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BEE EXTINCTION

by the Bee Team: Carter Chavez and


Kristianne Navarro

$15 billion
This is the price of all the crops that bees pollinate in the United States.

2.5 million
As of 2015, there are about 2.5 million bees in the United States. Although this
is still a large number, this is evidence that we have lost half of the bee
population since the 1980s.

30-90% each year


Bee colonies are dying out at an alarming rate of 30 to 90% annually
worldwide.

30% every winter


Bee colonies typically experience major loss in the winter, 17-20% on average,
but in recent years, that percentage has risen to 30%.

1 out of 3 meals
1 out of every 3 meals is brought to you by bees, but because bees are dying
out, food selection may become limited.

History of Bees
2006 - Colony collapse disorder started greatly affecting bees and bee colonies
started dying out by thousands.
There have been reports about bee colonies disappearing in mass amounts in
the 1880s, 1920s, and 1960s, but it cannot be said if the same causes today
were affecting the bees back then.
1903 - In Cache Valley, Utah, 2000 bee colonies mysteriously disappeared.
Reportedly after a hard winter and a cold spring.
1995-1996 - Pennsylvania beekeepers lost about 53% of their bee colonies for
an unknown reason.

Colony Collapse Disorder


Colony collapse disorder was first reported in 2006 and is characterized by
most or all of the bees in the hive disappearing or dying out.
This has been found to often occur in bee colonies that have been imported
from Europe to the United States.
Colony collapse disorder could be caused by disease, migration, climate
change, parasites, starvation or poor nutrition, radiation, disease, and
contaminated water, but it has yet to be determined what is the main cause
for colony collapse disorder. It is probable that the cause of colony collapse
disorder is from multiple sources, not just one.

Neonicotinoids
Neonicotinoids are insecticides absorbed by the plant, making the plant toxic to pests.
They were created in the 1990s because they had less harmful effects on pollinators. It
is said that neonicotinoids attack the central nervous system of insects, causing them to
die, become paralyzed, have impaired cognitive abilities, or have spasms.
Each bee species has different reactions to neonicotinoids. It has been revealed that
neonicotinoids could make them predisposed to parasites and disease, as well as
affecting normal functioning or growth. As of now, there is inadequate consistent
information to say that neonicotinoids are one of the main causes to colony collapse
disorder. Some sources say that neonicotinoids are causing colony collapse disorder,
others say there is no direct link. Some studies that claim that neonicotinoids are
causing colony collapse disorder are based on unreasonably high doses of a
neonicotinoid and are not put under real life conditions.

Varroa Destructor
The Varroa Destructor is a mite that infects honey bee colonies and weakens
them significantly. Destructors are the leading cause of Colony collapse
disorder. The attach to bees sucking hemolymph from the larvae causing
Deformed Wing Syndrome (DWS) and making it so the bee cannot fly leading
to a downfall in the worker bee numbers. Varroa Destructors sap the strength
from the bees.
The mites carry a disease called Varroosis which significantly weakens the
bees, but the mites make sure the larvae have enough strength to escape the
wax capsule they grow in, because if not they could not infect the rest and
spread.

Acarapis Woodi
The acarapis woodi are small
internal parasites that reside inside
of the trachea of bees. One mother
mite can infiltrate the bee through
its food and lay eggs inside of the
trachea. The eggs hatch in 11-15
days and then they pierce the
trachea to feed off of the bees
hemolymph.

Bees Globally

China produces 50% of all the worlds honey.


Africa produces only 10% of honey, but has the opportunity to surpass or meet Chinas supply
because of their vegetation and climate, however deforestation seems to be hurting this
possibility.
Scientists from several universities (Exeter, Sheffield, Salford) have taken genetic samples from
32 locations in 17 countries and have discovered that European honey bees are the main
carrier for Varroa mites and these mites have been given to colonies in other westernized
countries.
There are three types of honey bees:
African honey bees are bees immune to Varroa mites and many other diseases and are good
honey producers. They are found throughout South America as well.
Asian honey bees can be found in south Asian countries and China with a low to average honey
production.
European honey bees are the most preferred honey bees because of their abundant honey
production. They are found throughout Europe, Russia, Canada, and the United States.

Save the Bees


Bee World Project - Giving villages around the
world beekeeping opportunities to help
harvest beeswax and honey, as well as
teaching methods to keep bees healthy.
Bees Free - Based in West Palm Beach,
Florida, Bees Free has offices in Italy and
Argentina. Their goal is to improve the health
of bees and presents products to beekeepers
around the world to prevent colony collapse
disorder.

What can we do to increase the bee


population?

Mark insecticides with harmful to


pollinators so gardeners/farmers do
not harm bees.
Purchase local, organically grown
produce. These can be found at your
farmers market.
Use less pesticides/insecticides overall
and check what is a non-lethal dose that
keeps bees from being poisoned.
Check imported bees for Varroa mites.

Works Cited
"Beekeeping Around the World." Welcome to The Bee World Project. Bee World Project, n.d. Web. 5 Feb. 2016. <http://www.beewo

rldproject.org/Bees_Of_The_World>.

Bergeron, Ryan. "5 Ways to Help save the Bees." CNN - Breaking News. Cable News Network, 12 Mar. 2015. Web. 7 Feb. 2016.

<http://www.cnn.com/2015/03/04/living/iyw-5-ways-to-help-bees/>.

Briggs, Helen. "Spread of Bee Disease 'largely Manmade'" BBC. The BBC, 5 Feb. 2016. Web. 5 Feb. 2016. <http://www.bbc.co

m/news/science-environment-35484763>.

Works Cited
Hopwood, Jennifer, Mace Vaughn, Matthew Shepherd, David Biddinger, Eric Mader, Scott Hoffman Black, and Celeste Mazzacano.
Are

Neonicotinoids Killing Bees? Rep. Portland: Xerxes Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 2012. Bring Back the Pollinators. Are

Neonicotinoids Killing Bees? The Xerxes Society for Invertebrate Conservation. Web. 5 Feb. 2016. <http://ento.psu.edu/publi

cations/are-neonicotinoids-killing-bees>.

Kaplan, Kim. "Honey Bee Health and Colony Collapse Disorder." U.S. Department of Agriculture. U.S. Government's Office, n.d. Web.

7 Feb. 2016. <http://www.ars.usda.gov/News/docs.htm?docid=15572>.