi

et

Du ng thc trong (4) xy ra khi v| ch khi x 0 hoc x 2.


Suy ra nghim ca phng trnh (1) l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du ng thc trong
(2) v| trong (4) ng thi xy ra x 0, x 2.
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim phng trnh l| x 2, x 0, x 2.
Cc v d s dng bt ng thc vct

kh
a

V d 250. Gii phng trnh:

x2 2x 5 x2 2x 10 29

()

Phn tch. C{c biu thc trong cn thc a c v dng bnh phng, nhng ta s
1
khng l|m c nh v d trn do im ri ca b|i to{n l| x khi d bng casio.
5
Nhng , biu thc trong cn thc c dng tng ca 2 bnh phng (mun ca

vct) gi ta s dng bt ng thc vct dng: u v u v . Tc bin i phng

trnh ( x 1)2 22 ( x 1)2 32 29 v| chn u ( x 1; 2), v ( x 1; 3).

Nhng do v phi l| hng s nn ta cn iu chnh li c{ch chn vct u hoc v


trit tiu x khi tnh u v v| iu chnh c th l| u (1 x; 2), v ( x 1; 3) do
tnh cht s chnh phng, ta lun c: ( x 1)2 (1 x)2 v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:
197

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Li gii. Ta c: () ( x 1)2 22 ( x 1)2 32 29

(1)

Trong mt phng ta Oxy , xt hai vct u (1 x; 2), v ( x 1; 3).


u (1 x)2 22 u v (2; 5)


Suy ra:
,
2
2
v ( x 1)2 32
u v 2 5 29


M ta lun c: u v u v ( x 1)2 22 ( x 1)2 32 29 (2)

V d 251. Gii phng trnh:

om

.v
n

T (1), (2), suy ra nghim ca phng trnh () l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du " "

1 x 2
1
trong (2) xy ra u, v cng chiu
x
x1 3
5
1
Kt lun: Phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x
5
4x2 4x 2 x2 2x 5 9x2 12x 13 ()

.c

Li gii. Tp x{c nh: D .

et

bo

ok

(1)
() (2x 1)2 12 ( x 1)2 22 (3x 2)2 32

Trong mt phng ta Oxy , xt hai vct: u (2x 1; 1), v ( x 1; 2).

u (2 x 1)2 12

Suy ra:
v u v (3x 2; 3) u v (3x 2)2 32 .
v ( x 1)2 2 2


Ta c: u v u v (2x 1)2 12 ( x 1)2 22 (3x 2)2 32 (2)

kh
a

ng

vi

T (1), (2), suy ra nghim ca phng trnh l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du " "

2x 1 1
1
trong (2) xy ra u, v cng chiu
x
x 1 2
3
1
Kt lun: Phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht: x
3
V d 252. Gii phng trnh:

x2 2x 5 x2 6x 10 5

()

Phn tch. Phng trnh ( x 1)2 22 ( x 3)2 12 5 vi v tr{i c dng


hiu v| biu thc bn trong c dng tng hai bnh phng gi ta s dng bt ng

thc vct di dng u v u v vi vic chn u ( x 1; 2) v v ( x 3;1) v



khi tnh u v th x s trit tiu ph hp vi v phi l| hng s v| c li gii nh sau:
Li gii. Tp x{c nh: D .
() ( x 1)2 22 ( x 3)2 12 5

Trong mt phng ta Oxy , xt hai vct: u (x 1; 2), v ( x 3;1).

198

(1)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

u ( x 1)2 22

Suy ra:
v u v (2;1) u v 22 12 5.
v ( x 3)2 12


Ta lun c: u v u v ( x 1)2 22 ( x 3)2 12 5

(2)

T (1), (2), suy ra nghim ca phng trnh l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du " "

x 1 2
trong (2) xy ra u, v cng chiu
x 5.
x3 1
Kt lun: Phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht: x 5.
25x2 20x 13 x2 6x 13 16x2 40x 26

()

.v
n

V d 253. Gii:

Li gii. Tp x{c nh: D .

bo

ok

.c

om

(1)
() (5x 2)2 32 ( x 3)2 22 (4 x 5)2 12

u (5x 2)2 32
u 5x 2; 3

Chn: v x 3; 2
.
v ( x 3)2 2 2


u v 4 x 5; 1 u v (4 x 5)2 12


Ta lun c: u v u v (5x 2)2 32 ( x 3)2 22 (4x 5)2 12 (2)

ng

vi

et

T (1), (2), suy ra nghim ca phng trnh () l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du " "

5x 2 3
13
trong (2) xy ra u, v cng chiu
x
x3 2
7
13
Kt lun: Phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht: x
7
V d 254. Gii phng trnh:

4x2 20x 34 x2 2x 5 x2 1 6 2 ()

kh
a

Phn tch. Phng trnh (2x 5)2 32 ( x 1)2 22 x2 1 6 2 vi c{c


biu thc trong cn u c dng f 2 ( x) a2 , gi ta s dng bt ng thc vct

di dng u v w u v w . Cn bin i (2x 5)2 (5 2x)2 c{c bin x
trit tiu do v phi l| hng s v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. Tp x{c nh: D .
() (2x 5)2 32 ( x 1)2 22 x2 1 6 2
(2)

Trong mt phng ta Oxy , xt u (5 2x; 3), v (1 x; 2), w ( x;1).

Suy ra: u (5 2x)2 32 , v ( x 1)2 22 , w x2 1 v




u v w 6; 6 nn u v w 6 2.

199

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


C: u v w u v w (2x 5)2 32 ( x 1)2 22 x2 1 6 2 (2)

T (1), (2), suy ra nghim ca phng trnh l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du " "

trong (2) xy ra u, v, w cng chiu x 1.
Kt lun: Phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht: x 1.
Nhn xt. Qua c{c v d, nhn thy du hiu nhn dng gii phng trnh v t bng


c{c bt ng thc u v u v ; u v u v v u v w u v w l cc
( ax b)2 2 (). Lc , ta

biu thc trong cn u c th bin i c v dng:

.v
n

cn chn ta vct da v|o () theo cng thc tnh mun vct hp l.


V d 255. Gii phng trnh: x 3x 2 4 x 2( x2 1)( x 3)

()

om

ngh Olympic 30/04 THPT Bnh Ph Tp. HCM

2
3

bo

ok

.c

Phn tch. VT x. 3x 2 1. 4 x l|m ta nh n "honh nhn honh + tung

nh}n tung", ngha l| tch hai vct u.v x. 3x 2 1. 4 x vi vct u ( x; 1) v

v ( 3x 2; 4 x ). Khi hin nhin lin quan n bt ng thc vct dng:




u.v u . v v| nu tnh c u . v VP th vic gii phng trnh i ng hng.

Tht vy u . v x2 1. 2x 6 2( x2 1)( x 3) VP v| c li gii nh sau:

et

Li gii. iu kin: x 4.

kh
a

ng

vi

(1)
() x. 3x 2 1. 4 x x2 1. 2x 6

u x2 1

u ( x;1)

Chn:
v ( 3x 2; 4 x ) v ( 3x 2)2 ( 4 x )2 2 x 6


Suy ra: u.v x. 3x 2 1. 4 x v u . v x2 1. 2x 6.

Ta lun c: u.v u . v x. 3x 2 1. 4 x x2 1. 2x 6 (2)
T (1), (2), suy ra nghim ca phng trnh l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du " "

x
1

x 4 x 3x 2
trong 2 xy ra u, v cng chiu
3x 2
4x

x 0
x 0
2
3
x 2 hoc x 1 2.
2

x (4 x) 2 x 2
x 4 x 3x 2 0
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c hai nghim l| x 2, x 1 2.

200

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

V d 256. Gii phng trnh: x 2 3x 1 x x2 1. 3 4x

()

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Chuyn Long An Tnh Long An

Li gii. iu kin: 2 3x 0. Chn: u (x;1), v ( 2 3x ; 1 x ).


u x2 1
u . v x 2 1. 3 4 x

Suy ra:
v

v 3 4x
u
.
v

x
2

3
x


Ta lun c: u.v u . v x 2 3x 1 x x2 1. 3 4x
(1)

om

.v
n

T (), (1), suy ra nghim ca () l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du ng thc trong (1)

2 3x
1 x
xy ra hai vct u, v cng chiu

2 3x x 1 x
x
1

1 5
x 0
x 0

x
: TMK.
2
2
2
2 3x x (1 x)
( x 2)( x x 1) 0

.c

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim l| x

1 5
.
2

ok

V d 257. Gii phng trnh: (3 x) x 1 5 2x 40 34x 10x2 x3 ()

ng

vi

et

bo

5
. Chn: u (3 x;1) v v ( x 1; 5 2x ).
2

2
u (3 x) 1
u.v (3 x) x 1 5 2 x

Suy ra:
v
u . v (3 x)2 1 4 x 40 34 x 10 x2 x3

v 4x


Ta c: u.v u . v (3 x) x 1 5 2x 40 34x 10x2 x3
(1)

Li gii. iu kin: 1 x

kh
a

T (), (1), suy ra nghim ca () l| c{c gi{ tr l|m cho du " " trong (1) xy

3x
1

(3 x) 5 2 x x 1
ra u, v cng chiu
x 1
5 2x

3 x 0
x 3

3
x 2.
2
2
(3 x) (5 2 x) x 1
2 x 17 x 49 x 46 0

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht: x 2.

201

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

III. a v tng cc s khng m hoc dng An Bn .


Du hin nhn dng: H s trc cn thc thng l| nhng s chn.
1. a v tng cc s khng m
Dng c{c bin i hoc t{ch ghp (ch yu l| hng ng thc) a
A 0

2
2
v dang tng c{c s khng }m A B C 0 B 0
C 0

.v
n

2. Bin i v dng An Bn .
Bin i a phng trnh v dng: an bn , (n ) a b nu n l
v an bn , (n ) a b nu n chn.

om

Cc v d a v tng cc s khng m
V d 258. Gii phng trnh: 4 x 1 2x2 11x 23

()

.c

Phn tch. Nhn thy h s trc du cn l| s chn nn c rt nhiu kh nng a


c v dng tng hai s khng }m bng hng ng thc: a2 2ab b2 (a b)2 v

ok

khi ph}n tch nn xut ph{t t 2.a.b thm bt d d|ng hn.


Li gii. iu kin: x 1 .

bo

() ( x 1 2. x 1.2 22 ) 2( x2 6x 9) 0 ( x 1 2)2 2( x 3)2 0

et

x 1 4
x12 0

x 3.
x 3 0
x 3

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 3.

vi

V d 259. Gii phng trnh: x 4 x 3 2 3 2x 11

()

ng

Phn tch. Cng xut ph{t t 2.2. x 3; 2.1. 3 2x s a c v dng :

kh
a

A2 B2 0 v| c c{ch gii 1. Ngo|i ra, nu s dng casio tm c 1 nghim duy


nht x 1, do ta s dng t{ch, ghp hp l nh}n lng lin hp a v phng
trnh tch s v| c li gii 2.
x 3 0
3
3 x
iu kin:
3

2
x

0
2

Li gii 1. a v tng hai s khng }m


() 11 x 4 x 3 2 3 2 x 0
( x 3 4 x 3 4) (3 2x 2 3 2x 1) 0

x3 20
( x 3 2)2 ( 3 2 x 1)2 0
x 1.

3 2x 1 0
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 1.

202

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Li gii 2. Lin hp khi s dng casio tm c nghim duy nht x 1.


() 4( x 3 2) 2( 3 2x 1) ( x 1) 0

4( x 1)
x3 2

Xt h|m s f ( x)
f ( x)

x 1
( x 1) 0
4
4

1 0 (i)
3 2x 1
x 3 2
3 2x 1
4( x 1)

4
x3 2
2

x 3( x 3 2)

3
1 trn on 3; c:
2
3 2x 1

3
0, x 3;
2
3 2 x ( 3 2 x 1)

.v
n

om

3
Do h|m s f ( x) lun nghch bin trn on 3;
2

Suy ra min f ( x) f ( 3) 2 hay VT( i ) 2 nn phng trnh (i ) v nghim.

3
3; 2

ok

.c

Kt lun: Phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 1.


Nhn xt. Qua hai li gii, nhn thy li gii 1 ngn gn v| d d|ng hn. Do khi
bt gp phng trnh v t m| h s trc cn thc l| nhng s chn, bn hy u tin
phng ph{p a v tng c{c s khng }m hoc dng An Bn .

bo

V d 260. Gii phng trnh: 4x x 3 2 2x 1 4x2 3x 3

()

Li gii. iu kin: 2x 1 0.

et

() (4x2 2.2x. x 3 x 3) (1 2. 2x 1 2x 1) 0

vi

2 x x 3 0
(2 x x 3)2 (1 2 x 1)2 0
x 1.

1 2 x 1 0

kh
a

ng

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 1.


Bnh lun. }y l| mt b|i to{n kh{ n gin nu nhn nhn vi gc tng c{c s
khng m vi du hiu l| c hng s chn trc cn thc. Tuy nhin, trong qu{ trnh
ging dy, khi ti a b|i to{n n|y ra, a s c{c bn hc sinh u s dng lin hp do
quen tay vi thao t{c casio v| tm c nghim duy nht x 1. Hin nhin s gp
nhiu rc ri cho d l| lin hp thng thng hay truy ngc du ?!.......
V d 261. Gii phng trnh: x4 x2 3x 5 2 x 2 0

()

Li gii. iu kin: x 2.
() ( x4 2x2 1) ( x2 2x 1) ( x 2 2 x 2 1) 0

x2 1 0

( x2 1)2 ( x 1)2 ( x 2 1)2 0 x 1 0


x 1.

x 2 1 0

203

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht: x 1.


V d 262. Gii phng trnh: x2 2( x 1) 3x 1 2 2x2 5x 2 8x 5 ()
3x 1 0
1

x
2
3

2 x 5x 2 0

Li gii. iu kin:

.v
n

() ( x 1)2 2( x 1) 3x 1 3x 1 x 2 2 ( x 2)(2 x 1) 2 x 1 0

3x 1 x 1
( x 1 3x 1)2 ( x 2 2 x 1)2 0
x 1.

x 2 2x 1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 1.

V d 263. Gii phng trnh: 4x2 12 x 1 4( x 5x 1 9 5x )

om

9
5

()

Li gii. iu kin: 1 x
() 4x2 12 x 1 4x 5x 1 4 9 5x 0

et

bo

ok

.c

(4x2 2.2x. 5x 1 5x 1) 4 2.2. 9 5x 9 5x x 1 0

2 x 5x 1 0

(2 x 5x 1)2 (2 9 5x )2 x 1 0 2 9 5x 0 x 1.

x 1 0

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht: x 1.

vi

V d 264. Gii: 12x2 16x 1 2 24x3 12x2 6x 4 x2 x 4 8x3 9x2 x

Li gii. iu kin: 24x3 12x2 6x 0 x2 x 0 8x3 9x2 x 0.

kh
a

ng

() 6x 2 6 x(4 x2 2 x 1) 4 x2 2 x 1 (1 2 4 x2 4 x 4 x2 4 x)

4x2 4x 2 (4x2 4x)(1 8x) 1 8 x 0

( 6x 4x2 2x 1)2 (1 4x2 4x )2 ( 4x2 4x 1 8 x )2 0

6x 4x2 2x 1 0

1 2

1 4 x 2 4 x 0
4x2 4x 1 0 x

2
4x 4x 1 8x 0

Kt lun: Th v|o iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x


V d 265. Gii phng trnh: 3x

204

1
2x 7

1
x3

1 2

2( 4 2x 7 4 x 3 5).

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

2 x 7 0

Li gii. iu kin:

x 3 0

7
Phng trnh
2

1
1
4
(2 x 7) 2 4 2 x 7
( x 3) 2 x 3
0
2x 7
x3

( 2x 7 )
4

1
2
4
2 2x 7
( x 3)
4
2x 7
4

1
2 x3
0
4
x3
4

3x 3
x

x1

x x1
2

ok

V d 266. Gii phng trnh:

om

.c

.v
n

1 4
1
2
( 4 2 x 7 )2
( x 3) 4
0
4
2x 7
x3

2
4
1
3
4
0
2x 7 4
2
x

7
1

2x 7

x 4.
3
2
4 x3 1 0
4 x3 1
4

x3

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht x 4.

bo

Li gii. iu kin: x 0. Ta c: () 3 x

3
x

()

x1
x x1
2

et

1
1
x1
3 ( 4 x )2 2 4 x

2 2
0
2
4
4
x ( x )
x x1

vi

1 2 x2 x 1 ( x 1)
3 4 x
0

4
x

x2 x 1

ng

1
3x2 6 x 3
3 4 x

4
x (2 x2 x 1 x 1). x2 x 1

kh
a

4
1
2

1
3( x 1)2
x 4 0
3 4 x

4
x (2 x2 x 1 x 1). x 2 x 1

x 1 0

x 1

x 1 : thoa man iu kin.

x 1
Kt lun: Phng trnh a cho c nghim duy nht l| x 1.

( x 4) x 2 1

2 (2 x 4) x 2
x 1

()
4x x5
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn L Qu n Bnh nh

V d 267. Gii phng trnh:

205

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 4.

a x 2 0
Bn cht b|i to{n c 2 cn thc, n gin, t
a2 b2 2.

b 4 x 0

()

1 (4 x) x 2
1 (4 x) 4 x

2 2( x 2) x 2
1 ab2
2 2a3

( x 2) 1
1 b2 b a 2 1

(1 ab2 )(a2 1) (2 2a3 )(b2 b 1)

a3 (b2 2b 1) (b2 2b 1) b2 ab2 a3 a2 0

.v
n

a2 1 a3b2 ab2 2b2 2b 2 2a3b2 2a3b 2a3


(a3 a3b2 2a3b) 2b2 2b 1 a3 a2 ab2 0

(b 1)2 (a3 1) 2a3 2a2 2a 2 0

om

(b2 2b 1)(a3 1) 2 a2 a(2 a2 ) a3 a2 0, (do : b2 2 a2 )

(b 1)2 (a3 1) 2a2 (a 1) 2(a 1) 0 (b 1)2 (a3 1) 2(a 1)(a2 1) 0


(b 1)2 (a3 1) 2(a 1)2 (a 1) 0

(i)

ok

.c

b 1 0
a 1
a 1 0
x2 1
, nn (i)
Do a , b 0 3

x 3.

1
a 1 0
b 1
a 1 0

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 3.


1 2 x x x

bo

V d 268. Gii phng trnh:

3x 2x

1 x x
1 x

()

et

0 x 2
a x 0
t
a2 b2 2.

3 x 2 x 0
b 2 x 0

1 2a a.a2
1 a3 do : a2 2 b2 1 2a a(2 b2 )
1 a3

3 a2 b
1 a2
3 (2 b2 ) b
1 a2

ng

()

vi

Li gii. iu kin:

1 ab2
2 2a3

(b 1)2 ( a3 1) 2( a 1)2 ( a 1) 0 (nh v d trn).


b2 b 1 a 2 1
a 1
x 1
Suy ra:

x 1.
2

1
b 1

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 1.

kh
a

Cc v d a v dng An Bn
V d 269. Gii phng trnh: 4x2 14x 11 4 6x 10

()

Tp ch Ton Hc & Tui Tr s 420


Phn tch. Phng trnh c cha mt du cn nn c c{c hng sau gii quyt:
mt l| ly tha, hai l| t n s ph, ba l| nh}n lin hp. Do khi ly tha, t n ph
th s a n phng trnh bc 4, i hi k nng nhm nghim v| nghim phi
206

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

p, cn b|i n|y th nghim xu nn ta khng chn hai phng {n n|y cng nh


khng chn nh}n lng lin hp. Php bin i tng ng v dng tng hai s
khng }m cng khng tn ti v| hng gii quyt k n l| a v dng an bn vi
n 2 bng c{ch t{ch ghp hng ng thc v| c li gii sau:
5
Li gii. iu kin: x
3
() 4 2.2. 6x 10 (6x 10) 4x2 20x 25 (2 6 x 10)2 (2 x 5)2
2 6x 10 2x 5 2 6x 10 2x 5

om

.v
n

5
5

do : x 2 6 x 10 0; 2 x 5 .2 5 0
3
3

3
13 3
x
6 x 10 2 x 3
x

2
4
4 x 2 6 x 1 0

.c

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht: x

()

ok

V d 270. Gii phng trnh: x2 6 3x 1 x 9 0

13 3

et

bo

Phn tch. Tng t th d trn, vi manh mi l|: 6 3x 1 2.3. 3x 1 c dng


2ab sau khi chuyn v nn ta ph}n tch th|nh hng ng thc v| c li gii sau:
1
Li gii. iu kin: 3x 1 0 x
3
2
() 9 2.3. 3x 1 (3x 1) x 2 x 1 (3 3x 1)2 ( x 1)2

kh
a

ng

vi

3 3x 1 x 1
(1)
3 3x 1 x 1
(2)
3 3x 1 x 1

7 37
x 2
x 2
(1) 2
3x 1 2 x
x

2
2
x 7 x 3 0
3x 1 (2 x)

x 4

(2) 3x 1 x 4 2
: v nghim.

x 5x 15 0
7 37
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht x

V d 271. Gii phng trnh: x3 3x2 ( x 1) x 2 6x 4 x 2 6

()

Phn tch. Phng trnh c a thc bc ba v| biu thc cha cn c th vit v dng
bc ba vi quan nim: ( x 1) x 2 [( x 2)2 1] x 2 ( x 2)3 x 2. Do
, ta t{ch ghp a () v dng an bn vi n 3 v| c li gii sau:
Li gii. iu kin: x 2.
() x3 3x2 3x 1 ( x 2)2 1 x 2 4 x 2 3x 7

207

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

( x 1)3 ( x 2)3 3( x 2)2 3 x 2 1 ( x 1)3 ( x 2 1)3

x 0

x 1 x 2 1 x 2 x
x 2.
2

x 2 x
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht: x 2 .

V d 272. Gii: 8x3 36x2 (1 3x) 3x 2 2 3x 2 63x 32 0

()

2
3
() 8x3 36x2 54x 27 (3x 2) 1 3x 2 2 3x 2 9 x 5
(2x 3)3 ( 3x 2)3 3( 3x 2)2 3 3x 2 1

.v
n

Li gii. iu kin: x

om

(2x 3)3 ( 3x 2 1)3 2x 3 3x 2 1 x 2.


Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh c nghim duy nht: x 2.

.c

V d 273. Gii phng trnh: x3 3x2 12x 3x 3x 2 3x 2 6 0 ()


ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Chuyn Bo Lc Lm ng
2
3
() (3x 2) 3x 2 3 3x 2 3( 3x 2) x3 3x2 3x

ok

Li gii. iu kin: 3x 2 0 x

bo

( 3x 2)3 3( 3x 2)2 3 3x 2 1 (x)3 3(x)2 3( x) 1

vi

et

x 1
x 0
( 3x 2 1)3 ( x 1)3 3x 2 x 2

x 3x 2
x 2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, phng trnh a cho c 2 nghim l| x 2, x 1.


BI TP RN LUYN

ng

kh
a

BT 362. Gii phng trnh:


3

2 x3 6.

(x )

x2 48 4x 13 x2 9.

(x )

x 6 x 7 x 1.

(x )

BT 361. Gii phng trnh: 3 4 3 2 x

BT 363. Gii phng trnh:

(x )

4x 1 4x2 1 1.

BT 360. Gii phng trnh:

2x 1

BT 364. Gii phng trnh: x3 2x2 1 15( x 1 x 2)3 .

(x )

BT 365. Gii phng trnh: (2x 7)( 3x 2 x 3) 5.

(x )

BT 366. Gii phng trnh: 2( x 3)( 3 x 4 2 2x 7 ) 3x 4.

(x )

BT 367. Gii phng trnh:


BT 368. Gii phng trnh:
BT 369. Gii phng trnh:
208

x 5 5 x 12 x .
5
3x 8 x 1

2 x 11

(x )

x x2 1 32( x 1)2 2x 2.

(x )

(x )

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x1

BT 370. Gii phng trnh:

3x 1

1 3
3x 2 3x 2.
4

(x )

BT 371. Gii phng trnh: 2x4 3x3 14x 16 (28 4x3 ) 2x3 15. ( x )
BT 372. Gii phng trnh: 2 4x2 x 1 2x 3 3 2x2 x3 9x2 4x 4.
x2 x
BT 373. Gii: x2 x 1 2x2 2x 1 2
(x )

( x x 1)(2 x2 2 x 1)

(x )

BT 375. Gii phng trnh: 8x3 36x2 53x 25 3 3x 5.

(x )

BT 376. Gii phng trnh: 8x 12x 5x 3x 2.

(x )

BT 377. Gii phng trnh: 2 3 2x 1 27 x3 27 x2 13x 2.


BT 378. Gii phng trnh: x 3x 3 3x 5 1 3x.
2

BT 379. Gii phng trnh: 7 x 13x 8 2x


2

x(1 3x 3x ).
2

14
4
5
27 3 2 3
x
x
x

.c

BT 380. Gii phng trnh: 4 x2 18 x

23

(x )

om

.v
n

BT 374. Gii phng trnh: 4x3 7 x 3 4x3 3x 1 3 4x 2 3.

(x )
(x )
(x )
(x )

BT 382. Gii phng trnh:

6x 1 8x 4x 1.

(x )

BT 383. Gii phng trnh:

3x 4 x 3x x 2.

(x )

ok

BT 381. Gii phng trnh: 8x3 8x 4 3 4 6x .


3

bo

BT 384. Gii phng trnh: 9x2 28x 21 x 1.

(x )

BT 385. Gii phng trnh: x 4x 5x 6 7 x 9x 4.


2

et

(x )

BT 386. Gii phng trnh: 3x 6x 3x 17 3 9(3x 21x 5). ( x )


2

vi

ng

BT 387. Gii phng trnh: x3 x x ( x 4)( x 5).

(x )

BT 388. Gii phng trnh: 2x x 3x 1 2(3x 1) 3x 1.

(x )

BT 389. Gii phng trnh: 4x3 x ( x 1) 2x 1 0.

(x )

kh
a

BT 390. Gii phng trnh: x 3x 4x 2 (3x 2) 3x 1.

(x )

BT 391. Gii phng trnh: x3 3x2 5x 3 ( x2 3) x2 1.

(x )

BT 392. Gii phng trnh:

x1 2

x2

2x 1 3
3
BT 393. Gii phng trnh: x (2 3 5 3x )x 7 5 3x 0.
3

(x )
(x )

BT 394. Gii phng trnh: 3x(2 9x2 3) ( x 1)(2 x2 2x 4). ( x )


BT 395. Gii phng trnh: 5x 25x2 2 (2x 3) 4x2 12x 11 7 x 3 0.
BT 396. Gii phng trnh: (8x 6) x 1 (2 x 2)( x 4 x 2 3).
BT 397. Gii phng trnh: x3 x2 15x 30 4 4 27( x 1)

(x )
209

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

BT 398. Gii phng trnh:

2x 3 5 2x 3x2 12x 14

(x )

BT 399. Gii phng trnh:

7 x x 5 x 12x 38

(x )

x
4

(x )

BT 400. Gii phng trnh:

1 x2 1 x2 2

BT 401. Gii phng trnh:

3x2 6x 12 5x2 10x 9 3 2x2 4x

BT 402. Gii phng trnh:

2 x2 2

1
4 x
2
x
x

(x )
(x )

BT 403. Gii phng trnh: x x 12 x 2 3( x2 1)


BT 404. Gii phng trnh: x 2 x 3 4 2 x 3 11 x 3x

(x )

.v
n

(x )

BT 405. Gii phng trnh:

x 2 x 2 x 1 3x 4 x 1

BT 406. Gii phng trnh:

3x3 2x2 2 3x3 x2 2x 1 2x2 2x 2

BT 407. Gii phng trnh:

x2 2x 3 x2 4x 6 17

(x )

BT 408. Gii phng trnh:

4x2 1 2 x2 2x 2 13

(x )

BT 409. Gii phng trnh:

x2 10x 74 x2 6x 10 10

.c

om

(x )

BT 410. Gii phng trnh: 2 x 2x 2 9x 6x 2 x 2x 2


BT 411. Gii:

ok

x2 4x 8 4x2 12x 10 9x2 30x 50 10

(x )
(x )

BT 413. Gii phng trnh: ( x 1) x 1 3 x 2. x 2x 2

(x )

bo

BT 412. Gii phng trnh: x x 1 2x2 10x 16 3

et

BT 414. Gii phng trnh: (2 x) x 3 2x x3 7 x2 17 x 15

(x )

BT 416. Gii: 3x 5x 6 4x2 19x 12 36x3 2x2 20x 6

(x )

BT 417. Gii phng trnh: 4 x 1 x 5x 14

(x )

BT 418. Gii phng trnh: x x 6 4 1 3x

(x )

kh
a

ng

vi

BT 415. Gii phng trnh: x x 1 3 x 2 x2 1


2

BT 419. Gii phng trnh: x 4 3x 1 2x 7 2x 2 x


2

BT 420. Gii phng trnh: 4x

x 2 4 3x 2 x 7 x 10
4

(x )
(x )

BT 421. Gii phng trnh: 2x x 3 x 2x x 2

(x )

BT 422. Gii phng trnh: x4 2x2 x2 2x 16 2x2 6x 20 0

(x )

BT 423. Gii phng trnh: 4x 2x 3 8x 1

(x )

BT 424. Gii phng trnh: 9x2 18x 31 12 6x 1

(x )

BT 425. Gii phng trnh: (2x 2) 2x 1 x 9x 33x 29 0

(x )

BT 426. Gii phng trnh: 3x 3x 2 14 3x 2 27 x3 162x2 342x 196

210

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

5. BAT PHNG TRNH VO TY

A B A B3 .

1
A

A 0
B 0
A B

B 0
A B

B 0
A.2 n B 0 B 0

A 0

A B A B3 .

A 0
A
0 A0

B
B 0

B 0
A B

A B

2n

B 0
1
B 0

B
AB
A 0

om

A 0
B 0
A B

B 0
A B

.c

.v
n

I. Bt phng trnh v t c bn
B 0

A B A 0
A B2

B 0

A B A 0
A B2

5x 1 x 1 2 x 4

()

bo

V d 273. Gii bt phng trnh:

ok

Nhm bt phng trnh c bn hoc a v dng c bn

vi

et

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng c bn A B C , khi ta cn t iu kin,


ri chuyn v sao cho hai v u dng v bnh phng ln s a c v cc dng c
bn. T c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. iu kin: x 2.
() 5x 1 2x 4 x 1 5x 1 3x 5 2 (2 x 4)( x 1)

ng

(2x 4)( x 1) x 2 ( i ) (2x 4)( x 1) ( x 2)2

kh
a

x2 10x 0 0 x 10.
Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim bt phng trnh l: x 2;10 .
Nhn xt. Trong (i) do 2 v u dng nn ti bnh phng trc tip m khng s

dng cng thc c bn

A B.

V d 274. Gii bt phng trnh:

2( x2 16)
x3

x3

7x
x3

()

Li gii. iu kin: x 4.
() 2( x2 16) x 3 7 x 2( x2 16) 10 2 x

(i)

2
x 5

10 2 x 0
x 16 0

2
x5
2
10 2 x 0
2( x 16) (10 2 x)
10 34 x 10 34

211

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x 5

x 10 34.
10 34 x 5

Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim cn tm l x (10 34; ).


Nhn xt. Trong (i) do vi iu kin x 4 th 10 2x cha bit du nn ta phi p
B 0
A 0

dng ng cng thc: A B


B 0
A B

2x 4
2
V d 275. Gii bt phng trnh: x
10 x 3x 3 0
2
x

.v
n

2x2 7 x 4
2
10 x 3x 3 0
2
x

Li gii. Ta c: ()

()

bo

ok

.c

om

x 3 x 3
10 x 3x 2 3 0
x 3

x 3

2
1

1
10 x 3x 3 0 x 3
x
1

3
2
x 5

3
2
x

7
x

2
3
1
0
5
2 x 5
1 x 5 x 4
x
2
2
3
2
1 5
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm l x ; 3
3 2

vi

et

B 0
Nhn xt. Bt phng trnh c dng c bn 7 : A2 n B 0 B 0
.
A 0
Thng thng th hc sinh qun i trng hp B 0 v b st i nghim.

ng

V d 276. Gii bt phng trnh:

1
2 x2 3x 5

1
2x 1

2 x 1 0

2 x 1 0

2
2

2 x 3 x 5 0
2 x 3x 5 2 x 1

kh
a

Li gii. Ta c: ()

1
2 x 1 0
x 2

2 x 2 3 x 5 0
x 5 x 1 2 x 2 3x 5 4 x 2 4 x 1

1
x 2

5
5
5
3

x x x 1 x 1 x
x 2.
2
2
2
2

x 2 x 2

212

()

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

5 3
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm l x ; 1; 2; .
2 2

Nhn xt. Trong bi gii trn, ti s dng cng thc tng t nh dng c bn

B 0
1
1
B 0
, c th:


Ngoi ra, c th gii bng cch: tm
A B
AB
A 0

iu kin v chia ra tng khong ca iu kin xc nh mu dng hay m v


b mu a v nhng dng c bn.
Nhm bt phng trnh s dng chia khong & tch cn
x2 8x 15 x2 2x 15 4x2 18x 18

()

.v
n

V d 277. Gii BPT:

i hc Dc H Ni

ok

.c

om

Phn tch. Nhn thy cc biu thc trong cn c mt nghim chung l x 3, lm


cho ta suy ngh n vic tch cn, ri t tha s chung v c li gii nh sau:
x 5 x 3
x2 8 x 15 0
x 5

2
3

Li gii. iu kin: x 2 x 15 0 x 3 x x 5
2
4 x 2 18 x 18 0

x 3

x 3 x 5
() ( x 5)( x 3) ( x 5)( x 3) ( x 3)(4x 6)

(1)

et

bo

Trng hp 1. Nu x 3 th (1) lun ng nn x 3 l mt nghim ca (1).


Trng hp 2. Nu x 5, suy ra: x 5 0; x 3 0; x 5 0; 4x 6 0 th:

x 5

x 5
(1)

2
x 3( x 5 x 5) x 3 4 x 6
2 x 2 x 25 4 x 6

ng

vi

17
17
x 5
x 5
2
2
5x
x 5;
2
3
x 25 x 6 x 9
3
x 25 x 3

Trng hp 3. Nu x 5, suy ra: x 5 0, x 3 0, x 5 0, 4x 6 0 :

kh
a

(1) (5 x)(3 x) (x 5)(3 x) (3 x)(6 4 x)


3 x ( 5 x x 5) 3 x 6 4x

x 5

x 5

2
5 x x 5 6 4x
2 x 2 x 25 6 4 x

x 5
x 5

x 5

2
2

17 x 5 x ; 5
2

x 25 3 x
x 25 x 6 x 9
x

17
Kt lun: Hp 3 trng hp, tp nghim l x 3 ; 5 5;
3

213

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

V d 278. Gii BPT:

x 2 3x 2 x 2 4 x 3 2 x 2 5 x 4

()

Li gii. iu kin: x 1 hoc x 4.


() ( x 1)( x 2) ( x 1)( x 3) 2 ( x 1)( x 4)

(1)

Trng hp 1. Nu x 1 th (1) ng x 1 l mt nghim ca (1).


Trng hp 2. Nu x 1 th x 1 0, x 2 0, x 3 0, x 4 0 :

(1) (1 x)(2 x) (1 x)(3 x) 2 (1 x)(4 x)


1 x( 2 x 3 x ) 2 1 x. 4 x 2 x 3 x 2 4 x

(2)

.v
n

2x 4x
Ta c: x 1
2x 3x 2 4x

3x 4x
T (2), (3), suy ra (2) v nghim khi x 1 .
Trng hp 3. Nu x 4 th x 1 0, x 2 0, x 3 0, x 4 0 :

om

(3)

(1) x 1( x 2 x 3) 2 x 1 x 4 x 2 x 3 2 x 4

(4)

.c

x2 x4
Ta c: x 4
x2 x3 2 x4

x3 x4
T (4), (5), suy ra (5) lun ng x 4, nn lun c x 4; .

ok

(5)

bo

Kt lun: Hp ba trng hp, suy ra tp nghim l x 1 4; .

ng

vi

et

Nhn xt. Tng t nh v d trc, ti dng phng php chia khong tch
cn. Nhng trong (2), (4) do cc biu thc cha x bc nht v ng h s nn ta d
dng so snh v nh gi kt lun tp nghim nh trnh by. Nu khng pht
hin ra iu ny, ta c th gii bng cch bnh phng hai v (do lun dng) a
v bt phng trnh c bn nh trnh by phn l thuyt nhng di dng.
V d 279. Gii bt phng trnh:

x 2 4 x 3 2 x 2 3x 1 x 1

()

kh
a

x 1
x 1 x 3

x 2 4 x 3 0

x 1
Li gii. iu kin: 2

1
2
x1
x
2 x 3x 1 0

2
x 3

() ( x 1)( x 3) ( x 1)(2x 1) x 1

(1)

Trng hp 1. Nu x 1 th (1) ng x 1 l nghim ca (1).


Trng hp 2. Nu x 3 th x 1 0, x 3 0, 2x 1 0, lc :
(1) x 1( x 3 2x 1) ( x 1)2 x 3 2x 1 x 1

x 1 x 3 2x 1 : v nghim do x 1 x 3 0, x 3.
1
Trng hp 3. Nu x th x 1 0, x 3 0, 2x 1 0, lc :
2

214

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

(1) 1 x( 3 x 1 2 x ) ( 1 x )2 3 x 1 2 x 1 x

3 x 1 x 1 2x 4 2x 2 (3 x)(1 x) 1 2x
3 2 (3 x)(1 x) 0 : lun ng x

1
1

, nn lun c x ;
2
2

thng l a v cc hng ng thc vi:

om

.v
n

Kt lun: Hp ba trng hp, tp nghim l x 1 ;


2

Nhm bt phng trnh c mu s


i vi bt phng trnh cha mu s, hng x ly thng gp la xet m u s va kh
mu. Nghia l mu dng th b mu lm cho bt phng trnh khng i du , cn
nu mu m th bt phng trnh i du. Cn nu tht s cha bit du ca n th
khng th b ngay c m cn phi chia ra hai trng hp m, dng v b mu hoc
a v bt phng trnh dang tch thng v xt du . Do , khi b mu ta cn l
lun hoc chng minh mu lun dng hay lun m. Cng cu anh gia iu nay

(ax b)2 c c ,

c (ax b)2 c ,

.c

a (bx c)2 a...... hoc s dng phng php phn chng hoc bt ng thc c
3 2 x2 3x 2
1 2 x2 x 1

()

bo

V d 280. Gii bt phng trnh:

ok

in hoc cc tr ca hm s, lm r tng ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:

Li gii. iu kin: x2 3x 2 0 x 2 hoc x 1.

et

Ta c: 1 2 x2 x 1 1 (2x 1)2 3 1 3 0, x .

vi

() 3 2 x2 3x 2 1 2 x2 x 1, (do : 1 2 x2 x 1 0)

kh
a

ng

1 x2 x 1 x2 3x 2 x2 x 2 2 x2 x 1 x2 3x 2
x 0
x 0

1 13

2
x x 1 2x x2 x 1 0 2
x

3x x 1 0
x2 x 1 4x2

13 1

;
Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim cn tm l x
6

V d 281. Gii bt phng trnh:

x( x 2)
( x 1)3 x

x( x 2) 0; x 0

x 0, suy ra:
Li gii. iu kin: ( x 1)3 0

3
( x 1) x 0

()

( x 1)3 x 0.

215

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

() x( x 2) ( x 1)3 x x( x 2) ( x 1)3 2 x( x 1)3 x

x3 2x2 2x 1 2( x 1) x( x 1) 0, (do : x 0 x 1 0)
( x 1)( x2 x 1) 2( x 1) x( x 1) 0 ( x 1)( x2 x 1 2 x2 x ) 0

x x 1 2 x x 0 ( x x ) 2 x x 1 0 ( x2 x 1)2 0
2

x2 x 1 0 x2 x 1 0 x

1 5
1 5
hoc x

2
2
5 1

1 2( x2 x 1)

()

(H. A 2010)

2( x2 x 1) x2 ( x 1)2 1 1, suy ra: 1 2( x2 x 1) 0.

.c

Ta c:

x x

om

V d 282. Gii bt phng trnh:

.v
n

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, bt phng trnh c nghim duy nht x

(1)

ok

iu kin: x 0. Khi : () x x 1 2( x2 x 1)

Li gii 1. Do x 0 khng l nghim ca (1), nn chia hai v cho

x 0:

1
1

1
x t 2 2.
1 2 x 2 0, (2). t t x
x
x
x
x

1 t 0
t 1
(2) t 1 2(t 2 2) 2 0 2t 2 2 1 t 2

2
t 2t 1 0
(t 1) 0

bo

et

(1) x

ng

vi

t 1

t 1, suy ra:
t 1 0

1
x

1 x

5 1
3 5
x

2
2

kh
a

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, bt phng trnh c nghim duy nht x

3 5

a x 0
2( x2 x 1) 2 x2 2(1 x) 2a2 2b2 .

b 1 x

Li gii 2. t:

a b 0
a b 0

(1) 2a2 2b2 a b 2

a b.
2
2
2

2a 2b ( a b)
( a b) 0

Suy ra:

x 1 x x

5 1
3 5
x

2
2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, bt phng trnh c nghim duy nht x

Li gii 3. t t x 0 th (1) 2t 4 2t 2 2 t 2 t 1
216

3 5

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2
2
2

t t 1 0
t t 1 0
t t 1 0
4
2
2
2
2
2
2

2t 2t 2 ( t t 1)
(t t 1) 0
t t 1 0

5 1
5 1
3 5
x
x

2
2
2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, bt phng trnh c nghim duy nht x


V d 283. Gii bt phng trnh:

x ( x 1 x2 )
x x 1 x2 x3

()

.v
n

Li gii. iu kin: 0 x 1.

3 5

Ta c: x x 1 x2 x3 x x 1 x2 x x 1 x 0, x 0;1 .

om

() x ( x 1 x2 ) x x 1 x2 x3 x2 x3 1 x(1 x2 )

x2 x3 1 x(1 x2 ) 2 x(1 x2 ) x 2 x . 1 x2 1 x2 0

.c

( x )2 2 x 1 x2 ( 1 x2 ) 0 ( x 1 x2 )2 0 x 1 x2

ok

5 1
x x 1 0

x
: tha mn iu kin.
2

0 x 1

bo

Kt lun: Bt phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x

vi

et

V d 284. Gii bt phng trnh:

4 x x

2( x 6 x 1) 1

()

2( x2 6x 1) 1 2 1 0, nn:

ng

Li gii. iu kin: x 0, suy ra:

5 1

() 4 x x 2x2 12x 2 1 x 1 2x2 12x 2 4 x 0

(1)

kh
a

Trng hp 1. Nu x 0, th (1) 2 1 0 nn x 0 l nghim ca (1).


Trng hp 2. Nu x 0, chia hai v ca (1) cho

x 0, ta c:

1
1

1
x t 2 2.
2 x 12 4 0, (2). t: t x
x
x
x
x

4 t 0
t 8
4 t 0
(2) 2t 2 16 4 t 2

hoc 2

t 8t 0
t 0
2t 16 0
( x )2 8 x 1 0
x 17 4
x 33 8 17

x 1 0
x 1
x 1

(1) x

Kt lun: Hp cc trng hp, tp nghim BPT l x 0; 33 8 37 1; .

Lu . Ta c th gii (1) theo phng php ly tha.


217

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

V d 285. Gii bt phng trnh:

1
2( x x 1) x
2

()

x 1

Li gii. iu kin: 0 x 1.
Trng hp 1. Nu x 0;1 th

2( x2 x 1) x x2 ( x 1)2 1 x 0

x 1 0 nn () lun ng. Suy ra: x 0;1 l mt tp nghim ().

.v
n

2
2
2

2( x x 1) x x ( x 1) 1 x 0
Trng hp 2. Nu x 1

() x 1 2( x2 x 1) x x 1 2( x2 1) 2x x 0

1
1

1
x t 2 2.
2 x 2 1 0, (1). t t x
x
x
x
x

t 1 0
t 1
(1) t 2t 2 2 1 0 2t 2 2 t 1 2

2
t 2t 1 0
(t 1) 0

1
x

1 ( x )2 x 1 0 x

ok

t 1 x

.c

om

1 5
3 5
x

2
2

bo

3 5

Kt lun: Hp 2 trng hp, tp nghim BPT l x 0;1

et

Nhn xt. li gii trn, ti xc nh lng

vi

th cha xc nh c nn chia ra 2 trng hp

ng

V d 286. Gii bt phng trnh:

kh
a

Li gii. Ta c:

2( x2 x 1) x 0, cn

x 1 0 v

x2

2( x x 1) 1
4

x 1 0 gii.

1
x 1

()

1 3
3
2( x4 x2 1) 1 2 x2 1
1 0.
2 2
2

2( x4 x2 1) 1
x 1
Trng hp 1. Nu x 1 0 x 1 th

iu kin: x 1 . Khi : () x 2

(1)

(1) ( x 2)( x 1) 2( x4 x2 1) 1 2( x4 x2 1) x2 x 1
x2 x 1 0
x2 x 1 0

4
2
2
2
3
2
2( x x 1) ( x x 1)

x 2x x 2x 1 0
x2 x 1 0
x2 x 1 0
1 5

x
: tha mn iu kin.
2
2
2
( x x 1) 0
x x 1 0

Trng hp 2. Nu x 1 0 x 1 th

218

x 1

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2 x 1

(1) ( x 2)( x 1) 2( x x 1) 1
x 1.
x 2

2
2

0
( x x 1) 0

1 5

Kt lun: Hp hai trng hp, suy ra tp nghim l x ;1

Nhn xt. li gii trn, ti xc nh lng

2( x4 x2 1) 1 0, cn x 1

th cha xc nh c nn chia ra hai trng hp x 1 0 v x 1 0 gii.


(2 x 1) x

2 x (2 x ) 1 x 1 x

Li gii. iu kin: 0 x 1.

()

.v
n

V d 287. Gii bt phng trnh:

om

Ta c: 2 x (2 x ) 1 x 1 x 2 x 2 1 x x . 1 x ( 1 x )2

() (2x 1) x ( x 1 x ) (2 1 x )

.c

2( x 1 x ) 1 x ( x 1 x ) ( x 1 x )(2 1 x ) 0, x 0;1 .

ok

( x )2 ( 1 x )2 x ( x 1 x ) (2 1 x )

( x 1 x ) ( x 1 x ) x ( x 1 x ) (2 1 x )

bo

( x 1 x ) x 2 1 x , do : x 1 x 0, x 0;1

et

x x(1 x) 2 1 x x 2 1 x (1 x) : lun ng x 0;1 .

vi

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca bt phng trnh l x 0;1 .


x2 x 6 7 x 6( x2 5x 2)
x 3 2( x2 10)

ng

V d 288. Gii bt phng trnh:

()

kh
a

Li gii. Gi s: x 3 2( x2 10) ( x 3)2 2( x2 10)


x2 6x 11 0 ( x 3)2 2 0, x , suy ra: x 3 2( x2 10) 0.

x2 x 6 0

x 3. Do x 3 2( x2 10) 0 nn:
iu kin: x 0
x2 5x 2 0

() x2 x 6 7 x 6( x2 5x 2) 0
x2 x 6 7 x 6( x2 5x 2). Do 2 v khng m nn s ly tha:
x2 x 6 49x 14 x( x2 x 6) 6( x2 5x 2)

14 x( x 3)( x 2) 5x2 18x 6

(i)

219

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

14 ( x2 3x)( x 2) 5( x2 3x) 3( x 2)

(1)

Do vi x 3 x 2 0 nn chia hai v (1) cho x 2 0, ta c:


(1) 14

x 2 3x
x 2 3x
x 2 3x
x 2 3x
5
3 5
14
30
x2
x2
x2
x2

1
x2 3x

3 . Do
5
x2

x2 3x
0 nn ta ch xt
x2

x2 3x
3
x2

x 2 3x
9 x2 12x 18 0 6 3 6 x 6 3 6.
x2
Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca BPT l x 3; 6 3 6 .

Bnh lun: Trong v d trn, ti dng phng php phn chng chng minh

.v
n

i ng thc a v dng

om

mu s x 3 2( x2 10) 0, cn trong cc v d trc dng phng php bin


( ax b)2 c c hoc dng

c ( ax b)2 c

chng minh mu s dng hoc m. Ngoi ra, php bin i (i) sang (1) v gii l rt

.c

quen thuc trong gii phng trnh ng cp dng: . f ( x) .g( x) . f ( x).g( x).

ok

Tng t, bt phng trnh: . f ( x) .g( x) . f ( x).g( x) ta gii nh sau:


Xt g(x) = 0 gii tm nghim. Vi g(x) > 0, chia hai v cho g(x), ta c:

hai vi n

bo

f ( x)
f ( x)
f ( x)
f ( x)

0. y l bt phng trnh bc
g( x)
g( x)
g( x)
g( x)

f ( x)
0 m bit cch gii. Thng thng th tch f(x).g(x) cha c
g( x)

et

vi

phn tch sn v , ta tm bng phng php ng nht (xem li phng php gii

ng

phng trnh ng cp dng . f ( x) .g( x) . f ( x).g( x) .

kh
a

V d 289. Gii bt phng trnh:

x 4 5x 2 7 3 2 x x 1
x2 3 2x x 2

()

3
v x2 3 2x x 2 0.
2
3
Xt hm s f ( x) x2 3 2x x 2 trn on 0; c:
2

Li gii. iu kin: 0 x

f ( x) 2 x

1
3 2x

3
0, x 0; Do hm s f ( x) ng bin trn
2 x
2
1

3
on 0; , suy ra: f ( x) x2 3 2x x 2 f (0) 2 3 0.
2
() x4 5x2 7 3 2x x 1 x2 3 2x x 2

220

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g( x) x4 6x2 8 3 2x 3 0

(1)

3
Xt hm s g( x) x4 6x2 8 3 2x 3 xc nh v lin tc trn 0; c:
2
g( x) 4 x3 12 x

8
3 2x

3
0, x 0;
3 2x
2
8

4 x( x2 3)

II. Bt phng trnh v t a v dng tch thng

.v
n

3
Do hm s g( x) nghch bin trn on 0; v c g( x) g(1) 0 x 1.
2
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l x 0;1 .
f ( x)
0, ta c
g( x)

om

gii bt phng trnh tch hoc thng dng f ( x) g( x) 0 hoc

.c

cc phng php gii sau:


Phng php 1. Xt du (tng qut nht)
Bc 1. Tm min xc nh D.
Bc 2. Tm nghim ca cc phng trnh: f ( x) 0; g( x) 0.

ok

Bc 3. Lp bng xt du ca f ( x), g( x) trn D, suy ra du ca tch thng.

bo

Phng php 2. Da vo min xc nh, chia trng hp.


Phng php 3. Da vo min xc nh tm du ca mt tha s.

1. a v tch s nh vo php bin i tng ng


3x 2

et

V d 290. Gii bt phng trnh:

2x

()

2 x2 x 1

vi

iu kin: 2 x 2 .

ng

() x2 3x 4 ( x 1) 2 x2 ( x 1)( x 4) ( x 1) 2 x2 0
( x 1)( x 4 2 x2 ) 0

(1)

kh
a

Li gii 1. Lp bng xt du.


t: f ( x) x 1 0 x 1 v g( x) x 4 2 x2 0

x 4
: v nghim.
2 x2 x 4 2

x 4x 7 0
Bng xt du
x

f ( x)

g( x)

f ( x).g( x)

1
0

221

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Kt lun: Da vo bng xt du, suy ra tp nghim ca (1) l x 2;1 .

Li gii 2. Chia trng hp da vo min xc nh.


Trng hp 1. Nu x 1 th (1) ng, suy ra x 1 l mt nghim ca (1).
Trng hp 2. Nu 1 x 2 th x 1 0 nn 1 x 4 2 x2 0

x 4 2 x2 : v nghim khi x 1; 2 .

Trng hp 3. Nu 2 x 1 th x 1 0 nn (1) x 4 2 x2 0

x 4 2 x2 x2 4x 7 0 lun ng x 2;1 .

.v
n

Kt lun: Hp ba trng hp, suy ra tp nghim BPT l x 2;1 .

Li gii 3. Da vo min xc nh tm du ca mt tha s.

om

Ta c: x 4 2 x2 0, x 2; 2 nn 1 x 1 0 x 1.

ok

.c

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim bt phng trnh l x 2;1 .

Nhn xt. C rt nhiu cch xt du khc nhau, nhng theo ti vi nhng bt phng
trnh phc tp thng dng nguyn tc "mi th mt im". Chng hn nh xt
du f ( x) x 4 2 x2 th ti nhp vo my tnh b ti: X 4 2 X 2 v

bo

mun xt du trong khong ( 2; 1) ti CALC mt gi tr bt k trong khong ny,


chng hn 0 c 4 2 0 v vo khong y du .

et

V d 291. Gii bt phng trnh: 4x2 2x 3 8x 1

()

3
2

vi

Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 3 0 x

ng

() 4x2 2x 3 8x 1 0 (1 2x 4x2 ) (1 2 x) 2 x 3 (2 x 3) 0

1 2x ( 2x 3)2 1 2 x 2 x 3 0

kh
a

(1 2x 2x 3)(1 2x 2x 3) (1 2x 2x 3) 0

(1 2x 2x 3)(2 2x 2x 3) 0

(1)

f ( x) 1 2 x 2 x 3
t:
Khi :

g( x) 2 2 x 2 x 3

1
3 17
x
x

Cho: f ( x) 0 2 x 3 2 x 1
2
4
2 x 2 3x 1 0

5 21
x 1
x

Cho: g( x) 0 2 x 3 2 2 x 2
4

4 x 10 x 1 0

222

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Bng xt du
x

5 21
4

3
2

f ( x)

g( x)

f ( x).g( x)

3 17
4
0

.v
n

3 5 21 3 17

Kt lun: Da vo bng xt du, suy ra x ;


;

4 4
2

V d 292. Gii bt phng trnh: x 3 2 x2 2x2 2 x2 0

Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 2.

()

om

() x (3 2 x2 ) 2 x2 x ( 2 x2 )2 (1 x2 ) 2 x2

( 2 x2 )3 x2 2 x2 ( 2 x2 x) 0

.c

( 2 x2 )3 (1 x2 ) 2 x2 x 0

ok

( 2 x2 )2 x2 2 x2 ( 2 x2 x) 0

bo

( 2 x2 x) ( 2 x2 x) 2 x2 ( 2 x2 x) 0
( 2 x2 x) (3 x2 x 2 x2 ) 0

et

2 x2 x 0, do : 3 x2 x 2 x2 0, x 2; 2

vi

x 0
x 0
2 x2 x

x 1.
2
2
2 x x
x 1 x 1

ng

Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim bt phng trnh l x 1; 2 .

kh
a

V d 293. Gii bt phng trnh: (4x2 x 7) x 2 4x 8x2 10

()

Li gii. iu kin: x 2.
() (4x2 x 7) x 2 2(4x2 x 7) 2( x 2)
(4x2 x 7)( x 2 2) 2[( x 2)2 4]
(4x2 x 7)( x 2 2) 2( x 2 2)( x 2 2)
4x2 x 7 2( x 2 2), (do : x 2 2 0, x 2)
4x2 x 3 2 x 2 (2x)2 ( x 2 1)2

(2x)2 ( x 2 1)2 0 (2 x 1 x 2)(2 x 1 x 2) 0

(1)

t: f ( x) 2x 1 x 2 v g( x) 2x 1 x 2.
223

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1
5 41
x
Cho f ( x) 0 x 2 2 x 1
x

2
8
4 x 2 5x 1 0

1
x
Cho g( x) x 2 2 x 1 0
x 1.
2
4 x 2 3x 1 0

Bng xt du
2

f ( x)
g( x)
f ( x).g( x)

0
0

5 41
8
0

.v
n

om

.c

5 41

;
Kt lun: Da vo bng xt du, suy ra x
2; 1

2. Lin hp a v tch s khi gii bt phng trnh

ok

6 x2

V d 294. Gii bt phng trnh:

( 2 x 1 1)2

2x x 1 1

()

bo

thi th ai hoc nm 2013 Chuyn Phan Bi Chu Ngh An


2x 1 1 0.

et

Li gii. iu kin: x 1, suy ra:

6 x2 ( 2 x 1 1)2
2x x 1 1 x 3 2x 1 4 x 1
4 x2
9
1
(2 x 1) 3 2 x 1 ( x 1) x 1
4
4

ng

vi

()

kh
a

3
1
3
1
2x 1 x 1 2x 1 x 1
2
2
2
2

3
do : 2 x 1 0,
2

x 1

0, x 1
2

2x 1 x 1 2 2x 1 x 1 4 x 1 4 x 1 x 2
x 2

2
x 10 4 5.

x 20 x 20 0

Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim BPT l x (10 4 5; ).


V d 295. Gii bt phng trnh: 4( x 1)2 (2x 10)(1 3 2x )2

()

thi th i hc nm 2013 Chuyn Thoi Ngc Hu An Giang


224

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

3
2

Li gii. iu kin: x , suy ra: 1 3 2x 0.


() 4( x 1)2 (2 x 10)

(1 3 2 x )2 (1 3 2 x )2
(1 3 2 x )2

x 1

4( x 1)2 (1 3 2 x )2 4(2 x 10)( x 1)2


2

(1 3 2 x ) 2 x 10

x 1
x 1
x 1

4 2 x 2 3 2 x 2 x 10
3 2x 3
x 3

x2
( x 1 x 1)2

x2 3x 18
( x 1)2

om

V d 296. Gii bt phng trnh:

.v
n

3
Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim BPT l x ; 3 \1
2

()
2

x2 ( x 1 x 1)2
x( x 1)

x2 3x 18
x 2 ( x 1 x 1)2 x 2 3x 18

( x 1)2
( x2 x)2
( x 1)2

et

( x 1)2 ( x 1)

x2 3x 18
( x 1 x 1)2 x2 3x 18
2
( x 1)

ng

x2 ( x 1 x 1)2

vi

()

bo

ok

.c

Phn tch. Nu lin hp v tri thu c mu s: ( x 1)2 ( x 1)2 x2 ( x 1)2

2
s trit tiu i x t s v c cng tha s chung vi v phi.
x 1
Li gii. iu kin:
. Khi : x 1 x 1 0.
x 0

x2 3x 2 2( x 1) x 1 x2 3x 18 ( x 1) x 1 8

kh
a

( x 1)3 23 x 1 2 x 1 4 x 3.

Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim bt phng trnh l: x 1; 3 \0


V d 297. Gii bt phng trnh:

x 1( x 3 8 x ) 2x 11

Li gii. iu kin: 3 x 8. Khi :


()

(2 x 11) x 1
x3 8x

()

x 3 8 x 0.

2 x 11 (2 x 11) x 1 (2 x 11)( x 3 8 x )

(2x 11)( x 1 x 3 8 x ) 0

(1)

t: f ( x) 2x 11 v g( x) x 1 x 3 8 x .

225

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

11
v g( x) 0 x 1 x 3 8 x
2
x 6
43 409

2 ( x 3)(8 x) x 6
x

2
8

4 x 43x 90 0

Cho f ( x) 0 x

f ( x)

g( x)

f ( x).g( x)

43 409
8

11
2
0

.v
n

om

11 43 409
; 8
Kt lun: Da vo bng xt du, tp nghim l: x 3;
8
2

Bnh lun. Sai lm thng gp ca hc sinh l n gin i lng 2x 11. R rng


x 3; 8 th ta cha xc nh c du ca 2x 11 nn ti dng phng php

.c

tng qut nht l xt du gii sau khi a v dng tch s. Nu khng lm nh th


th ta c th chia ra tng trng hp b i lng 2x 11.
x 2 x 2 x 2 3x 2

ok

V d 298. Gii bt phng trnh:

()

bo

thi th i hc nm 2014 THPT Nghi Sn Thanh Ha

et

Nhn xt. Cc k thut tch ghp, ghp hng s, ghp bc nht, tm nhn t bc 2,
bc 3 bng casio, lm cho xut hin tha s chung sau khi nhn lin hp ca gii
phng trnh v t u p dng c cho bt phng trnh v t. v d ny, nhn
thy rng ( x 2) (3x 2) 2( x 2) v phn tch x2 x 2 ( x 1)( x 2) c

kh
a

ng

vi

nhn t chung x 2 nn ta s tin hnh ghp 2 cn thc li vi nhau lin hp.


2
Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 3 0 x
3
2( x 2)
() ( x 2 3x 2) x2 x 2 0
( x 1)( x 2) 0
x 2 3x 2

2
(1)
( x 2)
x 1 0
x 2 3x 2

2
3

x 1 trn ; c:
Xt hm s f ( x)
x 2 3x 2
2

1
f ( x)

2( x 2 3x 2)
( x 2 3x 2)

x2
3x 2 1 0, x 3
2
( x 2 3x 2)2

Do hm s f ( x) lun ng bin trn ;


2

226

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Suy ra: x

2
f ( x)
3

2 10 3 6
f
0 nn (1) x 2 0 x 2.
6
3

2
Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l: x ; 2
3
Bnh lun. Trong nh gi f ( x) 0, ti s dng kt qu: "Nu ham s f ( x) lun
ng bin trn D thi f ( x) f (a) x a, x, a D. Nu ham s f ( x) lun nghich
bin trn D thi f ( x) f (a) x a, x, a D ".

.v
n

V d 299. Gii BPT: (2 x2 2x 5)( x 1) 4x x2 1 2x x2 2x 5 ()


thi th i hc nm 2014 THPT Nguyn Khuyn Tp. HCM

om

Phn tch. Nhn thy nu chuyn v v rt: 2x(2 x2 1 x2 2x 5) v lin hp


2 cn thc ny s xut hin nhn t x 1 v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
() ( x 1)(2 x2 2 x 5) 2 x(2 x2 1 x2 2 x 5) 0
3x 2 2 x 1

0
2 x2 1 x2 2 x 5
2 x( x 1)(3x 1)
( x 1)(2 x2 2x 5)
0
2 x2 1 x2 2 x 5

6 x2 2 x
( x 1) 2 x2 2 x 5
0

2
2
2 x 1 x 2x 5

6 x2 2 x
Do: 2 x2 2 x 5
2 x2 1 x2 2 x 5

(1)

4 x2 1 2 x2 2 x 5 2 ( x2 1)( x2 2 x 5) (7 x2 4 x 5) 0

ng

vi

et

bo

ok

.c

( x 1)(2 x2 2 x 5) 2 x

kh
a

2 x2 1 x2 2 x 5
Suy ra: (1) x 1 0 x 1.
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l x (; 1].

V d 300. Gii bt phng trnh:

x2 35 5x 4 x2 24

, x.

()

Phn tch. Nhn thy nu l phng trnh th s c mt nghim x 1. Do , ta s


ghp sau nhn lin hp xut hin tha s chung x 1 trong bt phng trnh a
v dng ( x 1) f ( x) 0. a s trng hp th ta xc nh du ca f ( x) ri b n m
t gii bt phng trnh dng tch. V vy cn tm min xc nh ca bi ton chnh
xc nh gi f(x) d dng. Ta c () x2 35 x2 24 5x 4 v lun c
x2 35 x2 24 0, x , nn BPT c nghim th v phi 5x 4 0.
4
Li gii. iu kin: 5x 4 0 x
5

227

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

() ( x2 35 6) 5( x 1) ( x2 24 5) 0

x2 1

x2 1

5( x 1)

0
x2 35 6
x2 24 5

x1
x1
( x 1)

5 0
2

2
x 24 5
x 35 6


1
1
( x 1) ( x 1)

5 0
2
x2 24 5
x 35 6

f ( x)

4
x 1 0
: 2
, suy ra f ( x) 0 nn (1) x 1 0 x 1.
2
5
x 24 x 35 0

om

Do x

(1)

.v
n

( x2 24 x2 35 1)
( x 1) ( x 1)
5 0

( x2 35 6)( x2 24 5)

x 9 2 x 2 3x 5x 1 1

ok

V d 301. Gii bt phng trinh:

.c

Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l: x 1; .


()

bo

Phn tch. Nhp 3 X 9 2X2 3X 5X 1 1 vo my tnh v bm shift solve ,


cho c X 1. kim tra phng trinh con nghim hay khng, ta sa lai cu truc
ca my tnh : ( 3 X 9 2X 2 3X 5X 1 1) : (X 1) v bm shift solve th my

et

tnh cho ta kt qu Can't Solve, chng to phng trinh a ht nghim. T o, ta co th


khng inh phng trinh co mt nghim nn g hp hng s vi cn lin hp . Tc

vi

ghp: ( 3 x 9 ) ( 5x 1) 2x2 3x 1 0 vi hai s , tha mn:

ng

3 x 9 3 1 9 2, 5x 1 5.1 1 2 (thay th gia tri nghim

x1

kh
a

vo tng cn) v c li gii 1 chi tit nh sau:


1
iu kin: 5x 1 0 x
5
Li gii 1. Nhn lin hp thng thng.
() ( 3 x 9 2) (2 5x 1) 2x2 3x 5 0

x 1

( x 9) 2 x 9 4
3

5( x 1)
5x 1 2

( x 1)(2 x 5) 0

1
5
( x 1)

2x 5 0
2
3
5x 1 2
( x 9 1) 3

1
5
5 2
1

2x 5 5 0
Vi x , suy ra:
2
3
2 5
5
( x 9 1) 3
5x 1 2

T (1), (2), suy ra: x 1 0 x 1.


228

(1)
(2)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim bt phng trinh la x ;1
5
Li gii 2. Truy ngc du.
() 3 x 9 5x 1 2x2 3x 1 0
2( 3 x 9 2) 5x 1( 5x 1 2) 4 x2 x 5 0

x 1
( x 9) 2 x 9 4
2

5( x 1) 5x 1
5x 1 2

( x 1)(4 x 5) 0

.v
n

1
5 5x 1
( x 1)

(4 x 5) 0 x 1 0 x 1.
2
3
5x 1 2
( x 9 1) 3

0, x D

om

1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim bt phng trinh la x ;1
5

V d 302. Gii bt phng trnh: ( x 1) x 2 ( x 6) x 7 x2 7 x 12 ()

.c

ai hoc khi D nm 2014

ok

Phn tch. Nu la phng trinh , nhp: (X 1) X 2 (X 6) X 7 X2 7 X 12

bo

v bm shift solve th cho ta nghim X 2. i vi bt phng trnh th s c nhn t


chung dang ( x 2). f ( x) 0. Mun kim tra xem con nghim hay khng , ta sa lai
cu truc : ((X 1) X 2 (X 6) X 7 (X 2 7 X 12)) : ( X 2) v bm shift
cc cn vi hng s

et

solve thi may tinh cho Can 't Solve, chng to phng trinh ht nghim . Khi o ghep
, dng ( x 1)( x 2 ); (x 6)( x 7 ) v lin hp ,

vi

vi , c tim bng cach th nghim vao cn: 2 2 2, 2 7 3.

ng

iu kin: x 2.
Li gii 1. Nhn lin hp thng thng.

kh
a

() ( x 1)( x 2 2) ( x 6)( x 7 3) ( x2 2x 8) 0

( x 1)

x2

x2 2

( x 6)

x2
x7 3

( x 2)( x 4) 0

x1

x6
(1)
( x 2)

x 4 0
x2 3
x2 2

x1
x6
x1 x6
x 12

x4

x4
0, x 2.
Do
2
3
6
x2 2
x7 3
Nn (1) x 2 0 x 2.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim cua bt phng trinh la x


2; 2

Li gii 2. Truy ngc du.


() ( x 1)( x 4 3 x 2) ( x 6) x 7( x 7 3) x2 3x 10 0

229

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

( x 1)2 ( x 2)

( x 6) x 7

x2

( x 2)( x 5) 0
x43 x2
x7 3

( x 1)2
( x 6) x 7
(x 2)

x 5 0 x 2.
x7 3
x 4 3 x 2

0, x 2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim cua bt phng trinh la x


2; 2
V d 303. Gii BPT: ( x 1) 4x 5 2( x 5) x 3 3x2 14x 13

()

5
x
4
x 3 0

() ( x 1)( 4x 5 3) 2( x 5)( x 3 2) 3x2 7 x 10

2( x 5)( x 1)

om

4( x 1)( x 1)

( x 1)(3x 10)
4x 5 3
x3 2
4( x 1)

2( x 5)
( x 1)

3x 10 0
x3 2
4x 5 3

4( x 1)
2( x 5)
4( x 1) 2( x 5)
2 x 11

3x 10

3x 10
0,
Do
3
2
6
4x 5 3
x3 2
5
vi mi x nn (1) x 1 0 x 1.
4
5
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim cua bt phng trinh la x ;1
4

et

bo

ok

.c

.v
n

4 x 5 0

Li gii. iu kin:

ng

vi

Bnh lun. Do s dng casio, tm c nghim duy nht l x 1 nn s ghp hng s


lin hp. Bn c c th s dng truy ngc du nh v d trc gii.
V d 304. Gii BPT: ( x 1) 2x 3 2(3x 1) 4x 2 16x2 14x 2

()

1
2

kh
a

Li gii. iu kin: x
() ( x 1)( 2x 3 2) 2(3x 1)( 4x 2 2) 16x2 4

( x 1)(2 x 1)

4(3x 1)(2 x 1)

4(2 x 1)(2 x 1) 0
2x 3 2
4x 2 2

x1
4(3x 1)
(1)
(2 x 1)

8x 4 0
4x 2 2
2x 3 2

x1
4(3x 1)
x 1 4(3x 1)
3x 3

8x 4

8x 4
0 vi
Do
2
2
2
2x 3 2
4x 2 2

mi x
230

1
1
nn (1) 2 x 1 0 x
2
2

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1 1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim cua bt phng trinh la x ;
2 2

V d 305. Gii bt phng trnh: x3 2x ( x2 1) 2x 1 3 2x2 x

()

Phn tch. S dng casio, tm c nghim x 1. Tip tc kim tra phng trnh
cn nghim hay khng, ta nhn c thm mt nghim na l x 1. Tc phng
trnh c nghim kp, nn bt phng trnh s c nhn t ( x 1)2 . T c tch ghp
v li gii chi tit nh sau:
1
2

.v
n

Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 1 0 x

( x2 1)( x 2x 1) ( x 3 2x2 x ) 0
x2 2 x 1
x 2x 1

x3 2 x2 x

x2 x 3 2x2 x 3 (2x2 x)2

.c

( x2 1)

om

() x( x2 1) ( x2 1) 2x 1 ( x 3 2x2 x ) 0

(1)

1
x2 1
x
, suy ra:

0.
3
2
2
2
x 2 x 1 x x 2x x 3 (2 x2 x)2

bo

Do: x

ok

x2 1
x
( x 1)2

x 2 x 1 x2 x 3 2 x 2 x 3 (2 x2 x)2

et

Nn (1) ( x 1)2 0 x 1 0 x 1.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, bt phng trnh c nghim duy nht x 1.

vi

V d 306. Gii bt phng trnh:

2x 11 2x2 16x 28 5 x

()

ng

2 x 11 0
11

x
2
2

2 x 16 x 28 0

Li gii. iu kin:

kh
a

() 2x 11 ( x 5) (2x 10) 2x2 16x 28 0

2 x 11 ( x 5)2

(2 x 10)2 (2 x2 16 x 28)

0
2x 10 2 x2 16 x 28
x2 12 x 36
2 x2 24 x 72

0
2 x 11 x 5 2 x 10 2 x2 16 x 28
( x 6)2
2( x 6)2

0
2 x 11 x 5 2 x 10 2 x2 16 x 28

2
1
( x 6)2

2
2 x 11 x 5
2 x 10 2 x 16 x 28
2 x 11 x 5

231

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

( x 6)2

2 2 x 11 2 x2 16 x 28
0
2( x 5) 2 x2 16 x 28 .( 2 x 11 x 5)

( x 6)2 (2 2x 11 2 x2 16 x 28) 0

2
Do : 2( x 5) 2 x 16 x 28 0,

( x 6)2 ( 2 x2 24 x 72)

2 x 11 x 5 0, x

0 2( x 6)4 0 ( x 6)4 0 x 6 : TMK

.v
n

2 2 x 11 2x 16x 28
Kt lun: Bt phng trnh c nghim duy nht l x 6.
2

11

5,5
2

V d 307. Gii BPT: ( x 1) 3x 1 x3 2x2 1 2 x2 x 1 6x

()

om

Phn tch v li gii 1. S dung casio , tm c hai nghim x 0, x 1, nn bt


phng trinh se c nhn t chung dng x( x 1) x2 x. Do o se ghep bc nht vi

ok

.c

cn thc lin hp dang : ( x 1). 3x 1 (ax b) , 2. (cx d) x2 x 1 vi

a 1
Khi x 0 3x 1 1 ax b b
a, b thoa man h :
v c, d thoa h

b1

Khi x 1 3x 1 2 ax b a b

kh
a

ng

vi

et

bo

c 0
Khi x 0 x x 1 1 cx d d

phng trinh:
2
d1

Khi x 1 x x 1 1 cx d c d
1
iu kin: x
3
() ( x 1) 3x 1 ( x 1) 2(1 x2 x 1) x3 3x2 4 x 0

2
( x 1)( x x)
2( x2 x)

( x2 x)( x 4) 0
2
3x 1 x 1
x x11

x1
2
( x 2 x)

x 4 0
(1)
3x 1 x 1

2
x x1 1

x1
2
x1
1
Do

x4
2 x 4 x 1 0, x
x1
3
3x 1 x 1
x2 x 1 1

(1) x2 x 0 x 0 hoc x 1.
1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim BPT l x ; 0 1; .
3
Phn tch v li gii 2. Vi mong mun biu thc f (x) trong ( x2 x). f ( x) sau khi

lin hp lun dng , ta co th truy ngc du cua cac biu thc


2(1 x x 1) i thanh: 2 x x 1( x x 1 1) v
2

232

lin hp , c th

3x 1 ( x 1) thnh

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3x 1( x 1 3x 1) s khc phc c cng on nh gi f (x) phc tap . T o

c li gii 2 chi tit nh sau:


() 2 x2 x 1( x2 x 1 1) 3x 1( x 1 3x 1) x3 x 0

2( x2 x) x2 x 1

( x 2 x) 3 x 1
x 1 3x 1

( x2 x)( x 1) 0

x x1 1
2 x2 x 1

x 0
3x 1
( x 2 x)

x 1 0 x2 x 0

2
x x 1 1 x 1 3x 1

x 1

2x2 11x 15 x2 2x 3 x 6

Li gii. iu kin: x 3 hoc x 1.

()

.c

V d 308. Gii bt phng trnh:

om

.v
n

1
2 x2 x 1
3x 1
Do x , suy ra:

x 1 0.
2
3
x x 1 1 x 1 3x 1
1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim BPT l x ; 0 1; .
3

ok

() 2 2x2 11x 15 2 x2 2x 3 2x 12

kh
a

ng

vi

et

bo

2 2x2 11x 15 (2 x 9) 2 x2 2 x 3 3 0

2
2
4 x 8 x 21
4 x 8 x 21

0
2
2 2 x 11x 15 2 x 9 2 x2 2 x 3 3

1
1
(1)
(4 x2 8 x 21)

2
2
2 2 x 11x 15 2x 9 2 x 2x 3 3
1
1
Do

0 nn (1) 4 x2 8 x 21 0
2
2
2 2 x 11x 15 2 x 9 2 x 2 x 3 3
7
3
x hoc x
2
2

7 3

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca BPT l x ; ;


2 2

7
3
Nhn xt. Do s dng casio, tm c x , x , nn c tch ghp nh trn.
2
2

x2 x 1
2
x2 4
()
2
x4
x 1
thi th i hc 2013 ln 2 Chuyn Nguyn Quang Diu ng Thp

V d 309. Gii bt phng trnh: 2

Phn tch. S dng chc nng table ca casio, tm c nhn t x2 3 nn c tch


ghp lin hp v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. iu kin: x 4.
233

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x2 x 1

2
2 x2 1
() 2
1 x2 3
1

x4
x2 1
x2 1

x2 x 1
1
4 ( x2 1)
x4
2
x2 3
x2 x 1
x 2 1(2 x 2 1)
1
x4

2( x2 3)
( x2 3)
( x2 3)
0
x2 x 1

x2 1(2 x2 1)
( x 4)
1

2
1

( x2 3)
1
0
2
2
2

1(2

1)
x

1
( x 4)

x4

om

.v
n

0, x 4

.c

x2 3 0 x 3 x 3.

ok

Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca phng trnh l x 3; 3 .

x 3x
1
()
2
2x 3
x x2
thi th TN. THPT Quc Gia 2015 TT. Hong Gia, Tn Ph, Tp. HCM

bo

V d 310. Gii bt phng trnh:

1
1
1

2
x2 x 2
x

x2
x 3x

vi

2x 3

(2 x 3)( x 3 x )

ng

()

et

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D 0; 3 \ ; 2
2

(1)

x 3 x 0, x 0; 3 , nhng du x2 x 2 cha xac inh c la

Do

kh
a

dng hay m trn oan 0; 3 , nn ta chia ra hai trng hp:


x2 x 2 0
x ( 1; 2)
3

TH 1. Nu
3 x 0; 2 \
3
2
x 0; 3 \ 2 ; 2
x 0; 3 \ 2 ; 2

Lc (1) lun ung do: (1)

1
x 3x

0,

1
0.
x2 x 2

x x 2 0

2
TH 2. Nu
3 x (2; 3] th (1) x x 2 x 3 x
x 0; 3 \ 2 ; 2

( x2 3x 1) ( x 1) x ( x 2) 3 x 0

234

(i)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

( x2 3x 1)

x 2 3x 1
x 1 x

x 2 3x 1
x2 3x

1
1
( x2 3x 1) 1

0
x 1
x
x 2 3 x

0, x (2;3]

x 1 3x
3 5

x 3.
2

x (2; 3]
2

V d 311. Gii bt phng trnh:

x3
3 x1 x 3

om

.v
n

3 3 3 5
; 3
Kt lun: Hp hai trng hp, tp nghim la x 0; ; 2
2 2 2

Nhn xt. c bin i sang (i), ti s dng chc nng table ca casio tm
lng nhn t x2 3x 1, t c cch tch ghp v lin hp nh trn.

2 9x
x

()

.c

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D
1; 9 \0 , suy ra: 3 x 1 x 3 0.

( x 1 2)( x 1 2)
( x 1 1)( x 1 2)

2 9x

( x 1 1)( x 1 1)

et

()

bo

ok

3 x 1 x 3 ( x 1)2 3 x 1 2 ( x 1 1)( x 1 2)

Ta co: x 3 ( x 1)2 2 2 ( x 1 2)( x 1 2)


nn:

2
2
x ( x 1) 1 ( x 1 1)( x 1 1)

x1 2

2 9x
x 1 1

ng

vi

Do ta cha xac inh c du cua x 1 1 nn se chia ra hai trng hp:

x 0
x 1 1 0

0 x 9, th:
Trng hp 1. Nu
1 x 9, x 0
1 x 9

kh
a

(1) ( x 1 2)( x 1 1) 2 9 x x 3 3 x 1 2 9 x 0

x 1( x 1 3) 2(1 9 x ) 0

( x 8) x 1
x1 3

2(x 8)
1 9 x

x 8 0
x 8
x1
2
( x 8)

8 x 9.
0
x 1 3 1 9 x
0 x 9
0 x 9

x 0
x 1 1 0

1 x 0, th
Trng hp 2. Nu

1 x 9
1 x 9, x 0

(1) ( x 1 2)( x 1 1) 2 9 x x 3 3 x 1 2 9 x : lun ung.

x 3 3 x 1 1 3 3 1 1 2
Do x
1;
0

2 9 x 2. 9 0 6

235

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Kt lun: Hp hai trng hp, tp nghim cn tim la x


1; 0 8; 9
V d 312. Gii bt phng trnh: 6x x2 1 x2 8x 6x2 x 8

()

x 1

x 8
2
2
2

VT() 6 x x 1 x 8 x 6 x x 1 0
TH 1. Nu x 8
2
2

VP() 6 x x 8 6 x 0
Suy ra bt phng trnh () v nghim khi x 8.

.v
n

Li gii. iu kin:

TH 2. Nu x 1, th () 6x2 x 8 6x x2 1 x2 8x 0

4( x 1)

6 x2 1

0
x2 8x x 2
x2 1 x

2 x 1
3 x1
2 x 1

0
x2 8 x x 2
x2 1 x

.c

om

6 x2 1( x2 1 x) x2 8x ( x 2) 0

(1)

(1) x 1 0 x 1.

bo

ok

2 x 1
3 x1
3 x 1 2 x 1 0
Do

0, x 1.
2
2
2
x 8x x 2
x2 1 x

x 8x x 2 x 1 x 0

ng

vi

et

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l x 1; .


III. S dng phng php hm s gii bt phng trnh v t
Vn dng ni dung ca cc kt qu sau y:
Hm s f ( x) lun ng bin trn D thi f ( x) f (a) x a, x, a D.
Hm s f ( x) lun nghch bin trn D thi f ( x) f (a) x a, x, a D.

kh
a

V d 313. Gii bt phng trnh:

2x3 3x2 6x 16 4 x 2 3

()

Phn tch. Nu l phng trnh th s c mt nghim x 1 v v phi c kh nng l


hm s ng bin nn ta nh hng gii bt phng trnh bng phng php hm s.
Ngoi ra, do bit c mt nghim ca phng trnh nn ta c th tch ghp ph hp
nhn lin hp nhm xut hin nhn t x 1.
iu kin: 2 x 4 .
Li gii 1. S dng tnh n iu ca hm s.
Xt hm s f ( x) 2x3 3x2 6x 16 4 x trn on
2; 4 c:
2
3( x x 1)
1
f ( x)

0, x 2; 4 .
3
2
2 x 3x 6x 16 2 4 x
Do hm s f ( x) lun ng bin trn on [2; 4].
236

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Mt khc: f ( x) f (1) 2 3 x 1

Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l: x 1; 4 .

Li gii 2. S dng k thut nhn lng lin hp.


() ( 2x3 3x2 6x 16 3 3) ( 3 4 x ) 0

2 x3 3x2 6 x 16 3 3
( x 1)(2 x2 5x 11)

x 1
3 4x
x 1

0
3 4x
2 x 3x 6 x 16 3 3
2

5 63
2 x

4
8
1

0 x 1 0 x 1.
x 1

3
2
3 4 x
2 x 3x 6 x 16 3 3

om

.v
n

2 x3 3x2 6 x 11

0, x
2;4

.c

Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l: x 1; 4 .


5

2x 1

2x 6

()

ok

V d 314. Gii bt phng trnh: 3 3 2 x

5
1
3
2 x 6 0.
x Th () 3 3 2 x
2
2
2x 1
5
1 3
2 x 6 trn ; c:
Xt hm s f x 3 3 2 x
2x 1
2 2
3
3 2x

1 3
2 0; x ;
( 2 x 1)
2 2
5

vi

f ( x)

et

bo

Li gii. iu kin:

ng

1 3
Do hm s f ( x) lun nghch bin trn ; v c f ( x) f (1) 0 x 1.
2 2

kh
a

1
Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l: ;1
2
x7

2 4x
x1

()
x 1 2 x 2
thi th TN. THPT Quc Gia 2015 TT. LTH Tr Minh, Tp. HCM

V d 315. Gii bt phng trnh:

Li gii. iu kin: 2 2 4, x 1.
()

( x 2)2 32
( x 2) 2 x 2 3
2

( x 2 3)( x 2 3)
( x 2 1)( x 2 3)

2 4x
( x 2)2 1

2 4x
( x 2 1)( x 2 1)

237

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x2 3

2 4x
x 2 1

( x 2 3)( x 2 1) 2 4 x

x 1 2 x 2 2 4 x 0.

Xt hm s f ( x) x 1 2 x 2 2 4 x trn on
2; 4 \1 c:
1
1
f ( x) 1

0, x 2; 4 \1
x2
4x
Do hm s f ( x) ng bin trn [ 2; 1) v - 1; 4] v f ( x) f (1) 0 x 1.

.v
n

Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l: x 1; 4 .


V d 316. Gii bt phng trnh: 2( x 2)( 3 4x 4 2x 2) 3x 1

()

3x 1
2x 4

(1)

t: f ( x) 3 4x 4 2x 2 v g( x)

3x 1

2x 4

.c

() 3 4 x 4 2 x 2

om

Li gii. iu kin: x 1. Do x 2 khng l nghim ca BPT nn:

bo

ok

Xt hm s f ( x) 3 4x 4 2x 2 trn 1; \2 c:
4
2
f ( x)

0, x 1; \2
2
3
3
3 (4 x 4)
3 (2 x 2)2

et

Suy ra hm s f ( x) lun ng bin trn 1; 2 v (2; + )


3x 1
10
Xt hm s g( x)
trn 1; \2 c: g( x)
0, x 2.
2x 4
(2 x 4)2

vi

Suy ra hm s g( x) lun nghch bin trn 1; 2 v (2; + )

kh
a

ng

f ( x) f (3) 4
f ( x) 4 g( x) f ( x) g( x).
Nu x 3
g( x) g(3) 4
3x 1
x 3. Suy ra nghim (1) l x 3; .
Hay 3 4 x 4 2 x 2
2x 4
f ( x) f (3) 4

f ( x) 4 g( x) f ( x) g( x).
Nu x 3

g x g(3) 4
3x 1
x 3 nn (1) v nghim khi x 3.
Hay 3 4 x 4 2 x 2
2x 4
Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l: x 3; .

V d 317. Gii BPT:

x2 2x 3 x2 6x 11 3 x x 1

Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 3.
() ( x 1)2 2 x 1 (3 x)2 2 3 x f ( x 1) f (3 x).

238

()

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0 x 1 4
Do 1 x 3
Xt hm s f (t ) t 2 2 t trn 0; 4 c:
0

t
1
f (t )

0, x 0; 4 f ( x) ng bin trn 0; 4 .
2
2 t 2 2 t
Nn ta c: f ( x 1) f (3 x) x 1 3 x x 2.

Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l x 2; 3 .


x

x4 2 x3 2 x 1
x3 2 x2 2 x

Li gii. iu kin: x 0. Khi : () x

( x 1)( x3 3x2 3x 1)
x( x2 2 x 2)

( x 1)( x 1)3
( x )3
( x 1)3

f ( x ) f ( x 1).
2
( x 1)2 1
( x )2 1 ( x 1) 1

om

x x

()

.v
n

V d 318. Gii bt phng trnh:

t 4 3t 2
t3

trn
c
f
(
t
)

0, t .

t2 1
t2 1
Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn .

ok

.c

Xt hm s f (t )

3 5

2
3 5
Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca BPT l: x 0;

et

bo

Suy ra: f ( x ) f ( x 1) x x 1 ( x )2 x 1 0 0 x

()

vi

V d 319. Gii bt phng trnh: ( x 1) x2 2x 5 4x x2 1 x 1

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .

ng

() ( x 1)( x2 2x 5 1) 4x x2 1 2x

kh
a

( x 1) ( x 1)2 4 1 2 x(2 x2 1 1)

2
( x 1). ( x 1) 4 1 (2 x). (2 x)2 4 1 f ( x 1) f (2 x).

Xt hm s f (t) t.( t 2 4) trn c f (t ) t 2 1 1

t2

0, t .
t2 1
Do f (t ) ng bin trn v c f ( x 1) f (2x) x 1 2x x 1.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim bt phng trnh l x ; 1 .


V d 320. Gii bt phng trnh: x4 17 x3 34x2 32x 12 5x x 1

()

Li gii. iu kin: x 1.
() 5x x 1 25x2 ( x 1) x4 8x3 9x2 32x 12

239

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

25x2 ( x 1) 5x x 1 ( x2 4x 4)2 ( x2 4x 4)
f (5x x 1) f ( x2 4x 4).

x 1 0
x 1 0;
Vi x 1 2
hay 2

x 4x 4 1
x 4 x 4 1;
Xt hm s f (t ) t 2 t trn 0; c f (t) 2t 1 0, t 0.

Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn 0; v c f (5x x 1) f ( x2 4x 4).


x 1
x 1
1 4 2
2
x
x
2

x 1
x 1
1
x 1
x x 1 0
4 2 5
1 0
1 2
2
2
4
x
x
x

x 16 x 16 0

Chia: x 1
5x x 1 x2 4x 4
5.

x2 16x 16 0 8 4 3 x 8 4 3.

om

.v
n

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim l x [8 4 3; 8 4 3].


3

24x 11 16x 2x 1 1 0

ok

1
2

.c

V d 321. Gii bt phng trnh:

Li gii. iu kin: x t y 2x 1 0 y 2 2x 1 x

y2 1

y2 1
y2 1
y2 1
11 16
2
1 1 0
2
2
2

bo

() 3 24

()

et

3 12 y2 1 8( y2 1) y2 1 0 3 12 y2 1 8 y3 8 y 1

vi

8 y3 12 y2 8 y 2 3 12 y2 1 12 y2 1

ng

(2 y 1)3 (2 y 1) ( 3 12 y2 1)3 3 12 y2 1 f (2 y 1) f ( 3 12 y 2 1).

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 t trn c f (t) 3t 2 1 0, t .

kh
a

Do f (t ) ng bin trn v f (2 y 1) f ( 3 12 y 2 1) 2 y 1 3 12 y 2 1
(2 y 1)3 12 y2 1 8 y3 6 y 0 2 y(4 y2 3) 0 y 0

Suy ra:

2x 1 0 2x 1 0 x

2
IV. Phng php t n ph gii bt phng trnh v t
Cc dng v phng php gii phng trnh v t c im tng ng vi bt phng
trnh v t. Do , ta cn nm vng nhng dng c bn v phng php gii chng.
Nhng lu khi t n ph, ta cn tm iu kin cht ch khng pht sinh ra bt
phng trnh h qu v bin i i s n gin hn.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, bt phng trnh c nghim x

240

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V d 322. Gii bt phng trnh: x2 3x 2 5x2 15x 14

()

thi th i hc nm 2014 THPT Qu V I Bc Ninh

.v
n

Phn tch. Nhn thy 5x2 15x 5( x2 3x), nn khi t t 5x2 15x 14 th
bin x ngoi du cn s biu din c ht theo t v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
t 2 14
t t 5x2 15x 14 0, suy ra: x2 3x

5
t 2 14
t 2 5t 24 0
t 8 t 3
2t

() 5

t 8.

t 0
t 0
t 0

om

Vi t 5x2 15x 14 8 x2 3x 10 0 x 2 hoc x 5.


Kt lun: Tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l: x ; 5 2; .

()

.c

V d 323. Gii bt phng trnh: x( x 4) x2 4x ( x 2)2 2

Li gii. iu kin: 0 x 4.

ok

Hc vin Ngn Hng Tp. H Ch Minh


() ( x2 4x) x2 4x x2 4x 2 0

(1)

Suy ra:

bo

t t x2 4x 0 th () t 3 t 2 2 0 (t 1)(t 2 2t 2) 0 t 1.
x2 4x 1 x2 4x 1 2 3 x 2 3.

et

Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim BPT l: x (2 3; 2 3).

ng

vi

V d 324. Gii bt phng trnh: x 1 x2 4x 1 3 x


Phn tch. i vi PT, BPT cha f a( x 1),

()

i hc khi B nm 2012
a2 ( x2 1) bx , c x thng th ta

kh
a

x 0 sau khi xt x 0 c l nghim hay khng v s dn n phng


1
1
2
trnh, bt phng trnh c cha f a x
, a x b , c c dng thun
x
x

1
1
x t 2 2 a v dng c bn.
nghch v t t x
x
x
Li gii. iu kin: x 0.
Nu x 0 th bt phng trnh lun tha.

s chia cho

Nu x 0, chia hai v ca phng trnh cho


() x

1
x

1
4 30
x

x:

(1)
241

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

t t x

1
x

, suy ra: t 2 x

1
2 th () t 2 6 3 t
x

.v
n

t 3
t 2 6 0

t 3
t 6 t 6
5
3 t 0

t 3
5
t
t3

2
3 t 0
2
5
2
2
t 6 (3 t )
t

2
x2
x 4
1
5
2

, suy ra 2( x ) 5 x 2 0

Vi t x
x1
x 1
x 2

4
2

om

1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim BPT l x 0; 4; .
4

V d 325. Gii bt phng trnh: 8x3 76x x 1 58x2 29x

.c

Li gii. iu kin: x 0.

()

ok

Nu x 0 th bt phng trnh lun tha () lun tha.


Nu x 0, chia hai v bt phng trnh cho x x 0, ta c:

1 Cauchy
1
(1)
v
t
t

2
x

2 2.
76 29 2 x

x
x x
x

bo

() 8 x x

1
1
6 2 x
t 3 6t.
8x x
x
x
x

3
3
(1) t 6t 76 29t t 35t 76 0 (t 4)(t 2 4t 19) 0 t 4.

et

vi

Suy ra: t 3 8x x

kh
a

ng

2 2
32 2
x

x
1
2
2
Vi t 4, suy ra: 2 x
4

x
2 2
32 2
x
x

2
3 2 2 3 2 2

; l tp nghim.
Kt lun: So vi iu kin th x 0;

2 2

V d 326. Gii bt phng trnh: 4(2x2 1) 3( x2 2x) 2x 1 2x3 10x ()


1
2

Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 1 0 x
() 3x( x 2) 2x 1 2 ( x3 4x2 5x 2)
3x( x 2) 2x 1 2( x 2)( x2 2x 1) 0

( x 2) 3x 2x 1 2x2 4x 2 0

242

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( x 2) 3x 2x 1 2x2 2(2 x 1) 0

2x 1

2x 1
( x 2) 2 2 3
2 0 (i)

x
x

2x 1
2x 1
( x 2) 2
2 0
3

x
x

om

.v
n

2 x 1 1 2 x 1

2x 1 1
( x 2)

2 0 ( x 2)
0

x
2
x
x
2

x 2 0
x 2

2
2 x 4 2 3
2 2 x 1 x
x 8 x 4 0

x42 3

0
0,5


2
2 2 x 1 x
x 2 8 x 2 4 0

ok

.c

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l x ; 4 2 3 2; 4 2 3


Nhn xt. Bn cht ca vic chia 2 v c (i ) v bin i sang (ii ) l nh vo tnh

bo

ng cp ca nhm 3x 2x 1 2x2 2(2x 1) 3xy 2x2 2 y 2 , vi y 2x 1.


V d 327. Gii bt phng trnh: 2 5x 2 3 4 30x2 17 x 2 6x 1

()

et

Phn tch. Nhn thy 30x2 17 x 2 (5x 2)(6x 1) nn bt phng trnh c


vit li l 2.( 4 5x 2)2 3. 4 (5x 2)(6 x 1) ( 4 6 x 1)2 0. Khi li i thng

ng

vi

gp l chia cho lng dng bnh phng, c phng trnh bc hai hoc t hai n
ph a v dng ng cp hai n. T c li gii chi tit nh sau:
2
Li gii. iu kin: x
5

kh
a

() 2.( 4 5x 2)2 3. 4 (5x 2)(6 x 1) ( 4 6 x 1)2 0


2

5x 2
5x 2
5x 2 1

2 4
1 0 4

3 4
6x 1
6x 1
6x 1 2

Chia : ( 4 6 x 1)2

Vi

5x 2 1
5x 2 1
2
31

80 x 32 6 x 1 x

6x 1 2
6 x 1 16
5
74

Vi

2
5x 2
x
1
: v nghim.
5
6x 1
5x 2 6 x 1

5x 2
1.
6x 1

2 31
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca bt phng trnh l x ;
5 74

243

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

V d 328. Gii BPT:

7 x 7 7 x 6 2 49x2 7 x 42 181 14x

()

i hc An Ninh Nhn Dn
Phn tch. Ta c

49x2 7 x 42 (7 x 7)(7 x 6) th phng trnh c dng tng

tch v nu t t 7 x 7 7 x 6 t 2 14x 1 2 (7 x 7)(7 x 6) th cc bin

.v
n

cn li u biu din ht theo t v c li gii chi tit nh sau:


6
Li gii. iu kin: x t: t 7 x 7 7 x 6, (t 0).
7
t 0
t 0

() 2

0 t 13.

14 t 13
t t 182 0

bo

ok

x 12

6
6

x 1 x x ( ; 1] ; 6
7
7

x 6

.c

om

Vi 0 t 13, suy ra: 0 7 x 7 7 x 6 13 7 x 7 7 x 6 13


84 7 x 0

(7 x 7)(7 x 6) 84 7 x (7 x 7)(7 x 6) 0
(7 x 7)(7 x 6) (84 7 x)2

et

6
Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l: x ; 6
7

V d 329. Gii bt phng trnh: 8 1 x 5 3x 4( 1 x 1 x2 )

vi

()

ng

Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 1.
() 4 1 x2 4( 1 x 2 1 x ) 3x 5 0

(1)

kh
a

t 2 3x 5 4 1 x 2

t: t 1 x 2 1 x Cauchy-Schwarz
2
2
t

2)
.
(1

x
)

(1

x
)

10

10 t 10
10 t 10

() 2

0 t 10.

0 t 4
t 4t 0
3
Vi t 0, suy ra: 1 x 2 1 x x
5

Vi t 10 , th:

1 x 2 1 x 10 4 10 10x 13 3x, x
1;1 .

3
Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l: x ;1
5

244

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V d 330. Gii bt phng trnh: x3 3x2 2 ( x 3)3 9x 0

()

Hc sinh gii tnh Bnh Thun 2015


Phn tch. Nu t t x 3 0 t 2 x 3 th PT () x3 3x( x 3) 2t 3 0
x3 3xt 2 2t 3 0 c dng ng cp bc 3 v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. iu kin: x 3. Do x 3 khng l nghim nn ch xt x 3.

t t x 3 0 t 2 x 3 th () t 3 3xt 2 2t 3 0

om

.v
n

x
x
x
3 2 0, do : t x 3 0 2 x 2t.
t
t
t
1
Suy ra: x 2 x 3 x 3 x x 2.
2
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim cn tm l x
2; .

V d 331. Gii bt phng trnh: x3 3x2 2 ( x 2)3 6x

()

.c

Phn tch. Nu t t x 2 th lc : 3x2 6x 3x( x 2) 3xt 2 s a bt

ok

phng trnh v dng ng cp bc ba v c li gii chi tit nh sau:


Li gii. iu kin: x 2.

bo

() x3 3x( x 2) 2( x 2)3 0 x3 3xt 2 2t 3 0, (1) vi t x 2 0.

Nu t 0 x 2 0 x 2 th () lun tha.

et

Nu t 0 x 2 th chia hai v cho t 3 ta c:


3

kh
a

ng

vi

x
x
x
x

x
x
(1) 3 2 0 1 2 0 1 hoc 2.
t
t
t
t
t
t

x 0
x

x 2.
Vi 1 x t , suy ra: x 2 x 2
t

x x 2 0

x
2x0
2 x 2 2 3.
Vi 2, suy ra: 2 x 2 x
2
t

4( x 2) x

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca bt phng trnh l: x 2; 2 2 3 2

V d 332. Gii bt phng trnh: x3 (3x2 4x 4) x 1 0

()

thi th i hc nm 2013 THPT Ba nh Thanh Ha


Phn tch. Nu t t x 1 th t 2 x 1 th lc : 4x 4 4 x 1 4t 2 s
thu c bt phng trnh ng cp dng: .xn .xa .t b .t n 0 vi n a b m
bit cch gii v t c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. iu kin: x 1.
245

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

() x3 3x2 4( x 1) x 1 0 x3 (3x2 4t 2 )t 0, vi t x 1 0.
(1)
x3 3x2t 4t 3 0

Nu t 0 x 1 0 x 1 th () lun tha.
Nu t 0 x 1 th chia hai v cho t 3 ta c:
3

x
x
x
x

x
() 3 4 0 1 2 0 1 t x.
t
t
t
t
t

.v
n

1 x 0
1 x 0

1 5
x1 x

Suy ra:
x 0
1 5 1 x 2

2
x 1

0 x 2
x 1 x

om

1 5
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim cn tm l x 1;

V d 333. Gii bt phng trnh: 5x2 2x 2 5x x2 x 1

()

ok

.c

Phn tch. Nhn thy v phi c dng tch ca bc nht vi cn bc hai cha a thc
bc hai v biu thc ngoi du cn thc l cng l a thc bc hai. Nu phn tch biu
thc ngoi cn thc theo tch ny, nghia l vit 5x2 2x 2 a.x2 b.( x2 x 1) v

bo

tn ti hai s a, b th s hon ton a c v dng ng cp. Tht vy, ng nht h


s, tc vit 5x2 2x 2 (a b)x2 bx b, v so snh h s, c ngay a 3, b 2.

et

Phng trnh vit li 3x2 2( x2 x 1) 5x x2 x 1 0, r rng c dng ng

ng

vi

cp bc hai nu t t x2 x 1 0, th PT 3x2 2t 2 5xt 0. Hoc ta c th


chia trc tip vi lng dng, c bt phng trnh bc hai.
Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
x2
x
() 3x2 2( x2 x 1) 5x x2 x 1 0 3 2
5
20
x x1
x2 x 1

kh
a

2
x
2 2

1
x x 1 x x2 x 1 ( x 0).
2
3
3
x x1
2

2 x x 1 3x

x 0.
2
x

Kt lun: Kt hp x > 0, tp nghim cn tm ca bt phng trnh l x 0; .

V d 334. Gii bt phng trnh:

3x 1 2 x

4x 1
3

()

Phn tch. Nhn thy (3x 1) (2 x) 4x 1 c chung nhn t vi v phi v s


a c v bt phng trnh dng tch s nu s dng nhn lin hp. Nhng vi
246

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1
iu kin x ; 2 cha xc nh c lng nhn vo 3x 1 2 x m hay
3
dng nn phi chia ra nhiu trng hp, phc tp. Do , ta s chn t hai n ph

a 3x 1; b 2 x a2 b2 4x 1 cng s a c v bt phng trnh


dng tch m khng cn chia trng hp, n gin hn. T c li gii sau:

1
a 3x 1 0
Li gii. iu kin: x 2. t
a2 b2 4 x 1.
3

b 2 x 0
a 2 b2
3( a b) ( a b)( a b) 0 (a b)(3 a b) 0
3

3 a b 0, (do : a b 0) 3 3x 1 2 x 0

.v
n

() a b

om

1
3 2 x 3x 1 3 2 x 2x 5 : ng x ; 2
3

.c

1
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l x ; 2
3

ok

V d 335. Gii bt phng trnh: ( 5x 1 x 1)(3x 1 5x2 6x 1) 4x

bo

a 2 2b 2 3 x 1
a 5x 1 0

a2 b2 4 x
Li gii. iu kin: x 1 . t:
.
a2 5b2 4
b x 1 0

ng

vi

et

2
2
2
2

( a b)( a 2b 2 ab) a b (a b)(a b)


() 2
2

a 5b 4
2
2
2
2

( a b)( a 2b 2 ab a b) 0
a 2b 2 ab a b 0
2
2
2
2

a 5b 4
a 5b 4

kh
a

3b2 2 b 5b2 4 5b2 4 b 0 3b2 b 2 (b 1) 5b2 4


9b4 6b3 13b2 4b 4 5b4 10b3 9b2 8b 4
4b4 4b3 4b2 4b 0 b(b3 b2 b 1) 0
(b 1)(b3 b) 0 b 1 x 1 1 x 2.

Kt lun: Giao vi iu kin, tp nghim ca bt phng trnh l: x 1; 2 .


BI TP RN LUYN
BT 427. Gii bt phng trnh: ( x2 4x) 2x2 3x 2 0.

(x )

BT 428. Gii bt phng trnh:

6xx
6xx

2x 5
x4

(x )

BT 429. Gii bt phng trnh:

2x2 10x 16 x 1 x 3.

(x )

247

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

BT 430. Gii bt phng trnh:


BT 431. Gii bt phng trnh:

3x 3 3 x
3x 3 3 x
x 24 x

x 24 x

(x )

27(12 x x2 24 x )
8(12 x x2 24x )

1
1 2
x 2
2
x
x
x

(x )
(x )

BT 432. Gii bt phng trnh:

BT 433. Gii bt phng trnh:

x2 3x 2 x2 6x 5 2x2 9x 7.

(x )

BT 435. Gii bt phng trnh:

( x 2)

( 3x 1 2 x 1)2

x 8.

.v
n

BT 434. Gii bt phng trnh: x 3 2 x2 2x2 2 x2 0.

(x )

om

BT 436. Gii bt phng trnh: ( x 3 x 1)(1 x2 2x 3) 4. ( x )


BT 437. Gii bt phng trnh: ( x2 4 x2 1)(1 x4 3x2 4) 5.

BT 439. Gii bt phng trnh:

2 x 1 2 x 17.

.c

6 3x 2 x2 5x 2

ok

BT 438. Gii bt phng trnh:

3x 2 x 5x 2
2

1 x

(x )
(x )

bo

BT 440. Gii bt phng trnh: 9x2 4x 5 x 25.

8x 1 2x 1 3x 2 2x 3x. ( x )
3

3x 2 3x3 8x 7 x 17 x2 9. ( x )

et

BT 441. Gii bt phng trnh:


BT 442. Gii bt phng trnh:

vi

BT 443. Gii bt phng trnh: 3 x2 91 3 x2 7 10x 12.

ng

BT 444. Gii bt phng trnh:

(x )

x 2 x4
x 5x 4

(x )

(x )

1.

kh
a

BT 445. Gii bt phng trnh: x2 x 2x 1 3 3 x3 x2 x 5. ( x )


BT 446. Gii bt phng trnh: ( x 2) x 1 27 x3 27 x2 12x 2.

(x )

BT 447. Gii bt phng trnh: (2 x 1 3 3 x 6)( x 1) x 6.

(x )

BT 448. Gii bt phng trnh:

x 1 x2 5x 6 4x2 11x 6. ( x )

BT 449. Gii bt phng trnh:

4x2 13x 173 6 x 3 2x2 x 1.

BT 450. Gii bt phng trnh:

4x3 x 12 x3 1 x3 x 6.

BT 451. Gii bt phng trnh: 2( x 1) 3 x 1 4x 9x 3.


2

BT 452. Gii bt phng trnh:

248

2x x
2( x2 5x 9) 1

1.

(x )
(x )

(x )

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

BT 457. Gii bt phng trnh:


BT 458. Gii bt phng trnh:
BT 459. Gii bt phng trnh:
BT 460. Gii bt phng trnh:

3 3x2 14 x 27

(x )

3 2x 1 x2 1 5
2 5x 2 2 x 6 5

(x )

1.

3x 1 2 x2 x 3 6
11x2 5x 35 6

x3 4 x 5 2 x 4 10
x3 4 x2 6 x 4 10
1 x
x x2 x 1

1.

(x )

1.

(x )

1.

2 x2 4 x3 2 x 3 4
x3 8 x2 2 x 27 4
3x 1 2 x2 x 3 6
11x2 5x 35 6

(x )
(x )

1.

(x )

1.

x3 2x 3 2( x 1) 5x3 4x2 18x 11.

et

BT 462. Gii bt phng trnh:

(x )

1.

bo

BT 461. Gii bt phng trnh:

6x2 x

(x )

.v
n

BT 456. Gii bt phng trnh:

6( x 2 x 4) 2 x

om

BT 455. Gii bt phng trnh:

x 2
2

.c

BT 454. Gii bt phng trnh:

x 1 x2 x 5 2x2 4x 8.

ok

BT 453. Gii bt phng trnh:

x 2 x 3 x 2 3x 3 4 x 4

(x )

BT 464. Gii bt phng trnh:

x 2 x x 2 5x 2 6 x 2

(x )

vi

BT 463. Gii bt phng trnh:

(x )

ng

BT 465. Gii bt phng trnh: x 3 x 2 x2 7 x 4


3x2 12x 5 x3 1 x2 2x

(x )

BT 467. Gii bt phng trnh: 5 x 5 3 2x2 x 17 4 x2 1

(x )

BT 468. Gii bt phng trnh: 3 81x4 4 27 x2 42x 6

(x )

BT 469. Gii bt phng trnh: 4x2 25x 14 3 x3 31x 30

(x )

kh
a

BT 466. Gii bt phng trnh:

BT 470. Gii bt phng trnh:

2(4x2 x 6) 2x 3 2x2 x 1 ( x )

BT 471. Gii bt phng trnh:

x4 x2 1 x( x2 x 1)

( x2 1)3
x

BT 472. Gii bt phng trnh: 8x2 8x 3 8x 2x2 3x 1.

(x )

BT 473. Gii bt phng trnh: (2x 1) x 1 x2 2x 1.

(x )

249

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

6. PHNG TRNH BAT PHNG TRNH


CHA THAM SO

I. Cc dng ton thng gp


Dng 1. Tim m f(x;m) 0 co nghim (hoc co k nghim) trn D ?
Bc 1. Tch m ra khoi bin s x va a v dang f ( x) A(m).
Bc 2. Kho st s bin thin cua ham s f ( x) trn D.

.v
n

Bc 3. Da vao bang bin thin xac inh gia tri tham s A( m)

ng thng y A(m) nm ngang ct thi ham s y f ( x).

om

Bc 4. Kt lun cac gia tri cua A( m) phng trinh f ( x) A(m) co

nghim (hoc c k nghim) trn D.

.c

Lu
Nu ham s y f ( x) co gia tri ln nht va gia tri nh nht trn D thi gia
tri A( m) cn tim la nhng m thoa man: min f ( x) A(m) max f ( x).
xD

ok

xD

bo

Nu bai toan y u cu tim tham s phng trinh co k nghim phn


bit, ta chi cn da vao bang bin thin xac inh sao cho ng thng
y A(m) nm ngang ct thi ham s y f ( x) tai k im phn bit.

Dng 2. Tim m bt phng trinh f(x;m) 0 hoc f(x;m) 0 c

vi

et

nghim trn min D ?


Bc 1. Tch tham s m ra khoi bin s x va a v dang A(m) f ( x)
hoc A(m) f ( x).

ng

Bc 2. Kho st s bin thin cua ham s f ( x) trn D.

kh
a

Bc 3. Da vao bng bin thin xac inh cac gia tri cua tham s m
bt phng trinh co nghim:
+ A(m) f ( x) c nghim trn D A(m) max f ( x).

xD

A(m) f ( x) c nghim trn D A(m) min f ( x).


xD

Lu
Bt phng trinh A(m) f ( x) nghim ung x D A(m) min f ( x).
xD

Bt phng trinh A(m) f ( x) nghim ung x D A(m) max f ( x).


xD

Khi t n s ph i bin, ta cn t iu kin cho bin mi chnh


xc, nu khng s lam thay i kt qu cua bai toan do i min gi tri
cua n, dn n kt qu sai lm l hin nhin.

250

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

II. Cc v d minh ha
1. Cc v d v phng trinh v t cha tham s
Nhom I. c lp v kho st trc tip hm
V d 336. Tm m phng trinh: m 2x2 9 x m co ng mt nghim ?
thi th i hc nm 2014 THPT Chuyn Quc Hc Hu

Li gii. Tp xac inh: D . Khi o phng trinh m( 2x2 9 1) x


x
2x 9 1
2

Xt ham s f ( x)

f ( x), (do : 2 x2 9 1 0, x ).
x

2x 9 1
2

.v
n

xac inh va lin tc trn c:

x 6
Cho f ( x) 0

2 x2 9 (9 2 x2 9 )( 2 x2 9 1)2
x 6
Bng bin thin
Ta c:

x
6
6

3
f ( x)
0
0

f 6 ,
4
3
3
4
f 6 ,
4
1
f ( x)
2 lim f x 1 ,
x
2
1

1
2
lim f x
.
x
2
3

4
1
1
3
m

Kt lun: Da vao bng bin thin, suy ra: m hoc


4
2
2
Nhn xt. Hnh dng th tng ng vi hnh dng biu din f ( x) trong bng

kh
a

ng

vi

et

bo

ok

.c

om

2(36 x2 )

f ( x)

bin thin, do phng trnh f ( x) A(m) c k nghim phn bit hai th


y f ( x) v ng thng nm ngang y A(m) ct nhau ti k im phn bit. T ,

ta tm c gii hn ca A( m) thch hp, ri suy ra m.


V d 337. Tim m phng trinh:

2x2 2mx 3 2 x, () c nghim ?

thi th i hc nm 2014 khi A THPT Chuyn Vnh Phc

B 0
A B
Do , ta
2

A B
tm iu kin, ri bnh phng hai v v tch c m ra mt v mt cch d dng.
Li gii. iu kin: x 2. Khi o: () (2x2 2mx 3) ( x 2)2

Phn tch. y l phng trnh v t c bn dng

251

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x2 4 x 1 2mx 2m x

1
4 f ( x), x 2.
x

1
1
4 trn [2; ) c: f ( x) 1 2 0, x 2.
x
x
Suy ra ham s f ( x) lun ng bin trn [2; ).

Xt ham s f ( x) x

Bng bin thin


x

f ( x)

Ta c:
11
v
2
lim f ( x) .

lim f ( x)

f ( x)

x 2

.v
n

11
2

om

Kt lun: Da bng bin thin, phng trinh co nghim 2m

11
11
m
2
4

.c

V d 338. Tm m phng trinh: 3 1 x2 2 x3 2x2 1 m c nghim


duy nht thuc oan
1;1 ?
thi th i hc khi B nm 2014 THPT Chuyn Vnh Phc

1 x2

3x 4
x

x3 2x2 1
1 x2
x3 2 x2 1

3x 2 4 x

bo

3x

f ( x)

ok

Li gii. Xt ham s: f x 3 1 x2 2 x3 2x2 1 trn


1;1 c:

0, x ( 1;1)

vi
1

ng

Bng bin thin


x

f ( x)

et

Cho f ( x) 0 x 0 x 0.

kh
a

f ( x)

0
0

Ta c:

f 1 2 2 .

f 0 1 .

2 2
4

f 1 4 .

Kt lun: Da vao bng bin thin, suy ra: m 1 hoc 4 m 2 2.


V d 339. Tm m : x2 4x 21 x2 3x 10 m c hai nghim phn bit ?

Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 5 .
Xt ham s f ( x) x2 4x 21 x2 3x 10 trn
2; 5 c:
x 2
2 x 3
f ( x)

x2 4 x 21 2 x2 3x 10
Cho f ( x) 0 2(2 x) x2 3x 10 (3 2x) x2 4x 21

252

(1)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Do x2 3x 10 0, x2 4x 21 0 nn phng trinh co nghim thi


(2 x) v (3 2x) cng du, ngha l:

1
(2 x)(3 2 x) 0
(1)
x .
2
2
2
2
3

4(2 x) ( x 3x 10) (3 2 x) ( x 4 x 21)


Bng bin thin
1
x
5

2
3
f ( x)
0

.v
n

4
f ( x)

2; 3 thi phng trinh co 2 nghim phn bit.

om

Kt lun: T bng bin thin m

V d 340. Tim m : x x x 12 m( 5 x 4 x ), () c nghim ?

ok

.c

Phn tch. Nu tch m trc tip th v tri l mt hm s rt phc tp v gy kh


khn trong cng vic kho st s bin thin hm ny. Mt cch t nhin, ta suy ngh
n vic lm cho n n gin hn bng cch : (5 x) (4 x) 1 nn gip lin
tng n nhn lng lin hp v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
m

5x 4x

m ( x x x 12)( 5 x 4 x ).

et

() x x x 12

bo

Li gii. iu kin: 0 x 4 5 x 4 x 0.

kh
a

ng

vi

Xt ham s f ( x) ( x x x 12)( 5 x 4 x ) trn oan 0; 4 c:


3
1
x x x 12
f ( x) ( 5 x 4 x )
x

0, x 0; 4 .
2
x 12 2 5 x 4 x

min f ( x) f (0) 2 3( 5 2)
0;4

Suy ra f ( x) ng bin trn 0; 4 nn


f ( x) f (4) 12
max
0;4
() co nghim min f ( x) m max f ( x) 2 3( 5 2) m 12.
0;4

0;4

Nhn xt. Trong v d trn, ti s dng kt qu: "Nu ham s y f ( x) c gi tr


ln nht va gi tr nh nht trn D thi cc gia tri

A( m) cn tim phng trnh

f ( x) A(m) l nhng A( m) tha mn: min f ( x) A(m) max f ( x) ". V ti khng


xD

xD

lp bng bin thin do: " f ( x) l hm ng bin trn on a; b th min f ( x) f (a)


a ; b
v max f x f b , v ngc li th min f ( x) f (b), max f ( x) f (a).
a ; b

a ; b

a ; b

253

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

3x 1 2 x m(4x 1), ()

V d 341. Tm tham s m phng trinh:


c ng hai nghim thc phn bit ?

Phn tch. Nhn thy (3x 1) (2 x) 4x 1, c chung hng t vi v phi. V vy

.v
n

ta s dng lng lin hp c lp m, a v phng trnh dng tch s v lc


1
phng trnh lun c mt nghim x , m. Nn phng trnh c hai nghim
4
1
thc th nhn t cn li phi c mt nghim x v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
4
4x 1
1
m(4 x 1)
Li gii. iu kin: x 2. Khi o: ()
3
3x 1 2 x

om

4x 1 0

1
(4 x 1)
m 0
1 ( 3x 1 2 x )m
3x 1 2 x

1
1
hoc
3x 1 2 x (1), (do : 3x 1 2 x 0 m 0).
4
m
1
() c ng hai nghim phn bit thi (1) co ng mt nghim x
4
1 1
Xt ham s f ( x) 3x 1 2 x trn D ; 2 \ c:
3 4

3
2 3x 1

1
2 2x

3 2 x 3x 1
2 3x 1. 2 x

et

f ( x)

bo

ok

.c

Bng bin thin

1
3

1
4

kh
a

f ( x)

ng

vi

Cho f ( x) 0 3 2 x 3x 1 0 3 2 x 3x 1 x

17
12
0

2 21
3

f ( x)

21
3

1 2 21
21 1

7.
m
3
3
m
7 21
21

Kt lun: m

la nhng gia tri cn tim.


7
7
14

(1) co ng 1 nghim th

254

17

12

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Nhom II. t n ph v kho st hm


V d 342. Tm tham s m :

3
21 4 x x2 x 3 m( x 3 2 7 x ), () c
4

nghim thc ?
Hc sinh gii tnh Long An nm 2014

.v
n

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng tng tch nn ta chn phng n t n ph t


tng v cc bin cn li biu din c ht theo t. Nhng lu rng, y l bi ton
cha tham s nn ta cn tm iu kin cho n ph chnh xc, nu tm sai th vic gii
tip s khng cn ngha g. C rt nhiu cch tm iu kin, nhng ti khuyn bn
nn dng kho st hm tm min gi tr ca t khi t phc tp.
Li gii. iu kin: 3 x 7.
() 4 21 4x x2 3x 12 4m( x 3 2 7 x )

om

(1)

t t x 3 2 7 x , suy ra: t 19 4 21 4x x 3x 12.


1
1
t

Cho t 0 2 x 3 7 x x 1.
2 x3
7x
Bng bin thin
x
3

1
7
0

ok

.c

10

et

2 10

bo

5 2

ng

vi

Da vao bng bin thin tp gia tri cua t l t 10; 5 2 .

2
t 19
Khi o: (1) t 2 19 4mt 4m
, t 10; 5 2 .

t
t 2 19
t 2 19
trn oan 10; 5 2 c: f (t) 2 0, t 10; 5 2 ,

t
t
suy ra ham s f (t ) ng bin trn oan 10; 5 2 .

kh
a

Xt ham s f (t )

Do o: min f (t ) f ( 10)
10 ; 5 2

9 10
31 2
v max f (t ) f (5 2)

10
10
10 ; 5 2

() co nghim min f (t ) 4m max f (t)


10 ; 5 2

10 ; 5 2

9 10
31 2
m

40
40

9 10 31 2
;
Kt lun: m
thi phng trinh cho co nghim thc.
10
10

255

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

V d 343. Tm tham s m, (m ) phng trinh sau co nghim thc:


2 x 3 (2 2m). x 3 ( m 1) x2 9

()

thi th i hc nm 2014 THPT L Thi T Bc Ninh


Phn tch. Phng trnh cng c dng tng tch, nhng tham s vn cn nm
trong phn t ca tng. Do , ta khng th t t tng m thng th chia hai v
cho lng tng c mang tham s sau khi xt n 0, c th chia cho x 3 v t n

x3

2 2m ( m 1)

x3
x3
x3
2
( m 1)
2m 2 0 (1)
x3
x3
x3

om

t: t

x3

x3
, (t 0, t 1). Khi o: (1) 2t 2 (m 1)t 2m 2 0
x3

.c

() 2

.v
n

ph s a c v phng trnh bc hai cha tham s.


Li gii. iu kin: x 3 x 3 .
Do x 3 khng la nghim cua phng trinh nn xt x 3 x 3.
Vi x 3 x 3, chia hai v cho x 3 0, ta c:

2t 2 t 2
f (t ) va xt ham s f (t ) trn 0; \1 c:
t2
t 0
2t 2 8t
f (t )
0,
Do o ham s f (t ) ng bin trn 0;1 v (1; +)
2
(t 2)
t 1
Suy ra, phng trinh cho co nghim (1) co nghim tha t 0, t 1

et

bo

ok

m f (0) v m f (1) m 1 v m

ng

vi

5
Kt lun: Phng trinh co nghim thc khi m 1; \
3

V d 344. Tim m phng trinh:

x x2 9x 9m 9 x , () c

kh
a

ng bn nghim thc phn bit ?

Phn tch. y l phng trnh v t kh quen thuc: A B C (phng php


gii: t iu kin, chuyn v sao cho hai v khng m v bnh phng). Khi c:
9 2 9x x2 9m 9x x2 v t n ph t. Nhng cc em hy lu , y l bi
ton tm tham s phng trnh c k nghim, khi t n ta cn "bin lun s
nghim da vo s tng quan gia t v x". Ngha l ng vi mi t cho c bao
nhiu nghim x, nhm tr li chnh xc yu cu bi ton.
Li gii. iu kin: 0 x 9.

() x 9 x x2 9x 9m
9 2 9x x2 x2 9x 9m 9m (9x x2 ) 2 9 x x2 9

256

(1)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

t t 9x x2 0 v ta c:

Cauchy

x.(9 x)

Khi o: (1) 9m t 2 2t 9

x9x 9
9
nn t 0;
2
2
2

(2)

9
9
9
t 9x x2 x , co ng mt nghim x.
2
2
2
9
Nu t 0; thi vi mi gia tri cua t co 2 nghim phn bit cua x. Do o,
2

Nu t

.v
n

9
(1) c 4 nghim phn bit thi (2) phi co 2 nghim phn bit t 0;
2

bo

ok

.c

om

9
Xt ham s f (t) t 2 2t 9 trn 0; c: f (t) 2t 2 0 t 1.
2
9
t
0

1
2
f (t )
0

10
f (t )
9
9

4
10
9
Kt lun: (2) c 2 nghim phn bit t 0; 9 9m 10 1 m
9
2

et

V d 345. Tm tham s m : x 5x 5 x2 m 5 x2 7, () co ng hai

vi

nghim thc phn bit ?

ng

Li gii. iu kin: 5 x 5. t: t x 5 x2 t 1

kh
a

x 0
10

Cho t 0 5 x2 x
2
2
2

5 x x
x
10
5

2
0
t'

x
5 x2

10

Da vao bng bin thin, suy ra tp gia tri cua t la t 5; 10 .

Cng t bng bin thin, nhn thy rng:


ng vi t 10 th t x 5 x2 co ng mt nghim x.

257

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

ng vi mi t 5; 5 th t x 5 x2 co ng mt nghim x.

ng vi mt t 5; 10 th t x 5 x2 co ng hai nghim x.

2
(1)
() 5t 2t 39 2m
1
Xt ham s f (t) 5t 2 2t 39 trn 5; 10 c f (t ) 10t 2 0 t

5
TH 1. Nu t 5; 5 thi yu cu (1) co ng 2 nghim phn bit.

1
t
5
5

5
0

f ' t

om

196
5

f t

.v
n

14 2 5

.c

14 2 5

196

196
m 7 5;

5
10

ok

Da vao bng bin thin 14 2 5 2m

bo

TH 2. Nu t 5; 10 thi yu cu bai toan (1) co 1 nghim.

t
10
5

f ' t

et

f t

14 2 5

ng

vi

2 10 11

11

T bng, suy ra: 2 10 11 2m 14 2 5 m 10 ;7 5


2

kh
a

11 196
Kt lun: Hp hai trng hp, suy ra m 10 ;

2 10

V d 346. Tm tham s m :

2x 1 4 (2x 1)(2x 1) m 2x 1 0, ()

co ng hai nghim thc phn bit ?


1
2

Li gii. iu kin: x Khi o: ()


t: t

258

2x 1
c t
2x 1

1
2x 1
(2 x 1)2 4

2x 1

2x 1 4 2x 1

m0
2x 1
2x 1

0, x

1
, nn tng trn
2

(1)
1

2 ; .

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Bng bin thin:


1
2

2x 1
1.
2x 1
Da vao bng bin thin, suy
ra tp gia tri cua t l: t 0;1 .

C lim t lim

Khi o: (1) t 2 t m, (2) va ng vi mi t 4

2x 1
, t 0;1 th cho ta mi
2x 1

.v
n

x ; nn () co hai nghim thc phn bit thi (2) phi co hai nghim
2

thc phn bit t 0;1 .

et

bo

ok

.c

om

1
Xt ham s f (t) t 2 t trn 0;1 c f (t ) 2t 1 0 t
2
1
t

1
2
f (t )
0

1
f (t )
4
0
0
1
Kt lun: Da vao bng bin thin, suy ra m 0; tha yu cu bai toan.
4

ng

vi

1
V d 347. Tm tham s m : ( x x 1) m x
16 4 x2 x 1,
x 1

c ng hai nghim thc phn bit ?

Li gii. iu kin: x 1 . Suy ra:


1

kh
a

() m x

x 1

16. 4 x2 x x x 1

m x x x1

m x x

t t

x x 1 0.

x
x 1

1
x 1

16. 4 x( x 1)

16. 4 x( x 1) m 1

16
x
1 m
. Lc o: (1) t 2
x 1
t

x
x 1
16. 4
x 1
x

(1)
(2)

259

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x
1
4 1
1; va ng vi mi t cho ta c mt
x 1
x 1
nghim x . Do o, phng trinh cho co ng hai nghim thc phn bit

V x 1 t 4

(2) co ng hai nghim t 1; .

16
16 2t 3 16
trn 1; c f (t ) 2t 2
0 t 2.
t
t
t2

1
2
0

Xt ham s f (t ) t 2
t
f (t )

.v
n

f (t )

17

om

12
Kt lun: Da vao bng bin thin, suy ra: 12 1 m 17 16 m 11.

V d 348. Tm tham s m 8x2 4x 13 m2 (2x 1) x2 3, () c nghim ?

.c

Phn tch. Do 8x2 4x 13 0 nn cn m2 .(2x 1). x2 3 0 2x 1 0 v

ok

nu khng pht hin ra iu kin ko theo ny th kt qu chc s sai !!!. Bi ton cha
tch s (2x 1). x2 3 nn ta s phn tch 8x2 4x 13 theo hai biu thc tch, c

bo

th 8x2 4x 13 (2x 1)2 4( x2 3)2 v chia 2 v cho lng tch ny s tm c

et

php t n ph v c li gii chi tit nh sau:


1
Li gii. iu kin: x
2

2x 1

x2 3

, suy ra: t

kh
a

t t

ng

vi

() (2 x 1)2 4( x2 3) m2 (2 x 1) x2 3

4x2 x 6
x2 3

x2 3

x2 3
m2
2x 1

1
2

0
Do o, min gia tri cua t la: t 0; 2 .

Ta c: lim t
x

lim

2x 1
x2 3

4
m2 , (2) va (1) co nghim (2) co nghim t 0; 2 .
t
4
4
Xt ham s f t t trn 0; 2 c f (t ) 1 2 0, t 0; 2 .
t
t
(1) t

260

(1)

0.

t'

2x 1

2.

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Bng bin thin


t

f ' t

Ta c: lim f (t )

f t

t 0

1
lim t .
t 0
t

4
Kt lun: Da vao bng bin thin, suy ra: m2 4 m 2 hoc m 2 .

V d 349. Tim m : x2 (m 2)x 4 (m 1) x3 4x , () c nghim ?


thi th i hc khi A nm 2014 S GD & T Vnh Phc

.v
n

Phn tch. Phng trnh c dng ng cp . f ( x) .g( x) . f ( x).g( x) . Do , ta


s chia cho lng g( x) 0 c mang tham s sau khi xt g( x) 0 v c li gii:

om

Li gii. iu kin: x 0.
() ( x2 4) ( m 2)x (m 1) x( x2 4)

(1)

x2 4
x2 4
( m 1)
m2 0
x
x

ok

x2 4
t2 t 2
2 th (2) t 2 ( m 1)t m 2 0 m

x
t 1

Xt ham s f (t )

bo

t t

(2)

x2 2 x 3
t2 t 2
trn 2; c: f (t )
0 t 3.
t 1
( x 1)2

ng

kh
a

f (t )

3
0

vi

Bng bin thin

t
f (t )

et

(1)

.c

Do x 0 thi phng trinh khng tha. Chia hai v cho x 0 c:

7
Kt lun: Da vao bng bin thin, suy ra: m 7 thi phng trinh co nghim.

V d 350. Tim m phng trinh: m x3 1 x2 2, () c nghim thc ?

Li gii. iu kin: x 1.
() m ( x 1) ( x2 x 1) ( x2 x 1) ( x 1) m.

t: t

x 1
v c t
2
x x1

x2 2x 2
2( x2 x 1)2

x 1
x x1

x 1
x 1
1 2
x x1
x x1
2

x 1 3
0

x 1 3

261

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1 3
0

t'

2 3 3
3

t
0

2 3 3
3

f (t )

ok

.c

om

.v
n

2 3 3
. Khi o:
T bng bin thin tp gia tri cua t la: t 0;
3

1
Khi o phng trinh mt 1 t 2 m t (do t 0 khng la nghim).
t

2 3 3
1
1
c: f (t ) 2 1 0.
Xt ham s f (t ) t trn 0;

3
t
t

bo

f (t )

et

Kt lun: Phng trinh cho co nghim m

3 1

2 3 3

2( 3 1)
2 3 3

ng

vi

V d 351. Tim m : (2m 1) x 2 (m 2) 2 x m 1 0, () c nghim ?


Hc sinh gii tnh Thi Bnh
2

kh
a

x2 2x
Phn tch. Nhn thy ( x 2) ( 2 x ) 4

1, gi
2 2

nh n cng thc lng gic sin2 cos2 1, nn t n ph

x 2 2sin v


2 x 2cos vi 0; . Lc yu cu bi ton tr thnh: tm tham s m
2


phng trnh: 2(2m 1)sin 2(m 2)cos m 1 0 c nghim 0; .
2
n y, sai lm m hc sinh thng vp phi l "phng trnh c in dng:
a sin b cos c 0 c nghim a2 b2 c 2 " v t kt lun gi tr ca m.

Nhng iu y ch ng khi , cn y th 0; . i vi dng ny,
2

262

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

phng php x l tt nht l chuyn v phng trnh i s bng cch t n ph:


2t

1 t2
v
t tan sin
cos

2
1 t2
1 t2


x 2 2 sin t
Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 2 . t
, 0;
2

2 x 2 cos t
(1)
() 2(2m 1)sin 2(m 2)cos m 1 0
t t tan

2t
1 t2

Do 0; t 0;1 sin
;
cos

2
1 t2
1 t2
2

(8m 4)t 2( m 2)(1 t 2 )


3t 2 4t 5

1 t2
1 t2
t 2 8t 3
3t 2 4t 5
20t 2 8t 28
Xt ham s f (t ) 2
trn 0;1 c: f (t ) 2
0.
(t 8t 3)2
t 8t 3

.c

Do o ham s f (t ) nghich bin trn oan 0;1 .


5
3
Suy ra min f (t ) f (1) v max f (t ) f (0)
3
5
0;1
0;1

om

.v
n

(1)

3
5
m
5
3
Bnh lun. Cng c chnh l "k thut dng o hm". Khi ta c lp c A( m) th

ok

Kt lun: phng trinh co nghim min g(t ) m max g(t )


0;1

bo

0;1

phi lm th no hm s phi xt tng i n gin. Lc , c cc hng x l:


o hm trc tip i vi hm f ( x) n gin.

et

"Lm sch" bng phng php nhn lin hip c f ( x) n gin.

vi

t n ph thch hp v tm iu kin cho n ph chnh xc.


Kho st tnh n iu ca hm s f ( x) (hoc f (t ) nu t n ph), ri da vo s

ng

tng giao ca th hm s y f ( x) (hoc y f (t ) ) v ng thng nm ngang


y A(m) bin lun s nghim k

(s giao im k ). Nu ham s y f ( x) (hoc

kh
a

y f (t ) ) c GTLN v GTNN trn D th gi tr m cn tm p hng trnh c nghim

l nhng m tha mn: min f ( x) A(m) max f ( x).


xD

xD

l phng php tng qut i vi nhng bi ton c lp c tham s m, cn i


vi nhng bi khng c lp c m th sao ? Ta cng xt v d sau:
V d 352. Tim m phng trinh:

x m 1 x 3m, () c nghim ?

u x m 0

u2 x m
u2 v2 1 m

u v 3m
v 1 x

v 1 x 0
u v 3m
2

(u v) 2uv 1 m

9 m2 m 1
u

3
m

uv

Li gii. t:

263

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

9 m2 m 1
0
(1)
2
Phng trinh () co nghim (1) co hai nghim khng m (do : u, v 0) :

Do o u, v la hai nghim cua phng trinh: t 2 3mt

9 m 2 2 m 2 0
0

37 1
19 1

S 0 m 0

18
9
P 0
9 m 2 m 1 0

V d 353. Tim m :

x2 34x m 4 ( x 1)( x 33) 1, () c nghim ?

5 2

u x 34 x m

u5 x2 34 x m

2
4
v

34
x

33

(
x

1)(
x

33)

5
4

m
33

v u 1 0
u 1

5
5
4
4
u v 1
u v m 33
u (u 1) 33 m,

om

.v
n

Li gii. t:

(1)

phng trinh () co nghim (1) co nghim u 1 .

ok

.c

Xt ham s f (u) u5 (u 1)4 33 trn 1; c:


f (u) 5u4 4(u 1)3 0, u 1 f (u) ng bin trn 1; .
(1) co nghim u 1 m min f (u) m f (1) m 34.
1;

bo

Kt lun: m 34 thi phng trinh cho co nghim.


V d 354. Tm tham s m :

x 1 x 2m x(1 x) 2 4 x(1 x) m3 , ()

et

c nghim duy nht ?

Li gii. iu kin cn:

vi

Ta thy nu xo l mt nghim cua () th 1 xo cng la mt nghim cua ().

ng

2
m 0
1
1
1

m 2 4 m3 m m 3
Vi xo th 2
2
4
2
m 1
iu kin u:

kh
a

Do o () co nghim duy nht thi phi co xo 1 xo xo

Vi m 0 th () x 1 x 2 4 x(1 x) 0
( 4 x 4 1 x )4 0 x

1
la nghim duy nht nn nhn m 0 .
2

Vi m 1 th () x 1 x 2 x(1 x) 2 4 x(1 x) 1

x 2 4 x(1 x) 1 x x 2 x(1 x) 1 x 0

4
4

1
x 1 x 0
( 4 x 4 1 x )2 ( x 1 x )2 0
x
2

x 1 x 0

264

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Do x

1
la nghim duy nht nn nhn m 1 .
2

Vi m 1 th () f ( x) x 1 x 2 x(1 x) 2 4 x(1 x) 1 0, c
f (1) f (0) 0 nn co t nht hai nghim x 0, x 1 nn loai m 1 .

ok

.c

om

.v
n

Kt lun: m 1 m 0 thi phng trinh cho co nghim duy nht.


Bnh lun. Trong cch gii trn, ti s dng iu cn v iu kin tm m
trong bi ton c nghim duy nht. im mu cht tm ra iu kin cn l nu ra
c nhn xt c trng ca phng trnh, c th ch n tnh chn l, tnh i
xng ca cc biu thc c mt trong phng trnh. Dng tng qut ca bi ton l
f n x a n b x ; 2n ( x a)(b x) 0 vi f ( x) f (b a x). Nn phng trnh

ba
c nghim duy nht th nghim phi tha mn x b a x suy ra x

2
2. Cc th d v bt phng trinh v t cha tham s
xac inh tham s m trong bai toan bt phng trinh v t, ta cng co cc
bc va cac dang ging nh phng trinh. Nhng khi c lp m, ngoai lu
v du khi nhn hoc chia, ta cn ghi nh:
A(m) f ( x) co nghim trn x D A(m) max f ( x).
xD

A(m) f ( x) co nghim trn x D A(m) min f ( x).


xD

bo

A(m) f ( x) nghim ung x D A(m) min f ( x).


xD

et

A(m) f ( x) nghim ung x D A(m) max f ( x).


xD

vi

Vi th, cn nm vng cac phng phap tim gia tri ln nht va gia tri nh
nht cua ham s (trn oan, trn khong).

ng

V d 355. Tim m bt phng trinh: mx 4 x ( 1 x 1)3 x3 3x 1, () c

kh
a

nghim thc ?
thi th i hc nm 2014 Chuyn Phan Bi Chu Ngh An

Li gii. iu kin: 0 x 1 .
Do x 0 khng la nghim cua bt phng trinh.
x 3 3x 1
f ( x).
Vi x 0;1 1 x 1 0 nn () m
x 4 x ( 1 x x) 3
(1) co nghim trn 0;1 m min f ( x).
0;1

3x 1 x 3
1
1 x3
1

4
3
4
x
x x (1 1 x )3
x (1 1 x )
1 x3
0

f ( x) 3 min f ( x) 3 khi x 1 .
Vi x 0;1 x
0;1
0 1 1 x 1

Ta c: f ( x)

265

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Kt lun: m 3 thi bt phng trinh cho co nghim.


V d 356. Tim m bt phng trinh: mx 3 4x x2 , () c nghim ?

Li gii. iu kin: 0 x 4 . Do x 0 khng la nghim bt phng trinh.


Vi x 0; 4 th () m

4x x2 3
f ( x)
x
x

(1)

(1) co nghim x 0; 4 th m min f ( x).


0;4

4 x x2 3
2
3
c: f ( x)
2 0, x 0; 4 .
x
x
x 4x x2 x
3
3
Suy ra ham s f ( x) nghich bin trn 0; 4 min f ( x) f (4) m
0;4
4
4

om

.v
n

Xt ham s f ( x)

Kt lun: m ; thi bt phng trinh cho co nghim.


4

.c

V d 357. Tim m bt phng trinh: x(4 x) m x2 4x 5 2 0, () c

bo

ok

nghim x 2; 2 3 ?

thi th i hc khi A nm 2014 S GD & T Vnh Phc


x2

0, x 2; 2 3

x 4x 5
2

et

Li gii. t t x2 4x 5 t ' x

t2 7
f (t ), t 1; 2 va yu cu bai toan m min f (t ).
1;2
t

ng

() m

vi

Suy ra min gia tri t l t min t ; max t t t(2); t(2 3) t 1; 2 .

2;2 3 2;2 3

kh
a

Xt ham s f (t )

t2 7
t2 7
trn 1; 2 c: f (t ) 2 0, t 1; 2 .
t
t

Suy ra ham s f (t ) ng bin trn 1; 2 m min f (t) f (1) 6 m 6.


1;2

Kt lun: m
6; thi bt phng trinh cho co nghim x 2; 2 3 .

V d 358. Tim m :

x2 2x (1 x)(3 x) 2m, () c nghim ?


0 x 1

Li gii. iu kin:

3 x 2

th () x2 2x 3 2x x2 2m, (1)

t t 3 2x x2 t 2x 2 0 x 1.

266

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x
t'
t

0
3

1
3

0
Da vao bng bin thin, suy ra tp gia tri cua t l t 0; 3 .

(1) 2m 3 t t f (t), (2). () co nghim (2) co nghim t 0; 3

1
min f (t ).
2

Xt ham s f (t) 3 t t trn 0; 3 c f (t )

2 3t

2 t

3
3
v c f (0) f (3) 3; f 6 , nn min f (t) 3.
0;3
2
2

om

Cho f (t ) 0 t

.v
n

2m min f (t ) m

.c

Kt lun: m
; thi bt phng trinh cho co nghim.

ok

1 x 3 x m 3 2x x2 2, () c nghim ?

V d 359. Tim m :

Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 3.

1 x 3 x m 2 3 2x x2

bo

kh
a

ng

vi

et

1 x 3 x m 0
(I )

2 2
1

(2

2
x

x
)

1
1

t: t 1 x 3 x c t
v t 0 x 1.
2 1 x 2 3 x

x
3

1
1
Da vao bng bin
0
t'

thin tp gia tri


t
2 2
cua t l t 2; 2 2 .

2
2

m max t
m t
m 2 2
2;2 2

4
(I )
H ( I ) co nghim
m min f (t )
t
f (t )
2;2 2
m t f (t )
m min

2;2 2

4
t
Xt ham s f (t ) t
trn 2; 2 2 c f (t) 1 t 3 0, t 2; 2 2 .

Suy ra ham s f (t ) nghich bin nn min f (t ) f (2 2) 2 2 16.


2;2 2

Kt lun: BPT co nghim m 2 2 v m 2 2 16 m 2 2 16; 2 2 .

267

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

V d 360. Tim m bt phng trinh: x2 (1 x2 )3 m, () c nghim ?

Li gii. iu kin: 1 x 1 .
t f ( x) x2 (1 x2 )3 th () m f ( x). Yu cu bai toan m max f ( x).

1;1

2
Xt ham s f ( x) x2 (1 x2 )3 trn
1;1 c f ( x) 2x 3x 1 x .

Cho f ( x) 0 x(2 3 1 x2 ) 0 x 0 x

x2 2x 3 8 2x x2 m, () c nghim ?

3 x 4

. t t x2 2x t ' 2x 2 0 x 1 .
1

bo

.c

2 x 1

Li gii. iu kin:

ok

V d 361. Tim m :

x
t

om

.v
n

5 23
Ta c: f 1 1, f 0 1, f
nn max f x 1 m 1 .

3 27
1;1

Kt lun: m 1 s tha mn yu cu bai toan.

et

Da vao bng bin thin tp gia tri cua t la t 3; 8 .

vi

() m t 3 8 t , (1) va t f (t ) t 3 8 t .

ng

() co nghim (1) co nghim t 3; 8 m max f (t ).


3;8

kh
a

Xt ham s f (t) t 3 8 t trn 3; 8 c: f (t )

1
2 t3

1
2 8t

f (3) f (8) 5
11
Cho f (t ) 0 t 11
nn max f t 10 m 10.
3;8
2
f 10
2

Kt lun: m ; 10 s tha mn yu cu bai toan.


V d 362. Tim m : 2( x 2 x2 ) x 2 x2 3m, () nghim ng " x - 2; 2 ?

Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 2 . t: t x 2 x2 .
Ta c: t 1
268

x
2x

Cho t 0 2 x2 x x 1.

khangvietbook.com.vn T: 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1
0
2

2
2

.v
n

Da vao bng bin thin, suy ra tp gia tri cua t l t 2; 2 .

1
(1)
() 3m t 2 2t 1 f (t )
2
() nghim ng (1) nghim ng t 2; 2 3m min f (t).

2 ;2

Ta c: f ( 2) 2 2; f (2) 3 v min f (t) 2 2.

2 2
tha yu cu bai toan.
3

.c

Kt lun: 3m 2 2 m

om

1
Xt ham s f t t 2 2t 1 trn 2; 2 c f (t) t 2 0 t 1.

ok

V d 363. Tim m : x4 x2 m 2 2x x2 1, () nghim ng x 0;1 ?

bo

Li gii. t t x x2 1 . Do x 0;1 t 0; 2 . Khi o:

() m t 2 2t 2 f (t), (1) . () c nghim ng x 0;1

et

(1) nghim ng t 0; 2 m max f (t ) .

0; 2

Xt ham s f t t 2t 2 trn 0; 2 c f ' t 2t 2 0 t 1 .

vi

ng

Ta c: f (0) 2; f (1) 1; f ( 2) 4 2 2 nn max f (t) 2 m 2 m 2.


0; 2

kh
a

Kt lun: m ; 2 tha yu cu bai toan.

BI TP RN LUYN

BT 474. Tim tham s m : m x2 2x 2 x 2 co 2 nghim phn bit ?


BT 475. Tim m phng trinh: m x2 2 x m co ba nghim phn bit ?
BT 476. Tm tham s m phng trinh: 2x 1 m x2 1 co nghim ?
BT 477. Tim m phng trinh: x2 mx 2 2x 1 co hai nghim ?
BT 478. Tm tham s m phng trinh: 4 2x 2x 2 4 6 x 2 6 x m
co ng hai nghim thc phn bit ?
BT 479. Tim tham s m phng trinh:
thc duy nht ?

x4 13x m x 1 0 co nghim

269

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

BT 480. Chng minh rng vi mi gia tri dng cua tham s m, phng trinh
sau co hai nghim thc phn bit: x2 2x 8 m( x 2) ?
BT 481. Tim m phng trnh:
BT 482. Tm tham s m :

x2 x 1 x2 x 1 m co nghim thc ?

x2 2x 4 x 1 m co ng mt nghim ?

BT 483. Tm tham s m : (m 2)(1 x2 1) x2 m co nghim thc ?


BT 484. Tim m :

x2 4x 5 m 4x x2 co ng 2 nghim dng ?

BT 485. Tim m : 6 x 2 (4 x)(2x 2) m 4( 4 x 2x 2) co nghim

.v
n

thc ?
BT 486. Tim m : 2( x 4 x2 ) x 4 x2 2 3m 0 co ng hai nghim
thc phn bit ?
x 4 x m 4x x2 0 co nghim thc ?

om

BT 487. Tm tham s m :

BT 488. Tm tham s m : 3 x 1 m x 1 2 4 x2 1 c nghim thc ?

.c

BT 489. Tm tham s m m( 1 x2 1 x2 2) 1 x4 1 x2 1 x2
co nghim thc ?

ok

BT 490. Tm tham s m : 1 x (4 m) x 1 ( m 1) x2 1 co nghim ?


BT 491. Tim m : 2mx 2x2 3 2x 4x3 1 co hai nghim phn bit ?

bo

BT 492. Tm tham s m : m( x 4) x2 2 5x2 8x 24 co nghim ?


BT 493. Tm tham s m : 3x2 2x 3 m( x 1) x2 1 co nghim ?

et

BT 494. Tm tham s m phng trinh: 10x2 8x 4 m 2x 1 x2 1 c

vi

ng hai nghim thc phn bit ?

ng

BT 495. Tim m : (4m 3) x 3 (3m 4) 1 x m 1 0 co nghim ?

BT 496. Tm tham s m : m x 1 x2 1 2 x2 x4 x 1 x2 2 c

kh
a

nghim thc ?

BT 497. Tm tham s m phng trinh:


BT 498. Tm tham s m :

m x m x m co nghim ?

1 x2 2. 3 1 x2 m co nghim duy nht ?

BT 499. Tm tham s m phng tinh


co ng hai nghim phn bit ?

x32 x4 x6 x4 5 m

BT 500. Tm m : (m 1) ( x2 2)3 ( x 4)(11x2 8x 8) 0 co nghim ? co


ng 4 nghim thc phn bit ?
BT 501. Tim m : ( x2 1)2 m x x2 2 4 co hai nghim phn bit ?
BT 502. Tm tham s m : x4 4x3 16x m 4 x4 4x3 16x m 6 c
ng hai nghim thc phn bit ?
270

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Phan 2.

HE PHNG TRNH AI SO VO TY

1. HE PHNG TRNH C BAN


1. H phng trnh i xng loi I
Nhn dng: i ch hai n thi h phng trinh khng thay i va trt t cac
phng trinh cung khng thay i.
Cch gii: Bin i v dng tng tch
+ t S x y, P xy.

.v
n

+ Gii h vi n S, P vi iu kin c nghim ( x; y) l S2 4P.

+ Tm nghim ( x; y) bng cch th vao phng trnh X2 SX P 0.

om

Mt s bin i a v dng tng tch thng gp:


+ x2 y2 ( x y)2 2xy S2 2P.
+ x3 y3 ( x y)3 3xy( x y) S3 3SP.

.c

+ ( x y)2 ( x y)2 4xy S2 4P.

+ x4 y4 ( x2 y2 )2 2x2 y2 S4 4S2 P 2P2 .

ok

+ x4 y4 x2 y2 ( x2 xy y 2 )(x2 xy y 2 )

vi

et

bo

2. H phng trnh i xng loi II


Nhn dng: i ch hai n thi h phng trinh khng thay i va trt t cac
phng trinh thay i (phng trinh nay tr thanh phng trinh kia).
Cch gii: Ly v tr v v phn tch thnh nhn t, lc nao cng a c
v dng ( x y). f ( x) 0, tc lun c x y.
a1 x2 b1 xy c1 y 2 d1

2
2

a2 x b2 xy c2 y d2

ng

3. H phng trnh ng cp bc hai

(i )

kh
a

2
2

(1)
d ( a x b xy c1 y ) d1 .d2
(i) 2 1 2 1
2
(2)

d1 ( a2 x b2 xy c2 y ) d1 .d2
Ly (1) (2) ( a1d2 a2 d1 ) x2 (b1d2 b2 d1 ) xy (c1d2 c2d1 ) y 2 0

y la phng trinh ng cp bc hai nn s tim c mi lin h x, y.

(bn cht la nhn cho hai phng trinh li vi nhau to ng bc).


Lu . Ta s lam tng t i vi dng ng cp bc ba va bc bn.
4. S dng phng php th to phng trnh ng cp (ng bc)

f ( x; y ) a
Dng thng gp la m
vi fm ( x; y), fn ( x; y), fk ( x; y) la cac

f n ( x; y ) f k ( x ; y )
biu thc ng cp bc m, n, k thoa man m n k.
Phng php gii: S dng k thut ng bc, tc:

271

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

a f ( x; y )
m

H
fm ( x; y) fn ( x; y) a. f k ( x; y) va y la phng
a f ( x ; y ) a f ( x; y )
k

n
trinh ng cp bc k , s tim c mi lin h gia x, y.

Nhm v d v h i xng loi I


()

om

x3 y 3 8

V d 364. Gii h phng trinh:

x y 2 xy 2

.v
n

2.(4 x 4 y 4 ) (4 x y). 2
4
4

4
x

4
x

Chng hn: 3
3
2
x y xy 2

x3 y 3 xy 2 2

Suy ra: 2(4x4 y4 ) ( x3 y3 xy2 )(4x y) c dng ng cp bc bn.

( x; y ).

i hc S phm H Ni

ok

.c

Phn tch. Khi thay i v tr x v y cho nhau th h khng thay i v trt t cc


phng trnh trong h cng khng thay i y l h i xng loi I v phng
php gii l bin i v tng v tch.

bo

Li gii. t S x y , P xy , (S2 4P).

Khi : x3 y3 ( x y)( x2 xy y2 ) ( x y) ( x y)2 3xy S3 3PS.

et

S 2
S 3SP 8
2 P 2 S
()
3

: thoa iu kin.
2
S 2 P 2
2S 3S 6S 16 0
P 0

ng

vi

S 2
x y 2
x 2
x 0
, suy ra:

Vi
hoc
P 0
xy 0
y 0
y 2
Kt lun: Tp nghim h cn tim la S ( x; y) (2; 0);(0; 2)

kh
a

x2 y 2 xy 13

V d 365. Gii h phng trinh: 4


4
2 2

x y x y 91

()

( x; y ).

Li gii. t: S x y v P xy , (S2 4P).


x2 y 2 xy ( x y)2 xy S2 P

Khi : 4
2
x y 4 x2 y 2 ( x y)2 2xy x 2 y 2 (S2 2P)2 P 2

S2 P 13
S2 13 P
P 3

() 2

: thoa iu kin.

2
2
2
2

(S 2 P) P 91
(13 P) P 91 S 4
xy 3
xy 3
x 3
x 1
x 3
x 1

Suy ra:
x

4
x

4
y

1
y

3
y

y 3

272

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Kt lun: Tp nghim h cn tim la S ( x; y) (3; 1);( 1; 3);(1; 3);(3;1)


2
2

x y x y 4
V d 366. Gii h phng trinh:

x( x y 1) y( y 1) 2

() ( x; y ).

Li gii. Tp xac nh: D .


2
( x y)2 ( x y) 2 xy 4

( x y) 2 xy x y 4

(1)
() 2

2
2
( x y) ( x y) xy 2
x y xy x y 2

om

x 2
x 2
x 1
x 2

hoc
hoc
hoc

y 2
y 1
y 2
y 2

.v
n

Xem y la h bc nht vi hai n ( x y)2 ( x y) , xy ta c:


2

x y 0
x y 1
( x y) ( x y) 0
hoc
(1)

xy 2
xy 2
xy 2

.c

Kt lun: Tp nghim h cn tim la S ( x; y) ( 2; 2);(1; 2);( 2;1)

ok

Nhn xt. Bn c c th gii bnh thng bng cch t S x y , P xy , cng ra


c kt qu tng t nh trn.

bo

xy( x y) 2
V d 367. Gii h phng trinh: 3
3
x y 2

()

( x; y ).

vi

et

xt( x t ) 2

Phn tch. Nu t t y th h () 3 3
v y l h i xng loi I.

x t 2
xt( x t ) 2
S x t

, (i ). t
, (S2 4 P).
3
3

P xt
x t 2
3
3
3
3
Suy ra: x t ( x t) 3xt.( x t) S 3SP.

ng

Li gii. t t y th ()

kh
a

SP 2
SP 2
S 2
x t 2
x 1 x 1

(i ) 3
3

Suy ra:

P 1
xt 1
t 1
y 1
S 3SP 2
S 8
Kt lun: Tp nghim h cn tim la S ( x; y) (1; 1)
x3 3x 2 9 x 22 y 3 3 y 2 9 y

V d 368. Gii h phng trinh: 2


()
1
2
x y x y

2
i hc khi A nm 2012

y 3 t 3 3( y 2 t 2 ) 9(t y) 22

Li gii. t t x th () 2 2
1
y t t y

(i)

273

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

S3 3PS 3(S2 2 P) 9S 22
S y t

t
, (S 4 P) th (i) 2
1
P yt
S 2 P S

x y y x 6
V d 369. Gii h phng trinh:
2
2
x y y x 20

()

.v
n

3
y t 2
t
t
x
x

2
2
2
2

3
1
3
1
yt

S 2

y
y
y
y 3

2
3 1 1 3
Kt lun: Tp nghim h cn tim la S ( x; y) ; ; ;
2 2 2 2

( x; y ).

om

i hc Hoa Sen

phng trnh c cha:

x,

.c

Phn tch. Nu thay i v tr x v y cho nhau th h khng thay i v trt t cc


phng trnh cng khng thay i nn y l h i xng loi I. Nhng trong h
y , nn ta s t: S x y , P xy hoc ta c th

ok

t u x , v y , ri sau t S, P theo u, v cng c kt qu tng t.


u x 0

bo

Li gii. iu kin: x, y 0 . t

v y 0

vi

et

2
2
uv(u v) 6

uv(u v) 6
u v uv 6

() 4 2
2 2 2

2
2 4
(uv)2 (u v)2 2uv 20
u v (u v ) 20 0
u v u v 20

kh
a

ng

PS 6
S u v

2 2
, (S2 4P ).
vi

P uv
P (S 2 P) 20

P 2
uv 2
u 1
u 2
PS 6

hoc
2
3
( PS) 2 P 20
S 3
u v 3
v 2
v 1

x 1

x 4
x 1
x 2

Suy ra:
hoc
hoc

y 1
y 4
y 2

y 1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim h l S ( x; y) (1; 4),(4;1)

x 1 y 1 3
V d 370. Gii h phng trinh:

x y 5 ( x 1)( y 1)

a x 1 0

()

a x 1
2
a2 b2 x y 2.
b

b y 1 0

Li gii. t

274

( x; y ).

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

a b 3
a b 3
a b 3
() 2

2
2
a b 2 5 ab
( a b) 3ab 3
ab 2

a 1
a 2
x 2
x 5
x 1 1
x 1 2

b 2
b 1
y 5
y 2

y 1 2
y 1 1

Kt lun: Tp nghim h cn tm l S x; y 2; 5 ; 5; 2

()

( x; y ).

.v
n

x y xy 3
V d 371. Gii h phng trinh:

x1 y 1 4

om

Phn tch. Nu thay i v tr x v y cho nhau th h khng thay i v trt t cc


phng trnh cng khng thay i nn y l h i xng loi I (bin i v tng
tch). Phng trnh u tin c dng tng v tch nn ta quan tm n vic bin i
phng trnh th hai. Do hai v u dng nn bnh phng ln s thu c dng
tng tch v t n ph S x y , P xy , t c li gii 1. Ngoi ra, ta c th gii

.c

chng bng phng php nh gi (li gii 2, li gii 3).

x y xy 3
th ()
(i)
x , y 1

x y 2 x y xy 1 14

S x y
S P 3
, (S2 4 P) th (i)
t
P xy

S 2 S P 1 14
2

S 6
P (S 3) ; S 3
3 S 14
: thoa iu kin.

2
P

9
3
S

8
S

156

2
S

5
S

10

14

xy 0

vi

et

bo

ok

Li gii 1. iu kin:

ng

x y 6
x 3

Suy ra:
nn x , y la nghim phng trinh: X 2 6X 9 0
xy 9
y 3
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim h la S ( x; y) (3; 3)

kh
a

Li gii 2. S dng bt ng thc Cauchy.


T (1), suy ra: x y 3 xy nn x y 0 v do xy 0 nn x 0, y 0 (3)
Cauchy

(1) x y 3 x.y 3
(2) 4 1. x 1 1. y 1

xy
2( x y) 6 x y x y 6
2

Cauchy Schwarz

(4)

2( x y 2) 2.(6 2) 4.

Nghim h phng trinh la cac gia tr lam cho du ng thc trong (3), (4)
x y

x y 3.
ng thi xy ra x y 6

x 1 y 1
275

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim h la S ( x; y) (3; 3)

Li gii 3. a v tng cac s khng m.


Ly 2.(1) 4.(2) 2x 2 y 2 xy 4 x 1 4 y 1 10
( x 2 xy y) ( x 1 2.2 x 1 4) ( y 1 2.2 y 1 4) 0

Nhm v d v h i xng loi II


(1)
(2)

om

3
2
2 x x y 3
V d 372. Gii h phng trinh: 3
2
2 y xy 3

.v
n

x y

x 3

( x y )2 ( x 1 2)2 ( y 1 2)2 0 x 1 2

y 3

y1 2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim h la S ( x; y) (3; 3)

( x; y ).

ok

.c

Phn tch. Nu thay i v tr x v y cho nhau th h khng thay i v phng trnh


ny tr thnh phng trnh kia y l h i xng loi II (ly v tr v). Ngoi ra,
nu quy ng th y l h ng cp bc ba (t x ty ).

Li gii 1. Xem y la h phng trinh i xng loi II.

bo

(1) (2) 2( x3 y3 ) xy( x y) 0 ( x y)(2x2 2 y 2 3xy) 0

et

2

3 7 y2
0 x y,
( x y) 2 x y
4
8

3
Th vao (1) 3x 3 x 1, suy ra: y 1.

3 7 y2
do : 2 x y
0, x; y

4
8

vi

Kt lun: Tp nghim h cn tim la S ( x; y) (1;1)

ng

Li gii 2. Xem y la h phng trinh ng cp bc ba

kh
a

3 3
2 3
3
3
2

2t 3 t 2
2t y t y 3
y (2t t ) 3

t x ty 0 thi h 3 3

3
3
3
2t 3 t
2 y t ty 3
y (2t t ) 3

t 2 t 0 t 1, suy ra: x y , th vao (1) 3x3 3 x 1 y 1.

Kt lun: Tp nghim h cn tim la S ( x; y) (1;1)


2

(4 x 2) 2 y 15
V d 373. Gii h phng trinh:
2

(4 y 2) 2 x 15

(1)
(2)

( x; y ).

Hc sinh gii Tp. H Ch Minh

Li gii. iu kin: x

15
15
, y
2
2

Ly (1) (2) ( x y)(8x 8 y 9) 0 y x hoc y


276

8x 9

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Vi y x, th vao (1) 16 x2 14 x 11 0 x y

1
11
hoc x y
2
8

9 221
x
8x 9

2
16
Vi y
th 1 64 x 72 x 35 0
.
8
9 221

y
16

1 1 11 11 9 221 9 221

Kt lun: S ( x; y) ; ; ; ;
;

8
16
16
2 2 8

Li gii. Ly (1) (2) x y y2 x2 y3 x3

.c

( x y) ( y x)( y x) ( y x)( y 2 xy x2 )

om

.v
n

x y 2 y 3
(1)
V d 374. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
2
3
(2)
y x x
Czech And Slovak Mathematical Olympiad

ok

x y
( x y)( y x 1 y 2 xy x 2 ) 0 2

2
x y xy x y 1 0

bo

Vi x y , th vao (1) x( x2 x 1) 0 x y 0 x y

1 5

Vi x2 y2 xy x y 1 0

vi

et

1
1
1
( x2 2 xy y 2 ) ( x2 2 x 1) ( y 2 2 y 1) 0
2
2
2

ng

x y 0
1
1
1
( x y)2 ( x 1)2 ( y 1)2 0
: v nghim.
2
2
2
x y 1

kh
a

1 5 1 5

Kt lun: Cac nghim cn tim ca h l S ( x; y) (0; 0);


;

2

2
2
Nhn xt. Nu khng pht hin ra lng x y xy x y 1 0 a c v

dng tng cc s khng m, ta c th nhn nhn vi gc i xng tng tch v kt


hp vi phng trnh thu c sau khi ly 2 phng trnh ca h cng li vi nhau
(h i xng loi I, dnh cho bn c). hiu k hn vn ny, ta cng xt v d:
( x 1)( y 2 6) y( x2 1)

V d 375. Gii h phng trinh:


2
2

( y 1)( x 6) x( y 1)
xy 2 6 x y 2 6 yx2 y

2
2
2

yx 6 y x 6 xy x

Li gii. H phng trinh

( x; y ).
(1)
(2)

277

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Ly (1) (2) 2xy( y x) 7( y x) ( x y)( x y) 0


( y x)( x y 2xy 7) 0 y x hoc x y 2xy 7 0.

Vi x y , th vao (1) x2 5x 6 0 x y 2 hoc x y 3.


Vi x y 2xy 7 0 c dng i xng tng, tch nn ta s kt hp vi

phng trinh thu c khi ly (1) (2) x2 y2 5x 5y 12 0 c h:

.v
n

x y 2xy 7 0
2 xy x y 7

2
2

x y 5x 5y 12 0
( x y) 2 xy 5( x y) 12 0
2 xy x y 7
x y 5
x 2
x 3

hoc
2
( x y) 6( x y) 5 0
xy 6
y 3
y 2

Kt lun: Tp nghim h cn tim la S ( x; y) (2; 2);(3; 3);(2; 3);(3; 2)

.c

om

4
9
2
3
x y xy 8 x 0 (1)
V d 376. Gii h phng trinh:
() ( x; y ).
y 4 x 2 yx 3 9 y 0 (2)

8
Lithuanian Mathematical Olympiad

ok

Li gii. Nhn thy ( x; y) (0; 0) la 1 nghim ca h.


Xt ( x; y) (0; 0), nhn hai v ca (1) cho x 2 , ca (2) cho y 2 :

ng

vi

et

bo

6
9
x x2 y 2 x3 y 3 x3 0

8
()
x6 y 6 ( x 3 y 3 ) 0
9
8
y6 x2 y 2 x3 y 3 x3 0

9
9
( x3 )2 ( y 3 )2 ( x3 y 3 ) 0 ( x3 y 3 )( x3 y 3 ) ( x3 y 3 ) 0
8
8
9

9
( x3 y 3 ) x3 y 3 0 x3 y 3 hoc x3 y 3
8
8

kh
a

9
9
Vi x3 y 3 x y , th vao (1) x2 x 0 x y
8
8
2
3 y
9
x
y3 0 2

y
9
x2 9

Chia (1) cho x


x
8

Vi x3 y 3 , th (i)

Chia (2) cho y


2
x
y 4
8
y 3 x x3 9 0

x
8

9
9
do: x3 y 3
x3 y 3 9
9
1
1
8

8 xy x3 y 3
xy
4
xy 4
2
8

Do x3 y 3
278

9
1
v x 3 y 3 , nn theo Vit th x3 , y 3 la nghim ca:
8
8

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x3 1
3 1
x 1

1
9
1

x
2
X X 0 3 1 hoc
8
2
1 hoc
8
8
y
y3 1
y
y 1

9 9 1 1
Kt lun: Tp nghim h cn tim la S ( x; y) (0; 0); ; ; ;1 ; 1;
8 8 2 2

x2 3 2 x 3 y

V d 377. Gii h phng trinh:


2

y 3 2 y 3 x

(1)

( x; y ).

(2)

.v
n

Phn tch. y l h i xng loi II c cha cn thc v phng php gii l ly v


tr v. Khi ta c hai hng x l thng gp: mt l nhn lin hp a v
dng ( x y). f ( x) 0, hai l: xc nh hm c trng v dng tnh n iu ca hm

om

s chng minh f ( x) f ( y) x y , sau khi khng nh hm c trng n iu

.c

mt chiu trn min ang xt. T nhng nh hng ny ta c cc li gii sau:


iu kin: x; y 0. Do x y 0 khng la nghim h, nn ta ch xt x, y 0.
Ly (1) (2) x2 3 y2 3 3( x y ) 0

x y

()

ok

Li gii 1. (Lin hp). Ta c: ()

x 3 y 3
2

3( x y)
x y

vi

et

bo

xy
3
0 x y.
( x y)

x2 3 y 2 3

xy
3
Do

0, x , y 0.
2
2
x y
x 3 y 3

ng

Th x y vo (1) x2 3 x 3, (i). t f ( x) x2 3 x .
Xt ham s f ( x) x2 3 x trn (0; ) c
x

f ( x)

0, x 0. Do ham s ng bin trn (0; ).


x 3 2 x
M ta lun c: f ( x) f (1) 3 x 1: la nghim duy nht ca f ( x) 0.

kh
a
2

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h cn tim l S ( x; y) (1;1)

Li gii 2. S dng tnh n iu ca ham s.


() x2 3 3 x y 2 3 3 y f ( x) f ( y).

Xt ham s f t t 2 3 3 t trn (0; ) c:


f (t )

0, t 0, nn ham s f (t ) ng bin trn (0; ).


t 3 2 t
Suy ra: f ( x) f ( y) x y. Gii tng t nh trn c x y 1.
2

279

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x2 x 2 y
(1)
V d 378. Gii h phng trinh:
( x; y ).
2
(2)
y y 2 x
Hc sinh gii tnh Bn Tre 2011

Li gii. iu kin: x, y 0. Vi ( x; y) (0; 0) la mt nghim ca h a cho.


Vi x; y 0. Ly (1) (2) x2 y2 x y 2( x y) 0

1
2( x y) 0 ( x y) x y
2 0

x y
x y

xy

f ( x)

x y , (do : f ( x), x, y 0).

.v
n

x2 y 2

om

Th x y vo (1) x2 x 2x x ( x 1) ( x x 1) 0

3 5

3 5 3 5

Kt lun: So iu kin, nghim h la S ( x; y) (0; 0);(1;1);


;

2

ok

.c

x y 0 (loi) hoc x y 1 hoc x y

et

bo

1
1
5 y ( y 2 y 1)2
4 1 2
x ( x 1)2

V d 379. Gii h phng trinh:


(i)
4 1 1 1
2
5x ( x 2 x 1)

y 2 ( y 1)2

kh
a

ng

vi

Phn tch. R rng y l h i xng loi II c cha cn thc, theo cc v d trn th


ta s tr v vi nhau, ri s dng k thut nhn lin hp hoc hm s. Nhng bi ny
th s rt kh khn v gy b tc nu lm nh th v n qu cng knh. biu thc
1
1
x2 ( x 1)2 ( x 1)2 x2 x2 ( x 1)2 2 x( x 1) 1
trong cn c: 1 2

2
x
( x 1)
x2 ( x 1)2
x2 ( x 1)2
2

x( x 1) 1
x( x 1) 1

1
1

1
th khai cn ch cn 1
2
x( x 1)
x ( x 1)
x( x 1)
x( x 1)
2

1
x( x 1) y( y 1)

Li gii. iu kin: x, y 0. Khi : (i )


ii
1
x( x 1)
y( y 1)
1
2

2 b
a

x
(
x

1)

0
ab 1

2
n gin, ta c th t:
, th ii a
1 a

a b 1
b y( y 1) 0
b2

280

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x( x 1) 1
1 5
Suy ra: ab2 a2 b b a 1
xy

y
(
y

1)

1
2

5 1 5 1

Kt lun: So iu kin, nghim h la S ( x; y)


;

2

.v
n

Nhm v d v h phng trnh gn ging h i xng loi II


Trong mc nho nay, ti xin c trinh bay n qu c gi phn h phng
trinh gn ging i xng loi II, n ch sai lch nhau v du hoc hng s
mt s v tr. Khi li i thng gp la cng hoc tr hai v ca hai phng
trinh vi nhau s thu c phng trinh (nu cng hoc tr) hoc h phng
trinh (nu va cng va tr) gii c (ng cp, tch s...). lam sang to
tng nay, ta cng xt cac v d sau:

.c

om

(1)
( x y)(3xy 4 x ) 2
V d 380. Gii h phng trinh:
( x; y ).
(2)

( x y)(3xy 4 y ) 2
Hc sinh gii tnh ng Nai nm 2013

bo

ok

Phn tch. Thot nhn th bi ton ny gn ging nh h i xng loi II, nhng
khng phi. Theo kinh nghim ca ti, i vi h gn i xng loi II m c cha cn
thc ta s va cng, va tr to h mi. T nh hng to phng trnh ng
cp (nhn hp l to ng bc) hoc phng trnh v t gii c (hoc a v tch).
Li gii. iu kin: x, y 0. Do x y 0 khng la nghim nn xt x, y 0.

ng

vi

et

( x y)(3xy 4 y ) ( x y)(3xy 4 x ) 0
Ly (2) (1) v (2) (1) ta c:

( x y)(3xy 4 y ) ( x y)(3xy 4 x ) 4

(i)
( x y)(6 xy 4 x 4 y ) 0 do: x y 0
3xy 2( x y )

( x y)( y x ) 1
1 ( x y)( y x )
Ly v nhn v ca hai phng trinh mi, thu c: 3xy 2( x y)( x y)

kh
a

3xy 2( x2 y2 ) va y la phng trinh ng cp bc 2 nn chia cho y 2 :


2

x
x
x
x
1
2 3 2 0 2 (nhn) hoc (loi do x, y 0).
y
y
2
y
y

Vi x 2 y , th vao (i) 6 y2 2( 2 y y ) 3y2 y ( 2 1)


2 1
( y)
y
3
3

2 1
2 1
3
, suy ra: x 2 3

3
3

3 2 2 3 3 2 2

;
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim h la S ( x; y) 2 3

9
9

281

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x2 x y 1 x y 2 x y 1 y 18 (1)

V d 381. Gii h:
( x; y ).
(2)
x2 x y 1 x y 2 x y 1 y 2
Hc sinh gii tnh An Giang

ok

.c

om

.v
n

x x y 1 0
Li gii. iu kin: 2

y x y 1 0

2( x2 x y 1 y 2 x y 1) 20
(1) (2)

(1) (2)

2 x 2 y 16

x2 x y 1 y 2 x y 1 10
y 8 x

2
(i)
2
x

10
x

y 8 x

y 8 x 8

2
10 x 2 9 0
2
y 9 10 x 9
2

2
2

y 9 100 20 x 9 x 9
2

91 x 91
x 4
10 x 9

2
2
2
y

4
9
x

72
x

144

(8

x
)

100

20
x

bo

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim h la S ( x; y) (4; 4)

Nhn xt. Ta c th gii (i ) bng bt ng thc vct nh sau:

kh
a

ng

vi

et


u ( x; 3)
u v (8; 6).
Trong mt phng ta Oxy , chn
v (8 x; 3)

u x2 9

Suy ra:
v u v 82 62 10.
v (8 x)2 9 y 2 9


Do ta lun c u v u v nn x2 9 y 2 9 10 va du ng thc xy

ra khi u, v cng chiu 3x 3(8 x) 0 x 4 y 4.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h phng trinh l S ( x; y) (4; 4)

12
1
x 2
y
3x

()
( x; y ).
V d 382. Gii h phng trinh:
1 12 y 6

y 3x

Tp ch Ton Hc & Tui Tr s 400

Li gii. iu kin: x, y 0; y 3x 0.
282

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1
3

(3)
1
x
y

12 1 3
(4)
y 3x
x
y

12
1
3 1
3
1 9
12


Ly (3) nhn (4) c:

y 3x x
x y
y 3x
y
y

x
y 9x
12

0 ( y 9 x)( y 3x) 12 xy 0 y 2 6 xy 27 x2 0
xy
y 3x

.v
n

12
2
, (1)
1 y 3x
x

(1) (2)
()

(1) (2)
12
6
1

, (2)
y 3x
y

om

y
y
y
y
6 27 0 3 (nhn) hoc 9 (loi x, y 0).
x
x
x
x
2
2
1
3 1
x 4 2 3
Vi y 3x, th (1) 1

x
2
x
x

y 12 6 3

.c

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h la S ( x; y) (4 2 3;12 6 3)

bo

ok

4
1
3
(1)
x 2 y x 4 3 3
V d 383. Gii h phng trinh:
( x; y ).
y 4 2x3 y 1 3 3
(2)

4
Hc sinh gii tnh Thi Nguyn nm 2013

ng

vi

et

Phn tch. Theo kinh nghim ca ti, khi bt gp h phng trnh gn i xng loi II
dng a thc, bn nn cng hai phng trnh li vi nhau thu phng trnh mi.
Li i thng gp ca phng trnh mi ny a v tng cc s khng m hoc dng
An Bn hoc phng trnh bc 2, bc 3, theo n ax by. Nhng do a thc

kh
a

thng khng c iu kin v khi cng li c phng trnh mi l php bin i h


qu. Do , khi gii xong ta cn th vo kim tra li nhm loi nghim ngoi lai.
Li gii. Tp xac nh: D .
1
Ly (1) (2) c: x4 2 x3 x y 4 2 y 3 y
2
1
( x4 2 x2 .x x2 ) ( x2 x) ( y 4 2 y 2 .y y 2 ) ( y 2 y) 0
2

1 1
1 1
( x2 x)2 2.( x2 x). ( y 2 y)2 2.( y 2 y). 0
2 4
2 4

2
1
1 3
x x 0
x

2
1 2
1

2
2
x x y y 0

2
2

1 3
y2 y 1 0

2
2

283

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1 3 1 3
Kt lun: Th li thy nghim ca h la: x; y
;

2
2

x y x2 y 2

2
1 x 2 y 2
V d 384. Gii h phng trinh:
y x x2 y 2 7

2
2
4
1 x y

(1)

( x; y ).
(2)

x2 y 2 0

0 x2 y 2 1.
2
2
1

x y )
2

y2

15
4

nhn

1
4

om

x2 y 2 )

( x2 y 2 )(1 x 2 y 2 )
1 x2 y 2

.c

( x y)(1

1 x2
(1) (2)

(1) (2)
( x y)(1

1 x2

ok

x y
15

va th vao h ban u c:
x2 y 2
16

y x

bo

.v
n

Li gii. iu kin:

15
16

15
15
2 1
16
16
15 7
15
1
16 4
16

vi

et

7 15

4 x 2 y 15
4 x y 15 2

x 8

4
16 y 4 x 15 7

y 7 2 15

16 y (2 y 15) 15 7

ng

7 15

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim h la S ( x; y) 8


;7 2 15

kh
a

( x 2 y)(3x 8 y 4 x 2 4 xy 4 y 2 16) 6

V d 385. Gii h:
2
2

( y 4 x)(3 y 2 x 2 x 4 xy 4 y 16) 10

()

Li gii. iu kin: x2 4xy 4 y2 16 0


( x 2 y)(3x 8 y) 4( x 2 y) x2 4 xy 4 y 2 16 6

()
2
2

( y 4 x)(3 y 2 x) 2( y 4 x) x 4 xy 4 y 16 10
(3x2 2 xy 16 y 2 ) (4 x 8 y) x2 4 xy 4 y 2 16 6

2
2
2
2

(3 y 10 xy 8 x ) (2 y 8 x) x 4 xy 4 y 16 10
(1) (2)

5x2 8xy 13y2 2(2x 3y) x2 4xy 4 y 2 16 16

284

(1)
(2)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

5x2 8xy 13y2 2.(2x 3y). x2 4xy 4 y 2 16 16 0

Do c cha hng s chn trc cn nn ngh n vic a v hng ng thc:


(2x 3y)2 2.(2x 3y). x2 4xy 4 y 2 16 x2 4xy 4 y 2 16 0
(2x 3y x2 4xy 4 y 2 16)2 0 x2 4xy 4 y 2 16 (2 x 3 y)

( x 2 y) 3x 8 y 4(2 x 3 y) 6
Th vao h (), c h:
( y 4 x) 3 y 2 x 2(2 x 3 y) 10

.v
n

( x 2 y)(5x 4 y) 6 (i)
va nhn cho thu phng trinh ng cp bc 2:

( y 4 x)(2 x 3 y) 10

10( x 2 y)(5x 4 y) 6( y 4x)(2x 3y) x2 y 2 x y.

om

Vi y x, th vao (i) 9x2 6 : v nghim.

x 2
x 2
Vi y x, th vao (i) 3x2 6
hoc

y 2
y 2

.c

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim h la S ( x; y) ( 2; 2);( 2; 2)

ok

Nhm v d v h ng cp c bn

et

bo

2
2

(1)
x 2 xy 3 y 9
V d 386. Gii h phng trinh: 2
( x; y ).
2
(2)

2 x 2 xy y 2
i hc S Phm Thnh Ph H Ch Minh

vi

Phn tch. y l h ng cp bc hai c nu phn l thuyt. V phng din


tng qut, ta kim tra y 0 c phi l nghim khng v sau t x ty gii.

ng

Ngoi ra, c th nhn cho tng v ca hai phng trnh vi nhau to thnh
phng trnh ng cp thun nht bc hai m bit cch gii.
Li gii 1. Vi y 0 thi h v nghim. Vi y 0, t x ty. Khi :

kh
a

t 2 y 2 2ty 2 3y 2 9
y 2 (t 2 2t 3) 9
(3)

H 2 2
2 2
2
2
(4)

2t y 2ty y 2
y (2t 2t 1) 2
2
(3)
t 2t 3 9
3
1
2
16t 2 14t 3 0 t hoc t
Lp
(4)
8
2
2t 2t 1 2

x 1
x 1
1
y 2 x

hoc
Vi t y 2 x , th vao (2) 2
y

2
2
x 1

y 2

8 x
3 17
y
x

3
8 x

3
17
, th vao (2)
Vi t y

9
8
3
2
8
17
x

y 17

17

285

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

3 17 8 17

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h la S ( x; y) ( 1; 2);


;

17

17

Li gii 2. Nhn cho hai v ca (1) vi (2):


Suy ra: 2( x2 2xy 3y2 ) 9(2x2 2xy y2 ) 16x2 14xy 3y2 0
8
(2x y)(8x 3y) 0 y 2x hoc y x
3
n y ta s gii tng t nh trn s tim c bn cp nghim.
(1)
(2)

.v
n

14 x2 21y 2 22 x 39 y 0

V d 387. Gii h phng trnh:


2
2

35x 28 y 111x 10 y 0

om

a x2 b y 2 c xy d1 x e1 y 0

Phn tch. Bi ton c dng tng qut 1 2 1 2 1


Khi c

a2 x b2 y c2 xy d2 x e2 y 0
2 hng x l thng gp, mt l t x ty sau khi xt x 0 c phi l nghim hay

khng, ri tm t , ngha l tm c mi lin h gia x v y. Hai l bin i v dng

bo

ok

.c

a1 x2 b1 y 2 c1 xy (d1 x e1 y)

, ri nhn cho 2 phng trnh thu c phng


2
2

a2 x b2 y c2 xy (d2 x e2 y)
trnh ng cp bc ba vi 2 n x, y v tm c mi lin h gia chng.
Li gii. Nhn thy x y 0 la mt nghim ca h.

kh
a

ng

vi

et

14 x2 21t 2 x2 22 x 39tx 0

Vi x 0, y 0, t x ty thi h
2
2 2

35x 28t x 111x 10tx 0

39t 22
x
(i )
2
2

39t 22 10t 111


(14 21t )x (39t 22)x

14 21t 2

2
2
10
t

111
14 21t 2 35 28t 2
(35 28t )x (10t 111)x
x

35 28t 2

1
186t 3 421t 2 175t 112 0 t
3
Th vao (i ), suy ra: x 3 y 1.

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trinh la S ( x; y) (0; 0);( 3;1)

5x 3 y x 3xy
V d 388. Gii h phng trinh: 3
()
( x; y ).
2
2
3

x x y 3y
thi th i hc nm 2013 Chuyn Amsterdam H Ni

5x2 3xy x 3 y

Phn tch. Vit h () 3


v nhn cho thu c phng trnh
3
2
2

x 3y x y
ng cp bc bn vi hai bin x, y v c li gii chi tit nh sau:

286

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x 0

Li gii. Nhn thy x y 0 la mt nghim ca h. Xt

y 0

5x 3xy x 3 y
() 3
(5x2 3xy)( x2 y 2 ) ( x3 3 y 3 )( x 3 y)
3
2
2

x 3y x y
2

x2
x2
x y
x2
4 x 5x y 9 y 0 4 2 5 2 9 0 2 1

y
x y
y
y
1
Vi x y , th vao phng trinh th nht ca h 8 x2 4 x x y
2
2
Vi x y , th vao phng trinh th nht ca h 2x 2x x y 1.
2

.v
n

om

1 1
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trinh la S (0; 0);( 1;1); ;
2 2

Phng php th to phng trnh bc cao hoc ng cp

ok

.c

Trong nhm v d nay, ti mun truyn n qu c gi phng phap th


c bn vi mc ch to ra phng trinh bc cao mt n ma trng tm la
phng phap th cm to thanh phng trinh ng cp, n la tin c
bn, cng on nho gii cac dng toan ca cac bai hc k tip.

et

bo

x2 ( y 1)( y x 1) 3x 2 4 x 1
(1)

V d 389. Gii h phng trinh:


2
(2)

x( y 1) 1 x
Tp ch Ton hc & Tui Tr s 379

Phn tch. Nhn thy (2) c hng t y 1 v (1) cng c cha hai hng t y nn

vi

s rt n phng trnh (2) v th vo phng trnh (1) s thu c phng trnh

kh
a

ng

bc cao vi n x. T nh hng nay, ta c li gii chi tit nh sau:


Li gii. Do x 0 th (2) v nghim nn xt x 0.
x2 1
x2 1
x2 1
2
x

(2) y 1
, th vao (1) c: (1) x2

3x 4 x 1
x
x
x
( x2 1)(2x2 1) ( x 1)(3x 1) ( x 1) ( x 1)(2 x2 1) (3x 1) 0
5
( x 1)(2x3 2x2 4x) 0 x 1 y 1 hoc x 2 y
2

5
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trinh la S ( x; y) (1; 1); 2;
2

4
3
2 2

x 2 x y x y 2x 9 (1)
( x; y ).
V d 390. Gii h phng trinh: 2
(2)

x 2 xy 6x 6
i hc khi B nm 2008

287

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. Nhn thy (2) c cha hng t xy bc nht v (1) ( x2 xy)2 2x 9
cng c hng t hng t xy nhng bc hai. Do , ta rt x.y t (2) v thay th vo
(1) thu c phng trnh bc cao vi n x v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
x2
Li gii. T (2) xy 3x 3 , (i), th vao phng trinh (1), ta c:
2
2

x2
(1) x2 3x 3 2 x 9 ( x2 6 x 6)2 8 x 36
2

om

.v
n

x4 36x2 36 12x3 72x 12x2 8x 36 x4 12x3 48x2 64x 0


x 4

x( x3 12 x2 48 x 64) 0
17 hoc x 0 : (loi do (i ) v nghim).
y

17
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trinh la S ( x; y) 4;
4

ok

.c

x3 8 x y 3 2 y
(1)

V d 391. Gii h phng trinh: 2


()
( x; y ).
2
(2)

x 3y 6
Hc sinh gii tnh H Tnh

et

bo

3
3

x y 2(4 x y)
Phn tch. H () 2
nn ta ngh n vic ng bc ca phng
2

x 3y 6
trnh (1) bng cch dng php th t phng trnh (2) trong h. Nhng trc ht ta
cn nhn thm 3 hai v ca phng trnh (1) xut hin h s 6 th 6 x2 3y2 .

ng

vi

3( x 3 y 3 ) 6(4 x y)

3x 3 3 y 3 ( x2 3 y 2 )(4 x y)
Li gii. Ta c: ()

2
2

6 x 3y

kh
a

x3 x2 y 12xy2 0 x( x2 xy 12 y2 ) 0 x( x 3y)( x 4 y) 0.

Vi x 0, th vao (2) 3y2 6 : v nghim.


x 3
x 3

Vi x 3y , th vao (2) 6 y 2 6
hoc
y 1
y 1

6
x 4
x 4

13
Vi x 4 y , th vao (2) 13 y 2 6
hoc
6

y 13
y

6
13
6
13

6
6

;
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h la S ( x; y) ( 3; 1); 4

13
13

288

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


3
3

x y 2(4 x y)
Nhn xt. Sau khi bin i () 2
v ta hon ton c th gii
2

x 3y 6
bng cch nhn cho hai phng trnh vi nhau, cng to c phng trnh ng cp
bc 3 vi 2 bin x, y. Nhng trong rt nhiu bi ton, s nhn cho ny mang li hiu
qu khng cao, tc khng to ra phng trnh ng cp. Ta cng xt v d sau:
2
2

x y 2
V d 392. Gii h phng trinh:
2 2
5

( x y)(4 x y 2 xy) 2 y

(1)
(2)

Phn tch. Phng trnh th hai c v phi bc 5, v tri l tch x y bc mt v

.v
n

4 x2 y 2 2xy. Nu nhm ny bin i c thnh bc 4, s to c ngay phng

trnh ng cp bc 5. Tht vy, nu th 2 x2 y 2 vo 4 x2 y2 2xy s thu c:

om

4 x2 y2 2xy 22 x2 y2 2.xy ( x2 y2 )2 x2 y2 ( x2 y2 )xy c dng bc 4 v

ok

.c

c li gii chi tit nh sau:


Li gii. Tp xac nh: D .
Th 2 x2 y 2 vo (2) ( x y) ( x2 y 2 )2 x2 y 2 ( x2 y 2 )xy 2 y 5
( x y) ( x4 y4 x2 y2 x3 y xy3 ) 2y5
x5 xy4 x3 y2 x4 y x2 y 3 x4 y y 5 x2 y 3 x3 y 2 xy 4 2y 5

bo

x5 y5 2 y5 x5 y5 x y.

et

x 1
x 1

Th x y , vo (1) 2 x2 2
hoc
y 1
y 1
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trinh la S ( x; y) (1; 1);(1;1)

ng

vi

3
3

2 x 9 y ( x y)(2 xy 3)
V d 393. Gii h phng trinh: 2
2

x xy y 3

(1)
(2)

Phn tch. Phng trnh (1) c v tri l bc 3, v phi l tch bc nht ( x y) vi

kh
a

lng (2xy 3). Nu lng ny bin i c thnh bc 2, s thu c phng trnh


ng cp bc 3. Tht vy nu th 3 x2 xy y2 vo 2xy 3 2xy ( x2 xy y2 )
thu c bc 2, hin nhin (1) l phng trnh ng cp bc 3 v c li gii sau:
Li gii. Th 3 x2 xy y2 (1) 2x3 9 y3 ( x y)(2xy x2 xy y 2 )
2x3 9 y3 ( x y)( x2 xy y2 ) x3 y 3 x3 8y 3 x 2y.

Th x 2 y vo (2) 5y2 2 y2 3 y 1 x 2 hoc y 1 x 2.


Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trinh la S ( x; y) (2;1);( 2; 1)
16 x3 y 3 9 y 3 (2 xy y)(4 xy 2 3)

V d 394. Gii h phng trinh: 2 2


2
2

4 x y 2 xy y 3

(1)
(2)

289

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. Nhn thy v tri (1) hon ton c th c lp c y nu chia 2 v ca (1)

3
3
cho y 3 0, tc (1) 16 x3 9 (2 x 1) 4 x 2 Nu (2), c th rt 2 theo x
y
y

th s th vo (1), to phng trnh 1 bin x. Tht vy, chia 2 v ca (2) cho y 2 0 ta


c 4 x2 2 x 1

3
v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
y2

Li gii. Do y 0 khng la nghim h nn xt y 0.

om

.v
n

3
3
16 x 9 (2 x 1) 4 x 2 (i)
y

Chia (1) cho y 3 , chia (2) cho y 2 , c h:


4 x 2 2 x 1 3
( ii)

y2

3
Th 2 4 x2 2 x 1 vo (i) 16x3 9 (2x 1)(4x 4x2 2x 1)
y
3
y 2 1 y 1.
y2

ok

Th x 1 vo (ii) 3

.c

16x3 9 (2x 1)(4x2 2x 1) 8x3 1 8x3 8 x 1.

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trinh la S ( x; y) (1;1);(1; 1)


(1)
(2)

et

bo

5 y 4 xy 2 3x2 y 3 2( x x2 y)

V d 395. Gii h phng trinh: 2


2 2

2 x x y 1

kh
a

ng

vi

Phn tch. Nu chia cho lng x2 0 c 2 phng trnh, ta s thu c h phng


1
1 2
1

3
5 2 y 4 y 3 y 2 y
x
x
x

v nu t t 1 th h phng trnh
trnh
x
2 y 2 1
2

x
2
2
3

5t y 4ty 3 y 2(t y)
Vi h quen thuc ny, ta hon ton c
c vit li l 2 2

y t 2
th a c v phng trnh ng cp nu th 2 y 2 t 2 ln phng trnh u tin
s thu ngay 5t 2 y 4ty2 3y3 ( y2 t 2 )(t y) dng ng cp bc 3. T suy ra
c mi lin h ca x, y v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. Do x 0 khng la nghim nn chia 2 v cho x2 0 th:
1
1 2
1

3
2
2
3
5 2 y 4 y 3 y 2 y
1
x
5t y 4ty 3 y 2(t y)
x
x

, vi t
H
2 2
x
(i )
y t 2,
2 y 2 1

290

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Th 2 y 2 t 2 ln phng trinh trn c: 5t 2 y 4ty2 3y3 ( y2 t 2 )(t y)


t 3 4t 2 y 5y2t 2 y 3 0 v do y 0 khng la nghim h nn:
3

t
t
t
t
t
4 5 2 0 2 hoc 1 t y hoc t 2 y.
y
y
y
y
y



1
Vi t y , th vao (i ) va kt hp t c: x y 1.
x

1
c: x
x

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h la S ( x; y) ( 1; 1);

10
10
; y

4
5
10
10

;

4
5

.v
n

Vi t y , th vao (i ) va kt hp t

2
2

2(2 y 1) x (5xy 3 y 2) y
V d 396. Gii h phng trinh:
2

xy y 2

om

()

.c

Li gii. iu kin: x 0; y 0.

ok

2
2

4 y x 2 x 5xy y 3 y y 2 y
()
2

xy y 2
2
2

5xy y 3 y y 4 y x 2 x 2 y

xy y 2

bo

(1)
(2)

Th 2 xy y vo (3) 5xy 3y 4 y
2

ng

kh
a

(3)

xy ( xy y )( xy y)
2

Chia hai v ca (4) cho y 3 0, c (4) 5


5

y c:

xy 2 xy 2 y 2( xy y)

vi

(1) 5xy 3y 4 y
2

et

Do y 0 th (2) 0 2 : sai, nn ch xt y 0 va nhn 2 v (1) cho

(4)

x
x
x x
34
1
1

y
y y
y

x
x x x x
x
x x
x
x
3 4


1
4 5
20
y
y y y y
y
y y
y
y
3

x
x
x

4
5
20
y
y
y

x
2 hoc
y

x 4y
x
1

y
x y

do: y 0
Vi x y , th vao (2) 2 y2 2
y 1 x 1.

10
4
x
5

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim ca h la S ( x; y) (1;1);

do: y 0
Vi x 4 y , th vao (2) 5 y 2 2
y

10

10 10

5
5

291

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

BT 505.

BT 506.

BT 507.

( x, y ).

.c

BT 508.

( x, y ).

( x, y ).

.v
n

BT 504.

( x, y ).

om

BT 503.

BI TP RN LUYN
xy x y 3

Gii h phng trinh: 2


2

x y x y 12
x3 x3 y 3 y 3 17

Gii h phng trnh:

x xy y 5
2
2

x y xy 7
Gii h phng trinh: 4
4
2 2

x y x y 21
2
2

2( x y) 3( 3 x y 3 xy )
Gii h phng trinh:
3
3

x y 6
2
2

x y xy 3 xy 4 3
Gii h phng trinh:

x y 2 2
(5x 4 y)(3x 2 y) 7 y 2 x
Gii h phng trinh:
(5 y 4 x)(3 y 2 x) 7 x 2 y

kh
a

ng

vi

et

bo

ok

(6 x 4 y)( x2 y 2 1) 5 y( x 2 1)

BT 509. Gii h phng trinh:


2
2
2

(6 y 4 x)( x y 1) 5x( y 1)

x1 7 y 4
BT 510. Gii h phng trinh:

y 1 7 x 4
x 1 y 2 y 1 x2 2

BT 511. Gii h phng trinh:


2
2

x 1 x y 1 y 2
x (1 x2 )(1 y 2 ) x y 2

BT 512. Gii h phng trinh:


2
2
2

y (1 y )(1 x ) y x

1
2 x 1 2
3
x y 2

BT 513. Gii h phng trinh:
2 y 1 1 1


x 2 y 2

( x, y ).
( x, y ).
( x, y ).
( x, y ).

( x, y ).

( x, y ).

( x, y ).

78 y
20
x 2
x y2

BT 514. Gii h phng trinh:


y 78 x 15

x2 y 2

( x, y ).

2 x 2 x y 1 34 x 2 xy
BT 515. Gii h phng trinh:
2

2 y 2 x y 1 34 2 y xy

( x, y ).

292

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

BT 520. Gii h phng trinh:


BT 521. Gii h phng trinh:
BT 522. Gii h phng trinh:

bo

BT 523. Gii h phng trinh:

( x, y ).
( x, y ).
( x, y ).
( x, y ).
( x, y ).
( x, y ).
( x, y ).

( x, y ).

et

BT 524. Gii h phng trinh:

( x, y ).

.v
n

BT 519. Gii h phng trinh:

om

BT 518. Gii h phng trinh:

.c

BT 517. Gii h phng trinh:

ok

BT 516. Gii h phng trinh:

2
2

x 2 xy 3 y 9
2
2

2 x 13xy 15 y 18
2
2

2 x x( y 1) y 3 y
2
2

x xy 3 y x 2 y
2

x 2 xy x y 0
4
2
2
2

x 4 x y 3x y 0
3
2

x 3xy 49 0
2
2

x 8 xy y 8 y 17 x
2
2

x y xy 2 y x 2
2
2

2 x y 2 y 2 0
2
2

2 x y 3xy 4 x 9 y

7 y 6 2 x 9 x
3
2
2
2

8( x 1) 6 xy y(12 x y )
2
2
2

( x y 4 x)( x y 2x 5) 14

x x y 1 1
2
2

y x 2y x y x 0
x( x y 1) 3 0

5
2
( x y) 2 1 0
x

kh
a

ng

vi

3
3

x y 1
BT 525. Gii h phng trinh: 2
( x, y ).
2
3

x y 2 xy y 2
2
2

2 y( x y ) 3x
BT 526. Gii h phng trinh: 2
( x, y ).
2

x( x y ) 10 y
3
3

x 2 y x 4 y
BT 527. Gii h phng trnh:
( x, y ).
2
2

13x 41xy 21y 9


2
2

x 2 y xy 2 y
BT 528. Gii h phng trinh: 3
( x, y ).
2
2
2

2 x 3xy 2 y 3x y
3
2
3

x xy y 1
BT 529. Gii h phng trinh: 4
( x, y ).
4

4 x y 4 x y
3
3

x( y x ) 7
BT 530. Gii h phng trinh: 4
( x, y ).
3
3
2 2

x x y 9 y y x x y 9x
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Kom Tum Tnh Kom Tum

293

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

2. HE PHNG TRNH A VE TCH

Gii h phng trnh a v tch s l mt dng ton thng xuyn xut hin
trong cc k thi. Trong bi hc ny, ti xin gii thiu n qu c gi 3 k thut
chnh a v tch s, l:
K thut tch, ghp, nhm v tam thc bc hai (hng s bin thin).
K thut lin hp.
K thut dng phng php cng.
x2 xy y 2 7

V d 396. Gii h phng trnh: 2


2

x xy 2 y x 2 y

.v
n

1. K thut tch, ghp, nhm v dng tam thc bc hai


(1)
(2)

( x; y ).

om

Cao ng nm 2014

ok

.c

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1) v (2) u c dng tam thc bc 2 theo n x hoc theo n y,
nhng ta s khng tm c g phng trnh (1). Do s nh hng bin i v
tch s phng trnh (2) vi cc hng suy ngh sau y:
Hng 1. Nhn thy v tri (2) c dng ng cp nn s s dng casio phn tch
thnh tch s nhm ny, tc c x2 xy 2 y2 ( x 2 y) ( x y). K n, ta cn phn

bo

tch v tri theo 2 hng t tch ny, nhng n c sn nu vit x 2 y ( x 2y)


nn c nhn t, tc (2) ( x 2 y)( x y) x 2y 0 ( x 2y)( x y 1) 0.

et

Ti xin c nhc li vic phn tch thnh tch s i vi biu thc c dng bc hai 2 bin
F( x; y) ax2 bxy cy 2 a( x x1 y)( x x2 y) vi x1 , x2 l hai nghim ca phng

vi

trnh f ( x) ax2 bx c 0. Ta s lm tng t i vi vic phn tch a thc bc 3

ng

hai bin dng F( x; y) ax3 bx2 y cy2 x dy 3 a( x x1 y)( x x2 y)( x x3 y).


Hng 2. Xem (2) l phng trnh bc 2 n x, tc (2) x2 (1 y).x 2 y2 2 y 0
v c x (1 y)2 4(2 y2 2 y) 9 y2 6 y 1 (3y 1)2 l s chnh phng nn c

kh
a

y 1 3y 1
y 1 3y 1
2y, x
y 1 hay (2) ( x 2 y)( x y 1) 0.
2
2
Hng 3. Xem (2) l phng trnh bc 2 n y, ta cng c kt qu tng t.
x 2y
x 2y

Li gii. Ta c: (2) ( x 2 y)( x y 1) 0


x y 1 0
x y 1
x

y 1 x 2

Vi x 2 y , th vo (1) 7 y 2 7
y 1 x 2
y 3 x 2

Vi x y 1, th vo (1) y 2 y 6 0
y 2 x 3
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (2;1);( 2; 1);(2; 3);( 3; 2)

294

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


3
2
3
2

(1)
x 3x y 4 y ( x 2 y)
V d 397. Gii h phng trnh:
(2)

x 2 y 3x 2 y 4 x 4

( x; y ).

Phn tch. Nhn thy v tri ca (1) c dng ng cp bc ba. Khi ta bm my tnh
i vi phng trnh x3 3x2 4 s c cc nghim x 1, x 2 vi x 2 l
nghim kp nn vit VT(1) x3 3x2 y 4 y3 ( x y)( x 2 y)2 s c chung nhn t

.v
n

vi v phi. T c li gii chi tit nh sau:


x 2 y 0; 3x 2 y 0
x 1
Li gii. iu kin:

4 x 4 0
x 2 y
x 2y
(1) ( x y)( x 2 y)2 ( x 2 y)2 ( x 2 y)2 ( x y 1) 0

y 1 x

.c

om

9 17
x
x 1

8
Vi x 2 y , th vo (2) x 2 x 2 2

4 x 9 x 4 0
9 17
y 16

ok

Vi y 1 x, th vo (2) 3x 2 x 2 4x 4

bo

( 3x 2 2) ( x 2 2) 4 x 8

3( x 2)

3x 2 2

x2
x2 2

4( x 2)

ng

vi

et

3
1
( x 2)

4 0 x 2 y 1.
x2 2
3x 2 2

3
1
3 1

4 4 2 0, x 1.
Do:
2
2
3x 2 2
x2 2

9 17 9 17

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim l S ( x; y) (2; 1);


;

8
16

kh
a

2
2

(1)
xy x y x 2 y
V d 398. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
(2)

x 2 y y x 1 2x 2 y
i hc khi D nm 2008

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1) c dng tam thc bc 2 vi 2 n x, y nn c cc hng sau:
Hng 1. Nu chuyn v dng (1) x2 xy 2 y2 x y c v tri dng ng cp
nn s phn tch x2 xy 2 y2 ( x 2 y)( x y) c nhn t vi v phi.
Hng 2. Xem (2) l phng trnh bc 2 n x hoc n y ta cng phn tch v tm c
nhn t t (2), tc c (2) ( x y)( x 2 y 1) 0.
x 1

Li gii. iu kin:

y 0

, suy ra: x y 1.

295

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

(1) ( x 2 y)( x y) ( x y) 0 ( x y)( x 2y 1) 0


x 2y 1 0, (do : x y 1) x 2 y 1.

Th x 2 y 1 vo (2) (2 y 1) 2 y y 2 y 2 y 2 2 y ( y 1) 2( y 1)
2 y 2, (do : y 1 1) y 2 x 5.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (5; 2)

.v
n

2
2

(1)
2 x y 3xy 3x 2 y 1 0
V d 399. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2
(2)

4 x y x 4 2 x y x 4 y
i hc khi B nm 2013

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1) c dng tam thc bc 2 vi 2 n x, y nn c cc hng sau:
Hng 1. Phn tch cm ng cp 2x2 3xy y2 ( x y) (2x y), khi vit cm

om

cn li theo 2 biu thc tch ny, tc (1) ( x y)(2x y) ( x y) (2x y 1) 0


( x y)(2x y 1) (2x y 1) 0 (2x y 1)( x y 1) 0.

.c

Hng 2. Xem (1) l phng trnh bc 2 n x hoc n y, y ti xem l n x, tc c:


(2) 2x2 3( y 1) x y2 2 y 1 0 v x 9( y 1)2 8( y 1)2 ( y 1)2 . Suy
3y 3 y 1
3y 3 y 1 y 1
y 1 x

4
4
2
Li gii. iu kin: 2x y 0, x 4 y 0.

bo

ok

ra 2 nghim l x

(1) (2x y 1)( x y 1) 0 y 2x 1 hoc y x 1.

et

Vi y 2x 1, th vo (2) 3 3x 4x 1 9x 4

kh
a

ng

vi

S dng casio tm c x 0 l nghim duy nht nn ghp hng s v lin hp.


4x
9x
( 4 x 1 1) ( 9 x 4 2) 3x 0

3x 0
4x 1 1
9x 4 2

4
9
x

3 0 x 0 y 1.
9x 4 2
4x 1 1

4
9
1

3 0.
Do x th biu thc
4
4x 1 1
9x 4 2

1
Vi y x 1, th vo (2) 3x2 x 3 3x 1 5x 4 , K : x
3

S dng casio, tm c 2 nghim x 0, x 1 nn ghp ax b lin hp.

1
1
( x2 x)

3 0 x2 x 0
x 1 3x 3 x 2 5x 4

x 0 y 1
1
1
1

, do :

3 0, x
3
x 1 3x 3 x 2 5x 4
x 1 y 2

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (0;1);(1; 2)


296

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


2
2

x y 2 2 x 1 2 2 y 1 2 xy 0 (1)
V d 400. Gii h phng trnh:
(2)

( x y)( x 2 y) 3x 2 y 4
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 lp 11 Chuyn Nguyn Tt Thnh Kon Tum

Phn tch. Vit (2) x2 (3y 3).x 2 y2 2 y 4 0 v kim tra bit s delta th
thy l s chnh phng nn c li gii sau:
1
1
Li gii 1. iu kin: x ; y
2
2
T (2) x2 (3y 3).x 2 y2 2 y 4 0 c:

.v
n

y (3y 3)2 4(2 y2 2 y 4) y2 10 y 25 ( y 5)2 0.

om

1
1
Suy ra: x 1 y hoc x 2 y 4 x 2 y 4 0 : loi do x ; y
2
2

Vi x 1 y , th vo (1) 4 y2 4 y 1 2 3 2 y 2 2 y 1 0

ng

vi

et

bo

ok

.c

(3 2 y) 2 3 2 y (2 y 1) 2 2 y 1 4 y 2 4 y 3 0
(3)

3
y 2
Nu: 3 2 y 2 3 2 y 0 3 2 y .( 3 2 y 2) 0
: tha (3)
y 1

3
y 2
Nu: 2 y 1 2 2 y 1 0 2 y 1.( 2 y 1 2) 0
: tha (3)
y 1

2
1 3 3 1
Suy ra: ( x; y) ; , ; : l 2 cp nghim ca h.
2 2 2 2

kh
a

1
3
Vi y ; y 4 y 2 4 y 3 0 th phng trnh:
2
2
2
4y 4y 3
4y2 4y 3
(3)

4y2 4y 3 0
3 2y 2 3 2y 2y 1 2 2y 1

1
y 2
0

1 0 : v nghim khi

3 2y 2 3 2y 2y 1 2 2y 1
y 3

2
1 3 3 1
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) ; ; ;
2 2 2 2
2
2
Li gii 2. T (2) x (3y 3).x 2 y 2 y 4 0 c:

y (3y 3)2 4(2 y2 2 y 4) y2 10 y 25 ( y 5)2 0.

297

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1
1
Suy ra: x 1 y hoc x 2 y 4 x 2 y 4 0 : loi do x ; y
2
2

(2) 2( 2x 1 2 y 1) ( x y)2 v do 2 v u dng nn bnh phng:


2

8( x y) 8 8 4xy 2( x y) 1 ( x y)2 4xy v th x y 1 th:

8 4xy 3 (1 4xy)2 16 8 4xy 3 (1 4 xy 4)(1 4 x 4)

om

.v
n

8 4xy 3 (4xy 3)(4 xy 5) 4 xy 3. (4 xy 5) 4 xy 3 8 0

3
4xy 3 0 do: 1 ( x y)2 4xy 4xy 5 4 0. Hay xy
4
x y 1
1 3 3 1

Suy ra:
3 ( x; y ) ; ; ;
2 2 2 2
xy

4
1 3 3 1
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) ; ; ;
2 2 2 2

ok

.c

(1)
xy x 2 0
V d 401. Gii h phng trnh: 3
2
2
2
(2)

2 x x y x y 2xy y 0
i hc khi D nm 2012

vi

et

bo

Phn tch. T phng trnh (2), nu nhn nhn l phng trnh bc 2 vi n y th


khi lp khng l s chnh phng nn s khng p dng phn tch c theo tam
thc. Lc ny ta ngh n vic nhm hng t. Theo kinh nghim ca ti, ta nn u
tin php th i vi hng t c cha nhng hng s ging nhau trc, nhn thy
nhm 2x3 2xy 2x( x2 y) c ( x2 y) v da vo n ghp cc cp cn li. Tc

ng

2x3 x2 y x2 y2 2xy y 2x( x2 y) ( x2 y) y( x2 y) c nhn t x2 y.

Li gii. T (2) 2x( x2 y) y( x2 y) ( x2 y) 0


( x2 y)(2x y 1) 0 y x2 hoc y 2x 1.

kh
a

Vi y x2 , th vo (1) x3 x 2 0 x 1 y 1.

1 5
y 5
x
2
2
Vi y 2x 1, th vo (1) x x 1 0

1 5
y 5
x

1 5
1 5

Kt lun: Tp nghim h l S ( x; y) (1;1),


; 5 ,
; 5

2
2

Nhn xt. K thut phn tch thnh tch s bng vic tch ghp nhm hng t l
k thut kh c bn trong vic gii h phng trnh. Sau y, ti trnh by thm
phng php phn tch a thc 2 bin F( x; y) bng my tnh b ti nh sau:

298

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Bc 1. Cho bin cha bc cao nht 1000, chng hn x 1000 (nu x, y cng bc
th cho x hay y g cng c).
Bc 2. Th x 1000 vo F( x; y) v phn tch F( x; y) thnh nhn t (phn tch
ax2 bx c a( x x1 )( x x2 ) hoc Hoocner i vi phng trnh bc cao).

Bc 3. Da vo a thc, th 1000 x tr li F( x; y) c biu thc tch.


i vi D 2012: Vit (2) y2 ( x2 2x 1) y 2x3 x2 0 v cho x 1000

.v
n

y 1000000 (1000)2 x2
c y 2 1002001y 2001000000 0
Lc ny s
y 2001 2.1000 1 2 x 1
vit (2) ( y x2 )( y 2x 1) 0.

i vi B 2013: Vit (1) y2 (3x 2)y 2x2 3x 1 0 v cho x 1000 s

om

y 2001 2.1000 1 2 x 1
c: y 2 3002 y 2003001 0
Hin nhin lc s
y 1001 1000 1 x 1
vit li (1) ( y 2x 1)( y x 1) 0. Bn hy thc hnh li cc v d trn, s thy

.c

ngay u y. Sau y ti xin c trnh by mt s v d nng cao hn:


V d 1. F( x; y) 2 y3 6x2 y 13xy 2 18x2 3y 2 10xy 87 x 14 y 15 0

1000 1 y 1

, 2005 2 y 5.
3
3

bo

Chn: 2991 3.1000 9 3y 9; 333

ok

Do y bc cao nht nn cho y 1000 F( x; y) 5982x2 129899x 1996986015 0


F( x; y) 2991(2x 333)( x 2005) 0.

vi

et

y 1
F( x; y) (3 y 9) 2 x
( x 2 y 5) ( y 3)(6 x y 1)( x 2 y 5) 0.
3

V d 2. F( x; y) x3 2 y3 2x2 y2 4x2 6 y2 xy 3x 4 y 12 0.

ng

Do x v y cng bc nn c th cho y 1000.


F( x; y) x3 2000004x2 1003x 2006004012 ( x 2000004)(x2 1003).

kh
a

Chn: 2000004 2.1000000 4 2y2 4 v 1003 1000 3 y 3.


Suy ra: F( x; y) ( x 2 y2 4)( x2 y 3).
V d 3. F( x; y) x3 3xy2 2 y3 7 x2 10xy 17 y2 8x 40 y 16 0.
Do x, y cng bc nn c th chn y 1000 (thng chn gi tr 1000 l biu thc
cha hng s khc 1, tc chn y 1000 do c 2 y 3 , s d dng cho vic la s ca y).
F( x) x3 7 x2 2989992x 1983039984 ( x 1999)( x 996)2 0.

Chn 1999 2 y 1 v 996 y 4 F( x; y) ( x 2 y 1)( x y 4)2 0.


2
2
3

(1)
5x y 4 xy 3 y 2( x y) 0
V d 402. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
2
(2)

xy( x y ) 2 ( x y)
i hc khi A nm 2011

299

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. Nhn thy phng trnh (2) u c chung nhn t x2 y 2 sau khi bin
i ( x y)2 x2 y2 2xy nn ta s u tin nhm 2 cm ny trc. Tc c:
(2) xy ( x2 y2 ) 2 ( x2 y2 ) 2xy 0 ( x2 y2 ) ( xy 1) 2( xy 1) 0 s c

nhn t ( xy 1). T c li gii chi tit nh sau:

Li gii. Ta c: (2) xy( x2 y2 ) 2 ( x2 y2 ) 2xy 0

.v
n

xy 1
( x2 y 2 )( xy 1) 2( xy 1) 0 ( xy 1)( x2 y 2 2) 0 2

2
x y 2
1

5
1
Vi xy 1 x , ( y 0) th vo (1) 4 y 3 y 3 2 y 0
y
y
y

4
2
2
3y 6y 3 0 y 1 y 1 x 1.

.c

om

2 x2 y 2
( i)

2
2
Vi x y 2, kt hp vi (1) c h:

5x2 y 4 xy 2 3 y 3 2.( x y) 0

5x2 y 4xy2 3y3 ( x2 y2 )( x y) 0 2 y 3 4x2 y 5xy 2 x3 0


3

et

bo

ok

x
x
x
4 5 2 0 (do: y 0 x 0 v nghim).
y
y
y
(i)
y 1 x 1

x y 2y2 2
x
x


1 hoc 2
2
2
(i)
y
y
y 5 x 2 5
x 2 y 5 y 2 2

ng

vi

2 10
10

Kt lun: Tp nghim h l S ( x; y) (1;1),( 1; 1),


;

5
5

kh
a

3
2
3
2

(1)
2 x y 3 2 x 3 y 1 3 y 1 3 y
V d 403. Gii h:
5
3 2
4
4
2 3
5
(2)

x x y xy yx x y y 2013( x y ) 0
ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn L Qu n Nng

Phn tch v li gii. Tp xc nh: D .


Nhn thy phng trnh (2) c dng a thc vi du hiu nhn t l ( x y).
(2) ( x5 yx4 ) ( xy4 y5 ) x3 y 2 x2 y 3 2013( x y) 0
x4 ( x y) y4 ( x y) x2 y2 (x y) 2013( x y) 0
( x y)( x4 y4 x2 y2 2013) 0 x y , (do : x4 y4 x2 y2 2013 0).

Th x y vo (1) 2x3 3x 1 3 2x3 3x 1 x2 1 3 x2 1


( 3 2x3 3x 1)3 3 2x3 3x 1 ( 3 x2 1)3 3 x2 1
f ( 3 2x3 3x 1) f ( 3 x2 1)

300

(3)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 t trn c f (t) 3t 2 1 0, t .


Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn .
T (3) f ( 3 2x3 3x 1) f ( 3 x2 1) 3 2x3 3x 1 3 x2 1

3
x y
2 x3 3x 1 x2 1 2 x3 x2 3x 0

x y 0 x y 1

3 3
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (0; 0);( 1; 1); ;
2 2

om

.v
n

( x y)( x y y 2 ) x( y 1)
(1)

2
V d 404. Gii h phng trnh: 3
( y 2)
(2)
x 4x 1
3

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Hunh Thc Khng Qung Nam

Phn tch v li gii. Do VP(2) 0 nn iu kin l x( x2 4) 0 x 0.

ok

.c

Nhn thy (1) c th vit li di dng phng trnh bc 2 vi n l x v kim tra bit
s l s chnh phng nn trc ht khai thc (1) tm mi lin h gia x v y.
(1) x2 ( y2 y 1).x ( y3 y2 ) 0, c bit s:

bo

x ( y2 y 1)2 4( y3 y2 ) y4 y2 1 2 y3 2 y 2 y2 4 y3 4 y2

y4 2 y3 3y2 2 y 1 ( y4 2 y3 y2 ) 2( y2 y) 1
( y2 y)2 2( y2 y) 1 ( y2 y 1)2 0.

et

y2 y 1 y2 y 1
y 1 hoc x y2 0 : loi do x 0.
2

vi

Suy ra: x

ng

Vi x y 1 th (2) x2 2x 4 3 x3 4x 3 x( x2 4)

kh
a

Do biu thc trong cn thc phn tch thnh tch s, nn s ngh n vic biu din
biu thc ngoi cn thc theo tng bnh phng ca 2 biu thc ny, a v
phng trnh ng cp, ngha l vit:
( x2 4) 2.x 3 x . x2 4

(3)

t a x 0; b x 4 2 th (3) b 2a 3ab (b 2a)(b a) 0.


2

x x2 4 : VN
o
4 x x2 4 x 2 y 3.
Suy ra:
2
2 x x 4

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (2; 3)

Nhn xt. gii hon thin h phng trnh, ta cn nm vng cc k thut gii
phng trnh c bn. Bi l, khi th vo phng trnh cn li, thng bt gp cc k
thut nh lin hp, t n ph, hm s, bt ng thc (xem phn 1). Ngoi ra,
khi lp thng s dng khai trin: (a b c)2 a2 b2 c 2 2ab 2bc 2ca.
301

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


3
2
2

y 3x( y 2 y 6) 18 x 6 y 0
V d 405. Gii h phng trnh:
2

(6 x 5) (3 2 y 4) 16

(1)
(2)

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1) l phng trnh bc hai vi n x v kim tra bit s l s
chnh phng nn s khai thc t (1) tm mi lin h gia x v y.
Li gii. h c nghim th t (2) c 6x 5 0.
Ta c: (2) 18x2 3( y2 2 y 6) x ( y3 6 y) 0 v bit s:
x 9( y2 2 y 6)2 72( y3 6 y)

9( y4 4 y2 36 4 y3 24 y 12 y2 8 y3 48 y)
9 ( y2 2 y)2 12.( y2 2 y) 36 9( y 2 2 y 6)2 0.

3( y 2 2 y 6) 3( y 2 2 y 6) y
1
5

x y 2 1 1 : loi do x
6
36
3
6

om

.v
n

9( y4 4 y3 16 y2 24 y 36) 9 ( y4 4 y3 4 y2 ) 12 y 2 24 y 36

.c

Vi y 3x th (2) (6x 5)(3 2 9 x2 4) 16 (6 x 5)(3 36 x2 16) 16

ok

5
n gin t t 6 x 5 do : x th phng trnh
6

(3)

bo

(t 5)(3 t 2 16) 16 (t 5)(3 t 2 16) 16 0

Xt hm s f (t) (t 5) (3 t 16) 16 trn (5; ) c:


2

f (t ) 3 t 2 16

t(t 5)

2t 2 5t 16

0, t .
t 2 16
t 2 16
Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn (5; ) v phng trnh f (t) 0 c

vi

et

Suy ra: x

ng

khng qu 1 nghim. Mt khc, ta c: f (t) f (3) 0 t 3.


t
1
3
y 3x
6
2
2

kh
a

1 3
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) ;
2 2

2 y 3 ( x 4) y 2 8 y x 2 4 x 0
(1)

V d 406. Gii h phng trnh: 1 x


1
x 2 y 3 4( x 1)2 8 y
(2)

2
2
ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn Lng Vn Chnh Ph Yn

Phn tch v li gii. iu kin: x 1 v x 2 y 3 0.


Nhn thy (1) l phng trnh bc hai vi n x v kim tra bit s l s chnh
phng nn s khai thc t (1) tm mi lin h gia x v y.
(1) x2 ( y2 4).x 2 y 3 4 y 2 8 y 0, c:
302

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x ( y2 4)2 4(2 y3 4 y2 8 y) y4 8 y2 16 8 y3 16 y2 32 y

y4 8y3 24y2 32 y 16 ( y4 8 y3 16 y2 ) 8 y2 32 y 16
( y2 4 y)2 8( y2 4 y) 16 ( y2 4 y 4)2 0.

Suy ra: x 2 y hoc x y2 2 y 4 ( y 1)2 3 3 : loi do x 1.


1 x
7
(3)
2 x 3 4 x2 4 x
2
2
Phng trnh (3) c v tri l tng 2 cn thc vi 2 bin trong cn c du i nhau v
v phi c th a c v dng bnh phng, hn na s dng casio tm c
1
phng trnh c nghim duy nht x l du hiu s dng BT Cauchy.
2
Cauchy

1 x
1 x 1
1 x 1 3 x
2


(4)

2
2
4
2
4 4 2
Ta c:
Cauchy
2 x 3 1 (2 x 3) 4 1 (2 x 7) x 7
(5)

2
4
2 4

1 x
5
VT
2x 3

(3)
2
2
Suy ra:
7
VP 4 x2 4 x (2 x 1)2 5 5
(6)

(3)
2
2 2
Do nghim phng trnh l cc gi tr lm cho du ng thc trong (4), (5),
1
1
(6) ng thi xy ra x y
2
4
1 1
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ;
2 4

vi

et

bo

ok

.c

om

.v
n

Th x 2 y vo (2)

kh
a

ng

2
2

(1)
(3x 5)( x 1) y( x 3x y 6)
V d 407. Gii h phng trnh:
2
4
(2)

y 2 y 1 y 3x 4
ngh Olypic 30/04/2014 lp 10 Chuyn Nguyn Tt Thnh KonTum

Phn tch v li gii. iu kin: y2 2 y 1 0 1 2 y 1 2.


Nhn thy (1) l phng trnh bc hai vi n y v kim tra bit s l s chnh
phng nn s khai thc t (1) tm mi lin h gia x v y.
(1) y2 ( x2 3x 6).y (3x3 5x2 3x 5) 0 c bit s:
y ( x2 3x 6)2 4(3x3 5x2 3x 5) ( x2 3x 4)2 0.

Suy ra: y 3x 5 hoc y x2 1.


Vi y 3x 5, th vo (2) 4 y2 2 y 1 1 : v nghim.
Vi y x2 1, th vo (2) 4 2 x4 x2 3x 3

(3)

S dng casio, tm c x 1 l nghim duy nht ca (1) nn c th s dng BT.


303

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


Cauchy

Ta c: VT(3) 4 (2 x4 ).1.1.1

2 x4 1 1 1 5 x4

4
4

Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi 2 x4 1 x4 1 x 1.


Mt khc: VP(3) x2 3x 4

5 x4
x4 4x2 12x 7 0
4

( x 1)2 ( x2 2x 7) 0 : lun ng vi mi x.

Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi x 1 0 x 1.


Do nghim ca (3) l x 1 y 0.

.v
n

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1; 0)


4 x 1 xy y 2 4 0

V d 408. Gii h phng trnh:


2
2
2

x xy 1 3 x 1 xy

om

(1)
(2)

Phn tch. Nhn thy c 2 phng trnh u c cha cn thc, nhng phng trnh

.c

(1) d dng kh cn hn bng cch ly tha, tc (1) 16( x 1) x2 y2 ( y2 4) v n

ok

c dng phng trnh bc 2 vi n x. T ta kim tra bit s x l s chnh phng


nn hng i l ng. T c li gii chi tit nh sau:

bo

x 1

nn t (1) y 0.
2
2

x xy 1 0

Li gii. iu kin:

et

(1) 4 x 1 xy y2 4 16( x 1) x2 y2 ( y2 4) ( y4 4 y2 )x2 16x 16 0


8 4y2 8
y4 4y2

4( y 2 4)

y 2 ( y 2 4)

ng

Suy ra: x

vi

x 64 16( y4 4 y2 ) 16( y4 4 y2 4) 16( y2 2)2 .

4
4
hoc x 2
0 : loi do x 1.
y2
y 4

kh
a

Vi xy 2 4, th vo (2) x2 3 3 x 1 4, ( K : x 3)
( x2 3 1) 3( x 1 1) 0

( x 2)( x 2)
x2 3 1

x2 4
x 3 1
2

3( x 2)
x 1 1

x2

3
0 ( x 2)

2
x 1 1
x 1 1
x 3 1

3( x 2)

x2
3
y 2
x2
y 2 , do :

0, x 3.
x 1 1
y 0
x2 3 1

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (2; 2) .

304

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


2

(1)
3 y 2 x 3 2. 3 19 y 2 x 10 2 y y 5x
V d 409. Gii h:
(2)

( x y 1) y 1 ( y 2) x y
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Cao Lnh 2 ng Thp

Phn tch. Nhn thy c 2 phng trnh u c cha cn thc, nhng ta s khng
lm g c i vi hnh thc ca (1). Nu quan st k, th hnh thc ca (2) ch c 2
cn thc c dng

y 1,

x y khi bin i v hon ton c th a v tch s.

(2) ( x y )2 1 y 1 ( y 1)2 1 x y 0

( x y )2 . y 1 y 1 ( y 1)2 . x y x y 0

.v
n

Li gii. iu kin: y 1, x y 0, 3y 2x 3 0.

om

( x y )2 . y 1 ( y 1)2 . x y ( x y y 1) 0

( x y y 1).( y 1. x y 1) 0

.c

y 1. x y .( x y y 1) ( x y y 1) 0

ok

x y y 1 (do : y 1 x y 1 0) x 1.

Vi x 1, th vo (1) 3y 1 2. 3 19 y 8 2 y 2 y 5

y2 y

2( y 2 y)( y 7)

vi

et

bo

3y 1 ( y 1) 2 3 19 y 8 ( y 2) 2 y 2 2 y

2
3
2
y y
2( y 6 y 7 y)

2y2 2y
2
2
3 y 1 y 1 3 (19 y 8) ( y 2) 3 19 y 8 ( y 2)
3y 1 y 1

(19 y 8) ( y 2) 3 19 y 8 ( y 2)
2

2( y 2 y) 0

kh
a

ng

2( y 7)
1
( y 2 y)

2 0
3x 1 x 1 3 (19 y 8)2 ( y 2) 3 19 y 8 ( y 2)2

0, y 1

y y 0

y 1.

y 1
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1;1)
2

x3 3xy 2 x2 y 2 x 1 2 y 3 3x 2 y xy 2 y

V d 410. Gii h:

x(2 y 1) 5x 2 y 5 0

(1)
(2)

Phn tch. Ta s khng lm c g vi hnh thc ca phng trnh (2). Nu vit (1)
theo cm ng cp: (1) ( x3 3x2 y 3xy2 2 y3 ) ( x2 y2 xy) x 2 y 1 0 v

305

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

s phn tch cm ng cp bc 2, bc 3 ny theo cm bc thp x 2 y 1 vi hy vng


s a c v tch s c cha ( x 2 y 1). f ( x; y) 0. Tht vy:
( x 2 y)( x2 xy y2 ) ( x2 xy y2 ) ( x 2y 1) 0
( x2 xy y2 )( x 2y 1) x 2 y 1 0 ( x 2y 1)( x2 xy y 2 1) 0 v c

li gii chi tit nh sau:

Li gii. C (1) ( x3 3x2 y 3xy2 2 y3 ) ( x2 y2 xy) ( x 2 y 1) 0


( x 2 y)( x2 xy y 2 ) ( x2 xy y 2 ) ( x 2 y 1) 0
( x2 xy y2 )( x 2y 1) x 2 y 1 0 ( x 2y 1)( x2 xy y 2 1) 0

.c

om

.v
n

y 3y2
( x 2 y 1) x
1 0 x 2 y 1 0 2 y x 1.
2
4

4 5
x 3 5 y
2
2
Th 2 y x 1 vo (2) x 6 x 4 0

4 5
x 3 5 y

ok

4 5

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) 3 5;

(1)
(2)

et

bo

2
2
3
2
3
2

3x y 2 x y 2 y y 2 2 x 3xy 2 xy 2x
V d 411. Gii h: 3
2
3

8 x 5 y 7 8. 15 y 24 x 23

Phn tch. Tng t nh v d trn, ta s vit phng trnh (1) theo tng cm ng

vi

cp: ( y3 3xy2 3x2 y 2x3 ) 2( y2 xy x2 ) ( y 2x 2) 0. S dng casio

ng

phn tch cm bc 3, tc c t 3 3t 2 3t 2 (t 2)(t 2 t 1) nn s vit phng


trnh ( y 2x)( x2 xy y2 ) 2( x2 xy y2 ) ( y 2x 2) 0

kh
a

( x2 xy y2 )( y 2x 2) ( y 2x 2) 0 ( y 2x 2)( x2 xy y2 1) 0.

Li gii. C (1) ( y3 3xy2 3x2 y 2x3 ) 2( y2 xy x2 ) ( y 2x 2) 0


( y 2x)( x2 xy y 2 ) 2( x2 xy y 2 ) ( y 2x 2) 0

( x2 xy y2 )( y 2x 2) ( y 2x 2) 0
( y 2x 2)( x2 xy y2 1) 0 y 2x 2 0 y 2x 2.

Th y 2x 2 vo (2) 8x3 10x 17 8. 3 30 x 24 x2 7


(2x 2)3 (24x2 14x 9) 8. 3 8.(2x 2) (24 x2 14 x 9)
3
2

u 2 x 2
u 24 x 14 x 9 8v

3
2
2
3
v 8.(2 x 2) (24 x 14 x 9)
v 24 x 14 x 9 8u

306

(3)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

u3 v3 8(u v) 0 (u v)(u2 uv v2 8) 0 u v.
1
1
cos 3t vi x cos t , t 0;
2
2


5
5

7
7

Suy ra: ( x; y) cos ; 2 cos 2 ; cos ; 2 cos


2 ; cos ; 2 cos
2
9
9
9
9
9
9

Vi u v 8x3 6x 1 4x3 3x

om

1
x y x 3 ( y 3)
x
V d 412. Gii h phng trnh:
xy x x3

.v
n

2. K thut nhn lng lin hp


Trong phn ny, ti xin gii thiu v k thut lin hp trong h phng trnh. Khi ,
ta cn chn 1 phng trnh lin hp v a v tch s, ri kt hp vi phng trnh
cn li gii. Thng thng, c 2 cch ra : mt l ghp hp l lin hp. Hai l
thm bt lin hp. Trong mt s trng hp kh hn, cn c s kt hp gia 2
phng trnh, sau s dng k thut lin hp mi a c v dng tch s.
(1)

( x; y ).

.c

(2)

Phn tch. T (1), nhn thy ( x y) ( x 3) y 3 c nhn t vi v phi nn s

ok

ghp 2 cn thc li vi nhau tin hnh lin hp. Nhng khi lin hp s xut hin
A B nn ta phi xt lng ny c khc 0 hay cha ?!
x 0
Khi v tri (1) dng nn cn y 3.
Li gii. iu kin:
x y 0

bo

mu s dng

y3

y3
1
1

x y x 3 x (3)
x
xy x3 x

vi

(1)

et

Vi y 3 x y x 3 x y x 3 x y x 3 0 th:
xy x3

kh
a

ng

xy x x3
Kt hp (3) vi (2), suy ra h:
x x3 3
x

0 x 3
2 x 3 2 x 2 3x 9 x 2 3x 3 x
y 8.
x 1

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1; 8)


2

x y 1 1 4( x y) 3( x y)
V d 413. Gii h:
3
2

x 5x 6 x (3x 2 y 1)( 3 2 y 5 x )

(1)
(2)

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1) c 3( x y) ( x y 1) 2x 2 y 1 v biu thc ngoi


2

cn: 2( x y) 12 (2x 2 y 1) (2x 2 y 1) c chung 2x 2 y 1, nn s ghp


2 cn thc ny li vi nhau lin hp v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
307

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

3
2

Li gii. iu kin: x y 0, x 5, y
(1) 3( x y) x y 1 2( x y) 12 0

2x 2 y 1

(2 x 2 y 1)(2 x 2 y 1) 0
3( x y) x y 1
2

.v
n

1
0 2 x 2 y 1.
(2 x 2 y 1) 2( x y) 1

3( x y) x y 1
1
0, x y 0.
V 2( x y) 1
3( x y) x y 1

x( x 2)( x 3) ( x 2)( 2x 2 5 x )

x( x 3) 2x 2 5 x

om

Th 2 y 1 2x vo (2) x( x2 5x 6) ( x 2)( 2x 2 5 x ) x
1; 5

do : x 2 0, x
1; 5

.c

Do s dng casio c x 1 l nghim duy nht nn truy ngc du lin hp.


( x 1) 2 x 2

( x 1)

( x 1)( x 3) 0
2x 2 2
2 5x

2x 2
1
1
( x 1)

x 3 0 x 1 y
2x 2 2 2 5 x

2x 2
2x 2 2

2 5 x

x 3 0, x
1; 5 .

vi

et

bo

ok

2x 2( 2x 2 2) 2(2 5 x ) 2 x2 4 x 6 0

ng

1
Kt lun: So iu kin, nghim h phng trnh l ( x; y) 1;
2

kh
a

x 2 y 2 x y x2 y x 3y y 2 x (1)
V d 414. Gii h phng trnh
2
2
(2)
2(1 y) x 2 y 1 y 2x 1
ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn L Qu n Bnh nh

Phn tch. Nhn thy rng phng trnh (1) lun ng khi x y , tc s c nhn t
l ( x y). Tht vy, nu ghp ( x 2 y 3y ), ( 2x y x ) v lin hp s xut
hin nhn t x y vi lng ( x2 y y2 x) xy( x y). T c li gii chi tit sau:
x 2 y 0, 2 x y 0

T (i ) suy ra:
Li gii. iu kin: x 0, y 0
x2 2 y 1 0 (i)

(1) ( x 2 y 3y ) ( 2x y x ) ( x2 y y 2 x) 0

308

x 0, y 0

2 x y
x2 2 y 1 0

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

xy
x 2 y 3y

xy

2x y x

xy( x y) 0

1
1
( x y)

xy 0 x y.
x 2 y 3y

2x y x

1
1
V:

xy 0, x , y 0.
x 2 y 3y
2x y x

Th x y vo (2) 2(1 x) x2 2x 1 x2 2x 1

( x2 2 x 5)

2( x 1)( x2 2 x 5)
x2 2 x 1 2

.v
n

( x2 2x 5) 2( x 1)( x2 2x 1 2) 0
0

om

x2 2 x 5 0 x 1 6

2( x 1)
( x2 2 x 5) 1
0

x2 2 x 1 2 x : VNo
x2 2 x 1 2

.c

Kt lun: So iu kin, nghim h phng trnh l ( x; y) ( 6 1; 6 1).

bo

ok

4
4

(1)
x 1 x 1 y 2 y
V d 415. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
(2)

x 2 x( y 1) y 6 y 1 0
i hc khi A nm 2013

Phn tch. Ngoi vic gii bng phng php hm s, bi ny ta c th gii bng cch

et

lin hp a v tch s. T (1), nu ghp ( x 1 y 4 2) v lin hp s c t s

vi

l x y 4 1. Cn i vi cm ( 4 x 1 y) c cha cn bc bn nn lin hp 2 ln

ng

cng xut hin x 1 y 4 v c chung nhn t vi nhm u tin. Nhng do khi lin
hp cm ( 4 x 1 y) th mu s c cha lng

x 1 y cha khng nh c c

kh
a

bng 0 hay khng ?! Do ta tm iu kin cho y. Xut pht t phng trnh (2),
nhn thy c dng hng ng thc nn bin i ( x2 2xy y2 ) 2x 6 y 1 0
( x y)2 2( x y) 1 4 y ( x y 1)2 4 y 0 y 0. V vy khi lin hp, ta

nn xt 2 trng hp: x 1, y 0 v x 1, y 0. T c li gii chi tit nh sau:

Li gii. iu kin: x 1. Khi : (2) ( x2 2xy y2 ) 2( x y) 1 4 y


( x y)2 2( x y) 1 4y ( x y 1)2 4y 0

()

Trng hp 1. Vi x 1, y 0 lun tha nn ( x; y) (1; 0) l 1 cp nghim.


Trng hp 2. Vi x 1, y 0, th: (1) ( x 1 y 4 2) ( 4 x 1 y) 0

x y4 1
x 1 y4 2

x 1 y2
4

x 1 y

309

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x y4 1
x 1 y4 2

x y4 1
( 4 x 1 y)( x 1 y 2 )

1
1
0
( x y 4 1)

x 1 y 4 2 ( 4 x 1 y)( x 1 y 2 )

x y4 1. Do:

1
x1 y 2
4

x 1
0, :

( x 1 y)( x 1 y )
y 0
1

Th x y 4 1 vo () ( y4 y)2 4 y y 0 (loi) hoc y7 2 y4 y 4 0.

.v
n

Do s dng casio tm nghim duy nht y 1 nn s dng phng php hm s.


Xt f ( y) y7 2 y4 y 4 trn (0; ) c: f ( y) 7 y4 8 y3 1 0, y 0.

Suy ra hm s f ( y) ng bin trn (0; ) v f ( y) f (1) 0 y 1 x 2.

om

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1; 0);(2;1)

.c

x( x y) x y 2 y 2 y
V d 416. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
3

x y 5x 7 x 7 y 4 6 xy x 1

(1)
(2)

ok

Phn tch. Nhn thy rng phng trnh (1) lun ng khi x y , tc s c nhn t
l ( x y). Tht vy nu ghp 2 cn lin hp c: ( x y) 2 y x y v cm cn
y 0

Li gii. iu kin:

bo

li x2 xy 2 y 2 c dng ng cp nn phn tch x2 xy 2 y2 ( x y)( x 2 y).

et

x y 0

ng

vi

x 0
x x 0
Vi y 0 th h

: v nghim.
2
3
4 1

5x 7 x 4 1 x

Xt y 0, th (1) ( x y 2 y ) ( x2 xy 2 y 2 ) 0

1
( x y)( x 2 y) 0 ( x y)
x 2y 0
x y 2y

x y 2y

x y 0
1
( x y) y 0,

x y 0 x y. Do
x y 2y
y 0
xy

kh
a

Th y x vo (2) x3 5x2 14x 4 6 3 x2 x 1


x3 5x2 14x 4 3. 3 8x2 8x 8

3. 3 8x2 8x 8 ( 3 8x2 8x 8)3 3.( x 1) ( x 1)3


f ( 3 8x2 8x 8) f ( x 1).

310

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Xt hm s f (t) 3t t 3 c f (t) 3 3t 2 0, t . Do hm s f (t ) lun


ng bin trn . Suy ra: f ( 3 8x2 8x 8) f ( x 1) 3 8x2 8x 8 x 1
8x2 8x 8 ( x 1)3 x3 5x2 11x 7 0 x 1 y 1.

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1;1)


(3 y 6) x3 1 x3 y 2 17 xy 18
(1)

V d 417. Gii h phng trnh:


2
2
2
2
x y 2 2 x 3xy 2 y x y 2xy (2)

Phn tch. Nhn thy rng phng trnh (2) lun ng khi x y , tc s c nhn t

.v
n

l ( x y). Tht vy, nu nhm cm ng cp x2 y2 2xy ( x y)2 v ghp cn vi


cm cn li: 2 2x2 3xy 2 y 2 ( x y) v lin hp ta s thu c t s c dng:

om

4(2x2 3xy 2 y2 ) ( x2 2xy y2 ) 7( x2 2xy y2 ) 7( x y)2 .

ok

.c

x 1
x 1

Li gii. iu kin: xy 0
y 0

2 x2 3xy 2 y 2 0 2 x2 3xy 2 y 2 0

2
2
2

(2) ( x y) 2 2 x 3xy 2 y ( x y) 0

vi

et

bo

7
0 ( x y)2 0 x y.
( x y )2 1
2
2

2 2 x 3xy 2 y x y

7
x 1, y 0
V: 1
0, 2

2
2 x 3xy 2 y 0
2 2 x2 3xy 2 y 2 x y

Th x y vo (1) (3x 6) x3 1 x3 x2 17 x 18

ng

(3x 6) ( x 1)( x2 x 1) x( x2 x 1) 18( x 1)

(3)

kh
a

t a x 1 0, b x2 x 1 0 a2 x 1 x a2 1.
(3) (3a2 3)ab (a2 1)b2 18a2 3a2 b 3ab a2 b2 b2 18a2 0
(3a3b a2 b2 ) (3ab b2 ) (18a2 2b2 ) 0
3a2 b.(3a b) b.(3a b) 2.(3a b).(3a b) 0

(3a b)(3a2 b b 6a 2b) 0 (3a b)(3a2b 6a b) 0


3a b 0 b 3a, (do : 3a2 b 6a b 0, a 0, b 0).

Vi b 3a, suy ra: 3 x 1 x2 x 1 9( x 1) x2 x 1 x y 4 6.


Kt lun: So iu kin, nghim h l ( x; y) (4 6; 4 6).

311

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x3 x2 2 y 1 x2 y y 1

V d 418. Gii h phng trnh:


2
2

3 2 x 1 xy . 5 4 y 4 x

(1)
(2)

Phn tch. Nhn thy rng phng trnh (1) lun ng khi x y , tc s c nhn t
l ( x y). Tht vy, nu nhm cm bc ba: ( x3 x2 y) x2 ( x y) v i vi cm
x2 2 y 1 ( y 1) sau khi lin hp c t s l: x2 2 y 1 ( y 1)2 x2 y2
( x y)( x y) s c nhn t chung ( x y). T c li gii chi tit nh sau:

om

.v
n

1
1
x ; xy 0; x 2 2 y 1 0 x

2
2
Li gii. iu kin:

5 y 5
0 y 5

2
2

2
(
x

y
)(
x
y)
(1) ( x3 x2 y) x2 2 y 1 ( y 1) 0 x2 ( x y)
0
2
x 2y 1 y 1

xy
x 2y 1 y 1
2

0, x

1
5
v 0 y

2
2

bo

V: x2

ok

.c

xy
0 x y 0 x y.
( x y) x 2
2

x 2 y 1 y 1

Th x y vo (2) 3 2x 1 x 5 4x2 4x2


2x 1 2x 1 0 x

1
1
y : tha h nn l 1 cp nghim ca h.
2
2

et

Vi

(3)

1
2 x 1 2 x 1 0 th:
2
(3) 3 2x 1 (2x 1) x 5 4 x2 ( 2 x 3) 3(2 x2 3x 1) 0

ng

6(2 x2 3x 1)

kh
a

vi

Vi x

4 x(2 x2 3x 1)

3(2 x2 3x 1) 0

2x 1 2x 1
5 4x 3 2x

6
4x
(2 x2 3x 1)

3 0
(4)
2x 1 2x 1

5 4 x2 3 2 x

1 5
6
4x

3 0, x ;
, nn phng trnh
V
2 2
2x 1 2x 1
5 4 x2 3 2 x

1
(4) 2 x2 3x 1 0 x (loi) hoc x 1 y 1.
2
1 1

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) ; ;(1;1)


2 2

312

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(8 x 6) y (2 x 2)( y 4 x 2 4)
V d 419. Gii h:
2
2

2 x 3 x y 4 x y x 1

(1)
(2)

Phn tch. Do h khng c du hiu ca s t n ph cng nh hm s v ta cng s


khng lm c g i vi hnh thc ca (1). T s ngh n vic khai thc phng
trnh (2). Nu bin i (2) ( x2 3x y 4x y 2 ) ( x2 3x y x 1) 0
v lin hp trong cc du ( ) c cc t s l: x2 y2 ( x y) ( x y)( x y 1)

Li gii. iu kin: y 0; x 2; x2 3x y 0.

( x y)( x y) ( x y)
x 3x y 4 x y
2

( x y)( x y 1)
x 2 3x y 4 x y 2

x y 1
x 3x y x 1
2

x y 1

x 3x y x 1
2

.c

x 3x y 4 x y
2

ok

( x 2 y 2 ) ( x y)

x y 1

bo

om

(2) ( x2 3x y 4x y 2 ) x2 3x y ( x 1) 0

2
2
2
2
x 3x y 4 x y
x 3x y x 2 x 1

0
2
2
x 3x y 4 x y
x 2 3x y x 1

.v
n

v ( x2 3x y) ( x2 2x 1) x y 1 s c nhn t chung ( x y 1).

x 2 3x y x 1

ng

y x 1, v:

vi

et

xy
1
0
( x y 1)

2
x 2 3x y 4 x y 2

3
x

xy

x 3x y 4 x y
2

x 2
0,

x 3x y x 1
y 0
1

kh
a

Th y x 1 vo (1) (8x 6) x 1 (2 x 2) ( x 3 4 x 2)
(2 x 2) ( x 2)2 4 x 2 4 1 (8 x 6) x 1

( x 2 2) ( x 2 2) 1 (8x 6) x 1

( x 2 2)3 ( x 2 2) (8x 6) x 1

Do v tri c dng hm c trng f (t) t 3 t lun n iu trn nn s nh


hng phn tch v phi theo hm ny s dng hm s. Tht vy:
( x 2 2)3 ( x 2 2) (4x 3) 4 x 4

( x 2 2)3 ( x 2 2) ( 4x 4)2 1 4x 4

( x 2 2)3 ( x 2 2) ( 4x 4)3 4x 4

313

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

f ( x 2 2) f ( 4x 4).

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 t trn c f (t) 3t 2 1 0, t .


Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn .
Suy ra: f ( x 2 2) f ( 4x 4) x 2 2 4x 4
x 2 4 x 2 4 x 4 4 x 2 3x 6
x 2 y 1
16( x 2) 9 x 36 x 36 9 x 52 x 68 0

x 34 y 25

9
9
2

.v
n

34 25
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) (2;1); ;
9 9

om

4 x (4 x 9)( x y) xy 3 y
V d 420. Gii h phng trnh:

4 ( x 2)( y 2 x) 3( x 3)

(1)
(2)

.c

Phn tch. Nhn thy rng phng trnh (1) lun ng khi x y , tc s c nhn t

ok

l ( x y). Tht vy, c (1) ( xy y) 4x2 (4 x 9)( x y) 2 y 0 v thc

2
2
2
hin lin hp th thu c cc t s xy y x( x y) v 4x 4 y (4x 9)( x y)

bo

4( x y)( x y) ( x y)(4x 9) ( x y)(8x 4y 9) nn c li gii nh sau:

Li gii. iu kin: x 0, y 0.

4x2 (4 x 9)( x y) 4 y 2

ng

xy y 2

xy y

y( x y)

4 x2 (4 x 9)( x y) 2 y

xy y

4( x y)( x y) (4 x 9)( x y)

kh
a

vi

et

0 0
Do x y 0 th h
: v nghim nn xt x 0, y 0.
0 9
(1) ( xy y) 4x2 (4 x 9)( x y) 2 y 0

4 x2 (4 x 9)( x y) 2 y

8x 4 y 9
y
0
( x y)

(3)
4 x2 (4 x 9)( x y) 2 y

xy

Do vi x 0, y 0 th ta cha khng nh c lng 8x 4y 9 4(2x y) 9 c

du nh th no ?! Khi ta quan tm n phng trnh (2) i chng minh iu


ny lun dng. Tht vy, (2) c th biu din 2x y theo x 0, bng cch bin
i (2) y 2 x

314

3( x 3)
4 x2

4( y 2 x)

9( x 3)2
Mong mun lc ny l c th
4( x 2)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

chng minh lng 4( y 2 x)

9( x 3)2
9 c 4( y 2x) 9 0. C nhiu cch
4( x 2)

chng minh iu ny, y ti xin c trnh by bng php bin i tng ng.
T (2) 16( x 2)( y 2 x) 9( x 3)2 4(2 x y)
Gi s:

9( x 3)2
4( x 2)

(4)

9( x 3)2
9 x2 6 x 9 4 x 8 ( x 1)2 0 : lun ng khi x 0.
4( x 2)

Suy ra: (4) 4(2x y) 9 8x 4 y 9 0. Nn: (3) x y.

.v
n

Th x y vo (2) 4 3x( x 2) 3( x 3) x y 1.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1;1)

3
2
4

x2

1
x2

3
hay
2

y 2x

ok

Cauchy

3
1
x2

4
x2

.c

3 x 3 3 ( x 2)2 1
(2) y 2 x


4 x 2 4
x 2

om

Lu . Ta c th chng minh 8x 4 y 9 0 bng BT Cauchy nh sau:

3
4( y 2 x) 9.
2

(1)
(2)

et

bo

xy ( x y)( xy 2) x y y

V d 421. Gii h phng trnh:


( x 1) y xy x(1 x) 4

Chn i tuyn VMO tnh Ninh Bnh 2014 2015

vi

Phn tch. Nhn thy rng phng trnh (1) lun ng khi x y , tc s c nhn t

ng

l ( x y). Tht vy: (1) xy ( x y)( xy 2) y

y x

v lin hp

kh
a

theo tng cm c cc t s xy ( x y)( xy 2) y 2 y( x y) ( x y)( xy 2)


( x y)( y xy 2) v ( y x) nn xut hin nhn t v c li gii nh sau:

x 0, y 0, xy 0

xy ( x y)( xy 2) 0

Li gii. iu kin:

0 0
: v nghim nn xt x 0, y 0.
Vi x y 0 th h
0 4
(1) xy ( x y)( xy 2) y

xy ( x y)( xy 2) y 2
xy ( x y)( xy 2) y

y x

yx
x y

315

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

y( x y) ( x y) xy 2)
xy ( x y)( xy 2) y
( x y)( y xy 2)
xy ( x y)( xy 2) y

xy

x y
xy

x y

y xy 2
1
0
( x y)

x y
xy ( x y)( xy 2) y

1
x y

0, cn lng y xy 2 cha xc nh

.v
n

Do vi x 0, y 0 th lng:

(3)

c th biu din theo x. Tc (2) y xy

4
x(1 x) v mong mun ca ta
x1

4
x(1 x) 2, x 0 thu c x xy 2,
x1

.c

lc ny l chng minh lng:

om

c du ca n ?!. Quan st phng trnh (2) cng c lng y xy v hon ton

4
4
x2 x. Gi s x 0 th
x2 x 2
x1
x1

bo

T (2) y xy

ok

tc lun c x xy 2 0 th vic lin hp a v tch hon thnh.

( x 1)( x2 x) 4 2( x 1) x3 3x 2 0
4
x2 x 2 y xy 2 0. Nn (3) x y.
x1

vi

Do y xy

et

( x 1)2 ( x 2) 0 : lun ng vi mi x 0.

ng

x 1
1 17
Th x y vo (2) ( x 1)(3x x2 ) 4
hoc x y

4
y 1

kh
a

1 17 1 17

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) (1;1);


;

4
4

Lu . C th s dng phng php hm s chng minh y xy 2 0 nh sau:


T (2) y xy
Xt hm s f ( x)

316

4
x3 x 4
x2 x
f ( x).
x1
x1

x3 x 4
2 x 3 3x 2 5
0 x 1.
trn (0; ) c f ( x)
x1
( x 1)2

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x
f ( x)

1
0

f ( x)

4
2

T bng bin thin suy ra y xy

x x4
2 y xy 2 0.
x1
3

(1)
(2)

.v
n

2
2

x 4 y 13 ( x 3) x y 4 0
V d 422. Gii h:

( x y 3) y ( y 1) x y 1 x 3 y 5

Phn tch. Nhn thy rng phng trnh (2) lun ng khi y 1, tc lun c nhn

om

t ( y 1). Tht vy (2) ( x y 3) y 1 ( y 1) x y 1 2 0 v lin

hp cc biu thc trong du ngoc s xut hin nhn t chung.

ok

.c

x y 1 0

Li gii. iu kin: y 0

x2 y 4 0

(2) ( x y 3)( y 1) ( y 1) x y 1 2( y 1) 0
( x y 3)( y 1)
y 1

( y 1)( x y 3)
x y 1 2

et

bo

( x y 3)( y 1) ( y 1)( x y 1 2) 0

kh
a

ng

vi

y 1
1
0
( y 1) ( x y 3)

y 1

x y12
y 3 x

y 0
1
1

0,

Do lng:
y 1
x y12
x y 1 0

Vi y 1, th vo (1) x2 9 ( x 3) x2 3 0
x 3
x 3 0

( x 3) ( x 3) x 3 0 2
x 3 x 3.

x 3 x 3
x 2

Vi y 3 x, th vo (1) x2 4x 1 ( x 3) x2 x 1 0

(3)

( x2 x 10) ( x 3)( x2 x 1 3) 0

( x2 x 10)

( x 3)( x2 x 10)
x x 1 3
2

x3
0 ( x2 x 10)
1 0
2

x x 1 3

317

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1 41
5 41
x2 x 10 0
x
y

2
2

2
x x 1 x
x 1 y 4

1 41 5 41

Kt lun: So iu kin, suy ra: S ( x; y) (1; 3),( 1; 4);


;

2

Nhn xt. Trong cch gii ca phng trnh (3), do ti s dng chc nng table
ca my tnh b ti v tm c nhn t x2 x 10 nn c tch ghp v lin hp nh
trn. Ngoi cch ny, ta c th s dng phng php t n ph khng hon ton:
(3) t 2 x 1 4x ( x 3)t 1 0 t 2 ( x 3).t 3x 0.

om

t ( x 3)2 12x x2 6x 9 ( x 3)2 .

.v
n

t t x2 x 1, suy ra: t 2 x2 x 1 x2 t 2 x 1. Khi :

ok

.c

3xx3

3
1 41
x2 x 1 3
t
x
2

Do :
, suy ra:
2

x2 x 1 x
t 3 x x 3 x

2
T suy ra y v cng c kt qu nh trn sau khi so vi iu kin.

bo

(1)
(1 y) x y x 2 ( x y 1) y
V d 423. Gii h:
2
(2)

2 y 3 x 6 y 1 2 x 2 y 4 x 5 y 3
i hc khi B nm 2014

et

Phn tch. Nhn thy rng phng trnh (1) lun ng khi y 1, tc lun c nhn

vi

t ( y 1). Tht vy (1) ( x y 1)( y 1) ( y 1) x y ( y 1) 0

ng

( x y 1) y 1 ( y 1) x y 1 0 v lin hp trong du ngoc s

xut hin nhn t y 1 v x y 1, nn c li gii chi tit nh sau:


x y; y 0

kh
a

Li gii. iu kin:

4 x 5 y 3

(1) ( x y 1)( y 1) x y 1 2 (1 y) x y x

( x y 1)( y 1) ( y 1) x y ( y 1) 0

( x y 1)( y 1) ( y 1)( x y 1) 0

( x y 1)( y 1)
y 1

( y 1)( x y 1)
x y 1

y 1
1
0
( y 1)( x y 1)

y 1
x y 1
y x 1

318

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x y
0,

y 1
x y 1
y 0
Vi y 1, th vo (2) 9 3x 0 x 3.

Vi y x 1 0 x 1, th vo (2) 2x2 x 3 2 x , K : 1 x 2
x2 x 1
2( x2 x 1) ( x 1) 2 x 0 2( x2 x 1)
0

x 1 2 x
2

1
1 5
x x 1 0
( x2 x 1) 2
x
0
2
x 1 2 x
1 x 2

.v
n

1
5 1
0, x 1; 2 .
Do 2
2
x 1 2 x

1 5 5 1

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) (3;1);


;

2

om

Suy ra: y

ok

.c

( x 1) y ( x y 1) y x 1 y y (1)

V d 424. Gii h:
( x; y ).
2
(2)

3
x

2
x

thi th TN.THPT Quc Gia 2015 TT. i hc Ngoi Thng TPHCM

bo

Phn tch. Xut pht t (2), nhn thy biu thc trong cn ln cha tch ( x y 1)
nn d on l nhn t nn ghp cm

( x 1)y ( x y 1) y y v lin hp c t s l ( x 1)y ( x y 1) y y 2

et

li:

x 1 y lin hp s c x 1 y. Cn

vi

y( x 1 y) ( x y 1) y ( x y 1)( y y ), c nhn t v c li gii nh sau:

ng

2
x ; y 0
3

Li gii. iu kin:
( x 1) y ( x y 1) y 0

kh
a

(1) ( x 1)y ( x y 1) y y

( x 1) y y 2 ( x y 1) y
( x 1) y ( x y 1) y y

y( x 1 y) ( x y 1) y
( x 1) y ( x y 1) y y

( x y 1)( y y )
( x 1) y ( x y 1) y y

x1 y 0

x y 1
x1 y
x y 1
x1 y

x y 1
x1 y

319

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

y y
1

0 y x 1.
( x y 1)

y
( x 1) y ( x y 1) y y

Do

y y
( x 1) y ( x y 1) y y

1
x1 y

0, x

2
, y 0.
3

Th y x 1, vo (2) 3x 2 x 1 2x2 x 3

2x 3
3x 2 x 1

(2 x 3)( x 1) 0

bo

ok

.c

om

.v
n

3
5
x y

1
2
2
(2 x 3)
( x 1) 0
1

3x 2 x 1

x 1 (i)
3x 2 x 1

2
5
2
Ta co: x th f ( x) x 1 1 1
(ii )
3
3
3
3
1
2
Xt hm s g( x) 3x 2 x 1 c: g( x)

0, x
3
2 3x 2 2 x 1
2

1
1
Do o ham s g( x) ng bin trn ; nn h( x)

g( x)
3x 2 x 1
3

2
15
nghch bin trn ; max h x h
1 hay h( x) 1

5
3
3 ;
3

et

(iii)

T (i),(ii),(iii), suy ra: f ( x) h( x) v nghim hay (i ) v nghim.

ng

vi

3 5
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) ;
2 2

kh
a

2
2

(1)
( x x) x y 3 2 x x y 1
( x; y ).
V d 425. Gii h:
2
2
(2)
(
x

1)
y

(
y

1)
x

Phn tch. Ta s khng lm c g (2), cn (1), nhn thy v tri c hng t tch
s ( x2 x). x y 3 nn ta s phn tch v phi 2( x2 x) ( y x 1). Khi nu
nhm ( x2 x). x y 3 2 v lin hp trong du s thu c x y 1,

xut hin nhn t chung nn c li gii chi tit nh sau:


Li gii. iu kin: x y 3 0.
(1) ( x2 x) x y 3 2( x2 x) ( y x 1)
( x2 x)( x y 3 2) ( x y 1) 0

320

( x2 x)( x y 1)
xy3 2

( x y 1) 0

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x2 x 2 x y 3
x2 x
0
( x y 1)
1 0 ( x y 1)
xy3 2

xy3 2

x y 1 0 y x 1. Do

x2 x 2 x y 3
xy3 2

0, x y 3 0.

Th y x 1 vo (2) ( x 1) x2 x 2 ( x 2) x2 x 1 2x 1

a 2 x 2 x 2 b a 2 x 1
a x x 2 0

t
2

b2 a2 1
2
b x2 x 1 x

2
b2 a 2 1
b2 a 2 1

(3)
1 a
2 b b2 a 2
2
2

(3)

a.(b2 a2 3) b.(b2 a2 3) 2(b a)(b a)


ab2 a3 3a b3 a2 b 3b 2(b a)(b a)

.v
n

om

.c

(b3 a3 ) (ab2 a2 b) (3a 3b) 2(b a)(b a)

(b a)(a2 ab b2 ) ab(b a) 3(b a) 2(b a)(b a) 0

ok

(b a)(a2 ab b2 ab 3 2b 2a) 0

(b a)(a2 b2 2ab 2b 2a 3) 0 (b a) (a b)2 2(a b) 3 0


x2 x 2 x2 x 1 x

Vi a b 3, suy ra:

et

Vi a b, suy ra:

bo

(b a)(a b 1)(a b 3) 0 (b a)(a b 3) 0 b a a b 3.

1
1
y
2
2

x2 x 2 x2 x 1 3

kh
a

ng

vi

3 x x 1 0
x2 x 2 3 x2 x 1
2
2
2

x x 2 10 x x 6 x x 1
2

x2 x 8 0
x 1
7
1
x x1 3

hoc x y
2
y

2
8
8
8 x x 7 0

3 x x 1 x 4

1 1
7 1
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim l S ( x; y) ; ;( 1; 2); ;
8 8
2 2

(1)
x 3 y 1 2 y 1
V d 426. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
2
2
(2)
x

thi th TN.THPT Quc Gia 2015 TT.LTH Tr Minh Tp. HCM

Phn tch. (2), nhn thy x v y c lp 1 v, nn hng suy ngh thng l hm


s, nhng s b b tc do khng tm c hm c trng hai v. Nhng k, vit

321

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

(2) ( x y2 1) ( x2 1 y) 0 v lin hp trong tng du ( ), s thu c

lng nhn t l x2 y2 1. T c li gii chi tit nh sau:

Li gii. iu kin: x 0, y 1.
(2) ( x y 2 1) ( x2 1 y) 0

x2 y 2 1
x y2 1

x2 y 2 1
x2 1 y

.v
n

1
1
0 x2 y 2 1 0
( x2 y 2 1)

2
2
x y 1
x 1 y

1
1

0, x 0, y 1.
x2 y2 1. Do
2
2
x y 1
x 1 y

y 1 0

om

Th x2 y 2 1 vo (1) 4 x2 3 y 1 2 y 1 4 y2 1 3 y 1 2 y 1
3 y 1 4 ( y 1)( y 1) 2 y 1 3
Chia:

y 1 2
y 1 16
97
72

y
x

y 1 3
y 1 81
65
65

.c

ok

y 1
y 1
4
2
y 1
y 1

bo

72 97
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) ;
65 65

vi

et

x x2 y y x4 x3 x
(1)

V d 427. Gii h phng trnh:


9
(2)
x x x 1 y( x 1)

2
thi th s 4 TN.THPT Quc Gia 2015 Din n k2pi.net.vn

ng

Phn tch. Nhn thy phng trnh (1) lun ng khi x y , tc lun c nhn t
( x y). Tht vy (1) x x2 y x x2 x x y x( x2 y x2 x ) x y

kh
a

v lin hp trong du ( ) s c nhn t chung 2 v l ( x y) v c li gii 1. Ngoi


ra, ta c th chia 2 v (1) cho x 2 v s dng hm s vi li gii 2.
iu kin: x 1, y 0.

Li gii 1. S dng nhn lng lin hp.


(1) x x2 y y x x2 x x x( x2 y x2 x ) ( y x) 0

x
( y x) 0 ( y x )
1 0
x2 y x2 x

x2 y x2 x

x
1 0, x 1, y 0.
y x. Do
2
x y x2 x

322

x( y x)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Th y x vo (2) x x x 1 x( x 1)

9
2

(3)

t t x x 1 0 t 2 2 x 1 2 x( x 1) x x( x 1)
(3)

t2 1

t2 1
9
t 2t 8 0
t
t 2.
2
2

t 0

Suy ra:

25
2 x 0
x x 1 2 x 1 2 x
xy

16
4
x

y
1 1
f 2
x x
x

.v
n

25 25
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) ;
16 16
Li gii 2. S dng phng php hm s.

y 1
1
f 2 y x.
x
x
x

bo

y
Do f 2
x

ok

.c

om

1
f
x
x
x
1
1 0, t 0.
Xt hm s f (t) 1 t t trn (0; ) c f (t )
2 1 t
Suy ra hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn khong (0; ).
Chia: x 0
(1)
1

Th y x vo (2) 2x 2 x 2 x 1 2 x( x 1) 9 0

et

( x )2 2 x . x 1 ( x 1)2 2( x x 1) 80

x x 1 2 x 1 2 x x y

ng

Suy ra:

vi

( x x 1)2 2( x x 1) 8 0 x x 1 2

25

16

kh
a

25 25
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h cn tm l S ( x; y) ;
16 16
2

x xy3 xy y
V d 428. Gii h phng trnh:
2
3

x 6 x 1 y 2y

(1)
(2)

( x; y ).

Li gii. iu kin: x2 x y 0, x 1.
Vi x 1, th v tri ca (2) dng v h c nghim th cn iu kin ko
y 2

theo l VP(2) y 2 2 y 0
y 0
2

y 2
VT x x y . 3 x y 0
Nu
th (2)
th h v nghim khi y 2.
VP

0
x 1

(2)

323

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Do iu kin l: x2 x y 0, x 1, y 0.
y 0

: VNo.
Trng hp 1. Nu x2 x y 0, th h
3

0 x 6 x 1 0
Trng hp 2. Nu x2 x y 0 th phng trnh:

y
x xy
2

3 x y 1

x y 1
( x y )2 3 x y 1

x y 1

x2 x y

x2 y 2 ( x y)

( x y )2 3 x y 1 ( y x 2 x y ) x 2 x y

( x y)( x y) ( x y)

( x y )2 3 x y 1 ( y x 2 x y ) x 2 x y
x y 1

y x2 x y

x y 1

( x y)( x y 1)

( x y) 3 x y 1 ( y x 2 x y ) x 2 x y
2

om

x xy

0
0

.c

y
2

.v
n

(1) 3 x y

et

bo

ok

xy
1
0 y x 1.
( x y 1)

2
3 ( x y )2 3 x y 1
x x y

xy
1
V

0, x 1, y 0.
2
2
3
( x y) 3 x y 1
x xy

Th y x 1 vo (2) 3 x 6 x 1 x2 1

ng

vi

4x2 5x 6 3 x 6 3 ( x 6)2 4 4 x 1( x 1 1) 0

kh
a

( x 2)(4 x 3)

( x 2)( x 14) 3 x 6

( x 6)2 4 3 x 6 16

4( x 2) x 1
x 1 1

( x 14) 3 x 6
4 x 1
( x 2) 4 x 3

0 x 2 y 1.
( 3 x 6 2)2 12
x 1 1

0, x 1

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h cn tm l S ( x; y) (2;1)

3. K thut dng phng php cng a v tch s


2
2

a x b1 y c1 xy d1 x e1 y f1 0 (1)
Nhm I. H phng trnh dng: 1 2
2

a2 x b2 y c2 xy d 2 x e2 y f2 0 ( 2)

Phn tch v tm hng gii cho bi ton:

324

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


2
2

a1 x b1 y c1 xy f1
Khi d1 e1 d2 e2 0 th h c dng ng cp: 2

a2 x b2 y c2 xy f2
Khi f1 f2 0 th h c dng bn ng cp, tc:

2
2
2
2

a x b y c xy d1x e1 y 0
a x b y c xy (d1x e1y )
H 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 2 1
a2 x b2 y c2 xy d2 x e 2 y 0
a2 x b2 y c 2 xy (d2 x e 2 y )

Lc ta s nhn cho 2 phng trnh vi nhau to phng trnh ng cp.


Khi f1 0, f2 0, ta c cc li i nh sau:
+ Nu xem (1) hoc (2) l phng trnh bc hai vi n l x ( y l tham s)

.v
n

hoc ngc li m c x (hay y ) l s chnh phng th ta tm hai

om

nghim v th vo phng trnh cn li gii.


+ Nu x (hay y ) khng l s chnh phng th ta s chn mt hng s
thch hp nhn vo mt phng trnh p cho x (hay y ) l s chnh
phng. Nh vy phi tm hng s k sao cho (1) k.(2) c th phn tch

bo

ok

.c

c thnh nhn t. Lc ny ta c 2 cch tm k nh sau:


a a1 ka2 (a 0), b b1 kb2 , c c1 kc2

d d1 kd2 , e e1 ke2 , f f1 kf2


Khi k l nghim ca: dec 4baf ae 2 bd2 fc2 . (s dng casio).
a v phng trnh bc hai vi n (d1 kd2 )x (e1 ke2 )y v ng

vi

et

nht h s tm k.
+ t n ph da trn tnh tin nghim a v h ng cp bc hai.
Tip cn php t n ph ny bng cng c o hm nh sau:
o hm phng trnh (1) vi x l bin s (y xem l hng s) c:

ng

2a1 x c1 y d1 0 (3) v cng o hm (1) vi bin y (x xem l hng s)

c 2b1 y c1 y e1 0, (4). Gii h cha (3), (4) tm c x, y , chng

kh
a

hn: x m, y n. Khi ta s t a x m, b y n.

2
1
2
(1)
x y 5
V d 429. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
4 x2 3x 57 y(3x 1) (2)

25
Hc sinh gii tnh Ngh An nm 2011

a 1 4 k , b , c 3k

2
2
2
Phn tch. Xt
1 57 v th vo: dec 4baf ae bd fc ,
k
d 3 k , e k , f
5 25

khai trin v rt gn thu c: 638k 3 1207 k 2 148k 20 0. S dng casio, tm

325

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

om

.v
n

c k 2 . Do , ta ly: (1) + 2.(2) s thu c phng trnh bc hai c bit s l


s chnh phng v c li gii 1 chi tit nh sau:
119
144
Li gii 1. Ly (1) 2.(2) y 2 2(3x 1) y 9 x2 6 x
0 c y

25
25
7
17
Suy ra: y 3x hoc y 3x
5
5

2
1
x y

7
42
44
5
5
Vi y 3x th (2) 10 x2 x
0
5
5
25
x 11 y 2

5
25
17
102
284
Vi y 3x
th (2) 10 x2
x
0 : v nghim.
5
5
25
2 1 11 2
Kt lun: Tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ; ; ;
5 5 5 25

Phn tch v li gii 2.

bo

ok

.c

57

Ly (1) k.(2), c: x2 y 2 k 4x2 3x


y(3x 1) 0
5
25

1 57 k
(1 4 k)x2 3kxy y 2 k.(3x y)
0
(i)
5 25
Ta mun (i ) l phng trnh bc hai theo (3x y), vy (i ) phi c vit li thnh:

kh
a

ng

vi

et

1 4k
1 57
(3x y)2 k(3x y)
k0
(ii )
9
5 25
6(1 4k)
T (i), (ii), ng nht h s c: 3k
9 k 2 8 k k 2.
9
119
0
Ly (1) 2.(2) 9 x2 6 xy y 2 6 x 2 y
25
119
7
17
(3x y)2 2(3x y)
0 3x y hoc 3x y
25
5
5

2
1
x y

7
42
44
5
5
Vi y 3x th (2) 10 x2 x
0
11
5
5
25
x y 2

5
25
17
102
284
x
0 : v nghim.
Vi y 3x
th (2) 10 x2
5
5
25
2 1 11 2
Kt lun: Tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ; ; ;
5 5 5 25

326

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

5x 2 5 y 2 1

Li gii 3. H
47
(2 x y)( x 2 y) ( x 2 y) (2 x y)
25

(I )

2
2
2
a 2 x y
a 4x 4xy y
t
2
a 2 b2 5x 2 5 y 2 .
2
2
b x 2 y
b x 4xy 4 y

a2 b2 1
( a b)2 2ab 1
2ab ( a b)2 1

(I)
47
94
144
2
ab a b
2ab 2( a b)
( a b 1)
25
25
25

11
4
x
x

5
25
5

1
3
y 2
y

5
25
4

.v
n

4
b

om

17

ab
ab
a

5
5

ab 12
ab 132
b

25
25

.c

2 1 11 2
Kt lun: Tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ; ; ;
5 5 5 25

ok

14 x2 21y 2 6 x 45 y 14 0

V d 430. Gii h phng trnh:


2
2

35x 28 y 41x 122 y 56 0

(1)
(2)

bo

Xt a 14 35k; b 21 28k; c 0; d 6 41k; e 45 122k; f 14 56k


S k l nghim phng trnh: dec 4baf ae 2 bd2 fc 2 , th vo v gii ta tm c
15
15
Do ly (1) (2) hay 49.(1) 15.(2) v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
49
49
Li gii. Ly (1) nhn vi 49 tr vi 15 nhn vi phng trnh (2), c:

vi

et

ng

49(14x2 21y2 6x 45y 14) 15(35x2 28 y2 41x 122y 56) 0

161x2 909x 1449 y2 4035y 1526 0 c: x (966 y 1345)2 .


218 483

y hoc x 7 3y.
161 161

kh
a

Suy ra: x

y 3 x 2

Vi: x 7 3y , th vo (2) 7 y 2 35 y 42 0
y 2 x 1

Vi x

218 483

y , th vo (2) v nghim.
161 161

Kt lun: Tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (2; 3);(1; 2)


3x2 y 2 xy 15x 4 y 8 0
( I ) ( x; y ).
V d 431. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2
x 2 y xy x 10 y 12 0

327

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. Ln lt o hm 2 v phng trnh th nht theo bin x (xem y l


6 x y 15 0
x 2
hng s), theo bin y (xem x l hng s) thu c h:

2 y x 4 0
y 3
Do , ta nh hng c php t n ph: x a 2, y b 3.

Li gii. t x a 2, y b 3 a x 2, b y 3. Khi :

om

.v
n

2
2

3( a 2) (b 3) ( a 2)(b 3) 15( a 2) 4(b 3) 8 0


(I)
2
2

( a 2) 2(b 3) ( a 2)(b 3) a 2 10(b 3) 12 0


2
2

a ab 2b 4
2
, suy ra: a2 ab 2b2 4(3a2 ab b2 )
2

3a ab b 1 (i)
a b
11a2 5ab 6b2 0 ( a b)(11a 6b) 0

11a 6b

a 1 x 2 1 x 1
x 3
Vi a b, th (i) a2 1
hoc

b 1 y 3 1 y 4
y 2

ok

.c

6 53
106 6 53
106 6 53
a
x
x

53
53
53
Vi 11a 6b, th (i)

11 53
159 11 53
159 11 53

b
y
y

53
53
53

et

bo

106 6 53 159 11 53

Kt lun: Tp nghim: S ( x; y) ( 1; 4);( 3; 2);


;

53
53

vi

Nhm II. a v dng An Bn c cc hng t x3 , y 3 , x2 , y 2 , x, y c lp.

kh
a

ng

3
3

(1)
x y 35
V d 432. Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2
(2)

2 x 3 y 4 x 9 y
Hc sinh gii tnh Yn Bi nm 2011

Phn tch. i vi nhng h phng trnh c cha cc hng t: x3 , y3 , x2 , y2 , x, y


c lp nhau, ta thng th ly (1) k.(2) a v dng ( x a)3 ( y b)3 bng h
s bt nh. C th, ly (1) k.(2) x3 y3 k.(2x2 3y2 ) 35 k.(4x 9 y)
x3 y3 2kx2 3ky2 4kx 9ky 35, (i). Mong mun s bin i c v dng:
( x a)3 ( y b)3 x3 y3 3ax2 3by2 3a2 x 3b2 y a3 b3 0, (ii)
2 k 3a

k 3
3k 3b

2
a 2 v c li gii chi tit sau:
ng nht h s (i), (ii) c: 4 k 3a
9 k 3b2

b 3

b3 a3 35

328

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Li gii. Ly (2) nhn vi 3, ri cng vi phng trnh (1) c:


6x2 9 y2 x3 y3 12x 27 y 35

x3 6x2 12x 8 y3 9 y2 27 y 27 ( x 2)3 ( y 3)3


x 2 y 3 x y 5.
y 2 x 3
Th x y 5 vo (2) y 2 5 y 6 0

y 3 x 2
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) (3; 2);(2; 3)

.v
n

3
3

(1)
x y 9
V d 433. Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2
(2)

2 x y 4 x y 0
Olympic 30/04 nm 2012

om

Phn tch. Ly (1) k.(2) c: x3 y3 2kx2 ky2 4kx ky 9 0 v ta c:


( x a)3 ( y b)3 x3 y3 3ax2 3by2 3a2 x 3b2 y b3 a3 0.

bo

ok

.c

2 k 3a

k 3
k 3b

2
ng nht h s c: 4 k 3a a 2 v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
k 3b2
b 1

b3 a3 9

Li gii. Ly phng trnh (2) nhn vi 3, ri cng vi (1) c:

et

x3 y3 6x2 3y2 12x 3y 9 ( x 2)3 ( y 1)3 x y 3.

ng

vi

y 1
y 2

Th x y 3 vo (2) 3 y 2 9 y 6 0
hoc
x 2
x 1
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) (2; 1);(1; 2)

kh
a

3
3
2

7 x 6 xy(2 x y) y 3x 3x 1
V d 434. Gii h phng trnh:
4
3
2

( x 1)( y 2) x x x 3 0

(1)
(2)

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Long Xuyn An Giang

Phn tch. Tuy hnh thc bi ton khng c x, y c lp vi nhau, nhng v phi
ca (1) c th a v dng VP(1) x3 3x2 3x 1 ( x 1)3 . T nh hng bin
i VT(1) 8x3 12x2 y 6xy 2 y 3 (2x y)3 nn (1) (2x y)3 ( x 1)3 v c
li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. Ta c: (1) 8x3 12x2 y 6xy2 y3 x3 3x2 3x 1
(2x y)3 ( x 1)3 2x y x 1 y 1 x.

Th y 1 x vo (2) ( x 1)5 x3 x2 x 3 0
( x 1)5 ( x3 3x2 3x 1) 2( x2 2x 1) 2 0

329

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

( x 1)5 ( x 1)3 2( x 1)2 2 0


( x 1)3 ( x 1)2 1 2 ( x 1)2 1 0 ( x 1)2 1 ( x 1)3 2 0
( x 1)3 2 x 1 3 2 x 3 2 1 y 2 3 2.

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) ( 3 2 1; 2 3 2)

Nhm III. Bi ton cha x, y khng c lp nhau


(1)
(2)

( x; y ).

.v
n

x 2 y 3 3x 2 4 x 2 0

V d 435. Gii h phng trnh: 2 2


2

x y 2x y 0

om

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1), (2) l phng trnh bc 2 vi n x, nhng bit s delta
khng l s chnh phng. i vi nhng h phng trnh i s c cc bin khng
c lp vi nhau, chng hn x2 y 3 . Thng th ta lm theo cc bc nh sau:
3
2

( y 3)x 4 x 2 0

Vit li h hai phng trnh bc hai vi n x : 2 2


2

y x 2x y 0

4 2

y 1 l mt nghim ca h.
2 y 2

.c

y3 3

ok

Lp t l v h s:

bo

2
2

(1)
2 x 4 x 2 0
2.( x 2 x 1) 0
2
Th y 1 vo h ban u: 2
(2)

x 2x 1
x 2x 1 0
Do hai phng trnh ny lun ng (dng 0 0 ) khi cng li th ta phi
nhn (2) vi 2. Lc , ly (1) 2.(2) s thu c tch: ( y 1). f ( x) 0.

et

Li gii. Ly (2) nhn vi 2, ri cng vi phng trnh (1) c:

vi

x2 y3 3x2 2x2 y2 2 y2 2 0 x2 ( y3 2y2 3) 2( y2 1)

x2 ( y 1)( y2 3y 3) 2( y 1)( y 1)

()

kh
a

ng

y 1 x 1
( y 1) x2 ( y 2 3 y 3) 2( y 1) 0 2 2
x ( y 3 y 3) 2( y 1) 0, (3)
2( y 1)
(3) x2 2
0 y 1.
y 3y 3

(2) 0 y2 ( x2 1) 2x x2 1 2x ( x 1)2 0.

Nu du " " xy ra, tc x y 1 . Nhng nghim ny khng tha (3).


Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) (1; 1)

Nhn xt. Vic ghp a v () khng my kh do bit trc nhn t l y 1.


x3 3xy 2 6 xy 3x 49
(1)
( x; y ).
V d 436. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2
x 8xy y 10 y 25x 9 (2)

330

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


2
3

3xy 6 xy x 3x 49 0
Phn tch. Vit h dng phng trnh bc 2 n y: 2

y 8 x 10 y x 25x 9 0
3x
6x
x3 3x 49
Lp t l v h s:

2
x 1.
1 8 x 10 x 25x 9
2
2

3 y 6 y 45 0
3( y 2 y 15) 0
Th x 1 vo h c: 2
2

y 2 y 15 0
y 2 y 15 0

Do , ly (1) 3.(2) s thu c phng trnh tch s: ( x 1). f ( x) 0.


(1)
(2)

.v
n

3
2

x 3xy 6 xy 3x 49 0
2
2

x y 8 xy 10 y 25x 9 0

Li gii. H

Ly phng trnh (2) nhn vi 3, ri cng vi phng trnh (1) c:

om

( x3 3xy2 6xy 3x 49) 3( x2 y2 8xy 10 y 25x 9) 0


( x3 3x2 78x 76) (3xy2 3y2 ) 30xy 30 y 0

( x 1)( x2 2x 76) 3y2 ( x 1) 30 y( x 1) 0

.c

( x 1)( x2 2x 76 3y 2 30 y) 0 ( x 1) ( x 1)2 3( y 2 5)2 0

ok

Vi x 1, th vo (2) y2 2 y 15 0 y 5 hoc y 3.

bo

x 1 0
x 1

: khng tha h nn loi.


Vi ( x 1)2 3( y 2 5)2 0 2
y 5
y 5

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) (1; 5);( 1; 3)

( x; y ).

vi

et

2
4
3

16 x y 8 xy 1
V d 437. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2

1 4 xy 8 x y

ng

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn Bn Tre Tnh Bn Tre

kh
a

16 x2 8 y 3 .x y 4 1 0
16 8 y 3 y 4 1

2
y 2 1 nn
Phn tch. H 2
v
c
2
8

4
y
y

1
8
x

4
y
.
x

16 x2 8 x 0
2(8 x2 4 x) 0

2
s c y 1. Khi vit li 2
nn ta s ly phng

8 x 4 x 0
8 x 4 x 0
trnh (1) 2.(2) v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
16 x2 8 y 3 .x y 4 1 0 (1)

2
2
(2)

8 x 4 y.x y 1 0

Li gii. H

Ly (1) 2.(2) y4 8xy3 16x2 1 2(8x2 y2 4xy 1) 0


y4 8xy3 16x2 1 16x2 2 y2 8xy 2 0
( y4 2 y2 1) 8xy3 8xy 0 ( y2 1)2 8xy( y2 1) 0
( y2 1)( y2 1 8xy) 0 y 1 hoc 8xy y 2 1.

331

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Vi y 1, th vo (1) 16x2 8x 0 x 0 hoc x

1
Vi y 1, th vo (1) 16x2 8x 0 x 0 hoc x
2
2
y 1
(do y 0 khng l nghim h) v th vo:
Vi 8 xy y 2 1 x
8y
2

.v
n

y2 1
y2 1 3
4
4
2
(1) 16
y 8
y 1 0 5 y 6 y 1 0
8
y
8
y

y 1 x 0
1
y 2 1 hoc y 2
5
5
5
y

5
10

om

5
5
1

Kt lun: Th li, tp nghim h S ( x; y) ; 1 ;(0; 1);


;

2
10
5

()

ok

.c

2( x y)(25 xy) 4 x2 17 y 2 105

V d 438. Gii h phng trnh: 2


2

x y 2x 2 y 7

bo

Phn tch. Nu vit h theo phng trnh bc hai n x th s khng tm c h s t


2
2
2

( 17 2 x) y (50 2 x ) y 4 x 50 x 105 0
l, nhng vit theo y: 2
v c t l:
2

y 2 y x 2x 7 0

kh
a

ng

vi

et

17 2 x 50 2 x2 4 x2 50 x 105

x 2. Th x 2 vo h ta c:
1
2
x2 2x 7
21( y 2 2 y 1) 0

Do cn ly (1) 21.(2) c: ( x 2). f ( x) 0.


2

y 2y 1 0
4 x2 17 y 2 2 x2 y 2 xy 2 50 x 50 y 105 0 (1)

Li gii. H () 2
2
(2)

x y 2x 2 y 7 0
Ly phng trnh (2) nhn vi 21, ri cng vi phng trnh (1) c:

17 x2 4 y2 2x2 y 2xy2 92x 8 y 252 0


(17 x2 92x 252) (4 y2 2xy2 ) (8 y 2x2 y) 0

( x 2)(17 x 126) 2 y2 (2 x) 2 y(4 x2 ) 0


x 2 y 1
( x 2) 17 x 126 2 y 2 2 y(2 x) 0
2
2 y 2(2 x) y 17 x 126 0
Vi 2 y2 2(2 x)y 17 x 126 0 v kt hp vi (2) c h:
2

2 y 2(2 x) y 17 x 126 0
2
2

x y 2x 2 y 7 0

332

(3)
(4)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Ly 3.(4) (3) 3x2 y2 2xy 23x 10 y 105 0


( x y 5)2 2x2 x 80 0 : v nghim do 2x2 x 80 0, x .

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (2;1)

2
3
(1)
6 x y 2 y 35 0
V d 439. Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2
5x 5y 2xy 5x 13y 0 (2)
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn Lng Vn Chnh Ph Yn

om

.v
n

2
3

5
6 yx 2 y 35 0
Phn tch. H 2
v nu y th c:
2
2

5x (2 y 5)x 5 y 13 y 0
2 5

15
2
3 5x 0
15x 4 0
4

, do ly (1) 3.(2) s c phng trnh

5
5x 2 0
5x 2 5 0

4
4
tch s dng (2 y 5). f ( x) 0 v c li gii chi tit nh sau:

.c

Li gii. Ly phng trnh (2) nhn vi 3, ri cng vi phng trnh (1)

ok

c: 15x2 15y2 6xy 15x 39 y 6x2 y 2 y3 35 0

y(2 y2 7 y 5) 3x2 (5 2 y) 3x(5 2 y) (8 y2 34 y 35) 0

bo

y( y 1)(2 y 5) 3x2 (2 y 5) 3x(2 y 5) (2 y 5)(4 y 7) 0

ng

vi

et

2
2

1
(2 y 5)( y 2 5 y 3x2 3x 7) 0 (2 y 5) y 3 x 0
2
2

5
15
1
y v th vo (1) 15x2
0x
2
4
2
1 5
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ;
2 2

kh
a

3
2

(1)
x 3xy 49
V d 440. Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2
(2)

x 8 xy y 8 y 17 x
Hc sinh gii Quc Gia nm 2004 Bng B
2
3
2

3xy x 49 0
3( y 16) 0

1
Phn tch. 2
Nu
th
h
2
2

y 8( x 1) y x 17 x 0
y 16 0
Khi , ta nhn 3 vo phng trnh (2) ri cng vi phng trnh (1) v c li gii.
Li gii. Ly phng trnh (2) nhn vi 3, ri cng vi phng trnh (1)

c: ( x3 3x2 51x 49) (3xy2 3y2 ) 24xy 24 y 0


( x 1)( x2 2x 49) 3y2 ( x 1) 24 y( x 1) 0
( x 1)( x2 2x 49 3y2 24 y) 0 ( x 1) ( x 1)2 3( y 4)2 0

333

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x 1
Th x 1 vo (1) 3y2 48 y 4.
x 1 hoc
y

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1; 4)


2
3
(1)
3x y y 14 0
V d 441. Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2
2 x 2 y 2 xy 4 x 5 y 0 (2)
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Bc Liu Tnh Bc Liu

om

.v
n

2
3

3 yx y 14 0
Phn tch. Vit h 2
v nu y 2 th h:
2

2 x (2 y 4)x 2 y 5 y 0
2
2

6 x 6 0
3(2 x 2) 0
nn s ly phng trnh: (1) 3.(2).
2
2

2 x 2 0
2 x 2 0
Li gii. Ly phng trnh (2) nhn vi 3, ri cng vi phng trnh (1)

c: (3yx2 y 3 14) 3 2x2 (2 y 4)x 2 y 2 5y 0

.c

3yx2 y3 14 6x2 6xy 12x 6y 2 15y 0

ok

(3yx2 6x2 ) (6xy 12x) ( y3 6 y2 15y 14) 0


3x2 ( y 2) 6x( y 2) ( y 2)( y2 4 y 7) 0

bo

( y 2)(3x2 6x y2 4 y 7) 0 ( y 2) 3( x 1)2 ( y 2)2 0

et

x 1

y 2 hoc
y 2
Vi y 2 th vo (1) 6x2 6 0 x 1.

vi

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1; 2)

kh
a

ng

Nhm IV. Tm mi lin h tuyn tnh gia x v y (nhn thm bin s)


Cc th d trn ti tm ra c h s t l, t la chn h s nhn vo phng
trnh thch hp, ri cng li. i vi bi ton khng tm c h s t l th ta s lm
nh th no ? Cu tr li c trnh by qua cc bc gii nh sau:
Bc 1. Tm hai cp nghim ca h phng trnh, chng hn: ( x1 ; y1 ), ( x2 ; y2 ).
Bc 2. Tm quan h tuyn tnh gia hai nghim ny (thc cht l vit phng
trnh ng thng qua hai im A( x1 ; y1 ), B( x2 ; y2 ) trong mp Oxy).
Bc 3. Th quan h tuyn tnh sao cho c li nht vo h v phn tch thnh nhn
t. T xc nh c biu thc nhn vo phng trnh.
Tuy nhin, cch ny s khng gii quyt c nu ta khng nhm c hai cp nghim
hoc nghim qu l khng d c bng my tnh b ti.
2 2

x y 3x 3 y 3 0
V d 442. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2

x y 4xy 3y 2 y x 1 0

334

(1)
(2)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Phn tch. Nhn thy h c nghim: ( x; y) (0;1);(1; 0). Quan h tuyn tnh gia hai
x2 (1 x)2 0
nghim l: x y 1 hay y 1 x. Thay vo h ta c:
nn s ly
2
x(1 x) 0
(1) x.(2) v phn tch s c nhn t dng ( x y 1). f ( x) 0.

Li gii. Ly phng trnh (2) nhn vi x ri cng vi phng trnh (1)


c: x3 y 4x2 y 3xy2 2xy x2 x x2 y 2 3x 3y 3 0

( x3 y x2 y2 x2 y) ( x2 xy x) (3x2 y 3xy 2 3xy) 3x 3y 3 0

x2 y( x y 1) x( x y 1) 3xy( x y 1) 3( x y 1) 0

om

.v
n

y 1 x
( x y 1)( x2 y x 3xy 3) 0 2

x y 3xy x 3 0
x 0 y 1

Vi y 1 x, th vo (1) x(1 x)2 0


x 1 y 0

Vi x2 y 3xy x 3 0 yx2 (3y 1)x 3 0 c x (3y 1)2 .

.c

ok

Suy ra: x 3 hoc x

Khi x 3, th vo (1) 9 y2 3y 6 0 : v nghim.


1
, th vo (1) 3y2 2 y 1 0 : v nghim.
y

bo

Khi x

et

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (0;1);(1; 0)

vi

2
2

3x xy 9 x y 9 y 0
V d 443. Gii h phng trnh: 3
2

2 x 20 x x y 20 y 0

(1)
(2)

( x; y ).

ng

Phn tch. Nhn thy ( x; y) (0; 0),(2; 1) l hai cp nghim ca h. Do phng


trnh ng thng i qua hai im (0; 0) v (2; 1) l: x 2 y 0 x 2 y. Th

kh
a

9 y( y 1) 0
vo h, ta c:
nn ly 20( y 1).(1) 9.(2) s thu c
20 y( y 1)( y 1) 0
phng trnh tch s dng: ( x 2 y). f ( x) 0 v c li gii chi tit nh sau:

Li gii. Ly 20( y 1) nhn vi phng trnh (1) ri cng 9 nhn vi (2)


c: 20( y 1)(3x2 xy 9x y2 9 y) 9(2x3 20x x2 y 20 y) 0
( x 2 y)(18x2 15xy 60x 10 y 2 80 y) 0
x 2 y hoc 18x2 15xy 60x 10 y2 80 y 0.

y 0
y 1

hoc
Vi x 2 y , th vo (1) 9 y 2 9 y 0
x 0
x 2
Vi 18x2 15xy 60x 10 y2 80 y 0, kt hp vi (1) c:

335

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


2
2

18 x 10 y 15xy 60 x 80 y 0
y l h cha hai tam thc, gii ra ta
2
2

3x y xy 9 x 9 y 0
15 145

tm c cc nghim: x; y 10;15 ;
;11 145 .

15 145

Kt lun: Tp nghim S ( x; y) (0; 0);( 1; 2);(10;15);


;11 145

BI TP RN LUYN

et

BT 535. Gii h phng trnh:

vi

BT 536. Gii h phng trnh:

ng

BT 537. Gii h phng trnh:

kh
a

2
2

2 x xy y 5x y 2
BT 538. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2

x y x y 4
3
2

x 3x x 3 y xy 3
BT 539. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2

2 y 3xy 9 x 3x y
2

x 5x xy 3 y 6
BT 540. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2

4 x y 3xy 2 y 9
3
2
2

x 2 y y x y 2xy x
BT 541. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
3

5 x 2 y 2 y 2 x 4 4

2 xy y x y 5
BT 542. Gii h phng trnh:

5 x 1 y 1

336

( x; y ).

.v
n

bo

BT 534. Gii h phng trnh:

om

BT 533. Gii h phng trnh:

.c

BT 532. Gii h phng trnh:

ok

BT 531. Gii h phng trnh:

2
2

2 y xy x 0
2
2

x xy y 3x 7 y 3 0
2
2

x 2 y 3xy x y 0
2
2

x 3y 4 y 1 0
3
2
2

2 x 2 x y xy y x y
3
2

2 x xy x 4
2
2

x 2 y xy x y 0
3
3
2
2

x y 2 x y y 1
2
2

4 x 4 xy y 2 x y 2

8 1 2 x y 9 0
3
2
2
3
2

x 3x y 4 x 4 y 16 xy 16 y

x 2y x y 2 3
2
2
3

2 x 8 xy xy 4 y 0

3
2

16 x 2 x 8 y 5 0

( x; y ).
( x; y ).
( x; y ).
( x; y ).
( x; y ).
( x; y ).
( x; y ).
( x; y ).
( x; y ).
( x; y ).

( x; y ).

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

BT 546. Gii h phng trnh:

2
BT 547. Gii h phng trnh:

4
3

x
BT 548. Gii h phng trnh:
3

.v
n

BT 545. Gii h phng trnh:

x 2 3x y 4 x y 2 x 1
2x 1 x 2 y 2 0

om

BT 544. Gii h phng trnh:

x y 1 y3 2y 1
y 3 5 xy x 1

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

.c

BT 543. Gii h phng trnh:

3
2
2

x 2 y x y 2 xy
( x; y ).

2
3
3

2 x 2 y 1 y 14 x 2

( y 1) x y ( x y 1) y x 0
( x; y ).
3

8 x 4 y 3( x y) 4 1

x y( x 1) x y y

( x 2 2 y x 6)( 2 y 1 3) 4
2
2

x xy 2 y xy 3 y
( x; y ).

y 1 x 1 x y 6

kh
a

ng

vi

et

bo

ok

4
4

x2 x1 y 1 y
BT 549. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
2
2

x 2 x( y 1) y 2 y 1 0
2
2
2
2 3

( x 1 3x y 2)( 4 y 1 1) 8 x y
BT 550. Gii h phng trnh:
2

x y x 2 0
3

x( x y) x y 2 y ( 2 y 1)
BT 551. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
3

x y 5x 7( x y) 4 6 xy x 1
2
2
2

y 3 y 2 y 3x 6 3x 7 x 7 2
BT 552. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2

3 y 4 x 3 y 3 x 1 0

( x y 2) x 1 y
( x; y ).
BT 553. Gii h phng trnh:
(4

x
)
x

3
y

2
1

(1 y) x y x 3 y 6 ( x y 4) y

BT 554. Gii h phng trnh:


5
x 2y x 1
x y7

3 x3 x2 y 2 xy . x xy 1 y 2

BT 555. Gii h phng trnh:


2

( x 1) x 1 x x y y 2 4 x 3 y

x 3 x 3 3 y 5 y
( x; y ).
BT 556. Gii h phng trnh:
2

x 16( y x) y 2 xy

337

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

BT 562.
BT 563.
BT 564.
BT 565.

.v
n

kh
a

BT 567.

ng

vi

BT 566.

om

BT 561.

.c

BT 560.

ok

BT 559.

bo

BT 558.

et

BT 557.

2 x 3xy 2 x y 0
Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2

x 2 xy 2 y 3x 0
4
2
2

2 y y 3x 2 y xy 4 0
Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2
2
2

x (3 2 y ) ( x y) 9 y 4 y 6
4
2
2

x 4x y 6 y 9 0
Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2

x y x 2 y 22 0
3
2
2

x x y 3x y (5y 7 x)
Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
3
2
3
2

( x y) x y 2 y x( y 6)
3
3

x y 91
Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2

4 x 3 y 16 x 9 y
4
4

x y 1215
Gii h phng trnh: 3
( x; y ).
3
2
2

2 x 4 y 9( x 4 y ) 18( x 8 y)
3
2

y 3x y 28
Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2

x 6 xy y 6 x 10 y
3
2

x 5xy 8 0
Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2

2 x 5xy 5 y x 10 y 10
3
2

x y ( x y)( xy 1)
Gii h phng trnh: 3
( x; y ).
2

x x y 1 xy( x y 1)
2
2

x y xy x 5y 0
Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
2

2 xy y 5 y 1 0
2 2
2

4 x y 6 xy 3 y 9
Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2

6 x y y 9 x 0
4
3
2
2

9 x 24 y xy 7 y 16 x 24 y
( x; y ).
Gii h phng trnh: 3
2
3

8 y 9 y 20 y 6 y 1 15 x
Hc sinh gii tnh Qung Bnh nm 2014
2
2
2
2

( x y)( x xy y 3) 3( x y ) 2
Gii h phng trnh:
2

4 x 2 16 3 y x 8
thi th i hc 2013 THPT Lng Ti 2 Bc Ninh

3 y 2 1 2 y( x 1) 4 y x2 2 y 1
( x; y ).
Gii h phng trnh:

y( y x) 3 3 y
thi th i hc 2013 THPT Thi Ha Ngh An

BT 568.

BT 569.

BT 570.

338

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

om

.v
n

4
2 2
2
3
2
3

x x y xy x y x y y
BT 571. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
2

x y 1 y 7
ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 THPT Hu Ngha Long An
2
2
2
3

x 2 ( y y 1) x 2 y y 0
BT 572. Gii h phng trnh:
2

2 x xy 2 ( x 2) y 4 x 4 0
ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn L Hng Phong Tp. H Ch Minh
3
2
2

2 y (4 x) y 4 y x 2 x 0
BT 573. Gii h phng trnh:
2
3

3.( x 1 4( x y 1) ( x 1) 8( y 1)
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn Lng Vn Chnh Ph Yn
2
2

x y 1 2x 2 y
BT 574. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).

(2 x y).y 1 2 y

.c

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 THPT KRng N k Nng


x2 y 2 2x 2 y 1 0

BT 575. Gii h phng trnh:


( x; y ).

x( x 2 y 2) 1

ok

Hc sinh gii tnh Bn Tre nm 2011

4 x y 4 xy 1
BT 576. Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2

4 x 2 y 4 xy 2
Hc sinh gii tnh Lm ng nm 2011
4
4
x y 240

BT 577. Gii h phng trnh: 3


( x; y ).
3
2
2

x 2 y 3( x 4 y ) 4( x 8 y)
Hc sinh gii Quc Gia nm 2010
4
4

15 x y
BT 578. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
2
3
2
3

16 x 12 x 4 x 2 y 3y 2 y
4

ng

vi

et

bo

kh
a

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn Bn Tre Tnh Bn Tre


x3 y 3 3y 2 9

BT 579. Gii h phng trnh: 2


( x; y ).
2

x y x 4 y
Olympic khu vc Duyn Hi & ng Bng Bc B 2011

2 x 2 y 2 x y 2 xy 1 1
BT 580. Gii h phng trnh:
( x 0).
3
3

3y 1 8x 2 y 1
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn Phan Ngc Hin C Mau
3
3
2
2

6 x y x y 2xy 0
( x; y ).
BT 581. Gii h: 2
2
2
2
2
(
x

3)
x

(
x

5)
y

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn Hng Vng Gia Lai


339

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

3. GIAI HE PHNG TRNH BANG CACH AT AN PHU

Cc php t n ph rt a dng v phong ph. Ty vo mi h phng trnh


m ta cn phi khai thc cc c im ring v cu trc ca tng h tm ra
php t n ph nhm a v nhng h c bn (i xng loi I, II, ng cp,
cc h gii c bng php th, php cng, hm s,).

1. Dng 1. t 1 n ph a v phng trnh bc 2, bc 3,


( x; y ).

(2)

2x y
2 y

v
3 3x
3x

om

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1) c hai hng t:

(1)

.v
n

2 y
3x
5

V d 442. Gii h phng trnh: 3 3x


2x y 2
3
3
2
x y 2 xy 21 0

3x
l dng
2x y

1
v khi s
t
a c v phng trnh bc 2 theo t, suy ra mi quan h gia x, y, ri th vo
phng trnh cn li. T , ta c li gii chi tit nh sau:
(i)

2x y
1 5
1
0 th (i) t 2t 2 5t 2 0 t 2 hoc t
3x
t 2
2

et

t t

2x y
2x y
3x
5

0. Ta c: (1)
3x
2x y 2
3x

bo

Li gii. iu kin

ok

.c

nghch o ca nhau. Nu t t l mt hng t th hng t cn li l

ng

vi

2x y
2 y 10 x. Th vo (2) 1199x3 11 0
3x
1
10
x
y

3
3
109
109

Vi t 2

2x y 1
1
5

y x. Th vo (2) x3 64 x 4 y 5.
2
3x
2
4

1
10

;
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) (4; 5);

3
3
109

109

kh
a

Vi t

2 2 x y 3 2 x y
V d 443. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2

x 2 xy y 2

(1)
(2)

( x; y ).

Cao ng nm 2010
Phn tch. Nhn thy (1) 2x y 2 2x y 3 0 v nu t t 2x y 0,
th s tr thnh phng trnh bc 2 n t. T gii tm t v suy ra mi lin h gia x
v y, ri th vo phng trnh cn li. Ta c li gii chi tit nh sau:
340

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Li gii. iu kin: 2x y 0. Ta c: (1) 2x y 2 2x y 3 0 (i )


t t 2x y 0 t 2 2x y.
(i) t 2 2t 3 0 t 1 (nhn) hoc t 3 0 (loi).

Vi t 1 2x y 1 y 1 2x.
x 1 y 1
Th y 1 2x, vo (2) x2 2 x 3 0

x 3 y 7
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (1; 1);( 3;7)

.v
n

(1)
y 8 1 2x 9 0
V d 444. Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2
(2)
4
x

2
x

2(1

2
xy
)

om

Phn tch. (2) c dng hng ng thc: (2) (4x2 4xy y2 ) (2x y) 2 0
(2x y)2 (2x y) 2 0. y l phng trnh bc 2 vi n t 2x y , tm t s

tm c mi lin h gia x v y, t th vo (1) c x, y v c li gii chi tit sau:

ok

.c

1
2
(2) (4x2 4xy y2 ) (2x y) 2 0 (2 x y)2 (2 x y) 2 0

Li gii. iu kin: 1 2 x 0 x

(i)

t t 2x y , th (i) t t 2 0 t 1 hoc t 2.

bo

Vi t 1, suy ra: y 1 2x, th vo (1) (1 2x)2 8 1 2 x 9 0

(3)

et

t u 1 2x 0 th (3) u4 8u 9 0 (u 1)(u3 u2 u 9) 0
u 1, (do : u3 u2 u 9 0, u 0) x 0 y 1.

vi

Vi t 2, suy ra: y 2 2x, th vo (1) (2 2x)2 8 1 2x 9 0 (4)

ng

t v 1 2x 0 2x 1 v2 th (4) (3 v2 )2 8v 9 0

kh
a

7 15
v4 6v2 8v 0 v( v3 6v 8) 0 v v( v 1)2 2 v 0
4
8

7 15
v 0, suy ra: x y 3. Do v( v 1)2 2 v
0, v 0.
2
4
8

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) (0;1); ; 3


2

y 4 2 xy 2 7 y 2 x2 7 x 8 (1)
V d 445. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
2
3 y 13 15 2 x x 1 (2)
thi th i hc 2013 THPT Trn Ph H Tnh

Phn tch. (1) c dng hng ng thc, tc (1) ( y4 2 y2 x x2 ) 7( y2 x) 8 0


341

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

( y2 x)2 7( y2 x) 8 0 v t t y 2 x th (1) c th vit li dng phng

trnh bc 2. T suy ra t v tm c mi lin h gia x v y.


15
Li gii. iu kin: 1 x
2
(1) ( y4 2 y2 x x2 ) 7( y2 x) 8 0 ( y2 x)2 7( y2 x) 8 0

(i)

t t y x, suy ra (i) t 7t 8 0 t 1 hoc t 8.


2

Vi t 1, suy ra y 2 x 1, th vo (2) 3x 16 15 2x x 1

3x 16 15 2x x 1 2x ( x 1)(15 2x)

.v
n

6x2 13x 15 0, ( x 0) x 3, suy ra: y2 4 y 2.

15
1
15
8 0, x
: nn loi y 2 x 8.
2
2
2
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (3; 2);(3; 2)

om

Vi y 2 x 8

ok

.c

x3 y 3 3 ( x y)(3xy 2) (1)

V d 446. Gii h phng trnh: y 2 2


( x; y ).
1

(2)
3
2x 1 3 y 3

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1) c dng hng ng thc ( x y)3 x3 y3 3xy( x y) khi

bo

vit (1) x3 y3 3xy( x y) 2( x y) 3 0 ( x y)3 2( x y) 3 0. Lc


ny nu t t x y , thu c phng trnh bc 3 theo t, t suy ra mi lin h

et

gia x, y, ri th vo phng trnh cn li s tm c x, y v c li gii nh sau:


Li gii. iu kin: y 2, x 13.

vi

(1) x3 y3 3xy( x y) 2( x y) 3 0 ( x y)3 2( x y) 3 0

(i)

ng

t t x y , th (i) t 3 2t 3 0 (t 1)(t 2 t 3) 0 t 1.

kh
a

Vi t 1, suy ra y x 1 v th vo (2)

x1 2
3

2x 1 3

1
,
x2

x 1
K :

x 13

( x 2)( x 1 2) 2x 1 3 2x 1 2x 1 ( x 1) x 1 x 1
3

3 2x 1 ( 3 2x 1)3 x 1 ( x 1)3 f ( 3 2x 1) f ( x 1).

Xt hm s f (t) t t 3 trn c f (t) 1 3t 2 0, t nn hm s f (t )


tng trn .
Suy ra: f ( 3 2x 1) f ( x 1) 3 2x 1 x 1 (2x 1)2 ( x 1)3 0
x 1
1 5
1 5

3
x 0 y 1 hoc x
y

2
2
2

x x x 0

1 5 5 1

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) (0; 1);


;

2

342

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x 3 2 ( y 1)(3 y x)

V d 447. Gii h phng trnh:


x5
xy 2 y 2
3y 2
2

(1)
(2)

Phn tch. Nhn thy biu thc trong cn ca phng trnh (1) c dng tch s nn
ta s phn tch biu thc ngoi cn thnh dng tng ca 2 biu thc tch ny. Tht
vy, ta c: x 3 a.( y 1) b.(3y x) b.x (a 3b).y 3 v ng nht h s c

3y x
3y x
3y x
2
, y l phng trnh bc 2 vi n t
0.
y 1
y 1
y 1

2
3

om

c: 3

.v
n

b 1
b 1
h
hay vit: (1) 3( y 1) (3y x) 2 ( y 1)(3 y x). T

a 3b 0
a 3
2
(2) c iu kin y nn chia cho lng dng y 1 2 v ca phng trnh ta
3

.c

Li gii. iu kin: y ; x 5; 3y x.

(i)

Vi t 1, suy ra:

bo

3y x
0, th (i) t 2 2t 3 0 t 1 hoc t 3 (loi).
y 1

3y x
1 3 y x y 1 x 2 y 1.
y 1

et

t t

3y x
3y x
2
y 1
y 1

ok

(1) 3( y 1) (3 y x) 2 ( y 1)(3 y x) 3

2
(2 y 1)( y 2) ( y 1)
2y 1 0
3y 2 y 2

3y 2 y 2

2( y 2)

ng

vi

Th x 2 y 1 vo (2) 3y 2 y 2 2 y 2 3y 2

kh
a

y 2 x 3 hoc (2 y 1)( 3y 2 y 2) 2

(ii )

2
14 6
th VT( ii ) (2 y 1)( 3 y 2 y 2)
2 nn (ii ) v nghim.
9
3
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (3; 2)

Vi y

Nhn xt. Bn cht ca vic chia phng trnh (1) l da vo tnh ng cp ca


phng trnh ny. Hin nhin, ta c th gii c bng cch t 2 n ph nh sau:
Ta c: (1) 3( y 1) (3y x) 2 ( y 1)(3 y x).
t a y 1 0, b 3y x 0 th phng trnh 3a2 b2 2ab c dng
ng cp vi 2 bin a v b. Ta c th chia cho a 0 hoc s dng casio
phn tch thnh tch s: (a b)(3a b) 0 a b x 2 y 1 s ngn gn hn.
343

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

2 2
1 2
(1)
y 3 x 12 y 1 12 ( x 17)

V d 448. Gii h phng trnh: 2


3
2
x 2x x x y
(2)
8 y 3
3y 4 2
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Thc Hnh Cao Nguyn k Lk

Phn tch. Nu vit (1) ( x2 12 y 1) 8 x2 12 y 1 16 0 th y l phng

th vo phng trnh cn li tm nghim v c li gii sau:


x3 x2
Li gii. iu kin: x2 12 y 1 0,

0, y 0.
3y 4

.v
n

trnh bc 2 vi n t x2 12 y 1 0. T s tm c mi lin h gia x v y v

om

(1) ( x2 12 y 1) 8 x2 12 y 1 16 0 (3) v t t x2 12 y 1 0 th:

36 x2
x2
x2 15
vo (2) 2
12 2
( x2 16 x 15) x2 16 x 15 0
12
x 15
x 15

ok

Th y

x2 15

12

.c

(3) t 2 8t 16 0 t 4, suy ra: t x2 12 y 1 4 y

vi

et

bo

x 2 16 x 15 0
x2 16 x 15 0

x2
x2
2

16
x

15

0
6
x2 16 x 15

2
2

15
x

15

2
2

x 16x 15 0
x 16x 15 0

2
2
2
2
2

36 x ( x 15)( x 16 x 15) 0
( x 2 x 15)( x 18 x 15) 0

1
81 36 6
hoc x 9 4 6 y

2
6

1
81 36 6

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) 3; ; 9 4 6;

2
6

Lu . Ta c th xut pht t phng trnh (2) khi xem n c dng ng cp bc 2:

kh
a

ng

x3 y

(2) 2

t a

x2 4 x 3 y x2 4x 3 y
x2 4 x x2 3 y x2 4x 3 y
2

8y 6
6 8y 6
6
8y 6 8y 6
8y 6
6

x2
4x 3y
0; b

0 th phng trnh a b 2 ab
8y
6
6

a2 2ab b2 4ab ( a b)2 0 a b

x2 4 x 3 y

8y 6
6

2
3x2 16xy 12 y2 0 ( x 6 y)(3x 2 y) 0 x 6 y hoc x y.
3

344

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

2. Dng 2. t n ph da vo tnh ng cp ca 1 phng trnh


x 2 y xy 0

V d 449. Gii h phng trnh: 3 x 6


1

4y 1

x 1
4y 1

(1)
(2)

( x; y ).

Phn tch. Nhn thy phng trnh (1) ca h l phng trnh ng cp vi n


x, y. Khi ta c 2 hng x l, mt l chia trc tip cho lng dng x 0. Hai l

.v
n

bin i v a v tch s, t tm c mi lin h gia x, y v th vo phng


trnh cn li. T c li gii chi tit nh sau:
1
1
Li gii. iu kin: xy 0, x 1, y , suy ra: x 1, y 0, y
4
4

om

(1) ( x )2 x. y 2( y )2 0 ( x 2 y ) ( x y ) 0

x 2 y 0, (do : x y 0, x 1, y 0) x 4 y.

x6
1

x 1 3 x 6 x 1 x2 1
x 1
x 1
S dng casio, tm c nghim duy nht x 2 nn s ghp hng s lin hp.

.c

( 3 x 6 2) ( x 1 1) x2 4
3

( x 6) 2 x 6 4
2

x2

( x 2)( x 2) 0

bo

x2

ok

Th x 4 y vo (2)

x 1 1

vi

et

1
1
( x 2)

( x 2) 0
2
3
x 1 1
( x 6 1) 3

ng

x20 x2y

1
1
1
hoc

x2
2
3
2
( x 6 1) 3
x 1 1

(3)

kh
a

1
1
1 1 4


VT(3) 3
2
Vi x 1 th
( x 6 1) 3
x 1 1 3 1 3 nn (3) v nghim.
VP x 2 1 2 3
(3)
1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) 2;
2

x y x y 2 y
(1)
V d 450. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
2
(1 x )(5 y 4 5 y 8) 4 x (2)

Phn tch. Nhn thy phng trnh (1) c tnh ng cp nn c th ly tha kh


du cn hoc chia trc tip cho lng x 0 sau khi kim tra x 0 khng l nghim.
Li gii. iu kin: x 0, y 0, x y 0.
345

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

(1) x ( x y)( x y) 2 y x 2 y ( x y)( x y) 0


1
3
( x y) ( x y) ( x y)( x y) 0
2
2

3( x y) ( x y) 2 ( x y)( x y) 0

(3)

t a x y 0, b x y 0 th (3) 3a2 2ab b2 0 (3a b)(a b) 0


Vi b 3a x y 3 x y x y 9x 9 y 5y 4x v th vo (2) th:

(2) (1 x ) ( x 2 x 2) x2 (1 x ) x 2(1 x ) x2 (4)

x
1 x

t 2, suy ra:

x2
(1 x )

v t t

x
1 x

0 th c t 2 t 2 0

om

(4)

.v
n

Do x 1 khng l nghim nn chia hai v cho (1 x )2 ta c:

x 2 2 x
16 8 3

2
x42 3 y

5
1 x

x 0
x

ok

.c

x 0
: khng tha mn (2).
Vi a b 0 x y x y 0
y 0

3
1
, n nh trn.
2
2

vi

ng nht h s c m

et

bo

16 8 3

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) 4 2 3;


Nhn xt. Trong cch bin i sang (3), ti s dng ng nht thc biu din
x 2 y theo 2 hng t ( x y), ( x y) bng cch vit x 2 y m( x y) n( x y), ri

ng

(1)
x 2 4 y y 1
V d 451. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
2
2
2
(2)

22( y 1) ( x 9)( x 9 y)

kh
a

Phn tch. Nu vit (2) 22( y 1)2 ( x2 9) ( x2 9) 9( y 1) th phng trnh


(2) c tnh ng cp bc 2 vi 2 n y 1 v x2 9. T c li gii chi tit nh sau:

Li gii. iu kin: y 1.
(2) 22( y 1)2 ( x2 9) ( x2 9) 9( y 1)

(3)

t a y 1, b x2 9 9 th (3) 22a2 b(b 9a) 22a2 9ab b2 0


(2a b)(11a b) 0 b 2a hoc b 11a.

Vi b 2a, suy ra x2 2 y 11 v th vo (1) 4 y y 1 2 y 13

t t y 1 0 th (1) 4t 3 2t 2 4t 15 0

(4)

(5)

Xt hm s f (t) 4t 2t 4t 15 trn 0; c f (t) 12t 2 4t 4.


3

346

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Cho f (t ) 0 t
t

1 13
1 13
do t 0. T c bng bin thin:
t
6
6

f (t )

1 13
6
0

15

f (t )

386 13 13
27
386 13 13
0.
27

.v
n

T bng bin thin, suy ra f (t ) 4t 3 2t 2 4t 15

om

Do phng trnh (5) v nghim khi b 2a.


Vi b 11a, suy ra: x2 2 11y v th vo phng trnh (2) c:
(2) 11y 4 y y 1 y( y 1 11) 0 y 0 x 2.

.c

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) ( 2; 0);( 2; 0)


(1)
( x; y ).
(2)

bo

ok

x 2 y 2 1 y 2 y 1 0
V d 452. Gii h phng trnh:
2
4
( x y)( x 4 y y) 3 y 0

Phn tch. Nu bin i (2) ( x y)2 4( x y)y 2 3y 4 0 th c dng ng cp

et

bc 2 vi 2 bin a x y , b y 2 . T tm c mi lin h x, y v c li gii sau:

Li gii. iu kin: x 2 y2 1 0. t a x y , b y 2 0.

vi

(2) a2 4ab 3b2 0 (a b)(a 3b) 0 a b hoc a 3b.

ng

Vi a b, suy ra x y y2 x y2 y v th vo phng trnh (1):

(1) y2 y 1 y2 y 1 0 ( y 2 y 1) y 2 y 1 2 0

kh
a

y 2 y 1 1 (loi) hoc

y2 y 1 2 y2 y 3 0

1 13
1 13
x 4 13 hoc y
x 4 13.
2
2
Vi a 3b, suy ra x y 3y2 x 3y2 y v th vo phng trnh (1):
y

(1) y2 y 1 y 2 y 1 0 y 1 x 2.

1 13

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim S ( x; y) ( 2; 1); 4 13;


( x 6 y 3) xy 3 y y(8 y 3x 9)
V d 453. Gii h:
2

x 8 x 24 y 417 ( y 3) y 1 3 y 17

(1)
(2)

347

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. Nu vit (1) ( x 3) 6 y y ( x 3) y 8 y 3( x 3) th y l


phng trnh ng cp bc 4 vi 2 bin a x 3, b y v c li gii chi tit sau:
a x 3 0
y 1, x 3

x 8 x 24 y 417 0
b y 1

Li gii. iu kin:

(1) ( x 3) 6 y y( x 3) y 8 y 3( x 3) (a2 6b2 )ab b2 (8b2 3a2 )

a3 6ab2 8b3 3a2 b, (do : b 1) a3 3a2 b 6ab2 8b3 0

Vi a 2b, suy ra

.v
n

b 15b2
0 a 2b.
( a 2b)( a2 ab 4b2 ) 0 ( a 2b) a
2
4

x 3 2 y x 4 y 3 v th vo phng trnh (2) th:

(2) 4 ( y 4)(6 y) ( y 3) y 1 3 y 17

om

(3)

ok

.c

Cauchy

4 ( y 4).(6 y) 2.( y 4 6 y) 20
(4)
Ta c: y 1 :

(5)
( y 3) y 1 3 y 17 3 17 20
Nghim ca (3) l cc gi tr lm cho du " " (4), (5) xy ra y 1 x 1.

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1;1)

vi

et

bo

2
8 xy
2
16
x y
x
y

V d 454. Gii h phng trnh: 2


3
2
x 2x x x y
8y 3
3y 4 2

( x; y ).
(2)

x3 x2

0.
3y 4

x2 4 x 3 y x2 4x 3 y
x2 4 x x2 3 y x2 4x 3 y
2

8y 6
6 8y 6
6
8y 6 8y 6
8y 6
6

kh
a

(2) 2

ng

Li gii. iu kin: y 0, x y 0,

(1)

t a

x2
4x 3y
0; b

0 th phng trnh a b 2 ab
8y
6
6

a2 2ab b2 4ab (a b)2 0 a b 3x2 16xy 12y 2 0

( x 6 y)(3x 2 y) 0 x 6 y hoc 3x 2 y.

48
4
24
y 16 y x

7
7
7
Vi 3x 2 y , th vo (1) 13y2 144 y 144 0 y 12 x 8.

Vi x 6 y , th vo (1) 37 y 2

24 4
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) ( 8;12); ;
7 7

348

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


2

y( x 3) 4 x y 1 1 (1)
V d 455. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
3
(2)
x

3
y

Phn tch. Ta s khng lm g c phng trnh (2), khi ta s xut pht t


2

(1) y( x2 3) 4 1 x y 1

y.( x2 3) 4 1 2 x y 1 x2 ( y 1)

3y 3 2x y 1 x2 3( y 1) 2x y 1 x2 0. y l phng trnh ng

Li gii. iu kin: y( x2 3) 4 0, y 1.
T (2) c

.v
n

cp bc 2 vi 2 n a y 1, b x. T c li gii chi tit nh sau:


y 1 0 nn x3 x 4 0 x( x2 1) 4 x 0.
2

om

(1) y( x2 3) 4 1 x y 1 y( x2 3) 4 1 x y 1

y.( x2 3) 4 1 2x y 1 x2 ( y 1) 3y 3 2x y 1 x2
(3)

.c

3( y 1) 2x y 1 x2 0

ok

t a y 1 0, b x 0 th (3) 3a2 2ab b2 0 (a b)(3a b) 0


a b, (do : 3a b 0, a 0, b 0).

y 1 x v th vo (2) x3 2x 4 0 x 2 y 3.

bo

Vi a b, suy ra:

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (2; 3)


(1)
(2)

vi

et

x (2 y)x 4 0
V d 456. Gii h phng trnh:
2

x 2 y ( x 1)(5 y) 4 1

ng

Phn tch. Phng trnh (1) c dng bc 2 vi n x, nhng khi kim tra bit s delta
khng l s chnh phng nn s kh phn tch thnh tch s. Lc s quan tm n

kh
a

phng trnh (2) ( x2 1)(5 y) 4 1 x 2 y v ly tha ln. Nhng khi


ly tha s pht sinh iu kin, gy phc tp v khc phc iu ny ta s tm iu
kin cho x. Vi 2 y 0 th (1) x2 4 x(2 y) x 0 v 2 v u dng nn
s ly tha ln, tc phng trnh ( x2 1)(5 y) 4 1 2x 2 y x2 (2 y)
3x2 2x 2 y (2 y) 0. y l phng trnh ng cp bc 2 vi 2 n a x,
b 2 y v s tm c mi lin h gia x, y, ri th vo (1) th bi ton c gii.

Li gii. iu kin: y 2, ( x2 1)(5 y) 4 0.


Vi 2 y 0 th (1) x2 4 x(2 y) x 0. Khi :
2

(2) ( x2 1)(5 y) 4 1 x 2 y ( x2 1)(5 y) 4 1 x 2 y

349

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

( x2 1)(5 y) 3 2x 2 y x2 (2 y) 3x2 2x 2 y (2 y) 0 (3)

t a x 0, b 2 y 0 th (3) 3a2 2ab 1 0 ( a b)(3a b) 0


a b hoc 3a b : loi do a 0, b 0.

Vi a b, suy ra:

2 y x 2 y x2 v th vo phng trnh (1) th:

(1) x3 x2 4 0 ( x 2)( x2 x 2) 0 x 2 y 2.

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (2; 2)

om

.v
n

x2 y 2
x 2 xy y 2

xy
(1)
V d 457. Gii h phng trnh:
2
3

(2)
x 2 xy 5x 3 4 xy 5x 3
Tp ch Ton Hc & Tui Tr s 407

Phn tch. Nhn thy phng trnh (1) c tnh ng cp. Ngoi ra (1) cn mang
tnh cht i xng vi 2 bin x, y nn ta c th d on c x y. Hin nhin cng

.c

gii c bng phng php nh gi bi bt ng thc vi im ri x y. Cn nu


s dng tnh cht ng cp cng c gi tr x y v c cc li gii sau:

bo

ok

2 xy 5x 3 0
Do x y 0 khng l nghim ca h nn ta ch
iu kin:
x y 0
xt trong iu kin: 2xy 5x 3 0, x y 0.

Li gii 1. S dng tnh ng cp ca phng trnh (1).

t t

2( x y)

( x 2 y 2 ) ( x y )2

vi

x2 y 2

6( x y)

x2 y 2
2( x y)

x2 y 2
6( x y)

1
1
6

x2 y 2
t2 1
t2 1

1 t
th
phng
trnh

0
3 6
3 6
2( x y)2

ng

(1)

et

Chia 2 v ca phng trnh (1) cho lng x y 0, ta c:

kh
a

t 1
1

2
t
2

4t 12t 5 0

Vi t

1
, suy ra:
2

x2 y 2
2( x y)2

x2 y 2
1
1

2( x2 y 2 ) ( x y)2
2
2
4
2( x y)

2x2 2 y2 x2 2xy y2 ( x y)2 0 x y 0.

Th x y vo (2) x 2x2 5x 3 4x2 5x 3


2x2 5x 3 x 2x2 5x 3 6x2 0 v t a 2x2 5x 3, b x th:

a2 ab 6b2 0 (a 2b)(a 3b) 0 a 2b hoc a 3b.

Vi a 2b, suy ra:


350

2x2 5x 3 2x x 3 y 3.

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

2x2 5x 3 3x : v nghim do x 0.

Vi a 3b, suy ra:

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (3; 3)

Li gii 2. S dng bt ng thc vi im ri x y.

Ta c:

x2 y 2

2
2

Cauchy Schwarz

x xy y
( x y) x.y

3
3
2

( x y )2 1
( x y)
4
2

Cauchy

( x y )2
1
4
( x y)
3
2

( x y )2

x2 y 2
x2 xy y 2

x y v du ng thc xy ra khi x y 0.
2
3

Th x y vo (2) x 2x2 5x 3 4x2 5x 3

om

(3)

.v
n

Suy ra:

x2 y 2

.c

Ngoi cch x l phng trnh (3) bng cch a v dng ng cp nh li gii 1, ta


c th s dng phng php lin hp hoc bnh phng trc tip c phng trnh
bc 4 khi bit trc c 1 nghim x 3.
Hng 1. Ghp hng s lin hp.
x(2 x2 5x 33)

bo

4 x2 11x 3

x( x 3)(2 x 11)

( x 3)(4x 1)
2 x 2 5x 3 6
x 3 y 6

2 x2 11x

( x 3)
(4 x 1) 0
2 x2 11x
2
4 x 1 (4)
2 x 5x 3 6

2 x2 5x 3 6

2 x 5x 3 6
2

et

ok

(3) x 2x2 5x 3 4x2 5x 3 x.( 2x2 5x 3 6) 4x2 11x 3

kh
a

ng

vi

5 73
4 x 5x 3 0
Do vi iu kin:
x
1, th:
8
x

(4) 2x2 11x (4 x 1)( 2 x2 5x 3 6) (4 x 1) 2( x 1) 2 x 1 6

(4x 1) ( x 1) 6 (4x 1)( x 7) 4 x2 29 x 7 2 x2 11x.

Suy ra phng trnh (4) v nghim.


Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (3; 3)
Hng 2. Ly tha trc tip.

5 73
2

4 x 5x 3 0; x 0
x
(3) 2

8
2
2

14 x4 45x3 2 x2 30 x 9 0
x (2 x 5x 3) (4 x 5x 3)

5 73
x 3
x

Do 14x3 3x2 11x 3 0.


8
y

( x 3)(14 x3 3x 2 11x 3) 0

351

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

.v
n

3. Dng 3. t n ph a v h phng trnh c bn


Trong phn ny, ta s tip cn mt s k thut thng gp sau:
Bin i 1 phng trnh pht hin ra n ph d kin v da vo n
ph d kin ny bin i phng trnh cn li.
Da vo nh l Vit tm ra php t n ph.
Chia xc nh lng n ph.
Lin hp pht hin lng n ph.
Da vo 1 s php bin i ng thc c bn xc nh lng n ph.
t n ph dng tng hiu: a x y , b x y.
a) Bin i 1 phng trnh pht hin ra n ph v da vo n ph ny
bin i phng trnh cn li.

.c

om

1
x x y 3 3 (1)
y

V d 458. Gii h phng trnh:


( I ) ( x; y ).
2 x y 1 8
(2)

Hc sinh gii tnh Hi Phng nm 2011

a b 3
1

0; b x y 3 0 th h ( I ) 2
2
y

a b 5

ng

t a x

vi

et

bo

ok

1
Phn tch. Nu bin i (2) x ( x y 3) 5 th gia 2 phng trnh c
y

1
nhng hng t ging nhau v t a x 0, b x y 3 0 s a c v
y
h i xng loi I v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
1
Li gii. iu kin: x 0, x y 3 0, y 0.
y

kh
a

ab 2
a 1
a 2
a b 3

hoc
2
( a b) 2ab 5
a b 3
b 2
b 1

a 1
,
Vi
b 2

a 2
,
Vi
b 1

x 4

1
y 3
x 1
y 7 x
y
2

suy ra:
x 8 x 6 0
x 4

xy3 2

y 3

1
y 4 x
x 2
x 5

y
2

suy ra:

y 1
x 8 x 15 0

x y3 1

10
10

10
10
x 3

y 1

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim S ( x; y) (5; 1);(3;1);(4 10; 3 10)


352

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

( x 1)( y 1)( x y 2) 6
V d 459. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2

x y 2x 2 y 3 0

(I )

( x 1) ( y 1) [( x 1) ( y 1)] 6

Phn tch. Bin i h


v t
2
2

( x 1) ( y 1) 5
s a c v h i xng loi I v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. t a x 1, b y 1.

( x; y ).

a x 1
th

b y 1

.v
n

ab( a b) 6
ab( a b) 6
2ab( a b) 12
(I) 2

2
2
2
a b 5
( a b) 2ab 5
2ab ( a b) 5

2
2

a b 3
2ab ( a b) 5
2ab ( a b) 5

2
3

ab 2
( a b) ( a b) 5 12
( a b) 5( a b) 12 0

.c

om

a 1
a 2 x 1 1
x 1 2
x 2
x 3
hoc
hoc
hoc

b 2
b 1 y 1 2
y 1 1
y 3
y 2
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (2; 3);(3; 2)

bo

ok

4
2
2

(1)
x 4 x 2 y 6 2 y 9
V d 460. Gii h phng trnh:
(I )
2
2
(2)

2 x y x 2 2 y 22
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Mc nh Chi Tp. H Ch Minh

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1) c th vit c di dng hng ng thc theo x, y, tc:

et

(1) ( x2 )2 4x2 4) ( 2 y)2 2 2 y.3 9 4 ( x2 2)2 ( y 2 3)2 4.

vi

T , ta s nh hng vit (2) theo a y 2 3, b x2 2 v c li gii nh sau:


( x2 )2 4 x2 4) ( 2 y)2 2 2 y.3 9 4

ng

Li gii. H ( I )

2
2

y 2( x 2) x 22

kh
a

( x2 2)2 ( y 2 3)2 4

( y 2 3) 3 ( x2 2) 4 ( x2 2) 20

( II )

a 2 b2 4
( a b)2 2ab 4

a y 2 3
(
II
)

t
th
h

b x 2
( a 3)(b 4) b 20
ab 4( a b) 8
a b 2
a b 10
a 2
a 0

hoc
(loi do: S2 4 P)
hoc
ab 0
ab 48
b 0
b 2
a 2
, suy ra:
Vi
b 0

x 2
y 2 3 2

2
5 2
x 2
y

353

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

3 2 3 2
y 2 3 0
( x; y) 2;
, 2;

2
2

x 2 2

5 2
3 2

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) 2;
; 2;

2
2

a 0
, suy ra:
Vi
b 2

2
3
2

(1)
x x y xy xy y 1
V d 461. Gii h phng trnh: 4
(I )
( x; y ).
2
(2)

x y xy(2 x 1) 1

Phn tch. Nhn thy (2) c dng hng ng thc: (2) ( x4 2x2 y y2 ) xy 1

.v
n

( x2 y)2 xy 1, nn s nh hng bin i phng trnh (1) v 2 hng t ny.

Tht vy: (1) ( x2 y) xy( x2 y) xy 1, nn s t a x2 y , b xy.


2
2

( x y) xy xy.( x y) 1
2
2

( x y) xy 1

( II )

om

Li gii. H ( I )

ok

.c

b 1 a 2
a x 2 y

a b ab 1
t
th ( II ) 2

2
2
a b 1
b xy
a 1 a a(1 a ) 1

a 1
a 2
a 0
b 1 a

hoc
hoc
2
a a 2a 0
b 1
b 0
b 3

2
y x2

x 1
x y 0

3
xy 1
x 1
y 1

a 1
, suy ra:
Vi
b 0

x 0
x 1
x 1
y x 1

2
x( x 1) 0
y 1
y 0
y 0

vi

et

bo

a 0
, suy ra:
Vi
b 1

2
2

x 1
x y 2
y x 2

2
xy 3
x( x 2) 3
y 3

ng

a 2
, suy ra:
Vi
b 3

kh
a

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (0; 1);( 1; 0);(1;1);( 1; 3)


2
5
3
2
x y x y xy xy 4 (1)
V d 462. Gii h phng trnh:
(I )
x 4 y 2 xy(1 2 x) 5
(2)

4
i hc khi A nm 2008

5
Phn tch. Nhn thy (2) c dng hng ng thc, tc (2) ( x2 y)2 xy ,
4
nn ta s bin i phng trnh (1) sao cho c cha 2 hng t ( x2 y), xy. Tht vy
(1) ( x2 y) xy( x2 y) xy

354

5
v t
4

a x 2 y
s a v h c bn.

b xy

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

2
5
2
( x y) xy xy( x y) 4
Li gii. H ( I )
( II )
( x 2 y)2 xy 5

5 2
4( a b ab) 5
a x 2 y

b a
t
th h ( II ) 2

5
2
b xy
a b
3

4
4( a a a) 0

.v
n

1
5
25
x2 y 0 x2 y
a 0
a
x 3 y 3

2
2
4
16

5
5
3
3

xy

xy

4 b

4
x 1 y

om

3 5
25

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h cn tm l S ( x; y) 1; ; 3 ; 3

2
4
16

.c

3
3
2
2

x y 3x 3 y 3( x y) 5
V d 463. Gii h phng trnh:

( x 1)( y 1)( x y 2) 2

(1)
(2)

(I )

ok

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1) c dng hng ng thc (a b)3 a3 3a2 b 3ab2 b3 ,
nn s vit (1) ( x3 3x2 3x 1) ( y3 3y2 3y 1) 7 ( x 1)3 ( y 1)3 7.

bo

Da vo 2 hng t ny bin i (2) ( x 1) ( y 1) ( x 1) ( y 1) 2 v t


2 n ph a x 1, b y 1 s a c v h c bn v c li gii chi tit nh sau:

et

3
3

( x 1) ( y 1) 7

Li gii. Ta c h ( I )

kh
a

ng

vi

( II )
( x 1) ( y 1) ( x 1) ( y 1) 2

a3 b3 7
a 3 t 3 7
a x 1

t
th h ( II )
vi b t.

b y 1
ab( a b) 2
at( a t ) 2
( a t )3 3at( a t ) 7
( a t )3 1
a t 1 a 2
a 1

at( a t ) 2
at( a t ) 2
at 2
t 1
t 2

a 2
a 1
x 1 2

Suy ra

Do :
b 1
b 2
y 1 1
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trnh l

x 1 1
x 1
x 2

y 1 2
y 2
y 1
S ( x; y) (1; 2);( 2; 1)

(1)
x y xy 2 x 12 y 24 0
V d 464. Gii h phng trnh: 3
3
2
2

x y 2( x y xy) 3( x y 2) (2)
Hc sinh gii tnh ng Nai nm 2014

355

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. Nhn thy (2) c dng hng ng thc: a3 b3 (a b) (a2 ab b2 ),


nu t a x2 xy y2 , b x y th a.b a3 b3 v (2) ab 2a 3(b 2), ().
T s nh hng bin i (1) v 2 hng t a, b nhng s khng biu din c.
Nu quan st k th phng trnh () lun ng khi b 2 nn c rt nhiu kh nng
a c phng trnh ny v dng tch s. Tht vy, c: () ab 2a 3(b 2) 0
a(b 2) 3(b 2) 0 (b 2)(a 3) 0 a 3 hoc b 2.

Li gii. t a x2 xy y2 0, b x y th (2) ab 2a 3(b 2)


a(b 2) 3(b 2) 0 (b 2)(a 3) 0 a 3 hoc b 2.

x 0
x 4
x 3
hoc
hoc
x( x2 x 12) 0

y 2
y 2
y 5

.v
n

Vi b 2, suy ra: y x 2 v th vo (1) x3 x2 12x 0

ok

.c

om

2
2

x xy y 3
Vi a 3 v kt hp vi (1) c h: 2

x y xy 2 x 12 y 24 0
2
2

(3)
x y x ( y 3) 0

2
(4)

y x ( y 2) x (12 y 24) 0

h c nghim th bit s delta theo n x (3), (4) phi khng m.

et

bo

x(3) y 2 4 y 2 12 12 3 y 2 0 y
2; 2

Ngha l:
2

2
x(4) 49 y 100 y 4 0 y ; 2 ;
49

Khi h c nghim th 2 min gi tr ca y trn phi giao thoa nhau.

ng

vi

2
Tc: y 2 hoc y ; 2
49
Vi y 2 th (3) x2 2x 1 0 x 1: khng tha h nn loi y 2.

kh
a

2
2 x 24 2
2
2 x 24
; 2 2
2
Vi y ; 2 v (1) y 2
29
49
49
x

12
x
x 12

Suy ra: x ; 6 4;
(5)

Mt khc: x2 xy y2 3 y2 x y x2 3 0 c bit s delta:


y x2 4x2 12 12 3x2 0 x
2; 2

(6)

2
T (5),(6) hai min gi tr ca x nn h v nghim khi y ; 2
29
Do h v nghim khi x2 xy y 2 3.

Kt lun: Tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (3; 5);(0; 2);(4; 2)

356

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

(1)
(2 x 1) x y (6 x y) 2 x
V d 465. Gii h phng trnh:
2
3
3
(2)

2 12 x 3xy 18 x x 6 x y 5
Hc sinh gii tnh Bc Ninh nm 2014

Phn tch. Gia cc bin v cm bin gia 2 phng trnh khng c mi lin h g vi
nhau nn s ngh n vic bin i 1 phng trnh. Nhn thy phng trnh (1) c

.v
n

a 2 x y
6 x y 6 a 2
a x y

cha 2 cn thc nn s t
v (1) s
2

2
b

x
2
x

2
b

c vit li l (3 2b2 ).a (6 a2 ).b, (). Nhn thy phng trnh () lun ng

om

khi a 2b nn s nh hng bin i v tch s v c li gii chi tit nh sau:


2

x y 0
a x y 0
6 x y 6 a
Li gii. iu kin:
t

2
x 2
b 2 x 0
2 x 1 3 2b

x y 2 2 x y 8 5x v th vo (2) th:

ok

Vi a 2b, suy ra

.c

(1) (3 2b2 ).a (6 a2 ).b (3a 6b) (a2 b 2ab2 ) 0


3(a 2b) ab(a 2b) 0 (a 2b)(3 ab) 0 a 2b, (do : 3 ab 0).

(2) 2. 3 6x 3x2 x3 x 3 6x 3x2 2. 3 6x 3x2 x3 3x2 5x 3

bo

( 3 6x 3x2 )3 2. 3 6x 3x2 ( x 1)3 2.( x 1) f ( 3 6 x 3x2 ) f ( x 1).

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 2t c f (t) 3t 2 2 0, t nn f (t ) tng trn .


Suy ra: f ( 3 6x 3x2 ) f ( x 1) 3 6x 3x2 x 1 x3 3x 1

et

(3)

Xt 2 x 2 v t x 2cos t th t [0; ]. Khi :

vi

cos 3t cos
2
3
k 2
5 7
t
v do t 0; , k nn t ; ; Suy ra:
9
3
9 9 9

kh
a

ng

(3) 8cos3 t 6cos t 1 4cos 3 t 3cos t

x; y 2 cos 9 ; 8 10 cos 9 , 2 cos 59 ; 8 10 cos 59 , 2 cos 79 ; 8 10 cos 79

( x y)2 1 x2 y 2

V d 466. Gii h phng trnh:

x( xy y 1) y( xy 1) 1

(1)
(2)

(I )

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1) c cha 2 hng t ( x y) v xy nn s nh hng bin


i phng trnh (2) v 2 hng t ny, tc c: (2) x ( xy 1) y y( xy 1) 1
x( xy 1) y( xy 1) xy 1 ( xy 1)( x y) xy 1 v t a x y , b xy

s a v h n gin hn v c li gii chi tit nh sau:

357

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


2
2 2

( x y) 1 x y
Li gii. H ( I )

x ( xy 1) y y( xy 1) 1
2
2 2

( x y)2 x2 y 2 1
( x y) 1 x y

x( xy 1) y( xy 1) xy 1
( xy 1)( x y) xy 1

( II )

.v
n

a 2 b2 1
( a b)2 2ab 1
a x y

t
th ( II )

b xy
(b 1)a b 1
ab a b 1

a b 1
a b 3 a 1
a 0
ab 1 ( a b)

2
( a b) 2( a b) 3 0
ab 0
ab 4
b 0
b 1

om

x y 1
x y 0
x 0
x 1
x 1
x 1
Suy ra:

xy 0
xy 1
y 1
y 0
y 1
y 1
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (0; 1);(1; 0);(1;1);( 1; 1)
(1)

(I )

(2)

ok

.c

2
1
1
2
x y 2 2 5
x
y
V d 467. Gii h phng trnh:
( xy 1)2 x2 y 2 2

Hc sinh gii tnh Ngh An nm 2013

ng

vi

et

bo

2
2

1
1

1
2
x 2 x 2 x 2 (i)
x
x
x

Phn tch. T (1) c cc bin i :


v
2
2

1
1
2 1
y y 2 y y 2 y y 2 (ii)

vn y ta cn chn biu thc no cho ph hp t n ph. Khi quan tm


n phng trnh (2) chn n ph ph hp, hin nhin c s bin i v cn c

php chia. Ngha l: (2) x2 y2 2xy 1 x2 y2 2 ( x2 y2 y2 ) ( x2 1) 2xy

kh
a

y2 ( x2 1) ( x2 1) 2xy ( x2 1)( y2 1) 2xy v thc hin php chia 2 v cho

1
1
lng xy 0, th x y 2 nn s chn php bin i (i), (ii) hp l.
x
y

2
2

1
1
2
2

1
1
5


x y 5
x
y

Li gii. H ( I )
( II )
x
y

1
2

2
( x 1)( y 1) 2 xy
x x y y 2

2
2
2

1
1
a b 5
( a b) 2ab 5

t a x ; b y , a 2 th h ( II )
x
y
ab 2
ab 2

358

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


2

a b 3
a b 3
a 2
a 2
( a b) 9

ab 2
ab 2
ab 2
b 1
b 1

1
x 1
x 1
x x 2
a 2

, suy ra:

Vi

1 5
1 5
b 1
y 1 1
y
y

2
y

om

.v
n

1
x 1
x 1
x 2

a 2

, suy ra:

Vi
1 5
1 5
b 1
y 1 1 y
y

2
y

1 5

1 5

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) 1;
; 1;

2
2

ok

.c

4x y 2x y 2
V d 468. Gii h phng trnh:
(I )
( x; y ).
2
x

Hc sinh gii tnh Nam nh nm 2012

Phn tch. Bn cht bi ton ch cha 2 cn

4x y , 2x y . Nu t a 4x y ,

bo

b 2x y v biu thc cha bin cn li x y biu din c theo a, b th bi ton

c gii quyt. Tht vy: x y m.(4x y) n.(2x y) (4m 2n).x ( ).y v

vi

et

4 m 2n 1
1
3
1
3
ng nht h s c h
m ; n , tc x y a2 b2 .
2
2
2
2
m n 1

Li gii. t a 4x y 0, b 2x y 0 th:

kh
a

ng

a b 2
b 2 a
5 5
5 1

(I) 1 2 3 2
2
a
, b

2
2
a 5a 5 0
a a b 1
2
2
x 3 5

16 x 4 y 30 10 5
2 4 x y 5 5

Suy ra:

3 5 9
2
2
x

1
8
x

4
y

2
5
y

3 5 9

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) 3 5;

5x y 2 x y 3
(I )
( x; y ).
V d 469. Gii h phng trnh:
2
x

Hc sinh gii tnh Ngh An nm 2014

359

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. Tng t nh v d trn, ta cn phn tch x y m.(5x y) n.(2x y)


5m 2n 1 m 1

Do
(5m 2n).x (m n).y v ng nht h s c h
m n 1
n 2

s vit x y a2 2b2 nu t a 5x y , b 2x y v c li gii chi tit sau:

Li gii. t a 5x y 0, b 2x y 0.

11 57
57 5
a b 3
b 3 a
(I)
2
a
0, b
0.
2
2
2
2
b a 2b 1
a 11a 16 0

om

.v
n

11 57
89 11 57
x 8 57
5x y
5x y

2
2
Suy ra:

9 57
57 5
41 5 57

y
2x y
2x y

.c

9 57

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) 8 57 ;


bo

ok

7 x y 2x y 4
V d 470. Gii h phng trnh:
(I )
( x; y ).
2
2
x

5
x

Hc sinh gii tnh Thi Nguyn nm 2014

et

Phn tch. V hnh thc th bi ny cng ging nh cc bi trn nhng n gin hn


do d dng nhn thy (7 x y) (2x y) a2 b2 5x v c cch gii 1. V c mi

ng

vi

quan h ny nn ta c th t 3 n v c li gii 2.
a 7 x y 0
a b 4

Li gii 1. t:
th ( I )
2
2

b 2 x y 0
2b a b 8 2

kh
a

b 5
a b 4
b 1, a b 4

9
b

4
b

0
2
b

7 x y 81
56 13
7x y 9
Suy ra:

( x; y ) ;
5 5
2 x y 25

2x y 5

56 13
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ;
5 5

Li gii 2. t: a 7 x y 0; b 2x y 0; c 5x 8 0.

56
7x y 3
a b 4
a 9
x

5
( I ) 2b c 2
b 5 2 x y 5
13
a 2 b2 8 c 2
c 8
y
5x 8 8

360

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

56 13
Kt lun: Nghim ca h phng trnh l ( x; y) ;
5 5

3 2 x y 3 3x 2 y 2
V d 471. Gii h phng trnh:
3

2 3x 2 y 5x y 8

(I )

( x; y ).

Phn tch. Xt 5x y m.(2x y) n.(3x 2 y) (2m 3n).x (m 2n).y v ng


2m 3n 5
m 13
nht h s c h phng trnh:

. Khi s vit biu thc:


m 2n 1
n 7

ta c li gii chi tit nh sau:

.v
n

5x y 13(2x y) 7(3x 2 y) 13a3 7b3 nu t a 3 2x y , b 3 3x 2 y . T


a b 2

3
3

2b 13a 7 b 8

om

Li gii. t: a 3 2x y , b 3 3x 2 y . Khi : ( I )

bo

ok

.c

b 2 a
b 2 a
a 1

2
2

b 1
10a 21a 41a 30 0
( a 1)(10a 11a 30) 0

2 x y 1
x 1
3 2x y 1
Suy ra:

3 3x 2 y 1
3x 2 y 1 y 1

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1;1)


(1)
( x; y ).

(2)

ng

vi

et

2 x
y

2 1 2 9 18
y
x

V d 472. Gii h phng trnh:


y
2x

9x x 2 y y 4

kh
a

Phn tch. Bi ton c cha 2 cn thc nn ta s t a, b l hai cn thc. Vn t ra


l phi phn tch biu thc phng trnh mt theo biu thc trong hai cn thc. Vi
tng , ta s tin hnh vo li gii chi tit nh sau:
x 0, y 0

Li gii. iu kin:
y
2x
9 x x 0, y y 0

2
2
(1) (2x y )( y 9x ) 18x2 y2 2xy 18x3 y3 9x2 y2
2 xy 9 x2 y 2 18 x3 y 3 9xy

18x2 y 2

24
y
x

y
2x y
2x
2x
9x y
y
4 y
9x 4
y x
y
y
x

(3)

361

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

t a 9 x

y
2x
0, b y
0 th t (2),(3) c h
x
y

a 2b 4
2 2
a b 4

y
9x 2
2
a 2b 4
a 2
x

9 x y 4 x

Suy ra:
2
ab 2, do : ab 0
b 1
y 2x 1
y 2 x y

2
2

1
1
y 4x 9x
y 4x 9x

x y

2 2
2
3
2
2
9
3
(4 x 9 x ) 2 x 4 x 9 x
81x 72 x 25x 2

om

.v
n

1 1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) ;
9 3
Nhn xt. Qua cc v d trn, ta nhn ra rng i vi h phng trnh m ch c cha
2 cn thc, thng s t a, b l 2 cn v biu din lng bin cn li theo 2 cn.

2x 1,

y 1 , nu t a, b ln lt l hai cn th cc

ok

Phn tch. H c hai cn thc

(I )

.c

(2 x y 2)(2 x y) 6 x 3 y 6 0

V d 473. Gii h phng trnh:

2x 1 y 1 4

et

bo

bin cn li u biu din c ht theo 2 i lng a2 , b2 .

a 2 2 x 1
a 2 b2 2 x y
a 2 x 1

Tht vy:
v nu bin i
2

2
b

1
a

2
x

2
b

cm 6x 3y 3(2x y 2) 3(a2 b2 ) v c li gii chi tit nh sau:


1
2

a 2 x 1 0

ng

vi

Li gii. iu kin: x , y 1. t

b y 1 0

kh
a

( a2 b2 )( a2 b2 ) 3( a2 b2 ) 0
( a2 b2 )( a2 b2 3) 0

(I)

a b 4
a b 4
2
2

( a b)( a b) 0
a b 0
a 2
a b 0

a b 4
a b 4
a b 4
b 2

2 x 1 4
2x 1 2
x
Suy ra:

2 : tha mn iu kin.
y 1 4
y 1 2
y 5

3
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca phng trnh l S ( x; y) ; 5
2
3

x y xy 5 x
V d 474. Gii h phng trnh: 2 4 2
2
2

x ( x y y 2 y) 5 x

362

(1)
(2)

(I )

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Phn tch. Nu bin i (1) x3 y xy x 5 c xut hin 2 hng t x3 y , ( xy x)


nn s nh hng bin i (2) theo 2 hng t ny v kt thc bng vic t n ph.
Tht vy: (2) x6 y2 x2 y2 2xy.x x2 5 ( x3 y)2 ( xy x)2 5. T cc phn
tch ny ta c li gii chi tit nh sau:
3
3

a x y
x y ( xy x) 5
Li gii. H ( I ) 3 2
t
th:
(
II
).

2
b xy x

( x y) ( xy x) 5

a b 5
a b 5
a 3
a b 5
( II ) 2

2
a b 5
( a b)( a b) 5
a b 1
b 2

om

.v
n

3
x3 y 3
x 1

y 3 , ( x 0)
Suy ra:

y 3
xy x 2
x3 2x2 3

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1; 3)

.c

( x2 x)( y 2 y) 1

V d 475. Gii h phng trnh: 2 2


2

x ( y 1) 2 y( x x 1) 3

(1)
(2)

(I )

ok

Phn tch. Xut pht t (1) c 2 hng t dng tch s, nhng 2 hng t tch ny
c lp x v y vi nhau, cn (2) th cha dng tng m c dng xn y m nn s bin i

bo

(1) x( x 1)y( y 1) 1 y( x 1).x( y 1) 1 ( xy y).( xy x) 1, c hng t

dng xn y m . Vit (2) dng hng ng thc: (2) ( x2 y2 2x2 y x2 ) 2xy 2 y 3

et

( xy x)2 2( xy y) 3. c nhng hng t ging nhau 2 phng trnh.


xy( x 1)( y 1) 1

2 2
2
2

( x y x 2 x y) 2 xy 2 y 3

vi

Li gii. H ( I )

kh
a

ng

( xy y)( xy x) 1

( II ). t
2

( xy x) 2( xy y) 3

1
b , ( a 0)
a

a
2 hoc
2 a 3 3a 2 1 0
b 2

ab 1
a xy y

th h ( II ) 2

b xy x
b 2 a 3
a 1

b 1

1
xy y 1
xy y
Suy ra:
v gii cc h tm c:
2 hoc
xy x 1
xy x 2

1 5
x

1 5

y
2

1 5 1 5

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y)
;

2
2

363

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x y 1 6
V d 476. Gii h phng trnh:
2

x 2 x y 2( x 1) y 1 29

(1)
(2)

(I )

Phn tch. Nu rt x theo y t (1) v th vo (2) th s c phng trnh kh phc


tp. Nu bin i (2) ( x 1)2 y 1 2( x 1) y 1 29 s xut hin 2 cm n
a x 1, b y 1. T nh hng bin i (1) ( x 1) y 1 7 v t n

ph s a v h c bn. T c li gii chi tit nh sau:


Li gii. iu kin: y 1, x2 2x y 0, x 6. Khi :

bo

ok

.c

om

.v
n

a x 1
x 1 y 1 7

(I)
th:
( II ). t
2
b y 1 0
(
x

1)

2(
x

1)
y

29

a b 7

a b 7
a b 7

( II ) 2

2
2

49 2ab 29 2ab
a b 2ab 29
( a b) 2ab 29 2ab
a b 7, 2ab 29
a b 7
a 3
a 4

hoc

ab 12
b 4
b 3
4( ab) 114( ab) 841 0
x 1 3

x 3
x 2
x 1 4

Suy ra:
hoc
hoc

y 1 4
y 17
y 10
y 1 3
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim cn tm l S ( x; y) (2;17);(3;10)

(I )

vi

et

x x2 7 y 2 24 2

V d 477. Gii h phng trnh:


2
2

4 x 7 y 24 7 y

kh
a

ng

a x b a 2 x 2 b c y d c 2 y 2 d e

1
1
1
.
Phn tch. Bi ton c dng tng qut l 1
2 2
2 2
a
x

b
a
x

c
y

d
c
y

2
2
2
2
u ax a2 x 2 b
, suy ra x, y v cc cn thc theo u, v.
Phng php gii l t
2 2
v cy c y d
2
2

x 7
u x x 7
u x x 7

Li gii. iu kin:
t
2
2
x 7
v

24
v

24

2
2
2
2
2

u 7
v2 24
u 2ux x x 7
u 2ux 7
2

,
y

2
2
2
2u
2v
v 2vy y y 24
v 2vy 24

x2 7 u x u

364

u2 7 u2 7

v
2u
2u

y 2 24 v y v

v2 24 v2 24

2v
2v

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

v 2 24
v 2 4v 24
u

2
u

2v
2v
(I)

2
2
2
2
2
4 u 7 v 24 7 v 24
2 u 7 4v 72

2u
2v
2v
u
v

v 4v 24
u 7
u
(do v y y 2 24 0).

2v
v

( v 6)(3v3 26v2 144v 384) 0

u2 7
v2 24
4, y
1 : tha iu kin. Vy S ( x; y) (4;1)
2u
2v
b) Da vo nh l Vit tm ra php t n ph
tng bi ton da vo ni dung ca nh l Vit nh sau: Nu tn ti 2 s a, b
tha: a b S, ab P th a, b l nghim ca phng trnh: X2 SX P 0 . Khi
, bi thng cho a, b bng mt biu thc theo hai bin x, y v i khi c S, P

om

.v
n

Suy ra: x

cng l biu thc cha x, y. T d thy du hiu nhn dng bi ton l: mt

ok

.c

phng trnh c dng tng, mt phng trnh c dng tch hoc dng tng m
phn tch c thnh tch s. Cng vic lc ny l ta cn bin i chn biu thc
no l a, biu thc no l b nhm chn n ph ph hp.

bo

2
2

(1)
x y xy y 8
V d 478. Gii h phng trnh:
(I )
2
(2)

xy( y xy x y) 12
Hc sinh gii tnh Long An nm 2013

ng

vi

et

Phn tch. Nhn thy 2 phng trnh u c dng bc 2 vi n x nhng bit s delta
khng l s chnh phng nn s khng phn tch c thnh tch s. Quan st k hn,
ta thy cc bin trong h lin h vi nhau kh cht ch v hng s c v nh ng
ngoi cuc. V vy s tp trung vo phn tch v tri ca 2 phng trnh nhm a 2
v ny v dng tng v tch ca hai biu thc x, y v vn dng ni dung ca nh l
Vit. Tht vy, v tri (1) c th vit v tng: VT(1) x( x y) y( y 1). Khi cn

kh
a

da vo 2 hng t tng ny vit: VT(2) xy. y( x y) ( x y) x( x y).y( y 1).


T tm ra php t n ph: a x( x y), b y( y 1) v c li gii chi tit sau:
( x2 xy) ( y 2 y) 8
x( x y) y( y 1) 8

( II )
xy. y( x y) ( x y) 12
x( x y).y( y 1) 12

Li gii. C ( I )

a x( x y)
a b 8
t
th ( II )
v theo Vit th a, b l hai nghim ca
b y( y 1)
ab 12
a 2
a 6

phng trnh bc hai: X 2 8X 12 0


hoc
b 6
b 2

365

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x 1 7
a 6
x( x y) 6
x 2
x 3
hoc
hoc

, suy ra:

Vi
y 2
b 2
y( y 1) 2
y 1
y 1

a 2
, suy ra:
Vi
b 6

y 3

x( x y) 2
y 2

hoc

3 17
y
(
y

1)

6
x 1 3

.v
n

3 17

Kt lun: S ( x; y) (2;1);( 3;1);(1 17 ; 2);( 1 3; 2);


; 3

Nhn xt. Bn cht ca vic lm ny l phn tch 1 phng trnh nhng vn lin h
vi phng trnh cn li tm ra php t n ph da vo ni dung nh l Vit.

om

2 x2 xy y 5

V d 479. Gii h phng trnh: 4


3
2

x x y x ( y 1) xy y 9

(1)
(2)

(I )

bo

ok

.c

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1) l tam thc bc hai, nhng delta khng l s chnh phng
nn s khng phn tch c thnh tch s. Nu vn dng ni dung ca nh l Vit
tm ra php t n ph, cc bn hy ngm li rng: bc ca tch ab thng s ln hn
bc ca tng a b. Do 2 phng trnh trong h u c dng tng v bc ca (2) ln
hn bc ca (1) nn da vo tng trn, ta s phn tch v tri (2) thnh tch s v
v tri ca (1) thnh tng. Tht vy: VT(2) x4 x3 y x2 ( y 1) xy y
( x4 x3 y) ( x2 y y) ( x2 xy) x3 ( x y) x( x y) y( x2 1)

et

x( x y)( x2 1) y( x2 1) ( x2 1) x( x y) y ( x2 1)( x2 xy y). Khi ta

cn vit (1) sao cho c tng ca 2 hng t ny, tc: (1) ( x2 1) ( x2 xy y) 6.

ng

vi

2
2

( x 1) ( x xy y) 6
Li gii. Ta c: ( I ) 2
theo nh l Vit th:
2

( x 1).( x xy y) 9
( x2 1), ( x2 xy y) l hai nghim ca phng trnh X2 6X 9 0

kh
a

2
x 2
x 2

x 1 3

hoc
( X 3)2 0 X 3 2

x xy y 3
y 2 1
y 1 2

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) ( 2; 2 1);( 2; 1 2)


2
y3
2
x

xy

2 (1)

x1
V d 480. Gii h phng trnh:
(I )
2
2 x y y 2
(2)
x1

Chn HSG cp trng nm 2014 2015, THPT Gia nh Tp. HCM

366

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

et

bo

ok

.c

om

.v
n

Phn tch. Tng t, nhn thy bc ca (1) ln hn bc ca (2), nn s phn tch v


tri ca (2) thnh tch ca 2 hng t. Da vo 2 hng t tch ny, ta phn tch phng
trnh (2) c cha tng ca n. T tng ny, ta c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. iu kin: x 1 0 x 1.
2
y

y 2 ( x y 1)
2
x( x y 1)
2
( x xy x) y 1
2

x 1

x1

(I)

2
y2

2 x y y 2
2x y
2

x1

x1

y2
y2
( x y 1) x
( x y 1) x
2
2
x 1
x 1

y2
y2

2
x

2
(
x

1)

x1
x1

y2
Theo Vit th x y 1 v x
l 2 nghim phng trnh: X2 3X 2 0.
x1
x y 1 2
x y 1 1
y 1 x
y x
2
2

2
y
(1 x)
x2
Suy ra: y
x1
x2
x1
x2

x1
x 1
x 1
x 1

1 17
x
y 1 x
x 0
x 1

y x

4
2
2

1
y

0
2
x

2
x

0
2
x

17

vi

1 17 1 17

Kt lun: So iu kin, suy ra S ( x; y) (0;1);(1; 0);


;

4
4

(1)
(2)

(I )

kh
a

ng

y 2 x xy 6 y 1 0

V d 481. Gii h phng trnh: 3


2
2

y x 8y x y x 0

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1), (2) u c dng phng trnh bc 2 vi n x nhng bit s
delta khng l s chnh phng nn s khng chn phng n hng s bin thin. Khc
vi cc v d trc, hng s khng tch sn ra v phi, nu s dng tng ca ni
dung Vit th kh nng rt cao l tng v tch c cha bin x, y. Hn na, khi gii
phng trnh X2 SX P 0 nu S, P c cha x, y th s phc tp nn ngi ra
thng cho dng c bit m trong trng hp thng gp nht l c th bin i
phng trnh X 2 SX P (X P )2 0. Ngha l P thng l nhng s chnh
phng theo x hoc y hoc theo xm y n v da vo s phn tch biu thc tch trc,
ko theo vic phn tch tng. Quan st thy bc ca (2) ln hn (1) nn s phn tch (2)
thnh tch s v c (2) ( y3 x y2 ) ( x2 y x) 9 y 2 y 2 ( xy 1) x( xy 1) 9 y 2
367

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

( xy 1)( y2 x) 9 y2 . Da vo 2 hng t tch ( xy 1), ( y 2 x) ny, vit phng

trnh (1) ( xy 1) ( y2 x) 6 y v theo Vit th xy 1 v y 2 x l 2 nghim ca


phng trnh X2 6 yX 9 y2 0 (X 3y)2 0 X 3y. Ngoi ra, nu bin i
phng trnh v chia hp l ta cng tm ra c php t n ph v c li gii 2.
( xy 1) ( y 2 x) 6 y

Li gii 1. Ta c: ( I )
2
2

( xy 1)( y x) 9 y
Theo nh l Vit th xy 1 v y 2 x l 2 nghim ca phng trnh bc hai:

om

.v
n

2
y x 3 y
X2 6 y.X 9 y2 0 (X 3y)2 0 X 3y, suy ra:
xy 1 3 y
x 3y y 2
x 3y y 2
x 3y y 2
x 2

2
3
2
3

y 1
(3 y y ) y 3 y 1 0
y 3y 3y 1 0
( y 1) 0
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (2;1)

xy 1
a
y
a b 6

a b 3.
th h

2
ab 9
b y x

et

bo

xy 1 y 2 x

y
y
H
v t
2
xy 1 y x 9
y
y

ok

.c

( xy 1) ( y x) 6 y (3)
Li gii 2. Ta c: ( I )
v do y 0 khng l
2
2
(4)

( xy 1)( y x) 9 y
nghim ca h nn chia (3) cho y 0, (4) cho y 2 0, ta c:

kh
a

ng

vi

xy 1
3

2
x 2
y
xy 1 3 y
x 3 y y
2

Suy ra: 2
3
y 1
y x 3 y
y x 3
( y 1) 0
y
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (2;1)

Nhn xt. c li gii 1 ngn gn v p nh trn, ti khai thc ni dung ca


nh l Vit vi tng, tch l mt bin s theo x hoc y hoc cha xm yn . Vn t ra
l ng trc mt h phng trnh hu t (khng cn thc), c qu nhiu phng
php gii, ta cn u tin suy ngh theo phng php no trc, phng php no
sau ?!! y l mt vn m ti thng thc mc khi cn ngi gh nh trng v
lm th no d nhn dng chng mt cch d dng ?!. C l y l mt cu hi m
bn hi vi 10 ngi c th s nhn c 10 cu tr li khc nhau, bi l ton hc c v
vn ng i v trn mi ng i u c phong cnh p khc nhau ty vo s nhn
xt v cm ca mi ngi u khng ging nhau. Nhng chung quy li bn cn c
nhng phng tin, nhng cng c i n cui on ng cho ph hp. iu

368

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

om

.v
n

cng c ngha l bn cn nm vng cc phng php gii ca h hu t v theo bn


thn ti thng suy ngh theo cc li sau khi gii chng:
Xt xem trong h c phng trnh no l tam thc bc hai hay khng ?! v nu c
th kim tra bit s delta phi l s chnh phng hay khng ? Nu khng l bc hai
theo bin x hoc theo bin y th ta s s dng casio kim chng chng c phn tch
c thnh tch s khng ?!. Hin nhin chng khng c du hiu c trng ca
nhng h c bn (i xng loi I, i xng loi II, ng cp,) hoc t n ph c
bn (t n ph tng hiu, lng gic, s phc,).
S dng cc phng php gii c bit, chng hn nhp v nh l Vit tm ra
php t n ph, nhp v h s t l ca tam thc bc hai s dng phng php
cng a v phng trnh tch s,
S dng phng php th nu to phng trnh bc cao hoc to ng bc.
S dng phng php t n ph khi cc biu thc trong h c mi lin h nhau.
S dng phng php nh gi bng hm s, bt ng thc,

.c

12 x4 4 xy(7 x2 4 y 2 ) 4 12 xy 23x2 y 2 (1)


V d 482. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2
(2)
7 x 8 xy 4 y 6xy 4

ok

Phn tch. Nhn thy (2) c 2 hng t xy nm 2 v khc nhau, c l y l s c


ca ngi ra hng cho ta hy phn tch 2.(3xy 2) S. Hin nhin lng P

bo

phng trnh (2) s l (3xy 2)2 P c th c 2 cm no l hai nghim ca


2

phng trnh bc hai: X 2 2(3xy 2).X (3xy 2)2 0 X (3xy 2) 0.

et

Tht vy, ta lun c phng trnh: (1) (3xy 2)2 12x4 28x3 y 16xy3 32x2 y2
(3xy 2)2 4x(3x3 7 x2 y 8xy2 4 y3 ) v biu thc trong du ( ) v phi ca

vi

(2) c dng ng cp bc 3 nn (3xy 2)2 4x( x y)(3x2 4xy 4 y2 ) v do c 2

ng

hng t tch trong P nn vit (1) (3xy 2)2 (4x2 4xy) (3x2 4xy 4 y2 ). Khi
cn vit (2) (4x2 4xy) (3x2 4xy 4 y2 ) 2.(3xy 2) v kim tra li thy

kh
a

ging phng trnh (2) nn i ng hng. T c li gii 1 chi tit nh sau:


(4 x2 4 xy) (3x2 4 xy 4 y 2 ) (3xy 2)2

Li gii 1. Ta c: ( I ) 2
2
2

(4 x 4 xy) (3x 4 xy 4 y ) 2.(3xy 2)


Nn theo Vit th 4x2 4xy v 3x2 4xy 4 y 2 l 2 nghim ca phng trnh:
2

X 2 2(3xy 2).X (3xy 2)2 0 X (3xy 2) 0 X 3xy 2.


2
2

(3)
4 x 4 xy 3xy 2
4 x 7 xy 2

Suy ra: 2
2
2
2

3x 4 xy 4 y 3xy 2
3x 7 xy 4 y 2
2
2
2
4x 7 xy 3x 7 xy 4y x2 4y2 0 x 2y hoc x 2 y.

y 1 x 2

Vi x 2 y , th vo phng trnh (3) 2 y 2 2


y 1 x 2

369

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

15
2 15
x
y
15
15
Vi x 2 y , th vo phng trnh (3) 30 y 2 2

15
2 15
x
y
15
15

2 15 2 15

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (2;1);( 2; 2);


;

15

15

2
2
2
2

(4 x 4 xy) (3x 4 xy 4 y ) (3xy 2)


2
2
2

(4 x 4 xy) (3x 4 xy 4 y ) 2.(3xy 2)

Li gii 2. Ta c: ( I )

(3)
(4)

4 x2 4 xy
3x2 4 xy 4 y 2
th h phng trnh
, b
3xy 2
3xy 2

om

t a

.v
n

Gi s 3xy 2 0 v chia (3) cho (3xy 2)2 , chia (4) cho (3xy 2), v

ok

.c

4 x 2 4 xy 3x 2 4 xy 4 y 2

ab 1
a 1
3xy 2
3xy 2
2

2
2
a b 2
b 1
4 x 4 xy 3x 4 xy 4 y 2
3xy 2
3xy 2

bo

2
2

4 x 4 xy 3xy 2
4 x 7 xy 2

Suy ra: 2
v gii tng t trn.
2
2
2
3x 4 xy 4 y 3xy 2
3x 7 xy 4 y 2

et

(1)
y (9 x 10) y 3( x 3) 0
V d 483. Gii h phng trnh:
3
2
2

9 xy 24 y (27 x 40) y 3x 16 0 (2)

ng

vi

Phn tch. Do bc ca (2) ln hn bc ca (1) nn s nh hng bin i (1) v dng


tng S v (2) vit dng tch P vi P l s chnh phng. Nhn thy (2) c cha
24y 2 gn s chnh phng (5y)2 25y2 . Nu ly l P th cn li biu thc khng
ng bc nn s kh phn tch thnh tch s nn s vit dng (5 y a)2 . Khi quan

kh
a

st (1) ( y2 3x) (9xy 1) 10x 8 2(5x 4), hin nhin y l php th cho a.
Lc ny nu (2) (5y 4)2 ( y2 3x) (9xy 1) th php th chn a thnh cng.
Tht vy, khai trin (2) v so snh th ging vi bi nn chn a 4 l ng.
( y 2 3x) (9 xy 1) 2.(5 y 4)

Li gii. Ta c h 2
nn theo nh l Vit th
2

( y 3x) (9 xy 1) (5 y 4)
y 2 3x v 9xy 1 l nghim ca phng trnh: X2 2(5y 4).X (5y 4)2 0
y 2 3x 5 y 4

(X 5y 4)2 0 X 5y 4, suy ra:

9 xy 1 5 y 4
3x y 2 5 y 4
3 x y 2 5 y 4

3
2
2
3 y( y 5 y 4) 5 y 5 0
3 y 15 y 17 y 5 0

370

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

y 1 x 0
y2 5y 4
x


3
6 21
1 21
y

( y 1)(3 y 2 12 y 5) 0

3
9

1 21 6 21

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm h l S ( x; y) (0;1);


;

9
3

2
2

x xy y 3 y 1
V d 484. Gii h phng trnh: 3
2
2

x x y x x 1

(1)
(2)

(I )

.v
n

Phn tch. Nu phn tch (1) thnh tng v vi tng a X2 SX P v dng


hng ng thc X2 2 f ( x, y)X f 2 ( x, y) th vit (1) ( x2 1) ( y2 xy y) 2 y.
T nh hng nhn 2 v ca (2) vi y 0 v cng 2 v vi y 2 v c li gii sau:

om

Li gii. Do y 0 khng l nghim ca h nn xt y 0 th h:

ok

.c

( x2 1) ( xy y 2 y) 2 y
( x2 1) ( xy y 2 y) 2 y

(I) 3

3
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2

x y x y x y xy y
x y x y x y ( xy y y ) y
( x2 1) ( xy y 2 y) 2 y
( x2 1) ( xy y 2 y) 2 y

2
2
2
2
2
2

x ( xy y y) ( xy y y) y
( x 1)( xy y y) y
Theo Vit th ( x2 1) v ( xy y 2 y) l 2 nghim ca phng trnh bc hai:

et

bo

y x2 1
x 1 y

X2 2 yX y2 0 (X y)2 0 X y, suy ra:

2
x y 2
xy y y y

vi

1 5
5 5
y x 1
2
x
y

2
2

x x 1 0

ng

1 5 5 5

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y)


;

2
2

kh
a

2 x2 xy 1

V d 485. Gii h phng trnh: 9 x 2


3xy
1

4
2(1 x)2
2(1 x)

(1)
(2)

(I )

3x

3x
Phn tch. Nu quan st k, vit (2) 2
y
1, kt hp
2
2
2(1 x)
2(1 x)
2

3x
2 x y.x 1 0
Khi thy x v t
vi (1) v t t
th h (I) tr thnh 2
2(1 x)2

2t y.t 1 0
c
1
l 2 nghim ca: 2X 2 yX 1 0 v theo Vit th tch P x.t T th t
a
2
vo s tm c x, ri suy ra y v c li gii chi tit nh sau:

371

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Li gii. iu kin: x 1 .
t: t

3x
2 x yx 1 0
th
h
(
I
)

2
2(1 x)2

2t yt 1 0

Nhn thy rng x v t l hai nghim phn bit ca: 2X 2 yX 1 0. Theo


Vit ta c P x.t

c
1
3x
1
1 3
x
2x2 2x 1 0 x

2
a
2
2
2
2(1 x)

y
b
3x
Khi : S x t y 2( x t ) 2 x
2.
a
2
2(1 x)2

.v
n

1 3

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y)


; 2

ok

.c

om

c) Chia nh hng lng t n ph


C rt nhiu bi ton m cn phi chia hai v vi mt n hoc mt nhm n th mi
d dng nhn ra php bin i v lng t n ph. Thng thng bi c cc
du hiu nhn dng thng gp sau:
x2 y 2 y 4 1 3y 2
(1)

Bin cn chia c lp ra hai v, chng hn: 2


(2)

xy x 2 y

bo

Khi chia (1) cho y 2 0 v (2) cho y 0 th s tm c php t n ph.

et

Cc bin cn chia cha c lp. Ta thng lm theo cc bc sau: bin i, rt


gn, ri ln lt c lp bin ra hai v v tm php chia xut hin nhng
hng t lin quan nhau (c ca nhau) 2 phng trnh.

ng

vi

xy x 1 7 y
(1)

V d 486. Gii h phng trnh: 2 2


(I )
2
(2)

x y xy 1 13 y
i hc khi B nm 2009

kh
a

x 1
x y y 7

Phn tch. Vi y 0, chia (1) cho y v chia (2) cho y 2 h ( I )


x 2 x 1 13

y y2

1 x
th h xut hin cc hng t gn ging nhau, (1) c x ,
v (2) c cc
y y

hng t

372

x
,
y

2 1

1 2 1
x
1
x
x 2 m x x 2 2 nn s t a x ; b
y
y
y
y
y
y

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

.v
n

1 x
x y y 7

Li gii. Do y 0 khng l nghim, nn h ( I )


( II )
x 2 1 x 13

y2 y

1
1
x
1
2
2
2
2
a x y a x 2 2 y x 2 a 2b
y
y

t:
th h phng trnh
b x

a 4
a 5
a b 7
b 7 a
hoc
( II ) 2
2

a b 13
a a 20 0
b 3
b 12

om

1
x 4

a 4
y 1
y
y

x 3 y
hoc
, suy ra:
Vi
2

3
3 y 4 y 1 0
b 3
x 3
x 1
x 3

bo

ok

.c

1
x 5

a 5
y

x 12 y
, suy ra:
Vi

: v nghim.
2
12 y 5 y 1 0
b 12
x 12
y

et

1
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (3;1); 1;
3

ng

vi

x2 y 2 xy 3x 2

V d 487. Gii h phng trnh: 2


4
2
4
4

( x xy) ( y 2) 17 x
4

(1)
(2)

(I )

x2 xy y 2 2
Phn tch. Nu chia (2) cho x 0 th (2)

17 v bin
x x
x2 xy y 2 2
i (1) ( x2 xy) ( y2 2) 3x v cho x 0 th c:

3,
x
x
xut hin nhng hng t ging nhau 2 phng trnh v c li gii chi tit nh sau:

kh
a

2
2

(3)
( x xy) ( y 2) 3x
Li gii. Ta c: ( I ) 2
( II )
4
2
4
4
(4)

( x xy) ( y 2) 17 x
Do x 0 khng l nghim ca h ( II ) nn vi x 0, chia 2 v ca phng

trnh (3) cho x , ca phng trnh (4) cho x 4 , ta c h phng trnh:

373

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x 2 xy y 2 2

x 2 xy

x
x
x
t
th h phng trnh:
( II ) 2
(
III
).
4
4

2
2

b y 2
x xy y 2 17

x x
x

a b 3
a b 3

a b 3
( III ) 4
2

2
4
2 2
2
( a b)2 2ab 2( ab)2 17
a b 17
( a b ) 2( ab) 17

.v
n

a b 3
a b 3
ab 16
ab 2


2
2
2

a b 3
a b 3
(9 2ab) 2( ab) 17
( ab) 18ab 32 0
a 1
a 2
ab 16 P
hoc
do khng tha S2 4P).

(loi cm:
b 2
b 1
a b 3 S
2

x 3
x 1
x xy x
x y 1
hoc

2
y 2y 0

y 0
y 2

y 2 2x
2

x y 2
a 2
x 3
x 2
x xy 2 x

hoc
, suy ra: 2

Vi
y y 0

y 0
b 1
y 1

y 2 x
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) (1; 0);(3; 2);(2; 0);(3; 1)

ok

.c

om

a 1
, suy ra:
Vi
b 2

bo

3 3
3

1 x y 19 x
V d 488. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2

y xy 6 x

(1)
(2)

(I )

et

Hc sinh gii lp 10 huyn Hoc Mn Tp.HCM nm 2013

ng

vi

3
1
y1

1
3

y
3 y 19

19

3
x
x
xx
(1) chia cho x3 0



Phn tch. H ( I )
2
(2) chia cho x2 0
y y 6
y 1 y 6

x x
x2 x

kh
a

(p dng hng ng thc: a3 b3 (a b)3 3ab(a b)). Khi 2 phng trnh


xut hin nhn t ging nhau nn c php t n ph v li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. Do x 0 th h v nghim nn vi x 0, chia phng trnh (1)
cho lng x 3 , chia phng trnh (2) cho lng x 2 , ta c h:
3
1
y1

1
3
y 3 y 19
3 y 19
x
xx
x

(I)

2
y
y

y 1 y 6
6


x 2 x

x x

t a

374

( II )

3
3

a 1
y
1
a 3ab 19
a 1

y , b th h ( II )
x
x
ab 6
ab 6
b 6

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1
1 6 x2 x
y 1 1 xy x

x
x
Suy ra: x

3 hoc
2

y 6 x
y 6x
y 6 x
y 2
y 3

1
1
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ; 2 ; ; 3
2
3

9 y 3 (3x3 1) 125 0

V d 489. Gii h phng trnh:


2
2

45x y 75x 6 y

(1)
(2)

(I )

.v
n

Phn tch. Tng t v d trn, ta s chia (1) cho y 3 0, chia (2) cho y 2 0, s v
t n ph s a c v h phng trnh i xng loi I, t c li gii sau:
Li gii. Do y 0 th h v nghim nn xt: y 0, ta c:

.c

om

125
5
3
3
(3x) 9
a 3x
27 x 3 9
y
y
15x

(I)

( II ). t

5 , suy ra: ab
2
y
5
b y
45x 75 x 6
15x

3x 6
y

y2
y
y

ok

3
3
3
3

a b 3
a b 9
( a b) 3ab( a b) 9
( a b) 27
( II )

ab( a b) 6
ab( a b) 6
ab( a b) 6
ab 2

ng

vi

et

bo

1
3x 2
3x 1
2
x 3
a 2
a 1

, suy ra: 5
hoc
hoc 5

3 hoc
b 1
b 2
y 1
y 2
y 5
y 5

2
2 1 5
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ; 5 ; ;
3 3 2

kh
a

x3 y 3 x 2 y 2 xy 4 y 3 1 0

V d 490. Gii h phng trnh:


1
1
x( x 1) y 1 y 4

(1)
(2)

Phn tch. Nhn thy phng trnh (2) c dng phn s, hin nhin t n ph th
phng trnh (1) cn chia ph hp. Nu vit (1) x3 y3 x2 y2 xy 1 4 y3 th s
xc nh lng chia d kin l y 3 0, tc (1) x3

x2 x
1
2 3 4. Khi 2
y y
y

2 1
1
x 2 x 4
y
y

phng trnh c nhng lng c lin quan nhau, tc:


x 3 1 x x 1 4

y
y 3 y

375

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

2
1
x
1

1
2
2
2
a x 2 2 y x 2 a 2b
a x y
y
y

Tht vy, nu t:

x
b
u3 x 3 1 3 x x 1 x 3 1 a3 3ab

y
y
y
y3
y3

Tt c u biu din ht theo a, b nn c li gii chi tit nh sau:


Li gii. iu kin: y 0.

.v
n

2 1
1
2 1

1
2
x 2 x 4
ax
x 2 a 2b

y
y
y
y

(I)
( II ). t
x

b
x 3 1 a3 3ab
x3 1 x x 1 4

y
y3
y
y 3 y

ok

.c

om

2
2
2

a 2
a 2b a 4
2b a a 4
2b a a 4
( II ) 3
3

2
2

b 1
a 2ab 4
a a( a a 4) 4
( a 2) 0

1
x 2

a 2
xy 2 y 1 0
x 1
y

x 2x 1 0
, suy ra:
Vi

x y
b 1
x y
y 1

x 1

bo

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1;1)

et

2
2

(1)
x y xy 1 4 y
V d 491. Gii h phng trnh:
(I )
2
2
(2)

y( x y) 2 x 7 y 2
Hc sinh gii Tp. H Ch Minh nm 2014

x2
1
x2 1
y x 4 ( x y)
4 c ( x y),
y
y
y

vi

ng

chia : y 0
Phn tch. T (1)

kh
a

x2 1
x2 1
chia cho: y 0
( x y) 2 2
7
nn vit (2) y( x y)2 2( x2 1) 7 y
y
y

nn tm ra c php n ph v c li gii chi tit nh sau:


( x2 1) y( y x) 4 y

Li gii. Ta c: ( I )
( II )
2
2

y( x y) 2( x 1) 7 y
Do y 0 th h v nghim nn vi y 0, chia 2 v ca (1), (2) cho y , c:
x2 1
( y x) 4

x2 1
a b 4
y
( II )

v
t
th
h
a

;
b

y
2
2
y

b 2 a 7
( x y)2 2 x 1 7

y
a 4 b
b 3
b 5

hoc

a 1
a 9
b 2b 15 0

376

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

b 3
, suy ra:
Vi
a 1

x 1
x 2
x y 3
y 3 x
hoc
2

2
x 1 y
x x 2 0
y 2
y 5

b 5
, suy ra:
Vi
a 9

x y 5
y 5 x

2
: v nghim.
2

x 1 9 y
x 9 x 46 0

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1; 2);( 2; 5)


2
8
2
x 3x y x
V d 492. Gii h phng trnh:
y3 1 6

( x; y ).

.v
n

(I )

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn Phan Ngc Hin C Mau

ok

.c

om

3
y

a y

1 3 y 3
chia (1) cho: x2
x
x v t
Phn tch. H ( I )

2 s
1 6 y 3
1 3 2 y 3
b
x

x
x

thu c h i xng loi II v c li gii chi tit nh sau:

bo

Li gii. iu kin: x 0.

Chia hai v ca phng trnh (1) cho x 2 , ta c:


a y
3

1 3a b (1)

2 th h
3
1 3b a (2)
b
x

ng

vi

et

2
1 3 y

x v t
(I )
1 3 2 y 3

2
y.
x

kh
a

Ly (1) (2) 3( a b) b3 a3 ( a b)(3 a2 b2 ab) 0 a b


Th

2
y vo phng trnh th hai ca h ban u c: y 3 3y 1
x

t y 2cos t , t 0; th (3) 8 cos3 t 6 cos t 1 4 cos 3t 3cos t


cos 3t cos

k 2
v vi
t
3
9
3

(3)
1
2

5 7
t 0;
t ; ;

9 9 9


5
5
7
7
Suy ra: ( x; y) cos 1 ; 2 cos ; cos 1 ; 2 cos ; cos 1
; 2 cos
9
9
9
9
9
9

377

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

3
8 8
2
x 3x 13x 15 3
y
y
V d 493. Gii h phng trnh:
y 2 4 5 y 2 ( x2 2 x 2)

(1)

(I )

(2)

Hc sinh gii tnh Qung Nam nm 2014


Phn tch. Nhn thy phng trnh (1) c bin x, y phn ly ra mi v nn thng s
3

2
2
ngh n vic s dng hm s, tc (1) ( x 1) 16( x 1) 4 , nhng
y
y
khng tm c hm c trng. Khi s ngh n vic chia phng trnh (2) hp l
3

.v
n

2
2
c 2 hng t ( x 1), Tht vy, chia y 2 , th (2) 1 5 ( x 1)2 1
y
y

.c

a x 1

( II ). t
2
b y 0

ok

2
2
( x 1)3 16 ( x 1) 4

y
y
(I)
2
2
2
1

()
5 ( x 1) 1
y

om

R rng xut hin 2 hng t ging nhau 2 phng trnh v c li gii chi tit sau:
Li gii. iu kin: y 0. Chia 2 v ca (2) cho y 2 , ta c:

vi

et

bo

a3 b3 4.(4a b)
3
3

16
a

4
b

( II )

a3 b3 (4a b)(b2 5a2 )


2
2
1

5(
a

1)

b 2 5 a 2 4

(s dng php th 4 b2 5a2 ln to phng trnh ng cp bc 3)


21a3 5a2 b 4ab2 0 a.(21a2 5ab 4b2 ) 0 a.(7a 4b).(3a b) 0

ng

a 0 hoc 7 a 4b hoc b 3a.


Vi a 0, suy ra: x 1 0 x 1 v th vo () y2 1 y 1.

kh
a

Vi 7 a 4b, suy ra x 1

7
124
v th vo ()
4 0 : v nghim.
8y
49y 2

2
2
4
2
y
y
2
v th vo () y
Vi b 3a, suy ra x 1
3
3
9
3y
x 2 x 0

2
2
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) ( 1; 1); 2; ; 0;
3
3

xy x 2 x x 4 x 0 (1)
(I )
V d 494. Gii h phng trnh:
2
(2)
xy

x
.(
xy

3)

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 THPT Kom Tum Tnh Kom Tum

378

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

2
y 1
y

chia (1): x 0
x
Phn tch. ( I )

chia (2): x 0
y x 2 xy 2 3
y 2 x

x
x

x1 4

2
x y 3
x

2
a1 b1 4
: y l h i xng loi I.
, b x th h
x

a b ab 3
Li gii. iu kin: xy x 2 0, x 0, xy 2 0.

v t a y

Do x 0 khng l nghim h nn vi x 0, chia (1) cho

x , chia (2) cho x :

.c

om

.v
n

2
y 1 x1 4

x
a y

a1 b1 4
v t
(I)
x th h
b x
y 2 x x y 2 3

a b ab 3

x
x

a b 2 2 ( a 1)(b 1) 16
a b 2 ab a b 1 14

a b ab 3
a b ab 3

et

bo

ok

a b ab 3
a b ab 3

ab 2 ab ab 4 11
2 ab ab 4 11 ab
a b ab 3
a b ab 3

ab 3

0 ab 11
0 ab 11

a b 6
2
2
4( ab ab 4) (11 ab )
3( ab ) 26 ab 105 0

ng

vi

x 3
2
ab 9
a 3
y 3

, suy ra:
x
7
a b 6
b 3
x 3
y
3

kh
a

7
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim ca h phng trnh l ( x; y) 3;
3

(2 x y 1)( x 3 xy x ) 8 x
V d 495. Gii h phng trnh:
2

( x 3 xy ) xy 2 x(6 x)

(I )

Phn tch. Nu chia 2 v ca phng trnh u tin cho x , v chia phng trnh
th hai cho x th s thu c nhng hng t ging nhau 2 phng trnh.
Li gii. iu kin: x, y 0. Do x 0 khng l nghim h nn:

379

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x3

x3

y 1 8
y 1 8
(2 x y 1)
(2 x y 1)

x
x

(I)

2
2

x 3
x 3
y y 2(6 x)
y 2 x y 12

x
x

( a 1)(b 1) 8
x3

t a 2 x y , b
y 0 th h 2
x

b a 12

(3)

x3
3
3 2 x 3 trn 0; c:
x
2

.c

Xt hm s f ( x)

om

.v
n

2
2

a 3
a 12 b , b 0
a 12 b , b 0
3

2
2

b 3
b b 11b 3 0
( a 3)( a 4a 1) 0
2 x y 3
y 3 2x
a 3

Vi
x3
, suy ra: x 3
b

3
3 2x 3 0

x
x

3
x
1
3

0x 0; nn f ( x) nghch bin trn


2
x3
2x
3 2x
2
Mt khc ta c: f (1) 0 nn x 1 y 1.

ok

f ( x)

3
0;
2

bo

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1;1)

vi

et

x y x y y 1
V d 496. Gii h phng trnh:
2

x ( x y 2) x 5 y 2

(I )

x 1 y x y y

ng

Li gii. iu kin: x y 0 th ( I )

2
2

x ( x y) 2( x 1) ( x y) 6 y

kh
a

2
2

( x 1) y x y y
( x 1) y x y y

( II )
2
2
2
( x y)( x 1) 2( x 1) 6 y
( x 1)( x y 2) 6 y

Do y 0 khng l nghim h nn chia mi v ca ( II ) cho y 0 c:

x2 1
xy 1

x2 1
y
( II ) 2
; b x y 0 th:
( III ). t a
y
x 1 ( x y 2) 6
y

a b 1
a b 1
a 3

( III ) 2
3

2
a(b 2) 6
b b 2b 8 0
b 2

a 3
, suy ra:
Vi
b 2

380

x y 4
3 53
11 53

x
y

2
2
2

x 3x 11

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

3 53 11 53 3 53 11 53
Kt lun: So iu kin x; y
;
;
;

2
2

2
2

2 2
2

x y 2 y 16 11xy
V d 497. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2
2

x 2 y 12 y 3xy

(I )

Li gii. Do y 0 khng l nghim ca h, chia hai v ca h cho y 2 0 :

a2 3b 2 0 (1) (1) (2)


4
x

a2 b2 3(a b) 0
, b th ( II ) 2
(2)
y
y
b

3
a

(a b)(a b 3) 0 a b hoc b 3 a.

om

t a x

( II )

.v
n

2 16
11x
4 3x
x

x
20

y
y2
y
y

(I)

2
2

x 2 12 3x
x
4
y
3 x 2 0
y
y

ok

.c

a b 1
Vi a b, th vo (1) a2 3a 2 0

a b 2
Vi b 3 a, th vo (1) a2 3a 11 0 : v nghim.

et

bo

1 17
x y
xy

Trng hp 1. Nu a b 1, suy ra: 2


2

x x 4 0

x 4
x 2
x 2 y
Trng hp 2. Nu a b 2, suy ra: 2
hoc

2 y 2 y 4 0
y 2
y 1

ng

vi

1 17 1 17

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (4; 2);( 2; 1);


;

2
2

kh
a

2
6x5 y
2
( x 1) 3 2
x 2

V d 498. Gii h phng trnh:


2
2
3 y x 4 x 3x y 9 xy

x 3y

Li gii. iu kin: x 3y 0;

(I )

4 x 3x2 y 9xy 2
0; 3 y x 0; x5 y 0.
x 3y

( x2 2)( x4 2 x2 4) 6 x5 y
x6 8 6 x 5 y

2
2
(I)

( II )
4
x

3
x
y

9
xy
3
2
x 27 y 3 4 x (i)

(3 y x)

x 3y

Do x 0 khng l nghim ca h nn chia 2 v phng trnh (1) cho x6 0 v


phng trnh (2) cho x3 0, th h phng trnh:

381

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

2
b 3b2

( a b) a
2 0 a b, suy ra: y
2
4
3x

2
Th y
vo (i) x6 4x4 8 0 ( x2 )3 4( x2 )2 8 0
3x

om

( x2 2)( x4 2x2 4) 0 x 2 hoc x2 1 5.

.v
n

2 3
3y

8 6y

2
1 2 2
1 6
a 2 0
x
x
x
x
x
th:
( II )

( III ). t
3
3
3
y
27
y
4

3
y

b
2

1 2 2

x
x3
x
x
x
3

1 a 2b (1) (1) (2)


( III )

a3 b3 2(b a) ( a b)( a2 ab b2 2) 0
3

1 b 2a (2)

.c

x 1 5
x 1 5
x 2
x 2

Suy ra:

2
2
2
2 y
y
y

y
3
3

3 1 5
3 1 5

bo

ok

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) 1 5 ;

3
1

ng

vi

et

2
3x
2x2 y 2 4x
(1)
y 1
y

V d 499. Gii h phng trnh:


(I )
3x

(2)
( x 2) 1 y 2 x y

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Chuyn L Qu n Khnh Ha

Phn tch. Nu chia (1) cho y 2 , chia (2) cho y ta s c nhng hng t ging nhau 2

kh
a

v v c li gii chi tit nh sau:


2

x
x
x 1
1 3 2 1 4
y 0
y
y y

y
Li gii. iu kin: 3x
th ( I )
1
x
x
1 y 0
x

y 2 y 1 3 y 2 y 1

(3)
x
1
1 3a 2a 4ab 1
, b Khi h
(4)
y
y

( a 2b) 1 3a 2a 1
Nhn thy nu cng 2 phng trnh cho nhau th s a c v phng trnh tch s.

t a

(3) (4) ( a 2b 1) 3a 1 2a.( a 2b 1) (a 2b 1) ( 3a 1 2) 0

Vi

382

3a 1 2 a 1, suy ra: x y v th vo (2) x 4 y 4.

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Vi a 1 2b, suy ra: x y 2 y 2 x v th vo phng trnh:


(2) y 1

3(2 y)
6 2y 2y 4
2(2 y) y

y 2 x 0.
y
y
y

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (0; 2);(4; 4)


4 x y 1 8 x (4 x2 4 x 3) x 1

V d 500. Gii h phng trnh: x


x2 ( y 2) ( x 1)( y 1)

x 1

(1)
(2)

.v
n

Phn tch. Nu chia (2) cho x 1 ta s phn ly c x v y mi v. Khi kh


nng a v phng trnh i xng 2 bin hoc x dng hm s l rt cao. Tht vy:
3

x
x
( y 1) 1 y 1
( y 1)3 y 1

( x 1) x 1
x1
x1
x
, b y 1 th s a v phng trnh i xng a3 a b3 b
Nu t a
x1
hoc gii bng phng php hm s tm mi lin h x, y v th vo (1) tm ra x, y.
x3 x( x 1)

.c

om

(2)

bo

ok

x 1
x
x
Li gii. iu kin:
th (2)
( y 1)3 y 1

y

1
x

1
x

x
, b y 1 th phng trnh a3 a b3 b a b.
t a
x1
2

kh
a

ng

vi

et

2x

x 0 v th vo (1)
Do : y 1
2 (2 x 1)2 .
x1
x1

5
Suy ra: x 3 y : tha iu kin.
4
5
Kt lun: Nghim h l ( x; y) 3;
4
x

d) Lin hp pht hin lng n ph


Thng thng ta ghp cc cn thc vi nhau hoc ghp cn thc vi biu thc
trong cng mt phng trnh hoc cng tr cc phng trnh vi nhau nhn
lin hp nhm xut hin nhng nhn t ging nhau hoc gn ging nhau ca hai
phng trnh, t tm ra php t n ph. Ta cng tm hiu mt s v d sau:
x2 2 y 2 3 x y 5

V d 501. Gii h phng trnh:


2
2

x 2 y 3 xy2

Phn tch. Xut pht t phng trnh th hai, nu ghp

x2 2 x ,

(I )

y2 3 y

th sau khi nhn lng lin hp s xut hin hng t cng ging vi phng trnh
mt. T ta tm c php t n ph v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
383

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Li gii. Do

x2 2 x 0;

y2 3 y 0 v nghim nn:

.v
n

x2 2 x y 2 3 y 5
a b 5
a x2 2 x 0

vi
(I)

2
3

2 3
2

2
b y 3 y 0
2
2
2
a b

x
y

b 5 a
a b 5
a 2
5

2
a b hoc

2b 3a 2ab
b 3
2a 9a 10 0
x 2; y 3

1
2

a 3
2
x 2 x2
x
2
x 4x 4 x 2
, suy ra:
Vi
2
2
b 2
y 3y3
y2 6y 9 y2 3
y 1

17

5
2
5
x
x, y
x 2x

20
2
2

17
13
5
2
y 3y
x
y 13
, y

20
20

2
20

1 17 13
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) ;1 ; ;
2 20 20

om

5
2 , suy ra:
5
2

ok

.c

a
Vi
b

et

bo

(1)
2x 2 y 4
V d 502. Gii h phng trnh:
(I )
(2)
2
x

2
y

Hc sinh gii tnh B Ra Vng Tu nm 2011

Phn tch. Nu cng 2 phng trnh vi nhau th c

vi

v nu tr 2 phng trnh cho nhau th c

2x 5 2x ,

2x 5 2x ,

2y 5 2y

2 y 5 2 y v tng

ng

t v d trn ta s nhn lin hip cm tr th s xut hin cm ging khi cng.


Li gii. iu kin: x; y 0.

kh
a

( 2 x 5 2 x ) ( 2 y 5 2 y ) 10
(2) (1)
( I )

(2) (1)

( 2 x 5 2 x ) ( 2 y 5 2 y ) 2
( 2 x 5 2 x ) ( 2 y 5 2 y ) 10

5
5

(
2
x

2
x
)
(
2
y

2
y
)

( II )

a b 10

a b 10
a b 10

a 2 x 5 2 x 0

t
th ( II ) 5 5
5( a b) 2ab
ab 25
2

b 2 y 5 2 y 0
a b

a 5

, suy ra:
b 5

384

x 2
2x 5 2x 5
2x 5 5 2x

y 2
2y 5 2y 5
2y 5 5 2y

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (2; 2)


x y 2 6 y x 2 3 7 xy

V d 503. Gii h phng trnh:


2
2
2
2

x x 3 y y 6 x y 2

(1)
(2)

(I )

Phn tch. T (1) ta c th to ra lng cng bng cch cng thm 2 v 2 xy , tc:
(1) x y2 6 xy y x2 3 xy 9xy x( y 2 6 y) y( x2 3 x) 9xy.
(2) x x2 3 x2 y y2 6 y 2 2 x.( x2 3 x) y.( y 2 6 y) 2
3x
x 3x
2

6y
y 6 y
2

2 v khi ta thy

.v
n

Nu lin hp lng tr ta c:

(1) cn chia cho lng xy s xut hin dng nghch o ca nhau v c li gii sau:

om

x( y 2 6 y) y( x 2 3 x) 9 xy

Li gii. Ta c: ( I )

2
2

x( x 3 x) y( y 6 y) 2

9
2 , suy ra:
9
2

kh
a

a
Vi
b

ng

vi

et

bo

ok

.c

y2 6 y
x2 3 x

9
y2 6 y
y
x
x2 3 x

, b

( II ). t a
x
y
6y
3x

2
x2 3 x
2
y

9
a b 9
a

2 a 3
( II ) 3 6

2a 15a 27 0
6a 3b 2ab
b 6

2
b 9
a b

2
2
2

a 3
1
x 3 2x
3x 3

( x; y) 1;
, suy ra:
Vi
2
2
2

b 6

24 y 6; x , y 0
y 6 5y

2 15
x, y 0
x
2 x 2 3 7 x

2
15
45x 12

2
2 30
2 y 6 7 y
45x2 24

y 15

1 2 15 2 30

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) 1; ;
;

2
15
15

x2
2
2
2 2 x 1 y 3
y
V d 504. Gii h phng trnh:
y
x
y2 0
2

1 x x

(1)

(I )
(2)

385

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. Thy (2) c lng cng nn (1)

x2
y 2 2 x 2.( x2 1 x) 3
y2

x
y 2( x2 1 x) 3 v (2) y ( 1 x x) 0 c lng ging
y
y

x
nhau 2 v nn s t a 1 x x , b y. T c li gii chi tit nh sau:
y

a 2 2b 3
b a; b 0
x

2
y; b x2 1 x 0 th ( II )
y

a b 0
a 2 a 3 0

et

t a

bo

ok

.c

om

.v
n

x 2

2
2
2 y 2 x 2 x 1 2 x 3
y

Li gii. iu kin: y 0. Ta c: ( I )
y
x
y2 0

2
x 1 x

2
x

y 2.( x 2 1 x) 3
Lin hp phng trnh th hai th h y

2
2
x y( x 1 x) y 0
2
x

y 2( x 2 1 x) 3
y

Chia 2 v cho y phng trnh th 2 th h

x
2
y y ( x 1 x) 0

x y 2 y 0
x 0

2
2

x 1 ( x 1) , x 1 y 1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (0; 1)

ng

vi

a 1

, suy ra:
b 1

kh
a

e) Da vo mt s bin i ng thc c bn tm ra php t n ph


C mt s h phng trnh vi b ngoi nhn phc tp, nhng nu chng ta nm
vng nhng php bin i ng thc c bn th s tm c mi lin h gia hai
phng trnh cng nh cc bin. T nh hng php t n ph hp. Trong
mc nh ny ti xin c gii thiu mt s php bin i ng thc n gin sau:
xy x y ( x 1) ( y 1) 1
Chng minh: Ta c xy x y xy x y 1 1
x ( y 1) y 1 1 ( y 1) ( x 1) 1

x2 xy y 2 2

386

y
x

1
y x

(pcm).

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Chng minh: Ta c

y
x ( x ) y ( y )
x

1
1
y x
( y ) ( x )

x2 x y2 y xy y x 2 x2 xy y2 2

xy

(pcm).

1
x1 y
y ( x 1)
1

1
1
x1 y
( x 1) ( y )

Chng minh: Ta c:

x y 2 xy x y xy

(pcm).
(1)

(2)

(I )

om

xy x y 3

V d 505. Gii h phng trnh: 1


1
2
x2 2 x y 2 2 y 3

.v
n

Sau y ta s tm hiu mt s v d vn dng nhng bin i c bn ny.

Phn tch. y l h i xng loi I, nhng nu bin i v tng S x y v P xy

.c

th thu c h mi kh phc tp, gy kh khn trong vic gii. Nhng nu p dng


bin i ng thc vi 3 th (1) ( x 1) ( y 1) 4. Khi cc mu s ca

ok

(2) vit di dng hng ng thc: x2 2x ( x 1)2 1 v y2 2 y ( y 1)2 1 th

et

bo

s xc nh c php t n ph v c li gii chi tit nh sau:


( x 1) ( y 1) 4
x, y 0

Khi : ( I )
Li gii. iu kin:
1
1
2
x
,
y

( x 1)2 1 ( y 1)2 1 3

kh
a

ng

vi

ab 4
ab 4
a x 1

t
th h 1
1
2 2
2

5a 5b2 2a2 b2 8

b y 1

2
a 1 b 1 3
ab 4
ab 4
ab 4
a 2
a 2

a b 4
a b 4
b 2
b 2
a b 8
x 1 2
x 1 2
x 1
x 3

Suy ra:
y 1 2
y 1 2
y 1
y 3

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (1;1);( 3; 3)


x 2 y 2

1
V d 506. Gii h phng trnh: y 1 x 1

2
2
1 xy x y

(1)

(I )

(2)

387

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. p dng ng thc vi 1 th (2)

y
x

1 th c hai
y 1 x1

phng trnh c nhng hng t ging nhau v c li gii chi tit nh sau:
x 1
y
x
Li gii. iu kin:
th
t a
; b
y 1
x1
y 1
a 2 b2 1
( a b)2 2ab 1 ab 0
a 1
a 0

hoc
(I)

a b 1
a b 1
a b 1
b 0
b 1

.v
n

x y 1
x 0
y 0
x 0
Suy ra:
hoc
hoc

y 0
y x 1 x 1
y 1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (1; 0);(0;1)
(1)

(I )
(2)

.c

om

x y 1
1
1
2 2 1

y
y x xy x
V d 507. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
x y x xy y
x 1 y 1
xy

ok

ngh Olympic 30/04/2012 S GD & T tnh Bc Liu

Li gii. iu kin: x 0, y 0, y 1, x 1.

bo

(1) x3 y y3 x xy x2 y 2 x2 y 2 xy.(x2 y 2 1) x2 y 2 x2 y 2
xy.( x2 y2 ) ( x2 y2 ) x2 y2 xy 0 ( x2 y 2 )( xy 1) xy( xy 1) 0

(3)

vi

et

y 3y2
0
( xy 1)( x2 y 2 xy) 0 ( xy 1) x
2
4

kh
a

ng

y 3y2
1
1
Do x
(4)
0, x , y 0 nn (3) xy 1

1
2
4
x1 y 1

1
x 11 y 11 x y
1 x2 y 2
Ta li c: (2)
(5)

1 3

x1
y 1
y x
xy
x 1 y 1
T (4), (5) suy ra: ( x y)2 0 x y v th vo xy 1 th c x y 1.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1;1)

388

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

f) t n ph dng tng hiu


Ta s t n ph dng tng hiu a x y , b x y nu trong h phng trnh
c cha nhng hng t thng gp sau:
2x a b.
2 y a b.
x2 y2 ab.

2( x2 y2 ) a2 b2 .

2x( x2 3y2 ) 2( x3 3xy2 ) a3 b3 . 2 y(3x2 y2 ) 2(3x2 y y3 ) a3 b3 .

(I )

( x; y ).

om

2 x 2 x 2 2 y 2 7

V d 508. Gii h phng trnh: 2


2

2( x y ) 5

.v
n

2( x4 6x2 y2 y4 ) a4 b4 .
8xy( x2 y2 ) a4 b4 .
Vic chng minh c{c biu thc n|y theo a, b kh{ nh nh|ng, ti s trnh b|y thng
qua tng v d. Vn }y l| ta cn nm vng c{c du hiu nhn dng n|y.

Phn tch. B|i to{n c cha c{c hng t 2x, 2( x2 y2 ), 2( x2 y2 ), l| du hiu


ca s t n ph tng tch dng a x y , b x y.

2
2

2 x a b, x y ( x y)( x y) ab
Khi : 2

2
2
2
2
2

b x y
2( x y ) ( x y) ( x y) a b
2ab ( a b)2 5

a b 2ab 7
a b 2ab 7

(I) 2

2
2
2
a b 5
( a b) 2ab 5
( a b) ( a b) 12 0

a x y

bo

ok

.c

Li gii. t

et

a b 3
a b 4
a 1
a 2
(tha S2 4P) hoc
(loi)
hoc

ab 2
ab 5,5
b 2
b 1

vi

x y 1
x y 2
3 1 3 1
( x; y ) ; ; ;
Suy ra:
hoc
2 2 2 2
x y 2
x y 1

ng

3 1 3 1
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ; ; ;
2 2 2 2

kh
a

xy xy 2
V d 509. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
2
2

x y 1 x y 3

(I )

( x; y ).

2
2
2

a x y
a 2 b2
a x 2xy y 2
2
2

Khi ,
Phn tch. Nu t:
2
2
2
b

2
xy

b x y

vit x2 y2 ( x y)( x y) ab th tt c u biu din c ht theo a v| b. Thng

thng hc sinh s t a x y , b x y , nhng l|m nh th th phng trnh


th hai l| bc cao v| s rt phc tp. l| li i sai lm thng gp ca hc sinh.
x y 0
a x y 0
t

Li gii. iu kin:
x y 0
b x y 0
389

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

a b 2, ( a b)
a 2 ab b 4,
( a b)

2
2
2
(I) a b
( a b) 2ab 2
1 ab 3
ab 3

2
2

a b 2 ab 4,
( a b)

a b 2 ab 4, ( a b)
(2 ab 4)2 2ab 2

ab 3
ab 8 ab 9 ab 3
2

a 0
a b 2 ab 4
(loi) hoc

ab 0, ( a b)
b 4

.v
n

a 4
x y 4
x 2
Suy ra

b 0
x y 0
y 2
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) {(2;2)}

om

2
2

x y 1 y x 2 x y 3 (1)
V d 510. Gii h phng trnh:
(i)
(2)

xy xy 2
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Nguyn Hu Ph Yn

.c

Phn tch. Bn cht b|i to{n gn ging nh v d trn. Nhng nu mi lin h

ok

gia hai phng trnh, tc t (1) ta c (1) x2 y 2 1 ( x y 2 x y ) 3


x2 y 2 1 x y ( x y 2) 3 v| th

x y 2 x y t (2) v|o th

bo

s n gin hn, tc (1) x2 y2 1 x y x y 3 v| c li gii chi tit sau:


x y 0

Li gii. iu kin:

et

x y 0

kh
a

ng

vi

2
2
2

a x y
a2 b2
a x 2xy y
2
2
t
, ( a b 0) 2

2
2
2
b x 2 xy y
b x y

2
2
2
2

x y 1 (x y 2 x y ) 3
x y 1 x y ( x y 2) 3
(i)

xy 2 xy
xy 2 xy

1 2
2
2
2

( a b ) 1 ab 3
x y 1 x y. x y 3

a b 2, ( a b 2)
xy 2 xy

(2 ab 4)2 2ab 2
( a b)2 2ab 2

ab 3

ab 3

2
2

a b 2 ab 4
a b 2 ab 4, ( a b 0)

ab 0
a 4 x y 4
x 2
ab 8 ab 9 ab 3

ab4
b 0 x y 0
y2

2
ab

4,
(
a

0)

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) {(2;2)}

390

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x2 2 x 6 y 1
V d 511. Gii h phng trnh:
(I )
( x; y ).
2
2

x xy y 7
thi th i hc nm 2013 THPT Phc Trch H Tnh

Phn tch. Thy (1) x2 2x 6 y 1 x2 y2 2( x y) 5 0 c cha c{c


hng t x2 y 2 , 2( x y). l| du hiu nhn dng t n ph tng hiu. Khi ,
ta cn bin i phng trnh hai v dng tng hiu bng vic ph}n tch v tr{i , tc:
x2 xy y2 m( x y)2 n( x y)2 (m n)x2 (2m 2n)xy (m n)y 2 ng nht

ok

.c

om

.v
n

m n 1
3
1
3
1
h s c
m ; n nn vit (2) ( x y)2 ( x y)2 7.
4
4
4
4
2 m 2n 1
T nhng ph}n tch n|y, ta c li gii chi tit nh sau:
x2 2 x 6 1 2 y y 2

Li gii. iu kin: y 1 th ( I ) 3
1
2
2
( x y) ( x y) 7
4
4
x2 y 2 2( x y) 5
a x y

, suy ra: ab x2 y 2 .

( II ). t
2
2
b

y
3(
x

y
)

(
x

y
)

28

et

bo

5
b a 2
b( a 2) 5
a 3
a 1

( II ) 2

hoc
2
2
b 5
b 1
3a b 28
3a2 5 28

a2

ng

vi

x y 1
x y 3
x 3
x 1

Suy ra:
hoc
hoc
x y 5
x y 1 y 2
y 2
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) {(3; 2);(1; 2)}

kh
a

x4 2x y 4 y
(1)

(I )
V d 512. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2 3
(2)

( x y ) 3
Chn i tuyn trng THPT Chuyn, HSP H Ni nm 2013

Phn tch. Nu t a x y , b x y th (1) x4 y4 2x y , trong s ph}n


a2 x2 2 xy y 2 2
a 2 b2

,
tch: x4 y4 ( x y)( x y)( x2 y2 ) vi 2
2
2
2

b x 2 xy y
a 2 b2
Cn 2x y m.( x y) n.( x y) (m n).x (m n).y
tc x4 y 4 ab
2
m n 2
1
3
1
3
m , n , tc vit 2 x y a b.
v| ng nht h s c h
2
2
2
2
m n 1

Khi (2) [( x y)( x y)]3 3 (ab)3 3. Tt c u biu din ht theo a, b.


391

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Li gii. t a x y, b x y.
2
1
3

2
2
2
a2 b2 a 3b

( x y )( x y ) 2 ( x y) 2 ( x y)
ab
(I)

2
2
3
( x y)( x y) 3
( ab)3 3

.v
n

ab( a2 b2 ) a 3.b

ab( a2 b2 ) a a3 b4 a( a2 b b3 1 a2 b4 ) 0

3 ( ab)3 ()

a (b3 1) a2 b(1 b3 ) 0 a(b3 1)(a2 b 1) 0 a 0 b 1 a2b 1.


Vi a 0, th vo () (ab)3 3 0 : v l nn h v nghim khi a 0 .

bo

ok

.c

om

1 3 3
x

x y 3 3

2
Vi b 1, th vo () a3 3 a 3 3, suy ra:

3
3 1

x y 1
y 2
1
1
1
b 3 9.
Vi a2 b 1 ab , th vo () 3 3 a
3
a
a
3

1
2
1
x y 3
Suy ra:
3 ( x; y ) 3 ; 3
3
3
x y 3 9

ng

vi

et

1
1 3 3 3 3 1 2

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y)
;
; 3 ; 3
2

2 3
3

Bnh lun. Trong li gii trn, ngo|i vic t n ph b|i to{n n gin hn, trong
() ti s dng php th hng s bng cm bin nhm a phng trnh v

dng tch s nh trn. hiu k hn vn n|y, ta cng xt tip v d sau:

kh
a

4
3
1
4

x y
4 y 2x
V d 513. Gii h phng trnh:
( x 2 y 2 )5 5 0

(I )

Li gii. iu kin: x 0, y 0.
2
2
2
2
2

a x y
a x 2xy y
4 xy( x y)( x y)( x y ) 3x 2 y

t
(I)

2
5
2
2
b x 2 xy y
b x y

( x y)( x y) 5 0
2
2

1
1
a b 4 xy
Suy ra: 2
v 3x 2 y ( x y) 5( x y) ( a 5b).
2
2
2
2
2

a b 2( x y )
4
4

ab( a b ) a 5.b
Khi h
v th 5 a5 b5 vo phng trnh trn c:
5 5
a b 5 ()

392

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

ab(a4 b4 ) a a5b6 a(a4 b b5 1 a4 b6 ) 0 a a4 b(1 b5 ) (1 b5 ) 0

a(1 b5 )(a4 b 1) 0 a 0 hoc b 1 hoc a4 b 1.


Vi a 0, th () 0 5 : v nghim.
5

5 1
x

x y 5

2
Vi b 1, th () a5 5 a 5 5, suy ra:

5
5 1

x y 1
y 2

1
1
1
Vi a b 1 ab.a 1 ab 3 th () 3 5 a15
5
a
a
1
15

15

1
15 55 1 15 55 1
x y 15

5 suy ra
;
5 ( x; y) 15
15

2.
5
2.
5

15 4

om

.v
n

.c

15 5
15 5

5 1
5 5 1 5 5 1 5 1


;
Kt lun: So iu kin S ( x; y)
; 15 ; 15
2
2. 5

2
2. 5

(1)
(2)

( x; y ).

bo

ok

2
2

x y xy 1
V d 514. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2

x x 1 y y 1

et

Phn tch. (2), nhn thy x v| y c lp 1 v, nn hng suy ngh thng l| h|m
s, nhng s b b tc do khng tm c h|m c trng hai v. Nu , ta c th
bin i (2) x y 2 1 y x2 1 v| t iu kin ri ly tha s tm c mi

ng

vi

lin h gia x, y. Ngo|i ra, nu nhn tho{ng, ta s lin hp cng xut hin c nh}n
t x2 y2 1 x2 y2 1 cng vi (1) kt thc bng vic t n tng hiu.
(3)

x y 2 1 0, y x2 1 0

(2) x y 2 1 y x2 1
2
2

1 2 x y 1 1 2 y x 1

()

kh
a

Li gii. iu kin: y 1. Ta c: (1) ( x y)2 3( x y)2 4

y x2 1 1 x y 2 1 x2 y 2 y 2 1 2 x y 2 1 x2 y 2 x2

( y2 1) 2x y 2 1 x2 0 ( y2 1 x)2 0 y2 1 x

x2 y2 1 ( x y)( x y) 1

(4)

( x y) 3( x y) 4
T (3), (4), suy ra h phng trnh:

( x y)( x y) 1
2

(I )

1
a2 3b2 4
a x y

a , ( a, b 0)

t
th h ( II )
b

b x y
ab 1
3b4 4b2 1 0

393

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

3
x y
3

x y 3

.v
n

3
3
b 1
b 1
b
b
hoc
hoc
hoc

3
3

a 1
a 1
a 3
a 3

3
x y 1
x y 1
x y
Suy ra:
hoc
hoc
3 hoc
x y 1
x y 1
x y 3

3
3
x
x
x 0
x 0

3 hoc
3

hoc
hoc

1
y

1
2 3
2 3

y 3
y 3

om

3 2 3

Kt lun: So vi () v iu kin th nghim h l ( x; y) (0;1);


;

3

ok

.c

4 xy
2
1
( x y)
xy
V d 515. Gii h phng trnh:
3x y 4 x (3x y 6)2 4 x y

(1)
(2)

ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn Hunh Mn t Kin Giang

bo

Phn tch. (1) c c{c hng t dng tng hiu, nu t a x y 0, b x y v suy


a 2 b2
1 ( a 1)(b2 a) 0 a 1. T tm
a
c mi lin h gia x, y, th v|o (2) s tm c x, y v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:
3x y 0
a x y 0
t
, suy ra: 4xy a2 b2 .
Li gii. iu kin:
x

0
b

ng

vi

et

ra 4xy a2 b2 th (1) b2

a 2 b2
1 ( ab2 b2 ) ( a2 a) 0 b2 ( a 1) a( a 1) 0
a
(a 1)(b2 a) 0 a 1 0 a 1, do : b2 a 0, a 0.

kh
a

(1) b2

Suy ra: x y 1 v th vo (2) 2x 1 (2x 5)2 4x 4

t 5 2t 2 x 1, t

5
Suy ra h:
2

(3)

(5 2t ) 2 x 1

5 2t (2 x 5) 4 x 4
2

(2t 5) 2 x 1 ()

(2t 5)2 (2 x 5)2 2t 2 x


2

(2 x 5) 4 x 2t 1

(t x)(2t 2x 10) (t x) 0 t x hoc 2t 2x 11.


2
2

(5 2 x) 2 x 1
2 x 11x 12 0

Vi t x 2x 1 5 2 x
x y 1, 5 2 x 0
x y 1, 5 2 x 0

394

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

x 4 (loi do x

3
1
5
hoc x y
2
2
2

2t 2 x 11
Vi 2t 2x 11 v kt hp vi () c h:
2

(2t 5) 2 x 1

13 29
9 29
2t 11 2 x
2t 11 2 x

2
x
t

2
4
4
(6

2
x
)

2
x

1
4
x

26
x

35

5
13 29
9 29
nn nhn x
v th vo x y 1, suy ra: y

2
4
4

3 1 13 29 9 29

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim ( x; y) ; ;


;

2
2
4
4

Bnh lun. gii trn vn h phng trnh, ngo|i nhng du hiu c bn ca vic
gii h, ta cn nm vng c{c du hiu nhn dng v| phng ph{p gii ca phng
trnh. Bi l khi tm c mi lin h gia x, y v| th v|o phng trnh cn li, s tr
v vic x l phng trnh v t. b|i to{n trn, phng trnh c dng tng qu{t:

.c

om

.v
n

Do t

(ax b)n p.n x q.x r s t ay b n x khi p. 0 hoc s t n ph

ok

( ay b) n x khi p. 0 a v h i xng loi II hoc gn i xng.

(1)

(I )
(2)

Hc sinh gii tnh Bnh nh nm 2015

vi

et

bo

3
2
2
7
4 xy 4( x y )
( x y )2

V d 516. Gii h phng trnh:


2 x 1 3

xy

Phn tch. }y l| b|i to{n mang tng tng hiu: a x y , b x y. Nhn

ng

thy: 2x ( x y) ( x y) a b v| cn ph}n tch 4xy 4( x2 y 2 ) theo a, b. Khi


vit: 4xy 4( x2 y2 ) m.( x y)2 n.( x y)2 (m n)x2 (2m 2n)xy (m n)y 2

kh
a

m n 4
m 3

v| ng nht:
hay c 4xy 4( x2 y2 ) 3( x y)2 ( x y)2 .
2
m

2
m

4
n

3
2
2
7
3( x y) ( x y)
( x y )2

Lc n|y h ( I )
v do m 3, ging h s ca
( x y) ( x y) 1 3

xy

1
2
( x y )2 7
3 ( x y)
2
(
x

y
)

ph}n s nn t n ph trit ta vit h li:


( x y) 1 ( x y) 3

( x y)

395

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

nn t a ( x y)

1
1
a 2 ( x y )2
2 v b x y th b|i to{n s
( x y)
( x y )2

ngn gn hn, tr{nh t n ph 2 ln. T c li gii chi tit nh sau:


1
Li gii. iu kin: x y 0. t a x y
, a 2 v b x y.
xy

3a2 b2 13
b 3 a
a 2

(I)
2

, do : a 2 .

b 1
a b 3
2 a 3a 2 0

1
2
x y 1
x y 1 x 1
x y

xy

Suy ra:
2
( x y) 2( x y) 1 0
x y 1 y 0

x y 1

.v
n

om

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) (1; 0)

ok

.c

2
5
2
13
8( x y ) 4 xy
(
x

y )2

V d 517. Gii h phng trnh:


( I ) ( x; y ).
2 x 1 1

xy
Hc sinh gii tnh Thi Nguyn nm 2011

et

bo

2 x ( x y) ( x y)
Phn tch. Tng t, vit 2
v| c li gii sau:
2
2
2

8( x y ) 4 xy 5( x y) 3( x y)
1
Li gii. iu kin: x y 0. t a x y
, a 2 v b x y.
xy

kh
a

ng

vi


1
2
2
5 ( x y)
3( x y) 13 5( a2 2) 3b2 13
a 2
( x y )2

(I)

a b 1; a 2
b 1
( x y) 1 ( x y) 1

xy

Th tr li a, b v gii tng t, ta c nghim h l ( x; y) (0;1).


(4 x2 4 xy 4 y 2 51)( x y)2 3 0 (1)
V d 518. Gii h phng trnh:
(I )
(2)
(2 x 7)( x y) 1 0

Phn tch. Bn cht b|i to{n n|y cng tng t 2 v d trn nu chia (1) cho ( x y)2
2
3
2
0
4 x 4 y 4 xy 51
( x y )2

Vi li suy lun
v chia (2) cho x y th h
2 x 7 1 0

xy
tng t nh c{c v d trn, ta c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. Do x y th h cho v nghim. Vi x y ta c:

396

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

.v
n

2
3

3
2
2
0
( x y)2 51
4 x 4 y 4 xy 51
3( x y)
2
2
(
x

y
)
(
x

y
)

(I)

1
2 x 7
x y 1 x y 7
0

xy
xy

3( a2 2) b2 51 b 7 a

1
a 4

a x y x y
t
th h a b 7
2a2 7 a 4 0
b 3
a 2
a 2
b x y , a 2

5 3

1
x
x

2
xy
Suy ra:
2

2
x

10
x

11

1 3
x y 3

y 2

om

5 3 1 3

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y)
;

2

(1)
(2)

bo

ok

.c

2 xy y x 2 y 2
xy
xy

14
2
2

V d 519. Gii h phng trnh:


3
3
xy
xy
2 2 9

Hc sinh gii tnh Bnh nh nm 2014

et

Phn tch. Bi to{n mang tng tng hiu. Nhng do biu thc tng hiu tt c
u nm trong cn thc nn c th t a, b l| 2 cn thc n gin v| c li gii sau:

vi

x y 0

Li gii. iu kin:

ng

x y 0

t: a

xy
xy
0, b
0.
2
2

kh
a

x a2 b2
2(a2 b2 )(a2 b2 ) 2(a2 b2 )ab
Suy ra:
v
(1)

ab
2
2
14
y a b
(a2 b2 )(a b)(a b) (a b)(a b)ab 7(a b) v do a b 0 nn:
(a2 b2 )(a b) ab(a b) 7 (a b)(a2 ab b2 ) 7 a3 b3 7

a 3 b3 7
a3 8
a 2

, suy ra:
T (2), (3), c: 3

3
3
a b 9

b 1

b 1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h cn tm l

(3)

x y 8
x 5

x y 2
y 3

S ( x; y) (5; 3)

3x2 2 xy y 2 6( x y 1)
(1)

(I )
V d 520. Gii h phng trnh: 4
3
2 2
(2)

4( x 2 x y x y ) 2x 2 y 9
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn Hng Vng Bnh Dng

397

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. Nhn thy nu biu din: 3x2 2xy y 2 v 4( x4 2x3 y x2 y 2 ) theo
dng tng x y a, hiu x y b th b|i to{n c gii quyt. Tht vy v tr{i (1)
c dng hng ng thc nn vit VT(1) 3x2 2xy y2 ( x2 2xy y 2 ) 2( x2 y2 )
( x y)2 2( x y)( x y) a2 2ab. Vn cn li l| biu din v tr{i (2) theo a, b.
2

VT(2) 4( x4 2x3 y x2 y2 ) 4x2 ( x2 2xy y 2 ) ( x y) ( x y) .( x y)2 . Do

.v
n

ta s t n ph dng tng hiu b|i to{n n gin hn v| c li gii chi tit sau:
2

( x y) 2( x y)( x y) 6.( x y) 6
Li gii. Ta c: ( I )
( II )
2
2

(
x

y
)

(
x

y
)

(
x

y
)

2(
x

y
)

om

2
2ab a2 6a 6

a x y
a 2ab 6a 6

t
th ( II )

2
2
2
( a b) a 2a 9
b x y

( a b).a 2a 9

.c

6a 6 a2
() 2 6a 6 a2
ab
2
2

2a 9 ( a 6a 6) 8a 72
2

( a2 ab)2 2a 9

ok

a4 12a3 48a2 64a 0 a(a3 12a2 48a 64) 0 a.(a 4)3 0


a 0 (loi do th vo () c dng 0 3) hoc a 4 v t () b

bo

1
x y 4
x

17
x

y 33

et

a 4

Vi
17 suy ra:
b

17

ng

vi

1 33
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ;
8
8

kh
a

1
2 x 1 2
5
x y 2

(I )
V d 521. Gii h phng trnh:
17
1
2( x 2 y 2 ) 1

2
2 2

(x y ) 2

Tp ch Ton Hc & Tui Tr s 444 (6 2014)


2
2

a b 2 x , ab x y
, suy ra 2

2
2
2

b x y
a b 2( x y )

1
1
1
( a b) 1 5
a b 5
ab
a
b


(I)

( II )
( a2 b2 ) 1 1 17
a2 1 b2 1 17

a2 b2 2
a2
b2 2

a x y

Li gii. iu kin: x y. t

398

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1
1
1
1
t u a , v b , u 2, v 2 u2 a2 2 2, v2 b2 2 2.
a
b
a
b
u v 5
u v 5
u v 5

( II ) 2

2
2
2(u v ) 25
(u v) 2uv 25
4uv 25

Theo Vit th u, v l 2 nghim ca phng trnh: X 2 5X

25
0
4

5
5
X 0 X , suy ra: u v : tha u 2, v 2.
2
2
2

om

.v
n

a 2 a 0,5
2 a 5a 2 0
Do : 2

C cc trng hp sau:

b 2 b 0,5
2b 5b 2 0
a 2
x y 2
x 2

: tha iu kin.
Trng hp 1.
b 2
x y 2
y 0

.c

a 2
x y 2
5 3

x; y ; : tha iu kin.
Trng hp 2.
4 4
b 0,5
x y 0,5

ok

a 0,5
x y 0,5
5 3

x; y ; : tha iu kin.
Trng hp 3.
4 4
b 2
x y 2

bo

a 0,5
x y 0,5
x 0,5

: tha iu kin.
Trng hp 4. Khi
b 0,5
x y 0,5
y 0

ng

vi

et

5 3 5 3 1
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (2; 0); ; ; ; ; ; 0
4 4 4 4 2

Nhn xt. Trong li gii trn, sau khi t n ph dng tng hiu, li tip tc t n
ph dng thun nghch. i vi dng thun nghch loi n|y, ta thng nhm ln gia
1
1
1
1
2 loi, mt l| loi t a x , b y v| hai l| loi a x , b y Sau }y
x
y
y
x

kh
a

ta cng tm hiu du hiu nhn dng ca tng loi trn:


1
1
t n ph dng: a x , b y
x
y
Du hiu nhn dng: C{c phng trnh trong h cha c{c hng t quen thuc nh:
1
1
x2 2 2 a2 .
y 2 2 2 b2 .
x
y

1
( x y) 1
a b.
xy

1 x2 y 2
xy

ab.
xy
xy

1
( x2 y 2 ) 1 2 2 4 a2 b2 .
x y

y x2 1 a


x y2 1 b

Chng minh c{c biu thc n|y kh{ n gin, s trnh b|y chi tit trong tng v d.
399

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

t n ph dng: a x

1
1
, by
y
x

Du hiu nhn dng: C{c phng trnh trong h cha c{c hng t quen thuc nh:

1
1
( x y) 1
( x y) 1 a b.
a b.
xy
xy

1
( x y ) 1 a 2 b2 .
xy

tm hiu k 2 loi n|y, ta cng xt c{c v d sau:


1
xy
2 ab.
xy

om

.v
n

1 1
x y x y 5

V d 522. Gii h phng trnh:


(I )
x2 y 2 1 1 9

x2 y 2
i hc Ngoi Thng Tp. H Ch Minh

kh
a

ng

vi

et

bo

ok

.c

2 1

1
2
x 2 a 2
a x x
x 0

t:
Li gii. iu kin:
y 0
b y 1
y 2 1 b2 2
y

y2

a b 5
a b 5
a b 5
a 2
a 3

(I) 2

hoc
2
2

ab 6
b 3
b 2
a b 13
( a b) 2ab 13

1
x 1
2
x x 2
a 2
x 2 x 1 0

, suy ra:
2

Vi
3 5
b 3
y 1 3
y
y 3 y 1 0

2
y

x 3
3 5
2

a 3

x
x 3x 1 0
x
, suy ra:
2

Vi
2
y 2y 1 0
b 2
y 1 2
y 1

3 5 3 5

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) 1;


;1
;

2 2

1 x2 y 2

5
xy
xy
xy

V d 523. Gii h phng trnh:


( x y) 1 1 6

xy

Li gii. iu kin: xy 0.
400

(I )

( x; y ).

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1
1
x y 1
1 x2 y 2

1
a.b x y xy
xy

x
y
y x xy
xy
xy

t:

1
b y
a b x 1 y 1 x y x y ( x y ) 1 1

x
y
xy
xy

.v
n

a b 5
a 2
a 3
hoc
(I )

ab 6
b 3
b 2

1
x 1
x 2
2

a 2

x
x 2 x 1 0

, suy ra:
2

Vi
3 5
y 3y 1 0
b 3
y 1 3
y

2
y

ok

.c

om

x 3
3 5
2

a 3

x
x 3x 1 0
x
, suy ra:
2

Vi
2
y

2
y

b 2
y 1 2

y 1
y

3 5 3 5

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) 1;


;1
;

2 2

bo

( x y)(1 xy) 18 xy

V d 524. Gii h phng trnh: 2


2
2 2
2 2

( x y )(1 x y ) 208 x y

(1)
(2)

(I )

Li gii. Vi ( x; y) (0; 0) l mt nghim ca h ( I ).

et

Vi xy 0, chia hai v (1) cho xy v hai v ca (2) cho x2 y 2 c:

kh
a

ng

vi

1
( x y) 1
18
ax

xy
a b 18

th ( II ) 2
( II ). t
(I)
2

b y 1
a b 212
( x 2 y 2 ) 1 1 208

x 2 y 2

a b 18
a b 18
a 4
a 14

.
hoc
2

ab 56
b 14
b 4
( a b) 2ab 212

a 4
,
Vi
b 14
a 14
,
Vi
b 4

x 2 3

4
2

y 7 4 3
x
x 4 x 1 0
suy ra:
2

x 2 3
y 1 14
y 14 y 1 0

y 7 4 3
2

x 14 x 1 0
x 7 4 3

suy ra: 2
y

3
y 4y 1 0

Kt lun: Tp nghim S ( x; y) (0; 0);(2 3;7 4 3);(7 4 3; 2 3)


401

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

2 x y xy 2 2 xy(1 x)

2
V d 525. Gii h phng trnh: 2

1
2
(
x

2
y
)

12

xy

(I )

( x; y ).

Li gii. iu kin: xy 0.

bo

ok

.c

om

.v
n

2 x y xy 2 2 xy 2 x 2 y
(2 x 2 x2 y) ( y xy 2 ) 2 xy

(I) 2
2 1 2x

2 4y
1
2
2
x 2
2y2 2
12
(
x

2
y
)

12

2 2
y
x
y
x
xy
x
y

2 x.( xy 1) y.( xy 1) 2.xy


()

v chia (2) v () cho xy :


2
1 1
2
1 1
x 2 x y y 2 2 y 2 y x x2 12


xy 1 xy 1
1
1

2
2 x y 2
2
y
x
y
x

( II )
2
2
2
2
1
1

x 1 2 1 y 12

x y 2 x y 12
y
x

1
1
2 a b 2
b 2a 2
2
t a x ; b y th h ( II ) 2
2
y
x
a 2b 12
9a 16a 4 0

1
1
2
x y 2
x y 9
x 1

y 1
y 1 2
y 1 22
x
x
9

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) (1;1)

ng

vi

et

2
a 9
a 2


, suy ra:
b 2
b 22

kh
a

1
2
2
( x y ) 1
8
V d 526. Gii h phng trnh:
xy

xy.(2 x y 6) y 2 x 0

1
y

(1)

(I )

(2)

1
x

Li gii. iu kin: xy 0 . t: a x ; b y
2

2y 1
1
2
1
2x 1
2 2 x2
2 y 2

C: ( x y ) 1 ( x2 y 2 ) 1
xy
xy x y
y y
x x2

1
1
x y a2 b2 hay (1) a2 b2 8
y
x

Chia 2 v (2) cho xy th (2) 2 x y 6


402

(3)

1 2
1
1
0 2 x y 6 (4)
x y
y
x

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

14
a
2
2

2
a
a

5 hoc a 2
T (3), (4), suy ra:
2

2a b 6
5a 24 a 28 0
b 2

b 2

1 14

14
x y 5
a 5
5xy 14 y 5 0

: v nghim.
Vi
, suy ra:
5xy 2 x 5 0
y 1 2
b 2

5
x 5

1
x 2

xy 2 y 1 0 x y 0
x 1

x 2x 1 0
xy 2 x 1 0
y 1
y 1 2

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) (1;1)

om

.v
n

a 2
, suy ra:
Vi
b 2

ok

.c

1 125
3
3
( x y ) 1

xy
4

V d 527. Gii h phng trnh:


2

2
1
25
2

( x y ) 1
xy
2

bo

1
y

( x; y ).

(I )

1
x

Li gii. iu kin: xy 0 . t: a x ; b y

ng

vi

et

1 2 2x 1 2 2 y 1 2
( x 2 y 2 ) 1
2 y
2 a b2
x
xy
y
x
y
x

3
3
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
(
x

y
)
1

x
1

y
1

xy
xy
xy
y

1
3
3
a b
x

2y 1
1
2x 1
2 y 2
2 a2 b2 8
Ta c: ( x y ) 1 x2
xy
y
x
y
x

kh
a

(1)

2
2
2

S a b
2( a b ) 25
2 ( a b) 2ab 25
, th:
(I) 3

v t

3
3
P

ab

4(
a

b
)

125
4
(
a

b
)

3
ab
(
a

b
)

125

5 5 3

5
S
2(S 2 P) 25

2
2
(loi).
3

25 (tha S 4P) hoc


P

4(
S

3
SP
)

125
25

25 3

4
P
4
2

a b 5
5
1 1
a b t suy ra c: ( x; y) (2; 2); ;
Do :
2
2 2
4ab 25

403

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

4. Dng 4. t n ph bng cch lng gic ha


gii h bng phng ph{p lng gi{c ha, ta cn nm vng cng thc lng
gi{c cng nh phng ph{p gii phng trnh lng gi{c. T phng trnh hoc hai
phng trnh ca h, ta tm ti c im v s tng ng gia cc bin vi cng
thc lng gic tm ra php t n ph bi h|m lng gi{c ph hp.
2
2

(1)
x y 1
V d 528. Gii h phng trnh:
( x, y ).
(2)

2( x y).(1 4 xy) 3
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn L Qu n Khnh Ha

.v
n

Phn tch. Phng trnh (1) gi ta n cng thc lng gi{c sin2 cos2 1 nn
ta s t: x sin , y cos vi [0; 2] v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:

(2) (sin cos )(1 2 sin 2)

6
2

om

Li gii. t x sin , y cos vi [0; 2].

()

6
2

.c

sin 2sin sin 2 cos 2cos sin 2

ok

sin (cos cos 3) cos (sin sin 3)

6
2

3

sin 3
sin
2
4
2

bo

sin 3 cos 3

ng

vi

et

7 k 2
3 4 3 k 2
36 3

, (k )
, (k ).
3 4 k 2
13 k 2

4 3
36
3
17 41 65 13 37 61
;
;
;
;
;
Do k , 0; 2 , suy ra:

36 36 36 36 36 36

kh
a

17 41 65 13 37 61
;
;
;
;
;
Kt lun: ( x; y) (sin ; cos ) vi

36 36 36 36 36 36
Bnh lun. Phng trnh lng gi{c () c dng hiu tch (dng i xng). Thng

thng ta s t t hiu v| ly tha ln s suy ra c lng tch s. Nhng nu


l|m nh th s ra phng trnh bc 3 nghim l, g}y kh khn cho vic gii. khc
phc iu , ti ph}n phi v| {p dng cng thc tch th|nh tng n gin i
c nhng lng ging nhau v| c li gii nh trn.
x3 3x2 9 x 22 y 3 3 y 2 9 y
(1)

V d 529. Gii h phng trnh: 2


1
2
(2)
x y x y

2
i hc khi A nm 2012

404

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Phn tch. Nu c{c bn th b|i n|y ti trnh b|y ri vi nhiu c{ch kh{c nhau.
Ty v|o nhn nhn v| th mnh ca mnh m| ta chn phng ph{p gii ph hp. Vi
2

.v
n

1
1
bin i (2) x y 1 gi ta n cng thc cos2 sin2 1. Khi
2
2

1
1
t x cos v y sin vi 0; 2 th c li gii kh{c nh sau:
2
2
x3 y 3 3( x 2 y 2 ) 22 9( x y)
()

2
2
Li gii. H phng trnh
1
1
x y 1
2
2

om

1
x cos
x cos

2
2
t

, 0; 2 . Khi phng trnh () vit:


y 1 sin
y sin 1

ok

.c

3
3
2
2

1
1
1
1
cos sin 3 cos sin 13 9(cos sin )
2
2
2
2

cos sin
31
35
(1 cos sin )
cos sin 3(cos sin )
()
2
4
2

et

bo

1 t2
t t cos sin 2 cos , t 2 cos sin

4
2

() 2t 3 39t 41 0 (t 1) (2t 2 2t 41) 0 t 1.


k 2

2 cos 1 cos
cos
, ( k ).
k 2
4
4 2
4

2
3
Do k v 0; 2 nn chn: 0 hoc 2 hoc

2
0
3 1
1 3
, suy ra: ( x; y) ; v vi 2, suy ra: ( x; y) ;
Vi

2
2

2 2

kh
a

ng

vi

Suy ra:

3 1 1 3
Kt lun: Cc nghim ca h phng trnh l ( x; y) ; ; ;
2 2 2 2
2

(1)
x 3y 2 y 0
V d 530. Gii h:
3
2
(2)

36( x x 3 y ) 27(4 y y) (2 3 9) x 1
Olympic 30/04 nm 2013

Phn tch. Trong b|i n|y cng thc lng gi{c che du kh{ k. Nu ta nh}n thm 3
hai v ca (1) 3x 9 y2 6 y 0 ( 3x )2 (3y 1)2 1. Khi da v|o cng
thc lng gi{c sin2 cos2 1 ta s chn c lng t n ph ph hp. Tc
405

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

3x sin , 3y 1 cos v| cn quan t}m n iu kin x, y i chiu vi

iu kin n|y trn vng trn lng gi{c tm iu kin cho hp l. i vi hai v
d trn th iu kin l| x; y
1;1 nn ta chn 0; 2 . Cn }y th x 0 v
3x sin 0 v 1 cos 1. T vng trn

lng gi{c ca hnh v, thy 0; tha mn iu kin y.

Li gii. Ta c: (1) ( 3x ) (3y 1) 1.


2

sin

1
p
2

0 3 x 1
3x sin

Suy ra:
t
, 0;

1 3 y 1 1
3 y 1 cos

- 1

3p
2
- 1

0 1
2p

cos

.v
n

1 3y 1 1 nn ta chn sao cho

(2) 4 3 sin 4(1 cos ) 12(1 cos ) 9(1 cos ) (2 3 3)sin 1


3

7 k
v do
k hoc

12
24 2

[0; ]
7 19
; ;

12 24 24
k

.c

om

4cos3 3cos 4 3 sin3 3 3 sin 2sin 0

cos 3 3 sin 3 2 sin 0 sin 3 sin


6

ok

Ta c cng thc h bc: 2sin2 a (1 cos 2) nn:

1
2 3
4 2 6
, suy ra: x sin 2

12
3
12
12
12

Vi

4 2(4 2 6)
7
1
7 4 2 6
, suy ra: x sin 2

3
24
24
12
24

Vi

4 2(4 2 6)
19
1
19 4 2 6
, suy ra: x sin 2

3
24
24
12
24

vi

et

bo

Vi

(1)
(2)

( x, y ).

kh
a

ng

x 1 y 2 y 1 x2 1
V d 531. Gii h phng trnh:

(1 x)(1 y) 2

Phn tch. T (1) gi ta n cng thc cng sin .cos cos .sin sin( ), t
nh hng t x sin , y sin v c li gii 1. Ngo|i ra, phng trnh (1) cho
a2 b2
( a b)2 0 v
4
du ng thc xy ra khi a b. T tm c mi lin h gia x, y v| c li gii 2.
x 1
x sin

Li gii 1. iu kin:
vi , ;
t
2 2
y sin
y 1

ta du hiu nhn dng ca bt ng thc c bn dng a.b

1 y 2 1 sin 2 cos2 cos cos 0


Suy ra
do : , ;

2
2
2
2 2

1 x 1 sin cos cos cos 0

406

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

(1) sin .cos cos .sin 1 sin( ) 1

k2.
2


Do k v , ; nn suy ra: .
2
2
2
2

(2) (1 sin )(1 sin ) 2 v th vo th phng trnh:


2

(3)
(1 sin ) 1 sin 2 (1 sin ) (1 cos ) 2
2

.c

om

0 2
x 1
x 0
hoc

y 1
y 0

2
Kt lun: Th li, h c nghim duy nht l ( x; y) (0;1).

.v
n

cos 1
cos 0
Do 1 sin , cos 1 nn (3) xy ra th
hoc
sin 0
sin 1

ok

Li gii 2. iu kin: x 1, y 1.

x2 1 y 2
x 1 y2

a b

2
p dng a.b

x 1 y 2 y 1 x 2 1.
, ta c:
2
2
4
y

x
y 1 x2

2
2
2
Du ng thc xy ra khi v ch khi: x y 1.
2

et

bo

kh
a

ng

vi

x2 y 2 1

Kt hp vi phng trnh (2), ta c h:


(I )

( x y) xy 1 0
x2 t 2 1
( x t )2 2( x t ) 3 0

t t y th ( I )

( x t ) xt 1 0
xt x t 1
x t 1
x t 3

(nhn do tha S2 4P) hoc


(loi).
xt 0
xt 4

Do x 0 nn s tm c x 0, t 1 y 1.
Kt lun: H phng trnh c cp nghim duy nht l ( x; y) (0;1).
3
3
2

4 x 4 y 3x y 2 3xy 2 x
V d 532. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2

x y 1

Phn tch. Nhn thy (2) c dng cng thc lng gi{c c bn:
Do nu t x

(1)
(2)

1
tan 2 a 1 .
cos2 a

1
th y tan vi 0; v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:
cos

407

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1
, suy ra: y tan vi 0; th:
cos
4
3
1
2
(1)
4 tan 3
tan 2 3
tan
3
2
cos
cos
cos
cos
3
2
4 4sin 3sin 2 3 sin cos 2cos

3 sin 3 3 sin 2 cos 2 3 sin 3 2 sin 2


6

Li gii. t x

(3)

om

.v
n

sin 3 1

Do: 1 sin 3; sin 2 1 nn (3) c nghim

sin 2 6 1

k 2
2 3
x
6 3

0;

nn

k v do

6
6
3
k
k

y 3
6

ok

.c

2 3 3

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y)


;

3

bo

1
2
x 1 y 4
V d 533. Gii h phng trnh:
y 1 x2 1

(I )

( x, y ).

x sin

. t:
vi , 0;
2
0 y 1
y sin

et

0 x 1

1 sin 2 cos cos 0

ng

1 x2

Suy ra:
2

1 y

sin cos

(I)
sin cos

vi

Li gii. iu kin:

1 sin 2 cos cos 0

kh
a

4 sin cos cos sin sin( )


2
2

1
sin( ) 0
sin

cos

cos

sin

4

(2) k v do k , , 0; nn 0 .
2

(1)
(2)

1
5

, suy ra:

hoc
2
12
12

6 2
5
6 2
Suy ra: x y cos
hoc x y cos

12
4
12
4

6 2
5
6 2
Kt lun: h c nghim x y cos
hoc x y cos

12
4
12
4
(1) sin 2

408

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Lu . Do y l h i xng loi II nn ta c th gii bng cch v tr v.

.v
n

5. Dng 5. t n ph bng cch s phc ha


Da vao s tng quan cua mt phng trinh nghim phc f ( z) 0 vi mt h
phng trinh hai }n x, y . Theo kinh nghim ca ti thng th chn mt
phng trnh nhn n v o i vo hai v, ri cng (hoc tr) vi phng

1 i
trnh cn li thu : z 2 , z 3 , z 4 , z.z , , nhm to c f ( z) 0 v| gii tm
z z

nghim z1 x1 y1i , z2 x2 y2 i ,... T suy ra nghim h phng trnh ban


u l|: ( x; y) ( x1 ; y1 ), ( x2 ; y2 ),
Trong trng phc , cho: z x yi , (x, y ). Khi ta cn nm vng nhng
bin i c bn di }y x{c nh nh}n i v|o phng trnh n|o ?!
2

.c

om

z2 x2 y2 2xy.i , z x2 y2 2xy.i , z3 x3 3xy2 (3x2 y y3 )i.


xi y
1 x iy
i
z 4 x4 6 x2 y 2 y 4 4i( x3 y y 3 x), z.z x2 y 2 , 2
, 2

2
2
z x y
z
x y
S
phc
c
vit
dng
lng
gi{c:
vi
s
c
n
cn
r

z r.(cos i sin )

ok

k 2
k 2
bc n l|: zk n r . cos
i sin
, vi k 0;1;....; n 1.
n
n

bo

Cng thc Moavr: zn r(cos i sin ) r n cos n i sin n; (n ).


hiu k hn vn n|y, ta cng xt c{c v d sau:

ng

vi

et

3x y
3
(1)
x 2
x y2

V d 534. Gii h phng trnh:


(I )
( x, y ).
y x 3y 0
(2)

x2 y 2
thi th i hc nm 2014 THPT Chuyn tnh Lo Cai

kh
a

Phn tch. Nu ly (1) i.(2) thu c: x yi 3

x yi
x y
2

xi y
x2 y 2

3 v| nu gi

xi y
1 i
1 x yi
i

;
nn ta cn gii: z 3 s
z z
z x2 y 2 x2 y 2 z
tm c z, t suy x, y v| c li gii 1. Ngo|i ra, }y l| h phng trnh gn ging
h i xng loi II, ch sai lch v hng s v| du nn ta s gii bng phng ph{p
cng m| c hc b|i hc 1. T c li gii 2.
Li gii 1. iu kin: x2 y 2 0. t: z x iy , (x, y ).
3x y
( x 3 y)i
Ly (1) i.(2) th h ( I ) x 2
yi 2
3
2
x y
x y2
3x y xi 3yi
3( x yi ) ( xi y )
( x yi)
3 ( x yi)
3
2
2
x y
x2 y 2

s phc z x yi th c

409

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

( x yi) 3

x yi
x y
2

xi y
x y
2

3z

3 i
3 z 2 3z 3 i 0
z z

1 2i. Suy ra: z 2 i hoc z 1 i.

Ta c: 3 4i

x 2
x 1
Vi z 2 i x yi
v z 1 i x yi

y 1
y 1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim cn tm l S ( x; y) (2;1),(1; 1)

Li gii 2. iu kin: x2 y 2 0. Do x 0 hoc y 0 khng l nghim nn


va thu li vi nhau, ta c: 2 xy
3xy y 2 x2 3xy
x y
2

x y
2

( x 3 y)x
x2 y 2

3 y 2 xy 1 3 y x

3y

3y 1

2y

om

2 xy

(3x y) y

.v
n

nhn phng trnh (1) vi y , phng trnh (2) vi x , ri cng 2 phng trnh

.c

3 y 1 2
3y 1
2
4
2

(2)

y
Th vo
y
3y 0 4 y 3y 1 0
2 y
2y

ok

y 1 x 2
1

(loi)
4
y 1 x 1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (1; 1);(2;1)

bo

y 2 1 hoc y 2

(1)

(I )

( x, y ).

(2)

ng

vi

et

78 y
20
x 2
x y2

V d 535. Gii h phng trnh:


y 78 x 15

x2 y 2

Li gii. iu kin: x2 y 2 0. t: z x iy , ( x, y ).

kh
a

78 y
20
x 2

x y2
78 y
78 xi

(I)
x 2
yi 2
20 15i
2
x y
x y2
yi 78 xi 15i

x2 y 2
( x yi) 78

xi y
x y
2

20 15i z 78

i
20 15i
z

z2 (20 15i)z 78i 0 c 175 288i , suy ra:

16 9i

Do z 18 12i hoc z 2 3i , suy ra: ( x; y) (2; 3),(18;12).

(1)

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (2; 3);(18;12).


Nhn xt
410

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Trong

(1)

ti tm

bng phng ph{p tng qu{t nh sau:

175 288i a bi 175 288i (a bi)2 175 288i (a2 b2 ) 2abi


2
2

b 9
a b 175
Suy ra:

16 9i.
2ab 288
a 16

Ngo|i ra, di s h tr ca casio, ta cng c th tm nhanh cn bc 2 ca mt s


arg(Ans)
phc bng c{ch bm: Mode 2 / 175 288i / = / Ans
/ = s thu c
2

om

.v
n

mt cn bc hai ca s phc l| 16 9i. Thao tc: mode 2 / 175 288i / = /


shift
Shift / 2 / 1 / Ans / )
hyp Ans / shift () /

2
Cng tng t nh v d trn, ta c th gii b|i to{n n|y bng c{ch nh}n phng
trnh (1) vi y 0 v nhn phng trnh (2) vi x 0, ri cng li thu c:
15x 78
(do x 10 khng l| nghim h).
2 x 20
2
2

15x 78 2 15x 78
15x 78
2
x
(3)
(2)
78 x 15 x

2 x 20

2 x 20
2 x 20

Gii ra cng c kt qu nh trn nhng s bin i phng trnh (3) di dng v

bo

phc tp, cn c s bin i cn thn.

ok

.c

2 xy 78 20 y 15x y

et

2
2
(6 x)( x y ) 6 x 8 y
V d 536. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
(3 y)( x y ) 8 x 6 y

(1)
( I ) ( x, y ).
(2)

vi

Phn tch. Nu chia hai v cho x2 y 2 0 sau khi xt x y 0 c phi l| nghim

kh
a

ng

khng th s a c v dng ging hai v d trn v| c li gii 1. Ngo|i ra, nu bin


i, sau cng hai phng trnh li vi nhau v| rt x theo y, ri th v|o phng
trnh (2) s tm c x, y v| c li gii 2.
Li gii 1. Vi x2 y2 0 th h c nghim ( x; y) (0; 0). Vi x2 y 2 0 th

6x 8 y

6x 8 y

6x 8 y
6
6
6 x 2
x 2
x 2
2
2
x

y
x

y
x y2

(I)

3 y 8 x 6 y
y 8x 6 y 3
yi 8 xi 6 yi 3i
2
2
2
2

x y
x y
x2 y 2

6 x 8 y 8 xi 6 yi
6( x yi) 8( xi y)
x yi 2
2
6 3i x yi 2
2
6 3i
2
2
x y
x y
x y2
x y2

t z x yi , suy ra:
z

x yi
x2 y 2

1 xi y
i
; 2
Khi phng trnh:
z x y2 z

6 8i
6 3i z 2 (6 3i)z 6 8i 0 c: 3 4i.
z z

411

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Suy ra:

2 i. Do : z 2 i hoc z 4 2i.

Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (0; 0);(2;1);(4; 2)

Li gii 2. Vi x2 y2 0 th h c nghim ( x; y) (0; 0).


Xt x 0 hoc y 0 hoc x2 y 2 0 th h phng trnh cho

om

6 y 8 6 y 8
6y 8
2
8y
Th vo (1) 6

y 6
2 y 3 2 y 3
2y 3

.v
n

6x 8 y

6x 8 y
6 xy 8 y 2
6

6
xy

6y

x2 y 2
x2 y 2
x2 y 2

(I)

2
3 y 8 x 6 y
y 8x 6 y 3
xy 8 x 6 xy 3x

x2 y 2
x2 y 2
x2 y 2

6y 8
3
2 xy 8 3x 6 y x
, y
2y 3
2

ok

.c

y 1 x 2
( y 1)( y 2)(3 y 4)(4 y 2 12 y 12) 0
, (do : x 0).
y 2 x 4
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (0; 0);(2;1);(4; 2)

et

bo

bx cy
(1)
ax 2
x y2

Khi ta c hai
Bnh lun. Dng tng qu{t ca b|i to{n l|:
ay cx by (2)

x2 y 2

vi

hng x l. Mt l| ly (1) i.(2) v| t z x yi , ( x, y ) s thu c phng


b ci
i v| gii phng trnh n|y trn tp s phc s tm c z, t
z z
suy ra c x, y. Hai l| s dng phng ph{p cng, tc ly y.(1) x.(2) s thu

ng

trnh: az

kh
a

c phng trnh n gin hn v| rt x theo y hoc y theo x, ri th v|o phng


trnh cn li. Nhng hng 2 n|y s dn n phng trnh bc cao, i hi n k
nng nhm nghim, hoc nu nghim qu{ xu s g}y kh khn.

12
x 1
2 (1)
3x y

V d 537. Gii h phng trnh:
( I ) ( x, y ).
y 1 12 6 (2)


3x y

Hc sinh gii Quc Gia nm 2007

a 3x 0

Li gii 1. iu kin: x 0; y 0; y 3x 0. t:

b y 0

412

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Do x y 0 khng l nghim ca h nn xt x 0, y 0 hay a 0, b 0.

bo

ok

.c

om

.v
n

a
12

12a

12a
2
a 2
2 3
a 2
2 3

1 2
2

2
2
a

b
3

(I)
a b
a b
b 1 12 6
b 12b 6
bi 12bi 6i

2
2
2
2

a b
a2 b2

a b

a bi
Cng hai phng trnh li, suy ra: a bi 12 2
2 3 6i
()
a b2
a bi 1
t: z a bi vi a, b v a, b 0 nn 2
Khi :
a b2 z
12
() z
2 3 6i z 2 2( 3 3i)z 12 0
z
z 3 3 (3 3)i
Ta c: 6 6 3.i , suy ra: 3 3.i (1)

z 3 3 (3 3)i
a 3 3
a 3 3 0
Do :
(nhn) hoc
(loi do a, b 0 ).
b 3 3
b 3 3

( 3 3)2

x 4 2 3
3x 3 3
x

Suy ra:

3
y 3 3
y (3 3)2

y 12 6 3

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) (4 2 3; 3 3)


bng phng ph{p tng qu{t hay s dng

et

Nhn xt. Trong

, ngoi cch tm

kh
a

ng

vi

k 2
k 2
casio, c th s dng z r.(cos i sin ) zk n r . cos
i sin

n
n

1
3

i 12 cos i.sin nn s c hai cn bc hai l|


Vi 6 6 3.i 12
2 2
3
3

3 1

1;2 12 cos i.sin 12


i (3 3.i) 3 3.i.
2 2
6
6

Hn na, ti sao ti phi t a 3x 0, b y ?! C}u tr li rt n gin, do ti


mun to ra mu s dng a2 b2 {p dng c bin i ca s phc.
Li gii 2. Do x y 0 khng l nghim h nn iu kin: x 0, y 0.

12
2

1
1 3x y
y
x

(2) (1)
(I)

(2) (1)
1 12 6
12
3x y
3x y
y

1
x
3
y

()

nhn

12
9 1

3x y y x

413

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

12xy 9x(3x y) y(3x y) 27 x2 6xy y2 0 (3x y)(9x y) 0

x 4 2 3
3x 3 3

3x
x

y 12 6 3
Vi 9x y 0 : loi do x 0, y 0 nn 9x y 0.
3

Vi y 3x th () 1

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) (4 2 3; 3 3)

.v
n

2 2
xy 2
2 x 2 ( 2 1)( x 2 1) 2 2
y
x y 1

V d 538. Gii h phng trnh:


2
4 x y
2 2

x2 y 2 1

om

Li gii. iu kin: y 0.

a x 2

2
0
b
y

vi

et

bo

ok

.c

2 2
2.x 2
2 1
2 x 2 ( 2 1).x 2
2
y
2

2x 2

(I)
( II ) v t
2
2

y
2. 2 x ( 2 1) 2
0
y
2
y
2
2
x

y2

2
a 2
2
2 1
(1)
a b ( 2 1)a 2

a b2
( II )
b 2

(2)
2ab ( 2 1)b a2 b2 0

ng

Ly (1) (2).i ( a2 b2 2ab) ( 2 1)( a bi)

kh
a

t z a bi , (b 0) th (3) z 2 ( 2 1)z

2( a bi)
2 1 0
a2 b2

2
2 1 0
z

z3 ( 2 1)z2 ( 2 1)z 2 0 ( z 2)( z2 z 1) 0

z 2 hoc z

1
3
1
3

i hoc z
i.
2 2
2 2

Vi z 2 , suy ra: a 2 v b 0.
1
1
3
3
2
2 6
nn x
v y

i , suy ra: a v b

2
2 2
2
4
3

2 2 6

;
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y)

4

Vi z

414

(3)

(I )

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

2 x 5 y xy 2
V d 539. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2

x 4 y 21 y 10 x

( x, y ).

(I )

2i( xy 2 x 5 y 2) 0

t z x iy.
2
2

x y 10 x 4 y 21 0

Li gii. Ta c ( I )

Cng v theo v, suy ra: x2 y2 10x 4y 21 2i( xy 2x 5y 2) 0


( x2 y2 2xyi) 10( x yi) 4i( x yi) 21 4i 0
z2 10z 4iz 21 4i 0 z2 2(5 2i)z 21 4i 0
2 2(1 i).

.v
n

Ta c: (5 2i)2 (21 4i) 16i 8(1 i)2

z 5 2 2 (2 2 2)i
x 5 2 2
x 5 2 2
Suy ra:
nn
hoc

z 5 2 2 (2 2 2)i
y 2 2 2
y 2 2 2

om

Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) (5 2 2; 2 2 2)

.c

Nhn xt. Ta c th gii h bng c{ch rt x theo y hoc ngc li t phng trnh (1),
ri th v|o phng trnh (2) cng c kt qu tng t.

bo

ok

x3 3xy 2 1

V d 540. Gii h phng trnh: 3


2

y 3x y 3

(I )

( x, y ).

Phn tch. }y la h phng trinh ng c}p b}c ba. Tuy nhin, nu giai bng phng
ph{p thng th ng, tc nh}n cho 2 v c:

3x3 3x2 y 3 3xy2 y3 0 v|

et

phng trinh nay nghim qu{ xu !! Nhng y xet s phc z x iy , ( x, y ) th

vi

z3 x3 3xy2 (3x2 y y 3 )i. iu gi cho ta ly phng trnh hai nh}n vi i ,

ng

ri cng vi phng trnh mt v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:


Li gii. Gi z x iy , (x, y ), suy ra: z3 x3 3xy2 (3x2 y y3 )i.

kh
a

3
2

x 3xy 1
(I) 2

x3 3xy 2 (3x2 y y 3 )i 1 i 3
3

(3x y y )i i 3
1
3

2
2
z 3 1 3.i z 3 2
i z 3 2 cos
i.sin
2 2
3
3


2
2

8
8

14
14
Nn z 3 2 cos
i sin ; 3 2 cos
i sin ; 3 2 cos
i sin

9
9
9
9
9
9

14
3
3
3
x 2 cos 9
x 2 cos 9
x 2 cos 9
: l cc cp
Suy ra:
hoc
hoc
y 3 2 sin 2
y 3 2 sin 8
y 3 2 sin 14

9
9
9
nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh cho.

415

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x4 6x2 y 2 y 4 3

V d 541. Gii h phng trnh:


(I )
( x, y )
1
3
3
x y y x

4
Korean Mathematical Olympiad 1998

Li gii. Gi z x iy z4 ( x yi)4 x4 4x3 yi 6x2 y2 i 2 4xy3i 3 y4i 2


x4 6x2 y 2 y 4 3
4
2 2
4

x 6x y y 3
(I)
3
1
3
3
3

x yi y xi i
4( x y y x)i i

(x4 6x2 y 2 y 4 ) 4( x3 y y 3 x)i 3 i z 4 3 i.

.v
n

Suy ra: z4 ( x4 6x2 y2 y4 ) 4( x3 y y3 x).i

ok

.c

om

3 1

i 2 cos i sin
Ta c: z 4 3 i 2
2 2
6
6

25
25
4
4
i sin
z 2 cos i sin
z 2 cos

24
24
24
24

Do :
hoc

13
13

37
37
4
4
i sin
i sin
z 2 cos
z 2 cos

24
24
24
24

vi

et

bo


13
25
37
x 4 2 cos
x 4 2 cos
x 4 2 cos
x 4 2 cos

24
24
24
24
Suy ra:

13

25

37
y 4 2 sin
y 4 2 sin
y 4 2 sin
y 4 2 sin

24
24
24
24
Nhn xt. Nu gii c{ch thng thng s g}y kh khn cho vic tm nghim.

BI TP RN LUYN TNG HP V T N PH

kh
a

ng

1 1
x y 9

BT 582. Gii h phng trnh:

1 1 1 1 1 1 18

3 x 3 y 3 x

3 y

3
x ( 3 y 2) 8

BT 583. Gii h phng trnh: 3

x( y 2) 6

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

2
13
2
x y 2
BT 584. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
3 y 2 x x 3 35

2
2
2
2

( x y) (3x 2 xy 3 y 20) 1 0
BT 585. Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).

2 x 5x 2 xy 5 y 0

416

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

BT 588. Gii h phng trnh:

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

ok

.c

BT 589. Gii h phng trnh:

( x; y ).

.v
n

BT 587. Gii h phng trnh:

om

BT 586. Gii h phng trnh:

2
3
85
2

4( x xy y )
2
3
( x y)

2 x 1 13

xy 3

3
2
2
7
4 xy 4( x y )
2
x y

2 x 1 3

xy

2
1
9
2
0
x y 6 xy
2
8
( x y)

2 y 1 5 0

xy 4
2
x 2 y 2 3xy 3 0

x y 18
( x y )2 9 x y

1
2
( x y ) 1 2 2 16
x y

2
2
y( x 1) 2 x( y 1)

( x; y ).

1
( x y) 1
4
xy

BT 591. Gii h phng trnh:


x y 1
x2 1 y 2 1

( x; y ).

2 x 2 y y 2 x 2 y x 6 xy

BT 592. Gii h phng trnh:


1 y x
xy xy x y 4

( x; y ).

kh
a

ng

vi

et

bo

BT 590. Gii h phng trnh:

1
( x 2 y 2 ) 1
8
xy

BT 593. Gii h phng trnh:


3
3
1
3
16
( x y ) 1
xy

2
2

y xy 6 x
BT 594. Gii h phng trnh:
2 2
2

1 x y 5x
x( x y 1) 3 0

BT 595. Gii h phng trnh:


5
2
( x y) 2 1 0
x

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

417

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


2

x 1 y y x 4 y
BT 596. Gii h phng trnh: 2

( x 1)( y x 2) y

1
xy xy 2

BT 597. Gii h phng trnh:


( x y) 1 1 4

xy

et

BT 602. Gii h phng trnh:

ng

vi

BT 603. Gii h phng trnh:

kh
a

BT 604. Gii h phng trnh:


BT 605. Gii h phng trnh:

BT 606. Gii h phng trnh:

BT 607. Gii h phng trnh:

BT 608. Gii h phng trnh:

418

( x; y ).

.v
n

bo

BT 601. Gii h phng trnh:

om

BT 600. Gii h phng trnh:

.c

BT 599. Gii h phng trnh:

( x; y ).

1
45
2
2
( x y ) 1

xy
4

1 9

( x y) 1 xy 2

xy x 1 3 y

2
2

x y x 2 y
3 3
3

x y 8 16 y

x( xy 2) 8 y
x2 1 y 2 xy 4 y

y
x y 2
1 x2

4
3
2
2

( x 2 x x )(1 y 2 y) 16 y
2
2

2 x y 2 xy y 10 y 1 0
( x 1)2 ( y 1)2 9 xy

2
2

( x 1)( y 1) 10 xy
x2 xy 3x y 0

4
2
2
2

x 3x y 5x y 0
y 2 4 xy y 2 x 0

4
2
2
2

y 8 xy 4 x 3 y 0

3x y x y 2

xy xy 1

7 x y 2x y 5

2x y x y 2
( xy 3)2 ( x y)2 8

y
1
x
x2 1 y 2 1 4

ok

BT 598. Gii h phng trnh:

( x; y ).

( x; y ).
( x; y ).

( x; y ).

( x; y ).
( x; y ).
( x; y ).
( x; y ).
( x; y ).

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

om

.v
n

11x y y x 1
BT 609. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
7
y

6
y

26
x

2 2 x 3 y 5 x y 7
BT 610. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
3
5

2
x

3
2 2
3

x y(1 y) x y (2 y) xy 30
BT 611. Gii h phng trnh: 2
( x; y ).
2

x y x(1 y y ) y 11 0

2x 2 y 6
BT 612. Gii h phng trnh:
( x; y ).
2
x

2
y

2
2

8 x 8 xy 2 x 2 y 2 x 1 2 x y
BT 613. Gii h phng trnh:
2

4 x x 1 17 y

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

kh
a

ng

vi

et

bo

ok

.c

x2 y x2 2 y 22 0

BT 614. Gii h phng trnh: 4


2
2

x 4x y 6 y 9 0
x 4 2 x3 5x 2 y 2 6 x 11

BT 615. Gii h phng trnh: 3 y 2 7 6


x2 x

2
y 7

3
8 8
2
x 3x 13x 15 3
y
y
BT 616. Gii h phng trnh:
y 2 4 5 y 2 ( x 2 2 x 2)

xy x y 1

BT 617. Gii h phng trnh: 3


2
3

4 x 12 x 9 x y 6 y 7

2 x 1 y(1 2 2 x 1) 8
BT 618. Gii h phng trnh:
2

y y 2 x 1 2 x 13

2y
3

1
2
2
x y 1 x
BT 619. Gii h phng trnh:
x2 y 2 2x 4

y
x y x 2 y 2 12

BT 620. Gii h phng trnh: 2


12
2
x y
y

12 x 3 y 4 xy 16
BT 621. Gii h phng trnh:

4x 5 y 5 6

( x; y ).
( x; y ).

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

419

Phng trnh, bt phng trnh, h phng trnh i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


3
2

x 3xy 25
BT 622. Gii h phng trnh: 2
2

x 6 xy y 10 x 6 y 1
1 x 2 3
3
2 xy y 3

2
BT 623. Gii h phng trnh: x

1
4
2
( xy 2) 2 2 y x
x

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

.v
n

46 2 y(3 8 x 8 y) 2 x 6
BT 624. Gii h phng trnh:

2 4 x y x 2 y 1
x
y
7

2
2
12
1 y
1 x
BT 625. Gii h phng trnh:
1
35
1

2
1 y2
12
1 x

2y3
y3
9

4 3
6
x 5y
10 x2
x
BT 626. Gii h phng trnh:
4
22 x 2
x3 y6 x


x3 5 y6

( x; y ).

ok

.c

om

( x; y ).

kh
a

ng

vi

et

bo

6
1
x y xy 1

BT 627. Gii h phng trnh:


( x; y ).
y 2 1 x2 1 2 7

y2
x2

3x y
3x y 9
2
2
x y
BT 628. Gii h phng trnh:

2 xy
5
( x 2 y 2 )
5 2 xy 2
35
2
2 2

( x y 2 )2
(x y )

2
4
2
2

(2 x y) 4 x 3x y(4 x y 6) 8
BT 629. Gii h phng trnh:
2

3 y 4 x 2 0
2 y 2 y x 1 4 xy 2 x 1

BT 630. Gii h phng trnh:


( x; y ).
3
2
3

x 6x y 8 y 6

1
( x y) 1
5
xy

BT 631. Gii h phng trnh:


( x 2 y 2 ) 1 1 49

x 2 y 2

420

( x; y ).

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

BT 636. Gii h phng trnh:

bo

BT 637. Gii h phng trnh:

.v
n

BT 635. Gii h phng trnh:

om

BT 634. Gii h phng trnh:

.c

BT 633. Gii h phng trnh:

ok

BT 632. Gii h phng trnh:

3 2
7 4y
2x 8 y 2

x x
( x; y ).

2y
x3 y

x(4 x 1)
1
1
2 2 1
y
( x; y ).
x
2
2
x 1 y 1 xy 2

x 2 y 3 9 x 10 y 11 10

12 x 13 y 14 28 x 29 y 30 20

3
3
( x 1)( x 2 1)
y
( x; y ).

x2 x 1 y

2
2

2 x y xy 1
( x; y ).

2
2
2

( x y) ( 3x xy 2 y 2 1) 3
x1 y1 2

( x; y ).
3 2
72 xy
2
4
29 x y
xy

kh
a

ng

vi

et

2 y 1 x y
BT 638. Gii h phng trnh:

x y x 2 y 3y

2 x 2 y 2 3
BT 639. Gii h phng trnh:

4 y 8( x 2) x 2 7 0
x2 y 2 1

BT 640. Gii h phng trnh:


1
3
3
(3x 4 x )(3 y 4 y )

2
x 1 y 2 1
BT 641. Gii h phng trnh:
y 1 x 2 3

1
3x 1
2
xy

BT 642. Gii h phng trnh:


7y 1 1 4 2

xy

3
2
2
2

x 3xy x 1 y 2 xy x
BT 643. Gii h phng trnh: 3
2
2
2

y 3 yx y 1 y 2 xy x

( x; y ).
( x; y ).

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

( x; y ).

421

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

4. GII H BNG PHNG PHP NH GI

Trong bi hc ny, ta s tm hiu 2 phng php nh gi chnh gii h


phng trnh m thng c s dng nhiu trong thi, l:
Phng php nh gi bng hm s.
Phng php nh gi bng bt ng thc.
I. Phng php nh gi bng hm s
Ta s vn dng ni dung ca kt qu: Hm s f (t ) n iu mt chiu

.v
n

trn khong ( a; b) v tn ti u, v (a; b) th f (u) f (v) u v ".

1. Mt s dng c bn s dng phng php hm s

Do

om

a. Dng 1. H cha ax (ax )2 1 by (by)2 1 1 (1) dng lin hp

(by)2 1 (by)2 by by , suy ra:

(by)2 1 by 0 nn:

.c

ax ( ax)2 1 (by)2 1 by (by)2 1 by

(1)
1
(by)2 1 by

ok

ax (ax)2 1 (by)2 1 (by) f ( ax) f (by).

f (t ) 1

bo

Xt hm s f (t) t t 2 1 xc nh v lin tc trn c:


t2 1 t

0, t do

t2 1 t

t 1
t 1
t 1
Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn .
2

et

t2 t
t 1
2

t t
1 t2

0.

vi

Suy ra: f (ax) f (by) ax by. c mi lin h gia x v y.

ng

Lu . Ngoi cch chng minh bng phng php hm s, ta c th s


dng phng php lin hp cng tm c ra mi lin h gia x v y.

kh
a

(1)
8 x 2 y y 5 x 2
V d 442. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
(2)

(3x 1 9 x ) ( y 1 y ) 1
Hc sinh gii tnh Lm ng nm 2014

Li gii. iu kin: y 5x 2 0.
Do

1 y 2 y 2 y y , suy ra:

(2) (3x 1 9 x2 )

1
1 y y
2

1 y 2 y 0 nn lin hp (2) c:

1 3x 1 (3x)2 1 ( y)2 ( y)

f (3x) f (y).

Xt hm s f (t) t 1 t 2 trn c f (t )
422

1 t2 t
1 t2

0, t .

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1 t2 t

t2 t

t t

0. Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn .
1 t2
1 t2
1 t2
Suy ra: f (3x) f (y) 3x y y 3x v th vo (1) c:

V:


(1) 8x3 6x 2x 2 (3). t x cos t , t 0; Khi :
2

(3) 2(4cos3 t 3cos t) 2cos t 2 2cos 3t 2(1 cos t)

t
t

t
cos 3t cos 3t cos , do : t 0; cos 0
2
2
2
2

k 4

t
t 5
3t 2 k 2

, k . V t 0; t 0.
2
t k 4
3t t k 2

7
Vi t 0, suy ra: x 1 y 3.

om

.v
n

cos2

.c

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) (1; 3)

ok

Nhn xt. Ngoi vic s dng hm s, ta c th s dng lin hp nh sau:


1
(2) 3x 1 9 x2
1 y 2 y 3x y 1 9 x 2 1 y 2 0
2
y 1 y

ng

vi

et

9 x2 y 2

bo

3x y
0
0 (3x y) 1
2
2

1 9 x2 1 y 2
1

9
x

0
0


2
1

9
x

3x 1 y 2 y
3x y
3x y do: 1

0.
1 9x2 1 y 2
1 9x2 1 y 2
3x y

kh
a

2
2

(1)
( x 1 x)( y 1 y) 1
V d 443. Gii h phng trnh:
2
(2)

4 x 2 22 3x y 8
Hc sinh gii tnh Nam nh nm 2013

x 2 0

Li gii. iu kin:
Do

22 3x 0

1 y 2 y 2 y y , suy ra:

(1) x2 1 x

1
y 1 y
2

2 x

22

1 y 2 y 0 nn lin hp (1) c:

x2 1 x ( y)2 1 ( y) f ( x) f ( y).

Xt hm s f (t) t 1 t 2 trn c f (t )

1 t2 t
1 t2

0.

423

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1 t2 t

V:

1 t2

t2 t
1 t2

t t

1 t2

0. Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn .

Suy ra: f ( x) f (y) x y v th vo (2) 4 x 2 22 3x x2 8

( )

.v
n

1
4
1
14
4 x 2 x 22 3x x x2 x 2
3
3
3
3

4 3 x 2 ( x 4) 3 22 3x (14 x) 3( x2 x 2)

2
2
4( x x 2)
x x 2

3( x2 x 2) 0
3 x 2 x 4 3 22 3x 14 x

om

4
1
( x2 x 2)

3 0
3 x 2 x 4 3 22 3x 14 x

x 1
x 2
hoc
x2 x 2 0

y 1
y 2

22
3 0, x 2;
3
3 x 2 x 4 3 22 3x 14 x

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (1;1);(2; 2)


4

.c

ok

Do:

bo

Nhn xt. Trong c{ch bin i ca phng trnh ( ) do s dng casio, tm c 2


nghim x 1, x 2 nn ghp bc nht ax b lin hp (xem li phn lin hp).

vi

et

2
2

(1)
( x x 4)( y y 1) 2
V d 444. Gii h phng trnh:
6
3
(2)

27 x x 8 y 2
Hc sinh gii tnh Ngh An nm 2013

ng

Li gii. Ta c: (1) x x2 4 2( y2 1 y)
x x2 4 (2 y)2 4 (2 y) f ( x) f (2 y).

kh
a

Xt hm s f (t) t 1 t 2 trn c f (t )
1 t2 t

t2 t

1 t2

0.

t t

0. Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn .
1 t2
1 t2
1 t2
Suy ra: f ( x) f (2 y) x 2 y v th vo phng trnh (2) c:

V:

1 t2 t

(2) 27 x6 x3 4x 2 (3x2 )3 3x2 x3 3x2 4x 2


(3x2 )3 (3x2 ) ( x 1)3 ( x 1) f (3x2 ) f ( x 1).

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 t trn c f (t) 3t 2 1 0, t . Do hm s f (t )


ng bin trn .

424

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Suy ra: f (3x2 ) f ( x 1) 3x2 x 1 x

1 13
1 13
y

6
12

1 13 1 13 1 13 1 13

Kt lun: Tp nghim S ( x; y)
;
;
;

6

12
12

2
2
2

( y 1 1)( x y x 2 x 2) y
V d 445. Gii h phng trnh:
2

(8 y 11) 2 x 1 3 (3 x 1)( y 1)

(1)
(2)

Li gii. Do y 0 khng l nghim h nn xt y 0 v lin hp (1) th:


f ( x 1) f ( y).

1 t2 t

t2 t

t t

0, t .

(2) 3x2 x (8x 3) 2x2 1 3 0

ok

.c

1 t2

0. Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn .
1 t2
1 t2
1 t2
Suy ra: f ( x 1) f ( y) y x 1 v th vo phng trnh (2) c:

V:

1 t2 t

om

Xt hm s f (t) t 1 t 2 trn c f (t )

.v
n

(1) x y ( x 1)2 1 y 2 1 1 x 1 ( x 1)2 1 y y 2 1

(3)

bo

t t 2x2 1 1 th (3) 3t 2 (8x 3).t 3x2 x 0 c: t (10x 3)2 .

et

t 3 x 1 2 x 2 1 3 x 1
6
13

Suy ra:
x x7 y 7
2
t x
2 x 1 3

kh
a

ng

vi

6 13
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ;
7 7
Bnh lun. gii phng trnh (3), ti s dng vic t n ph khng ho|n to|n.
Nhng nu l|m bnh thng th bit s delta khng l| s chnh phng, do ti
iu chnh h s m 3 trc t 2 c delta l| s phng. Theo phng ph{p
c hc phn 1, th vic tm m ngo|i nh{p kh{ d|i dng, ngi ra thng cho m
l| nhng s nguyn dng nn ti chn phng ph{p th dn m 1,2,3,... v
chn c m 3 th delta l| s chnh phng v| c li gii ngn gn nh trn.

b. Dng 2. H cha a thc bc 3: a1 x3 b1 x2 c1x d1 a2 y 3 b2 y 2 c2 y (1)


V nguyn tc tng qut ta s s dng ng nht thc xy dng hm
c trng dng: f (t) m.t 3 n.t , tc bin i:
(1) m.(ax b)3 n.(ax b) m.(cy d)3 n.(cy d) f (ax b) f (cy d).

T chng minh hm s f (t ) n iu 1 chiu trn min D.


Suy ra: f (ax b) f (cy d) ax b cy d v th vo phng trnh cn li.
425

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Lu , i vi cc phng trnh n gin, c th s dng casio tm


a, b. Ngoi ra, min D D1 D2 vi D1 , D2 l min ca ax b v
cy d.
3
3
2

(1)
x y 3x 6 x 3 y 4 0
V d 446. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
(2)

2 4 x 3 3 2 y y 3x 2 0
Hc sinh gii Tp. H Ni nm 2014

Phn tch. Nhn thy (1) c dng a thc bc 3 theo x v| theo y c lp nhau. Do d
ta s vit: x3 3x2 6x 4 y3 3y (i). V a thc theo y kh{ n gin nn s chn

.v
n

h|m s c trng da v|o n, tc x}y dng h|m s f (t) t 3 3t 2 v. Khi vit:


(1) (ax b)3 3(ax b) y 3 3y (ii). Lc n|y c c{c c{ch tm a, b nh sau:

om

Cch 1. Khai trin v| ng nht, tc: VT( ii ) a3 x3 3a2 bx2 (3ab2 3a)x b3 3b
v| so s{nh h s vi (i), c a b 1 hay vit (1) ( x 1)3 3( x 1) y3 3y.
Cch 2. S dng casio nhp 1000 v| gn vo A: A : 1000 A (1000 shift STO A),

ok

.c

ri nhp X3 3X2 6X 4 A3 3 A v| bm shift solve cho ta X 999 1000 1


tc ta c th vit (1) ( x 1)3 3( x 1) y3 3y f ( x 1) f ( y). Do h|m s c
trng f (t) t 3 3t lun ng bin trn nn suy ra x 1 y v| c li gii sau:

bo

Li gii. iu kin: 2 x 2 v 1 y 3.

(1) ( x 1)3 3( x 1) y3 3y f ( x 1) f ( y).

et

Xt hm s: f (t) t 3 3t trn c f (t) 3t 2 3 0, t .


Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn . Suy ra: f ( x 1) f ( y) y x 1.

vi

Th vo (2) 4 x2 3x 2 x 0, suy ra: y 1.

ng

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (0;1)

kh
a

3
2
3

(1)
x 3x 6 x 4 y 3 y
V d 447. Gii h phng trnh:
(2)

x3 y 1 3
Hc sinh gii tnh Lng Sn nm 2014

Phn tch. Tng t tng b|i trn, ta cn x}y dng h|m c trng f (t) t 3 3t
v lu 1000 A trn casio, ri nhp: X3 3X2 6X 4 A3 3A, shift solve cho
ta X 1001 1000 1, tc vit (1) ( x 1)3 3( x 1) y3 3y f ( x 1) f ( y)
v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. iu kin: x 3, y 1. Khi (1) ( x 1)3 3( x 1) y3 3y
f ( x 1) f ( y).
Xt hm s: f (t) t 3 3t trn c f (t) 3t 2 3 0, t .

426

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn . Suy ra: f ( x 1) f ( y) x 1 y. Th

x 4
x 6
vo (2) x 3 x 3 x2 3x 6 x 2

2
x 3x (6 x)
y 3

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (4; 3)

Nhn xt. Ta c th s dng ng nht thc tm h|m c trng hai v ca (1).

.v
n

3
3
2

(1)
x y 3 y 3x 2 0
V d 448. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
2
(2)

x 1 x 3 2 y y 2 0
thi th THPT Quc Gia 2015 THPT Ng Gia T Bc Ninh

Phn tch. Thy (1) x3 3x 2 y3 3y2 c x, y c lp nhau nn s ngh n


phng ph{p h|m v| s x}y dng h|m c trng f (t) t 3 3t 2 . Nu nhy, c{c em c

om

th vit ngay (1) ( x 1)3 3( x 1)2 y3 3y2 (). Cn khng, ta s s dng ng


nht thc hoc casio nh c{c v d trc, tc lu 1000 A, ri nhp v|o casio
phng trnh X3 3X 2 A3 3 A2 v bm shift solve cho X 999 1000 1, tc

.c

vit (1) ( x 1)3 3( x 1)2 y3 3y2 f ( x 1) f ( y). Nhng h|m c trng

ok

2 v f (t) t 3 3t 2 khng n iu 1 chiu trn . Khi cn tm iu kin cho


x 1 v| y, ri hp 2 iu kin n|y li s c min D i xt vi hy vng f (t ) lun

bo

n iu 1 chiu trn min D. Tht vy, t (2) c iu kin: 1 x 1, 0 y 2 nn

et

suy ra: x 1 D1 0; 2 , y D2 0; 2 v D D1 D2 0; 2 . Lc ny ta lun


c f (t) 3t 2 6t 3t(t 2) 0 nn h|m s c trng f (t ) nghch bin trn 0; 2 .
2

1 x 1
1 x 0

Suy ra:
2
2 y y 0
0 y 2

vi

Li gii. iu kin:

0 x 1 2

0 y 2

ng

(1) ( x 1)3 3( x 1)2 y3 3y2 f ( x 1) f ( y).

kh
a

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 3t 2 trn 0; 2 c f (t) 3t 2 6t 0, t 0; 2


Do hm s f (t ) lun nghch bin trn on 0; 2 .
Suy ra: f ( x 1) f ( y) y x 1 v th vo phng trnh (2), ta c:
(1) x2 1 x2 3 2( x 1) ( x 1)2 2 0 x2 2 1 x2 2 0

(1 x2 ) 2 1 x2 1 4 ( 1 x2 1)2 22 1 x2 1 2
1 x2 1 1 x2 1 x 0, suy ra: y 1.

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (0;1).


y 3 3 x y 2 x 2 0
(1)
V d 449. Gii h phng trnh:
3
3
2
2
y 8x y 32x 2( y 23x) 24 (2)
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn V Thanh Tnh Hu Giang

427

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Phn tch. Xut ph{t t (2) y3 y2 2 y 8x3 32x2 46x 24 c x, y c lp


c 2 v nn s x}y dng h|m c trng dng f (t) t 3 t 2 2t lun ng bin
da v|o v tr{i. Khi s dng casio g{n 1000 A v| nhp phng trnh:
1000 3
A3 A2 2 A 8X3 32X2 46X 24, bm shift solve c: X 501,5
2
3
2
3
2
Tc c 1000 2X 3 hay (2) y y 2 y (2x 3) (2x 3) 2(2x 3) vi 2
v dng f (t) t 3 t 2 2t c f (t) 3t 2 2t 2 0, (do : 0, a 0).

Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
(2) y3 y2 2 y (2x 3)3 (2x 3)2 2(2x 3) f ( y) f (2x 3).

.v
n

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 t 2 2t trn c f (t) 3t 2 2t 2 0, t .

Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn . Suy ra: f ( y) f (2x 3) y 2x 3.

Ly v tr v, suy ra: (2z 3)3 (2x 3)3 2( x z)

om

(2 z 3) 3x 5
(1) (2x 3)3 3 3x 5 x 2. t 2 z 3 3 3x 5
3

(2 x 3) 2 z x 5

.c

( z x) (2x 3)2 (2x 3)(2z 3) (2 z 3)2 1 0 z x.


2

ok

9 3(2 z 3)2
Do (2 x 3) (2 x 3)(2 z 3) (2 z 3) 1 2 x z
1 0.
2
4

bo

x 2 y 1
3x 5 2 x 3 ( x 2)(8 x 20 x 11) 0

x 5 3 y 1 3

4
2
2

et

Nn:

ng

vi

5 3 1 3 5 3 1 3

Kt lun: Tp nghim S ( x; y) (2;1);


;
;
;

4
4

2
2

kh
a

x3 3x2 9 x 22 y 3 3 y 2 9 y (1)

V d 450. Gii h phng trnh: 2


(I )
1
2
(2)
x y x y

2
i hc khi A nm 2012

Phn tch. Nhn thy (2) c dng tam thc bc 2 nhng bit s delta khng l| s
chnh phng nn khng chn phng {n hng s bin thin. Do x, y c th c lp
c 2 v ca (1) nn s ngh n vic s dng h|m s. Bn c c th s dng casio
tm h|m c trng phng trnh (1) nh c{c v d trc, nhng }y ti xin
c trnh b|y bng phng ph{p ng nht thc cng cho kt qu tng t nh sau:
(1) m (ax b)3 n (ax b) m (cy d)3 n (cy d), () vi h|m s c trng
nh sn l f (t) m.t 3 n.t. Khi so s{nh h s hng t ca bc 3, bc 2, bc 1 trong
() vi phng trnh (1), ta s tm c m, n, a, b, c, d, ngha l|:

428

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


3 3
3
3

ma x x
ma 1
Hng t bc 3: 3 3
nn s chn m a c 1. Khi vit
3
3

nc y y
mc 1
phng trnh () dng: ( x b)3 n.( x b) ( y d)3 n.( y d).

3bx2 3x2
3b 3
b 1

Hng t bc 2:

Vit phng trnh () dng:


2
2

3d 3
d 1
3dy 3 y
( x 1)3 n.( x 1) ( y 1)3 n.( y 1). Ta cn tm n na l| xong !?!

.v
n

3x nx 9 x
3 n 9
Hng t bc 1:

n 12.
3 y ny 9 y
3 n 9
Khi c th vit (1) ( x 1)3 12( x 1) ( y 1)3 12( y 1) f ( x 1) f ( y 1)

om

v| kim tra li bng c{ch khai trin, ri so s{nh vi (1) thy ho|n to|n ging nn vic
l|m l| ng hng. Lc n|y h|m c trng 2 v c dng f (t) t 3 12t , nhng
h|m n|y khng n iu mt chiu trn do f (t) 3t 2 12 cha x{c nh c

.c

du. Do ta cn tm iu kin cho lng x 1, y 1 v| hp 2 iu kin n|y li c


min D vi hy vng f (t ) lun dng hoc lun }m. Quan st (2), thy c dng hng

et

bo

ok

1
1
ng thc nn vit: (2) x y 1 v| theo cng thc lng gi{c:
2
2

1
1
sin2 cos2 1, gi ta n iu kin quen thuc: 1 x 1, 1 y 1,
2
2
3 1
1 3
hay ( x 1) D1 ; , ( y 1) D2 ; v| min D xt h|m s f (t ) l
2 2
2 2

ng

vi

3 3
3 3
D D1 D2 ; th f (t ) 3t 2 12 3(t 2 4) 0, t ; Khi s
2 2
2 2
suy ra mi lin h gia x, y l| x 1 y 1 v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:

kh
a

( x 1)3 12( x 1) ( y 1)3 12( y 1)

2
2
Li gii. Ta c: ( I )
1
1
x


1
2
2

(3)
(4)

1
3
1
1 x 1
x1

2
2
2
(3) f ( x 1) f ( y 1) v (4)

1 y 1 1 1 y 1 3

3 3
3 3
Xt f (t) t 3 12t trn ; c: f (t ) 3t 2 12 3(t 2 4) 0, t ;
2 2
2 2
3 3
Do hm s f (t ) lun nghch bin trn on ;
2 2
Suy ra: f ( x 1) f ( y 1) x 1 y 1 x y 2 v th vo (4) c:

429

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


2

1
3
1 3 3 1
(4) x x 1 ( x; y) ; ; ;
2
2

2 2 2 2
1 3 3 1
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ; ; ;
2 2 2 2
Nhn xt. Vic {p dng ng nht thc trn tm ra h|m c trng trng c v d|i
dng nhng khi l|m quen th kh{ d d|ng v| nhanh. Hn na, ta quen vi vic
tm iu kin ca nhng h|m cn, ph}n thc m| t gp vic tm iu kin ko theo cho
biu thc a thc. V d trn s tm iu kin khi x, y a c v hng ng thc

.v
n

( ax b) e
c lp gia chng, tc vit di dng: ( ax b)2 (cy d)2 e 0

(cy d) e

om

4
4

(1)
x 1 x 1 y 2 y
V d 451. Gii h phng trnh:
(I )
2
2
(2)

x 2 x( y 1) y 6 y 1 0
i hc khi A nm 2013

ok

.c

Phn tch. Nhn thy (2) l| tam thc bc hai theo x hoc theo y, nhng bit s delta
khng l| s chnh phng nn khng gii bng phng ph{p hng s bin thin c.
Quan s{t (1) thy c x, y c th c lp nhau, tc (1) x 1 4 x 1 y y 4 2

bo

( 4 x 1)4 2 4 x 1 y 4 2 y f ( 4 x 1) f ( y). H|m s c trng 2

2t 3

t4 2

x 1 v y. Ta lun c

1 0 cha khng nh c du
4

x 1 0, cn y cha x{c nh nn

vi

nn s tm iu kin cho

et

v c dng f (t) t 4 2 t vi f (t )

ng

s quan t}m n phng trnh (2) vi hy vng tm c iu kin . Tht vy:


(2) ( x2 2xy y2 ) 2( x y) 1 4 y ( x y)2 2( x y) 1 4 y
( x y 1)2 4 y 0, suy ra: y 0. Lc ny xt hm f (t ) trn 0; c f (t )

kh
a

lun dng nn y 4 x 1 v| th v|o phng trnh cn li th b|i to{n c gii.

Li gii. iu kin: x 1.

( 4 x 1)4 2 4 x 1 y 4 2 y f ( 4 x 1) f ( y)
(I)

2
(3)

( x y 1) 4 y 0 y 0

Xt hm s f (t) t 4 2 t trn 0; c: f (t )
Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn 0; .

2t 3
t4 2

1 0, t 0.

Suy ra: f ( 4 x 1) f ( y) y 4 x 1 x y 4 1 v th vo (3), ta c:

430

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

y 0 x 1
(3) ( y 4 y)2 4 y y( y7 2 y 4 y 4) 0 7
4
y 2y y 4 0
Xt hm s f ( y) y7 2 y4 y 4 trn 0; c:

(4)

f ( y) 7 y6 8 y3 1 0, y 0 nn hm s f ( y) lun ng bin trn 0; .


M f (1) 0 y 1, suy ra: x 2.

Kt lun: So iu kin, nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (1; 0);(2;1).

.v
n

Nhn xt. Tuy }y khng phi l| h|m s bc 3 nhng ti mun a v|o c{c bn c
th th|nh tho vic tm iu kin biu thc bc 2 da v|o s chnh phng. thc
h|nh iu n|y, ta c th gii v| theo di v d sau:

om

4
4

x3 x2 y 5 y
V d 452. Gii h phng trnh:
(I )
2
2
x

2
x
(
y

2)

8
y

thi th s 2 THPT Quc Gia 2015 Tp ch Ton Hc & Tui Tr s 450

Li gii. iu kin: x 2.

ok

.c

f ( 4 x 2) f ( y)
4 x 2 ( 4 x 2)4 5 y y 4 5

(I)

2
2

( x y 2) 4 y
( x y 2) 4 y 0 y 0

bo

Xt hm s f (t) t t 4 5 trn 0; c f (t )

2t 3
t4 5

(1)
(2)

1 0, t 0.

Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn [0; ).

et

Suy ra: f ( 4 x 2) f ( y) y 4 x 2 x y 4 2 v th vo (2), ta c:

vi

(2) y( y7 2 y4 y 4) 0 y 0 x 2 hoc y7 2 y4 y 4 0 (3)

Xt hm s f ( y) y7 2 y4 y 4 trn [0; ) c:

ng

f ( y) 7 y6 8 y3 1 0, y 0 nn hm s f ( y) lun ng bin trn [0; ).

M f (1) 0 y 1, suy ra: x 3.

kh
a

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (2; 0);(3;1).


6
3
2
2
x y x 9 y 30 28 y
V d 453. Gii h phng trnh:
1 x y 5 2 x ( x 1) y 2 x 6 0

(1)
(2)

Phn tch. T (1) ta c x, y c lp nhau tc (1) x6 x2 y3 9 y2 28 y 30 hay


( x2 )3 x2 y3 9 y2 28 y 30 v| da v|o v tr{i x}y dng h|m c trng dng
f (t) t 3 t. Gn 1000 A vo casio, nhp A3 A X3 9X2 28X 30, ri bm

shift solve, cho ta kt qu: X 997 1000 3 X 3 A. Khi ta s vit phng


trnh (1) ( x2 )3 x2 ( y 3)3 ( y 3) f ( x2 ) f ( y 3) x2 y 3 ri th v|o
phng trnh cn li s tm c mi lin h gia x, y v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:
431

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

y 5

y 2x 6 0
(1) ( x2 )3 ( x2 ) ( y 3)3 ( y 3) f ( x2 ) f ( y 3).

Li gii. iu kin:

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 t trn c f (t) 3t 2 1 0, t . Do f (t ) ng


bin trn .
Suy ra: f ( x2 ) f ( y 3) x2 y 3 y x2 3. Th vo (2), ta c:
(2) 1 x x2 2 2x ( x 1) x2 2x 3 0
( x 1) ( x 1) ( x 1)2 2 ( x) ( x) ( x)2 2 f ( x 1) f ( x).
z2

.v
n

Xt hm s f ( z) z z z 2 2 trn c f ( z) 1 z 2 2

z2 2

0, z .

.c

om

1
Do f ( z) tng trn . Suy ra f ( x 1) f (x) x 1 x x y 1.
2
1
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ;1
2
2 2
2

2 x xy x y 2 ( xy 1) x 4x 6 3 0
V d 454. Gii h:
2
2 2
2

xy( xy 1) x y ( x 1)( x x 1)

ok

(1)
(2)

bo

Phn tch. Nhn thy c 2 phng trnh khng c lp c x, y 2 v, nhng


phng trnh (2) nu xem t xy th r r|ng t, x c lp 2 v v| ta s x}y dng h|m

et

c trng. Tht vy t (2) xy ( x2 y2 2xy 1) x2 y2 ( x 1) ( x2 x 1)


xy ( x2 y2 xy 1) ( x 1) ( x 1)2 ( x 1) 1 f ( xy) f ( x 1) vi h|m c

ng

vi

trng l| f (t) t 3 t 2 t c f (t) 3t 2 2t 1 2t 2 (t 1)2 0 vi mi t nn


tm c mi lin h gia x, y, ri th v|o phng trnh cn li v| c li gii sau:
Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
(2) xy ( x2 y2 xy 1) ( x 1) ( x 1)2 ( x 1) 1 f ( xy) f ( x 1).

kh
a

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 t 2 t trn c f (t) 3t 2 2t 1 2t 2 (t 1)2 0, t .


Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn . Suy ra: f ( xy) f ( x 1) xy x 1.
(1) 2x ( x 1) x2 2x 3 ( x 2) x2 4x 6 3 0
( x 1)(1 x2 2x 3) ( x 2) ( x2 4x 6) 0

a 2 x 2 2 x 3 b a 2 x 3
a x 2 x 3 0

t
b2 a2 3
2
2
b

4
x

6
x

4
x

2
2
2
2
2
b a 1
b a 1
(3)
(1 a)
(1 b) 0
2
2
(1 a)(b2 a2 1) (1 b)(b2 a2 1) 0
2

432

(3)

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

(1 a)(b2 a2 ) (1 b)(b2 a2 ) b a 0 (b2 a2 )(a b 2) (b a) 0


(b a) (a b)(a b 2) 1 0 a b do (a b)(a b 2) 1 0, a, b 0.

Vi a b, suy ra:

3
1
x2 2 x 3 x2 4 x 6 x y
2
3

.v
n

3 1
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ;
2 3
a x3 b x2 c x d (a y b ) c y d
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
c. Dng 3. C 1 phng trnh dng:
( a1 x b1 ) c1 y d1 (a2 y b2 ) c2 y d2

Khi ta s bin i phng trnh m cn bm st vo cn thc xy dng


hm c trng. hiu k hn vn ny, ta cng xt cc v d sau:

.c

om

(1)
(4 x 1)x ( y 3) 5 2 y 0
V d 455. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
(2)

4 x y 2 3 4 x 7
i hc khi A nm 2010

Phn tch. Nhn thy phng trnh (1) c x, y c lp c 2 v v| c dng c bn:

ok

a1 x3 b1 x2 c1 x d1 (a2 y b2 ) c2 y d2 nn s ngh n vic s dng phng ph{p

hm. Khi ta s b{m s{t v|o cn thc x}y dng h|m s c trng, ngha l| vit:

bo

(1) 4x3 x (3 y) 5 2 y . Do trong cn thc cha 2y nn s nh}n 2 cho hai v

to lng 2y bn ngo|i, tc: (1) 8x3 2x (6 2 y) 5 2 y . Biu thc trong

et

cn cha 5 2y nn vit 8x3 2x ( 5 2 y )2 1 5 2 y ( 5 2 y )3 5 2 y

vi

(2x)3 (2x) ( 5 2 y )3 5 2 y f (2 x) f ( 5 2 y ) nn x}y dng c

kh
a

ng

h|m s c trng 2 v c dng f (t) t 3 t c f (t) 3t 2 1 0 lun ng bin


trn . T tm c mi lin h gia x, y, ri th v|o (2) v| c li gii chi tit sau:
3
5
Li gii. iu kin: x ; y
4
2
(1) (2x)3 (2 x) ( 5 2 y )3 5 2 y f (2 x) f ( 5 2 y ).
Xt hm s f (t) t 3 t trn c f (t) 3t 2 1 0, t nn f (t ) ng bin trn .

3
0x

4
Suy ra: f (2 x) f ( 5 2 y ) 2 x 5 2 y 0

1
y (5 4 x2 )

2
Th vo phng trnh (2) ta c:
1
(2) 4 x2 (5 4 x2 )2 2 3 4 x 7 0
(3)
4

433

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1
nn c th x l phng
2
trnh (3) bng phng ph{p h|m s nh sau: (c th gii bng lin hp).
1
3
Xt hm s f ( x) 4 x2 (5 4 x2 )2 2 3 4 x 7 trn 0; c:
4
4

Do s dng casio tm c (3) c nghim duy nht x

f ( x) 8x 2x(5 4x2 )

3 4x

2x( 1 4 x2 )

3
0, x 0;
3 4x
4
4

.v
n

3
1
1
Do hm s f ( x) nghch bin trn 0; v c f 0 x y 7.
2
2
4

1
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ;7
2

.c

om

3
2

2 y 12 y 25 y 18 (2 x 9) x 4 (1)
V d 456. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
(2)

3x 1 3x 14 x 8 6 4 y y
thi th THPT Quc Gia 2015 THPT Nghi Sn Tnh Thanh Ha

ok

Phn tch. Nhn thy t: (1) 2 y3 12 y 2 25y 18 2( x 4)2 1 x 4 hay

(1) 2 y3 12 y2 25y 18 2( x 4)3 x 4. S dng casio g{n 1000 A v

bo

nhp 2X3 12X2 25X 18 2 A3 A v| bm shift solve, c X 998 1000 2,


ngha l| vit: (1) 2( y 2)3 ( y 2) 2( x 4)3 x 4 f ( y 2) f ( x 4)

et

vi h|m c trng f (t) 2t 3 t lun ng bin trn nn c li gii chi tit sau:
1
v 2 10 y 2 10.
3

vi

Li gii. iu kin: x

ng

(1) 2( y 2)3 ( y 2) 2( x 4)3 x 4 f ( y 2) f ( x 4).

Xt hm s f (t) 2t 3 t trn c f (t) 6t 2 1 0, t . Do hm s

kh
a

f (t ) ng bin trn . Suy ra: f ( y 2) f ( x 4) y 2 x 4 x y 2 4 y ,

vi y 2.

Th vo phng trnh (2) 3x 1 6 x 3x2 14x 8 0

(3)

Do s dng casio, tm c x 5 l| nghim duy nht (3), nn ghp hng s lin hp.
(3) ( 3x 1 4) (1 6 x ) 3x2 14x 5 0

3( x 5)

x5

( x 5)(3x 1) 0
3x 1 4 1 6 x

3
1
( x 5)

3x 1 0 x 5 y 1.
3x 1 4 1 6 x

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (5;1)


434

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848


3

(1)
2 y y 2 x 1 x 3 1 x
V d 457. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
2
(2)

9 4 y 2x 6 y 7
thi th THPT Quc Gia 2015 THPT Trn Ph Thanh Ha

Phn tch. Nu chuyn v v| rt 1 x l|m nh}n t th (1) c dng c bn, tc c:


(1) 2 y 3 y (3 2x) 1 x 2( 1 x )2 1 1 x 2( 1 x )3 1 x v| 2 v

3
c dng h|m c trng f (t) 2t t lun n iu trn . T c li gii sau:
3
3
y
2
2

.v
n

Li gii. iu kin: x 1,

(1) 2 y3 y 2( 1 x )3 1 x f ( y) f ( 1 x ).

om

Xt hm s f (t) 2t 3 t trn c f (t) 6t 2 1 0, t . Do f (t ) tng


trn .

.c

Suy ra: f ( y) f ( 1 x ) y 1 x 0 y 2 1 x, 0 y
Th vo phng trnh (2) 4x 5 2x2 6x 1

(3)

ax b cx dx e , c rt nhiu hng gii. Sau }y, ti

ok

Phng trnh (3) dng

et

bo

xin c trnh c{ch gii bng lin hp, ly tha, t n ph, a v dng A2 B2 .
Hng 1. S dng chc nng table ca casio, tm c nhn t x2 4x 1 .

3
x
x 2 3 v th
Do 2 x 3 4 x 5 0 4 x 5 3 2 x
2
x2 4x 1 0

vi

vo (3) khng tha nn xt 2x 3 4x 5 0 x2 4x 1 0, ta c:

ng

2( x2 4 x 1)
(3) 2( x2 4 x 1) (2 x 3) 4 x 5 0 x2 4 x 1
0

2x 3 4x 5

1
x 1 2
x

0 4x 5 1 2x

.
2
4
2x 3 4x 5
y

2
x 1 2

kh
a
1

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (1 2; 4 2)


Hng 2. Ly tha ln sau khi bit nhn t l x 4x 1.
2
2

2 x 6 x 1 0
2 x 6 x 1 0
(3) 4

2
3
2
2

x 6x 8x 2x 1 0
( x 4 x 1) ( x 2 x 1) 0
2 x 2 6 x 1 0

x 2 4 x 1 0 x 1 2 y 4 2.
2
x 2 x 1 0
2

435

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on


2
2

4 y 12 y 9 4x 5
y 3y 1 x
2
Hng 3. t 2 y 3 4 x 5 2

2 x 6 x 1 2 y 3
x 3x 1 y
2
2
x y 2( x y) 0 ( x y)( x y 2) 0 x y hoc y 2 x.

3
4x 5 2x 3 : v nghim x 0;
2

x
x 1 2
Vi y 2 x, suy ra: 4 x 5 1 2 x

2
4
x2 2 x 1 0
y 2

Hng 4. Nhn 2 v ca phng trnh (3) cho 2, ta c:


(3) 2 4x 5 4x2 12x 2 ( 4x 5 1)2 (2x 2)2

.v
n

Vi y x, suy ra:

om

4x 5 1 2x 2
4x 5 2x 3

x 1 2

4
4 x 5 1 2 x 2
4 x 5 1 2 x
y

ok

.c

( x 1) x 2 3 x 2 y 3 3 y 2 5 y 3 (1)
V d 458. Gii h phng trnh:
3
2
2
2
x 2 x x 7 y 14 y 19 3 3 9( y 1) (2)
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Gia nh Tp. H Ch Minh

bo

Phn tch. Vit (1) y3 3y2 5y 3 ( x 4) x 2 [( x 2) 2 2] x 2 hay


( x 2)3 2 x 2 y3 3y2 5y 3. Gn 1000 A v|o casio v| nhp phng

et

trnh A3 2 A X3 3X2 5X 3, ri bm shift solve, c X 999 1000 1, tc


(1) ( x 2)3 2 x 2 ( y 1)3 2( y 1) vi h|m c trng f (t) t 3 2t lun

ng

vi

ng bin trn . T s tm c mi lin h gia x, y v| c li gii chi tit sau:


Li gii. iu kin: x 2.
(1) ( x 2)3 2 x 2 ( y 1)3 2( y 1) f ( x 2) f ( y 1).

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 2t trn c f (t) 3t 2 2 0, t . Do hm s

kh
a

f (t ) ng bin trn .

y 1

Suy ra: f ( x 2) f ( y 1) x 2 y 1
2

x 2 ( y 1)

(2) x3 2x2 x 7( y 1)2 26 3. 3 9( y 1)2 v th x 2 ( y 1)2 th:

x3 2x2 6x 12 3. 3 9( x 2)

(3)

Do s dng casio, tm c nghim duy nht x 1 ca phng trnh (3) nn c th


gii bng lin hp, bt ng thc, h|m s.
Cauchy

Ta c: VP(3) 3. 3 9( x 2) 3. 3 3.3.( x 2) 3 3 x 2 x 8

(4)

M: VT(3) x 2x 6x 12 x 8 ( x 1) ( x 4) 0 : ng x 2 (5)
3

436

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Do nghim ca (3) l cc gi tr lm cho du ng thc ca (4) v (5) ng


thi xy ra x 1, suy ra: y 3 1.

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim ca h cn tm l S ( x; y) (1; 3 1)


2

y 1 3 x 2 x 12
V d 459. Gii h phng trnh:
3
2
3
2

x 3x 2 y 3 y

(1)
(2)

( x, y ).

Phn tch. T iu kin: y 1 nn vit (2) x3 3x2 2 y 2 ( y 3) y y 3

.v
n

hay x3 3x2 2 ( y 3)2 3 y 3 ( y 3)3 3y. Tng t c{c v d trc,

s dng casio, s vit li: (2) ( x 1)3 3( x 1) ( y 3)3 3 y 3. Do x 2 v


y 3 2. Lc n|y xt h|m c trng f (t) t 3 3t vi t 1

om

y 1 nn x 1 1,

th f (t) 3t 2 3 3(t 2 1) 0, t 1 nn f (t ) lun ng bin trn [1; ).

Li gii. iu kin: x 2, y 1.

.c

(2) ( x 1)3 3( x 1) ( y 3)3 3 y 3 f ( x 1) f ( y 3).

ok

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 3t trn 1; c f (t) 3(t 2 1) 0, t 1.


Do hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn 1; .

bo

Suy ra: f ( x 1) f ( y 3) x 1 y 3 y x2 2x 2.

et

Th vo (2) x2 2x 3 3 x 2 x2 12 0 (3) vi iu kin: x 3.

vi

S dng casio, tm c phng trnh (3) c nghim duy nht nn c th s dng


phng ph{p h|m s hoc lin hp gii n.
Hng 1. S dng k thut nhn lng lin hp.

ng

(3) x2 2x 3 3( x 2 1) x2 9 0

kh
a

( x 1)( x 3)

3( x 3)
x2 1

( x 3)( x 3) 0

3
x3 x1
( x 3) x 3 0 x 3 y 1.
x2 1

3
( x 3) x 3 0, x 3.
Do x 1
x2 1
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (3;1)

Hng 2. S dng phng php hm s.

Xt hm s f ( x) x2 2x 3 3 x 2 x2 12 trn 3; c:
3
x 1
f ( x)

2 x 0, x 3. Suy ra f ( x) ng bin 3; .
2
2 x2
x 2x 3
437

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

M f (3) 0 x 3 l nghim duy nht ca phng trnh (3). Suy ra: y 1.


3
2

(1)
x 2x 5 2 y
V d 460. Gii h phng trnh:
(2)

(15 2 x) 6 x (4 y 9) 2 y 3 0
Hc sinh gii tnh Long An nm 2014

Phn tch. Nhn thy (2) c dng c bn (a1 x b1 ) c1 y d1 (a2 y b2 ) c2 y d2 .


Khi ta da v|o biu thc trong cn thc 2 v i tm h|m c trng, ngha l|:
2( 6 x )2 3 6 x 2( 2 y 3)2 3 2 y 3

.v
n

(2) 2(6 x) 3 6 x 2(2 y 3) 3 2 y 3

2( 6 x )3 3 6 x 2( 2 y 3)3 3 2 y 3 f ( 6 x ) f ( 2 y 3).

om

x{c nh h|m c trng f (t) 2t 3 3t lun ng bin trn v| c li gii sau:


3
2

Li gii. iu kin: x 6; y

.c

(2) 2( 6 x )3 3 6 x 2( 2 y 3)3 3 2 y 3 f ( 6 x ) f ( 2 y 3).

ok

Xt hm s f (t) 2t 3 3t trn c f (t) 6t 2 3 0, t . Do hm s f (t )


ng bin trn . Suy ra: f ( 6 x ) f ( 2 y 3) 6 x 2y 3 2y 3 2x.

vi

et

bo

x 2
x 1
x 1

Th vo (1) x3 2x2 x 2 0, suy ra:


hoc
hoc
5
y

1
y

5
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim ca h l S ( x; y) (1;1);( 1; 2); 2;
2

kh
a

ng

(23 3x) 7 x (3 y 20) 6 y 0


(1)
V d 461. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2 x y 2 2 y 3x 8 3x 14 x 8 (2)
ngh Olympic 30/04/2013 Chuyn Bn Tre Tnh Bn Tre

Phn tch. Tng t, t (1) 3( 7 x )2 2 7 x 3( 6 y )2 2 6 y

3( 7 x )3 2 7 x 3( 6 y )2 2 6 y f ( 7 x ) f ( 6 y ).

T x}y dng c h|m c trng f (t) 3t 3 2t lun ng bin trn .

Li gii. iu kin: x 7, y 6, 2x y 2 0, 2 y 3x 8 0.
(1) 3( 7 x )3 2 7 x 3( 6 y )2 2 6 y f ( 7 x ) f ( 6 y ).

Xt hm s f (t) 3t 3 2t trn c f (t) 9t 2 2 0, t nn f (t ) tng trn .


Suy ra: f ( 7 x ) f ( 6 y ) 7 x 6 y y x 1 v th vo (2) th:
(2) 3x 1 6 x 3x2 14x 8 0

438

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1
( 3x 1 4) (1 6 x ) 3x2 14 x 5 0; x ; 6
3
3( x 5)
x5

( x 5)(3x 1) 0
3x 1 4 1 6 x

3
1
( x 5)

3x 1 0 x 5 y 4.
3x 1 4 1 6 x

3
1
1
Do:

3x 1 0, x ; 6
3x 1 4 1 6 x
3

.v
n

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim ca h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (5; 4)

om

(4 x 2)(1 x2 x 1) 3 y(2 9 y 2 3) 0
V d 462. Gii h phng trnh:
3
4 x 3 y 5 3 1 3 y 0
Hc sinh gii khu vc ng Bng Sng Cu Long

.c

Phn tch. T (1) c x, y c lp nhau nn s ngh n phng ph{p h|m s. Nu


chuyn v phng trnh (1) v| n tnh cht s chnh phng a2 (a)2 ta thu

ok

c: (1) (4x 2) (1 x2 x 1) (3y) (2 ( 3x)2 3) 0. v phi c


dng h|m c trng f (t ) t.(2 t 2 3) nn s da v|o n x}y dng bn v tr{i.

bo

Do trong cn c hng s 3 nn ta s to ra bng c{ch rt s 2 4x 2 2.(2x 1)

et

a v|o cn, tc: VT(1) (4x 2) (1 x2 x 1) (2x 1) (2 4x2 4x 1) hay

ng

vi

VT(1) (2x 1) 2 (2 x 1)2 3 cng dng h|m s c trng ging v phi. Tc:

(1) (2x 1) 2 (2 x 1) 3 ( 3 y) 2 ( 3x)2 3 v| c li gii nh sau:

1
Li gii. iu kin: y
3

kh
a

(1) (2x 1)[2 (2 x 1)2 3] ( 3 y)[2 ( 3x)2 3] 0 f (2 x 1) f ( 3 y).

Xt hm s f (t) t.(2 t 2 3) trn c f (t ) 2 t 2 3

t2

0, t .
t2 3
Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn . Suy ra f (2x 1) f (3y) 2x 1 3y.
(2) 4x3 2x 3 2x 2 6 0 (3), iu kin x 1.

Xt hm s f ( x) 4x3 2x 3 2x 2 6 trn 1; c:
3
f ( x) 12x2 2
0, x 1. Nn hm s f ( x) ng bin
1; .
2x 2
1
Suy ra f ( x) 0 c nghim duy nht m ta c: f ( 1) 0 x 1 y
3
439

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) 1;
3

2
2

(1)
(18 x 9) x x 1 y 4 y 27
V d 463. Gii h phng trnh:
2
(2)

(2 y 3) 24 x .(2 y 9)
thi th THPT Quc Gia 2015 TTLT i hc Ngoi Thng Tp. HCM

Phn tch. Nhn thy VP(1) bn trong cn c 4 y 2 (2 y)2 nn s to ra 2y bn


ngo|i cn bng c{ch nh}n thm 2 hai v (1) v| a s 2 n|y v|o cn v tr{i ca n.

.v
n

Tc (1) 9.(2x 1) 4x2 4x 4 2 y. (2 y)2 27 v| lc n|y thy bn ngo|i v


tri c 2x 1 nn vit (1) 9.(2x 1). (2x 1)2 3 (2 y). (2 y)2 27. Vn cha

om

xut hin h|m c trng 2 v, nu v tr{i c s 9, ri chuyn v v| a s

1
3

v|o cn th s c h|m c trng 2 v ging nhau dng: f (t) t. t 2 3, ngha l|:


2

ok

.c

2y 2y
2y
(1) (2 x 1). (2 x 1) 3 3 f (2 x 1) f
3 3
3
Li gii. iu kin: x 0.
2

bo

2y 2y
(1) (2 x 1). (2 x 1) 3 3 f (2 x 1)
3 3
2

Xt hm s f (t ) t. t 2 3 trn c f (t ) t 2 3

2y
f
3

t2

ng

vi

et

0, t .
t2 3
2y
Nn hm s f (t ) ng bin trn . Suy ra: f (2 x 1) f 6x 3 2 y.
3
(2) ( x 1)2 4 x.( x 1) 0 x2 4x x 2x 4 x 1 0

(3)

kh
a

Do x 0 khng l nghim ca phng trnh (3) nn chia 2 v (3) cho x 0 :

4
1

1
1
(4)
(3) x 4 x 2
0 x 4 x
20
x
x
x
x

t t x

, suy ra: t 2 x

1
2 nn (4) t 2 4t 4 0 t 2.
x

x 3 2 2

2 ( x) 2 x 1 0 x 1 2
Suy ra: x
21 12 2
x
y

21 12 2
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim h l ( x; y) 3 2 2;

440

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

V d 464. Gii h phng trnh sau:


( 3x 1 3x )(1 3x 9 x 2 ) ( 3 y 1 3 y )(1 3 y 9 y 2 ) (1)

2
1414
(2)
x 3y 2 1 2 y
625

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn L Qu n Tnh Bnh nh

1
3

1
3

Li gii. iu kin: 0 x ; 0 y Nhn 2 v ca (1) cho 2, ta c:


(1) ( 3x 1 3x ) (2 2 3x 9x2 ) ( 3y 1 3 y ) (2 2 3 y 9 y 2 )

.v
n

( 3x 1 3x ) [1 (1 2 3x 9 x2 )] ( 3 y 1 3 y ) [1 (1 2 3 y 9 y 2 )]

p dng hng ng thc: (a b)3 a3 b3 3ab(a b) (a b)(a2 b2 2ab), ta

om

c: ( 3x 1 3x )3 ( 3x 1 3x ) (3x 1 3x 2 3x 9 x2 )

.c

3
2

( 3x 1 3x ) ( 3x 1 3x ) (1 2 3 x 9 x )
Do :
Hay
3
2

( 3 y 1 3 y ) ( 3 y 1 3 y ) (1 2 3 y 9 y )

(1) ( 3x 1 3x ) ( 3x 1 3x )3 ( 3y 1 3 y ) ( 3 y 1 3 y )3

ok

f ( 3x 1 3x ) f ( 3y 1 3y ).

bo

Xt hm s f (t) t t 3 trn c f (t) 1 3t 2 0, t . Do f (t ) ng


bin trn .
Suy ra: f ( 3x 1 3x ) f ( 3y 1 3y ) 3x 1 3x 3y 1 3y

vi

3( x y)

3x 3 y

3( x y)

1 3 y 1 3x

ng

nn lin hp c:

et

( 3x 3y ) ( 1 3y 1 3x ) 0 v do x y 0 th h v nghim

kh
a

3
3
0 x y.
( x y)

3x 3 y
1 3 y 1 3x

1414
0
Th vo phng trnh (2) x2 3x 2 1 2 x
(3)
625
1414
1
Xt hm s f ( x) x2 3x 2 1 2 x
trn on 0; c:
625
3
f ( x) 2 x 3

2
1 2x

0 f ( x) 2

1
0, x 0;
( 1 2x )
3
2

1
Do hm s f ( x) nghch bin trn on 0;
3
1
112
0. Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn
Suy ra: f ( x) f 5
3
27

1
0; 3

441

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

8 8
8
8
8
M: f 0 x
Kt lun: S ( x; y) ;
, suy ra: y
25
25
25
25 25
Nhn xt. C{c dng c bn thng gp khi trong h m| c mt phng trnh cha:
PP
Lin hp s dng h|m s.
ax ( ax)2 1 by (by)2 1 1

PP
s dng casio hoc ng nht
a1 x3 b1 x2 c1 x d1 a2 y 3 b2 y 2 c2 y

a v dng m(ax b)3 n(ax b) m(cy d)3 n(cy d) v| s dng h|m s.

.v
n

a x 3 b x 2 c x d ( a y b ) c y d
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
PP

b{m s{t v|o cn thc (bc


( a1 x b1 ) c1 y d1 ( a2 y b2 ) c2 y d2

thp nht trong phng trnh) x}y dng h|m c trng v| s dng h|m s.

.c

om

2. Mt s k nng lm xut hin hm s c trng


a. Chia xut hin hm s c trng
Trong mt s b|i ton, bin x v| y cha c lp 2 v, ta cn chia chng c
lp nhau hoc sau khi chia chng cha c lp nhau nhng vn x}y dng c
h|m c trng 2 v. Ta cng xt c{c v d sau hiu r hn vn n|y.

bo

ok

3
2
2

(1)
y .(4 x 1) 2.( y 1). y 6
V d 465. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
2
(2)

y .x.(2 2 4 x 1) y y 1
Hc sinh gii tnh Qung Nam nm 2014 2015

et

Phn tch. T (2) nu chia cho y 2 0, th s c lp c x, y 2 v nn kh nng s


2

1 1 1
dng h|m s l| rt cao. Tht vy: (2) 2 x 2 x (2 x) 1 1 vi
y y y

vi

ng

h|m c trng f (t) t t. t 2 1 v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:

Li gii. iu kin: y 0. Do y 0 khng l nghim h nn xt y 0 v

kh
a

t (2), h phng trnh c nghim th x 0.


(2) 2 x 2 x (2 x)2 1

1 1 1
1 f (2 x)
y y y

1
f
y

Xt f (t) t t. t 2 1 trn 0; c: f (t ) 1 t 2 1

t2

0, t 0.
t2 1
1
1
Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn (0; ). Suy ra: f (2 x) f 2 x
y
y

Th vo (1) y3 y 2( y 2 1) y 6 0

(3)

S dng casio, tm c phng trnh (3) c nghim duy nht y 1 v| quan s{t thy
v tr{i ca (3) c o h|m c kh dng nn s dng h|m s gii.
442

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Xt hm s f ( y) y3 y 2( y 2 1) y 6 trn (0; ) c:
f ( y) 3y 2 y 4 y

y2 1
y

0, y 0 nn f ( y) ng bin trn (0; ).


1

Do phng trnh f ( y) 0 c ti a 1 nghim m f (1) 0 y 1 x


1
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ;1
2

.v
n

x2 y.(1 1 y 2 ) x 1 x 2

V d 466. Gii h phng trnh:


x2 x xy x2 x xy 7 3xy

(1)
(2)

ok

.c

om

Phn tch. Nhn thy nu chia (1) cho x2 0 s c lp c x, y 2 v ca phng


1 1
trnh. Tht vy: (1) y y 1 y 2 2 1 x2 nn kh nng s dng h|m s
x x
l| rt cao. Vn }y l| i tm iu kin ca x khi a v|o cn thc khng phi
chia ra c{c trng hp d|i dng ?!.
2

x x xy 0
Li gii. iu kin: 2
v xy 0.

x x xy 0

bo

Do: 1 1 y2 0, x 1 x2 0 nn t (2), suy ra: x2 y 0 vi x2 0 v do t


iu kin xy 0, suy ra: y 0 v x 0.

et

1 1
1
1
1 2 f ( y) f
x x
x
x

vi

(1) y y 1 y 2

ng

Xt hm s f (t) t t. 1 t 2 trn (0; ) c f (t ) (1 1 t 2 )

t2
1 t2

0.

kh
a

1
1
Do hm s f (t ) nghch bin trn (0; ). Suy ra: f ( y) f y
x
x

Th xy 1 vo (2), c: (2) x2 x 1 x2 x 1 7 3

(3)

Xt hm s f ( x) x2 x 1 x2 x 1 trn (0; ) c:
f ( x)

2x 1

2 x2 x 1
2x 1

2x 1

2x 1

2x 1

2 x2 x 1
4 x2 4 x 4
4 x2 4 x 4
2x 1

f (2 x 1) f (2 x 1).
(2 x 1)2 3
(2 x 1)2 3

Xt hm s f ( z)

z
z 3
2

trn c f ( z)

3
( z 3)3
2

0, z .

443

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Do f ( z) ng bin trn v c 2x 1 2x 1 nn f (2x 1) f (2x 1) hay


f (2x 1) f (2x 1) 0, suy ra: f ( x) 0, x .
1

2
1
Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) 2;
2

Suy ra f ( x) ng bin (0; ) v c f ( x) f (2) 7 3 x 2 y

(1)
(2)

.v
n

1
1
4
38
3 x 2 x
2
y
2
y
V d 467. Gii h phng trnh:

2
2
2
x x 1 x y.(2 2 4 y 1)

ok

.c

om

Phn tch. Xut ph{t t (2), nu chia hai v cho x2 0 th s c lp c x, y hai


v nn kh nng s dng h|m s l| rt cao. Tht vy:
1 1
(2) 2 x2 1 2 y 2 y (2 y)2 1 v| v phi c dng h|m c trng quen
x x
t2
thuc f (t) t t. t 2 1 c f (t ) 1 1 t 2
0 nn s ng bin trn .
1 t2
1
1 1
1
v|o trong cn thc, to ra VP 1 2 khi x 0.
x x
x
x
Nhng iu kin 3 x 2 s khng cho php ta l|m iu y m| cn phi chia ra 2
trng hp }m, tc x
3; 0 v| dng, tc x 0; 2 . khc phc iu n|y ta i

bo

Vn cn li l| a

et

tm iu kin cht cho x. v phi (1) c dng hng ng thc theo bin y, ngha l|:
2

ng

vi

1
(1)
3 2.2.
3 4 3 x 2 x 1
2y

2y

kh
a

3 2 3 x 2 x 1 0 3 x 1 2 x
2y

3 x 3 x 2 2 x 2 x x 1 x 2. Khi a x v|o cn d d|ng.


1 x 2

y 0
Li gii. iu kin:

y 1

6
2

1 1 1
1
(2) 1 2 y 2 y (2 y)2 1 f f (2 y).
x x x
x

Xt hm s f (t) t t. t 2 1 trn c f (t ) 1 1 t 2

444

t2
1 t2

0, t .

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

1
1
1
Do hm s f (t ) tng trn . Suy ra: f f (2 y) 2 y x

x
2y
x

Th vo phng trnh (1) x 5 x 3 2 x 8 0

(3)

S dng casio, tm c x 1 l| nghim duy nht ca (3) nn c th s dng phng


ph{p lin hp hoc phng ph{p h|m s hoc bt ng thc gii.
(3) ( x 1) 5 ( x 3 2) ( 2 x 1) 0

5
1
1
( x 1) 1

0 x 1 y
2
x3 2
2 x 1

5
x3 2

2 x 1

x3 3
x3 2

1
2 x 1

0, x 1; 2

.v
n

Do: 1

om

1
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim cn tm ca h l S ( x; y) 1;
2

ok

.c

4 1 2 x2 y 1 3x 2 1 2 x2 y 1 x2 (1)

V d 468. Gii h phng trnh:


(2)
2 x3 y x2 x4 x2 2 x3 y 4 y 2 1

Phn tch. T (2) nu chuyn v (2) 2x3 y 2x3 y 4 y 2 1 x4 x2 x2 v chia

bo

c hai v cho lng x3 0 s c lp c x, y 2 v v| s xut hin h|m c trng.


1 1 1
1
2 1 f 2 y f T s
x x x
x
tm c mi lin h gia x v| y, ri th v|o phng trnh cn li s tm c x, y.
Li gii. iu kin: 1 2x2 y 0, 1 2x2 y 0 v 1 x 1.

2y

vi

et

Tht vy: (2) 2 y 2 y

ng

3 3
Vi x 0, th h
nn h c nghim ( x; y) (0; y), y .
0 0

kh
a

Vi x 0, th (2) 2 y 2 y (2 y)2 1

1 1
1

1 f 2y
x x x2

Xt hm s f (t) t t. t 2 1 c f (t ) 1 t 2 1

1
f
x

t2

0, t .
t2 1
1
1
Nn hm s f (t ) ng bin trn . Suy ra f (2 y) f 2 y 2 xy 1.
x
x

Th 2xy 1 vo (1) 4 x 1 1 3x 2 1 x 1 x2

(3)

t a 1 x 0, b 1 x 0 v 3x x 1 2.( x 1) a2 2b2 .
(3) 2a2 b2 ab 4a 2b 0 (2a b)(a b 2) 0 b 2a a b 2.

Vi a b 2, suy ra:

1 x 1 x 2 x 0 (loi do x 0).

445

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

3
5
Vi b 2a, suy ra: 2 x 1 1 x x y
5
6
3 5

Kt lun: So iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) ; ; 0; y , y


5 6

2 x3 4 x2 3x 1 2 x3 (2 y) 3 2 y

V d 469. Gii h phng trnh:


3

x 2 14 x 3 2 y 1

(1)
(2)

.v
n

Phn tch. Nu chia hai v ca phng trnh (1) cho x3 0 th s c lp c x, y


4 3
1
hai v, tc: (1) 2 2 3 (4 2 y) 3 2 y nn kh nng s dng h|m s l|
x x
x
rt cao. Hn na }y l| dng c bn ax3 bx2 cx d (ex f ). mx n nu ta xem

ok

.c

om

1
l| x v| c t c li gii chi tit nh sau:
x
3
Li gii. iu kin: x 2, y
2
Do x 0 th h v nghim nn xt x 0 v chia hai v ca (1) cho x3 0 :
4 3
1
(1) 2 2 3 (4 2 y) 3 2 y ( 3 2 y )2 1 3 2 y

x x
x

et

bo

1
1

1
1 1 3 2y 3 2y f 1 f 3 2y .
x
x
x

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 t c f (t) 3t 2 1 0, t . Do hm s f (t ) ng

vi

1
bin trn . Suy ra: f 1 f
x

3 2y 1

1
3 2 y v th vo (2):
x

ng

a x 2 0
a x 2
3
a2 b3 17.
(2) x 2 3 15 x 1 (3). t
3
b

15

x
b

15

kh
a

2
3

b 2
a b 17
a b 1
3

Kt hp (3), suy ra h:
2
a b 1
b b 2b 16 0
a 3

Do :

x2 3 x7 y

111
: tha mn iu kin.
98

111
Kt lun: Tp nghim ca h phng trnh cn tm l S ( x; y) 7;

98
Lu . Ta c th gii phng trnh (3) bng phng php hm s nh sau:
1
1

0, x 2.
Xt hm s f ( x) x 2 3 15 x c f (t )
3
2 x 2 3 (15 x)2

Do hm s f ( x) ng bin trn 2; v c f ( x) 1 f (7) x 7.


446

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

2
4x2 1
2
2
2
x

(4
x

2
yx
)
3

2
y

(1)

x
V d 470. Gii h phng trnh:
3
2
3
2 3 2 y 2x x x 2
(2)

2x 1

Phn tch. Nu chuyn v v| chia 2 v (1) cho x2 0, th phng trnh (1) tng
ng

2 x2 3 4 x2 1
1
3 4

(4 2 y) 3 2 y 3 2 2 (4 2 y) 3 2 y
2
3
x
x
x
x
x

[( 3 2 y )2 1] 3 2 y ( 3 2 y )3 3 2 y . Khi g{n 1000 A vo casio

.v
n

v| nhp X3 3X2 4X 2 A3 A, ri bm shift solve cho ta X 999, suy ra:


3

1
2

1
3
y
2
2

.c

Li gii. iu kin: x 0, x ,

om

1
1
X 1000 1 1 X A hay vit (1) 1 1 ( 3 2 y )3 3 2 y
x
x

3
v| x}y dng c h|m s c trng f (t) t t ng bin trn .

trn .

3 2y 1

1
3 2 y v th vo phng trnh (2) th
x

:x
1

1
1 2

2
x 2 3 2 x2 x3 2 1 1 3 1
x
x
x x
x

vi

(2) 2 x 1 1

et

1
Suy ra f 1 f
x

bo

ok

1
1

1
(1) 1 1 3 2 y 3 2 y 3 2 y f 1 f 3 2 y .
x
x
x

3
2
Xt hm s f (t) t t trn c f (t) 3t 1 0, t nn f (t ) ng bin

kh
a

ng

1
1 2
2
1 1 3 1 3 1

x
x x
x

Xt hm s f (u) u3 u trn c f (u) 3u2

bin trn .

1
Suy ra: f 1

1
f 1 f 3 1

1 0, u nn f (u) ng

1
2
1
f 3 1 1 3 1 t v th phng trnh:
x

x
x
x

5 1

1
x
1 5
0 v

3
2
1 v 2v 1
v

2
2
3 5
(1 t )3 (2t 1)2

5 1 3 5

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y)


;

2

447

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

x3
x

( y 2) ( x 1) ( y 1)

V d 471. Gii h phng trnh:


x1
x y 1 2x x 1 0

(1)
(2)

Phn tch. Nu chia hai v ca (1) cho x 1 0 th s c lp c hai bin. Tc l:


x
x3
(1)

( y 1)2 1 y 1 ( y 1)3 y 1. Khi cn

x 1 ( x 1) x 1
3

x
x
bin i VT
v| x}y dng


2
( x 1) x 1 ( x 1) . x 1 x 1
x 1
c h|m c trng f (t) t 3 t ng bin trn v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. iu kin: x 1, y 1.
x3 x( x 1)

.v
n

x3 x2 x

.c

om

x
x
x
(1)
( y 1)3 y 1 f

f y1 .
x1
x1
x1
Xt hm s f (t) t 3 3t trn c f (t) 3t 2 3 0, t nn f (t ) ng bin

trn .

y 1
x2

Th vo (2) c: (2)

y 1 v c iu kin l x 0.

ok

x1

2 x x 1 0 x2 2 x x 1 ( x 1)2 0

bo

x
Suy ra: f
f
x1

x1

ng

vi

et

x 0
1 5

( x x 1)2 0 x 1 x
x
y 0.
2
2

x 1 x
1 5
;0
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim h phng trnh l ( x; y)
2

kh
a

xy
2
(1)
(1 4 x).x
y
2

V d 472. Gii h phng trnh:


y

(2)
xy 3 y 9 x 1 2 x 4

ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 THPT Mc nh Chi Tp. H Ch Minh

Phn tch. T phng trnh (1), nu chia 2 v cho x x 0 s khng c lp c x,


xy y

y y
1 (4 x) 4 x 1
y 2 v nhng c: (1 4 x).2 x
.
x x
x x

y
hay f ( 4 x ) f
vi h|m c trng f (t) (1 t 2 ).t t 3 t ng bin trn .
x

Li gii. iu kin: y 0, 8x y 0.

448

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

Do x 0 th h khng tha nn xt x 0 v chia 2 v (1) cho x x 0, c:


y

y y
(1) 1 (4 x) 4 x 1
f ( 4x ) f

x
x x

3
2
Xt hm s f (t) t t trn c f (t) 3t 1 0, t nn f (t ) ng bin
trn .
y
y
Suy ra: f ( 4 x ) f
y 4 x 2 0 v th vo (2) c:
4x
x
x

4 z 3z 0
t z x 1 th (3) 4 z 3 3z 1 z 3
2

(4 z 3z) 1 z

(3)

.v
n

(2) 4x3 12x2 9x 1 2x x2 4( x 1)3 3( x 1) 1 ( x 1)2

.c

om

2
2 2
2 2
4 z 3 z 0
6
z
z
z

4
2
2
2
2

16 z 24 z 10 z 1 0
2
2 2
Vi z
, suy ra: x
y 6 4 2 : tha iu kin.
2
2

2 2
2 2 2
, suy ra: x
y 6 2 4 2 2 : khng tha.
2
2

ok

Vi z

bo

2 2
2 2 2
, suy ra: x
y 6 2 4 2 2 : tha mn.
2
2

2 2
2 2 2
;6 4 2 ;
;6 2 4 2 2
Kt lun: Nghim ( x; y)
2

Nhn xt. Trong rt nhiu trng hp, sau khi chia hai bin x, y khng ph}n ly c
2 v nhng vn to ra c h|m c trng m| v d trn l| in hnh. hiu k
hn vn n|y, ta cng xt c{c v d sau:

ng

vi

et

Vi z

kh
a

11
10
22
12

(1)
x xy y y
V d 473. Gii h phng trnh: 4
4 3
2
2
(2)

7 y 13x 8 2 y . x(3x 3 y 1)
ngh Olympic 30/04/2014 Chuyn L Qu n Nng

11

x
x
x
Phn tch. T (1) chia y 0, c: (1) y11 y f f ( y).
y
y
y
2
11
Khi suy ra: x y vi h|m c trng f (t ) t t lun ng bin trn .
11

Li gii. T (1) x( x10 y10 ) y22 y12 , suy ra iu kin: x 0.


Do x y 0 khng l nghim nn xt x 0, y 0.
11

x
x
Chia 2 v (1) cho y11 0, th (1) y11 y
y
y

x
f f ( y).
y

449

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Xt hm s f (t ) t11 t trn c f (t) 11.t10 1 0, t .


x
Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn . Suy ra: f f ( y) x y 2 0.
y

Th vo (2) 7 x2 13x 8 2 x2 3 x (3x2 3x 1)


Chia 2 v (3) cho x3 0, th (3) 7
t t

(3)

1
1
1
1 1
13 2 8 3 2. 3 3 3 3
x
x x
x
x

(4)

1 1
2 0 th (4) 8t 3 13t 2 7t 2 3 3 3t t 2
x y

.v
n

8t 3 12t 2 10t 3 (3 3t t 2 ) 2. 3 3 3t t 2

( 3 3 3t t 2 )3 2 3 3 3t t 2 (2t 1)3 2(2t 1) f ( 3 3 3t t 2 ) f (2t 1).

om

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 2t trn c f (t) 3t 2 2 0, t nn f (t ) ng


bin trn .

Suy ra: f ( 3 3 3t t 2 ) f (2t 1) 3 3 3t t 2 2t 1 3 3t t 2 (2t 1)3

.c

8t 3 13t 2 3t 2 0 (t 1)(8t 2 5t 2) 0 8t 2 5t 2 0, (do t 0)


16
5 89
89 5
1 1
, y

, th vo t 2 0, suy ra: x
2
x y
16
89 5

ok

et

bo

16
5 89
;

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, nghim h l x; y


89 5

ng

vi

x x2 y y x4 x3 x
(1)

V d 474. Gii h phng trnh:


9
(2)
x x x 1 y( x 1)

2
thi th s 4 TN.THPT Quc Gia 2015 Din n k2pi.net.vn

kh
a

Phn tch. T (1), nu chia hai v cho x2 0, c:

y
y
1 1
2 1 c
2
x x
x
x

y
1
dng f 2 f vi h|m c trng f (t) 1 t t lun ng bin trn . T
x
x
s tm c mi lin h gia x, y, ri th v|o (2) v| c li gii 1. Ngo|i ra, thy
phng trnh (1) lun ng khi x y , tc lun c nh}n t x y nn s s dng k

thut nh}n lng lin hp nhm a v tch s vi lng nh}n t x y. Tht vy


(1) x x2 y x x2 x x y x.( x2 y x2 x ) x y v| lin hp trong

du ( ) s c nh}n t chung 2 v l| ( x y) v| c li gii 2.


iu kin: x 1, y 0.

Li gii 1. S dng phng php hm s.


450

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

y
1 1
1
f 2 f
x x
x
x
x
x
1
Xt hm s f (t) 1 t t trn (0; ) c f (t )
1 0, t 0.
2 1 t
Suy ra hm s f (t ) lun ng bin trn khong (0; ).
Chia: x 1
(1)

y
y 1
1
Do f 2 f 2 y x.
x
x
x
x

( x )2 2 x . x 1 ( x 1)2 2( x x 1) 8 0

( x x 1)2 2( x x 1) 8 0 x x 1 2

.v
n

Th y x vo (2) 2x 2 x 2 x 1 2 x( x 1) 9 0

om

5 2 x 0
25
2 x 1 2 x( x 1) 4 2 x( x 1) 5 2 x
xy

16
16 x 25

ok

.c

25 25
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h cn tm l S ( x; y) ;
16 16
Li gii 2. S dng nhn lng lin hp.

(1) x x2 y y x x2 x x x ( x2 y x2 x ) ( y x) 0

x
( y x) 0 ( y x )
1 0
x2 y x2 x

x2 y x2 x

x
1 0, x 1, y 0.
y x. Do
2
x y x2 x

vi

et

bo

x( y x)

ng

Th y x vo (2) x x x 1 x( x 1)

9
2

(3)

kh
a

t t x x 1 0 t 2 2 x 1 2 x( x 1) x x( x 1)
(3)

t2 1

t2 1
9
t 2t 8 0
t
t 2.
2
2

t 0

Suy ra:

25
2 x 0
x x 1 2 x 1 2 x
xy

16

4 x 5

25 25
Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h l S ( x; y) ;
16 16

( x2 1 3x2 y 2)( 4 y 2 1 1) 8 x2 y 3 (1)


V d 475. Gii h phng trnh:
2
(2)
x y x 2 0

451

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

Li gii. T (2) 2 x x2 y v th vo phng trnh (1), ta c:


(1) ( x2 1 4x2 y x)( 4 y 2 1 1) 8x2 y 3 v do x y 0 khng l nghim
x2 1 4x2 y x 2x2 y( 4 y2 1 1) x2 1 x 2x2 y 4 y 2 1 2x2 y
x2 1 x 2x2 y.( 4 y 2 1 1), (3) v

x2 1 x2 x x nn t (3)

x2
0 x 2. Do chia 2 v (3) cho x2 0 c:
x2
2
1
1 1
1
(3)
1 2 2y 2y 1 2y f f 2y .
x
x
x
x

Xt hm s f (t) t t. 1 t 2 trn c f (t ) 1 t 2

t2

.v
n

c y 0 v t (2) y

1 t2

1 0, t .

et

bo

ok

.c

om

1
1
Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn . Suy ra: f f 2 y 2 y.
x
x

1
1
Th vo (2) x x 2 0 x 4 y : tha mn iu kin.
2
8
b. Kt hp 2 phng trnh bng phng php cng to ra hm c trng
Trong nhiu b|i to{n, ta cn c s kt hp gia 2 phng trnh trong h mi to
ra c h|m s c trng. Vn t ra l| khi n|o cng, khi n|o tr, khi n|o ly
phng trnh n|y cng n ln phng trnh kia, x{c nh gi{ tr n n|y nh th n|o
v| du hiu nhn dng ra sao ?! tr li nhng c}u hi n|y, ta cng xt c{c v
d vi nhng li ph}n tch tm li gii m| t{c gi s truyn ti n c{c bn
nhng th thut, nhng kinh nghim s gip bn tr li c c{c c}u hi trn.

ng

vi

2
2

(1)
x x 2x 5 3y y 4
V d 476. Gii h phng trnh:
2
2
(2)

x y 3x 3 y 1 0
Hc sinh gii tnh Tuyn Quang nm 2015

kh
a

Phn tch. Nhn thy (2) c dng bc hai nhng bit s delta khng l| s chnh
phng nn khng gii c bng phng ph{p hng s bin thin. Quan s{t thy (1),
(2) u c lp theo x, y 2 v nhng cng khng tm c h|m c trng. Khi s
ngh n vic kt hp gia 2 phng trnh x}y dng h|m c trng. Vit h
2
2

x x 2x 5 3y y 4
v| cng 2 v phng trnh vi nhau s thu c:

2
2

x 3x 1 y 3 y
x2 2x 1 x2 2x 5 y 2 y 2 4 ( x 1)2 ( x 1)2 4 y 2 y 2 4.

n }y, nu vit f ( x 1) f ( y) s kh khn cho vic xt h|m f (t ) t 2 t 2 1,


bi l f (t ) 2t

452

t
t 1
2

cha khng nh c du v| cn tm iu kin cho x 1 v

khangvietbook.com.vn T: (08) 3910 3821 0903 906 848

y nn s d|i dng. Nhng vit f (( x 1)2 ) f ( y2 ) c h|m c trng f (t) t t 1


0, t 0 s lun ng bin trn 0; .
2 t 1
Li gii. Ly phng trnh (1) cng vi phng trnh (2):

vi f (t ) 1

( x 1)2 ( x 1)2 4 y2 y2 4 f (( x 1)2 ) f ( y 2 ).

Xt hm s f (t) t t 1 trn 0; c f (t ) 1

1
2 t 1

0, t 0.

.v
n

Do hm s f (t ) ng bin trn 0; .
Suy ra: f (( x 1)2 ) f ( y2 ) ( x 1)2 y 2 y x 1 hoc y 1 x.

3
1
y
2
2
3
1
Vi y 1 x, th vo (2) x2 (1 x)2 3x 3(1 x) 1 0 x y
4
4
3 1 3 1
Kt lun: Tp nghim cn tm h phng trnh l S ( x; y) ; ; ;
2 2 4 4

.c

om

Vi y x 1, th vo (2) x2 ( x 1)2 3x 3( x 1) 1 0 x

bo

ok

x x y y xy y 2 y x 2 0
V d 477. Gii h phng trnh:
3x y 5 x xy y 0

Phn tch. Nu cng hai phng trnh cho nhau th s trit tiu i lng

(1)
(2)

xy v| c

et

lp c x, y 2 v, tc c bin i: (1) (2) x x 3x 4 x 2 y y y hay

vi

( x )3 3x 4 x 2 ( y )3 y v gn 1000 A v|o casio, ri nhp phng

ng

trnh X3 3X2 4X 2 A3 A, vi X x v| bm shift solve cho ta: X 999


hay X 1000 1 A 1 A X 1 nn vit ( x 1)3 ( x 1) ( y )3 y c
dng h|m c trng f (t) t 3 t lun ng bin trn .

kh
a

Li gii. iu kin: x 0, y 0.
Ly (1) (2) x x 3x 4 x 2 y y y
( x 1)3 ( x 1) ( y )3 y f ( x 1) f ( y ).

Xt hm s f (t) t 3 t trn c f (t) 3t 2 1 0, t nn f (t ) ng bin


trn .
Suy ra: f ( x 1) f ( y ) x 1 y v th vo phng trnh (2) c:
(2) x 3 x 0 x 0 y 1.

Kt lun: So vi iu kin, tp nghim h phng trnh l S ( x; y) (0;1)

453

T duy sng to tm ti li gii PT, BPT, HPT i s, v t ThS. L Vn on

3x2 8 x 2( x 1) x2 2 x 2 2( y 2) y 2 4 y 5
(1)
V d 478. Gii h:
2
2
(2)
x 2 y 4 x 8 y 6
Hc sinh gii tnh Bc Giang nm 2014

om

.v
n

Phn tch. Nhn thy (2) l| tam thc bc hai nhng bit s delta khng l| s chnh
phng nn khng gii c bng phng ph{p hng s bin thin. Quan s{t thy c
2 phng trnh u c lp c x, y 2 v nhng s khng tm c h|m c trng.
Khi cn c s kt hp gia 2 phng trnh x}y dng h|m c trng. Trc ht
2
2
2

3x 8 x 2( x 1) x 2 x 2 2( y 2) y 4 y 5
vit x, y c lp, tc h

2
2
x

4
x

2
y

8
y

Nu cng hai phng trnh li th biu thc trong v| ngo|i cn theo theo bin x, cng
nh theo bin y khng c mi lin h g vi nhau. Cn nu tr hai phng trnh vi
nhau thu c: 2x2 4x 2( x 1) ( x 1)2 1 2 y 2 8 y 6 2( y 2) y 2 4 y 5

c trng f (t ) 2t 2 2t. t 2 1 c f (t ) 2.

.c

2( x 1)2 2( x 1) ( x 1)2 1 2( y 2)2 2( y 2) ( y 2)2 1 c dng h|m s


(t t 2 1)2

bo

ok

0, t nn f (t ) ng
t2 1
bin trn . T suy ra mi lin h gia x, y v| c li gii chi tit nh sau:
Li gii. Tp xc nh: D .
f ( x 1) f ( y 2).

et

(1) (2) 2( x 1)2 2( x 1) ( x 1)2 1