Bar pendulum , compound penduum

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Bar pendulum , compound penduum

© All Rights Reserved

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BAR PENDULUM

BAR PENDULUM

Introduction

Galileo was the first person to show that at any given place, all bodies big or

small fall freely when dropped, with the same (uniform) acceleration, if the

resistance due to air is negligible. The gravitational attraction of a body towards

the center of the earth results in the same acceleration for all bodies at a

particular location, irrespective of their mass, shape or material, and this

acceleration is called the acceleration due to gravity, g. The value of g varies

from place to place, being greatest at the poles and the least at the equator.

Because this value is large, bodies fall quickly to the surface of the earth when

dropped, and so it is very difficult to measure their acceleration directly with

considerable accuracy.

Therefore, the acceleration due to gravity is often determined by indirect methods

for example, using a simple pendulum or a compound pendulum. If we

determine g using a simple pendulum, the result is not very accurate because an

ideal simple pendulum cannot be realized under laboratory conditions. Hence, you

will use two different compound pendulums to determine the acceleration due to

gravity in the laboratory, namely the Bar pendulum and the Katers pendulum.

Apparatus

Bar Pendulum

Small metal wedge

Spirit level

Telescope

Stop watch

Meter scale

Theory

A bar pendulum is the simplest form of compound pendulum. It is in the form of a

rectangular bar (with its length much larger than the breadth and the thickness)

with holes (for fixing the knife edges) drilled along its length at equal separation.

If a bar pendulum of mass M oscillates with a very small amplitude about a

horizontal axis passing through it, then its angular acceleration (d2/dt2) is

proportional to the angular displacement . The motion is simple harmonic and

the time period T is given by

T 2

I

,

Mgl

(1)

where I denotes the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the horizontal

axis through its center of suspension and l is the distance between the center

of suspension and center of gravity (C.G.) of the pendulum.

BAR PENDULUM

Bar pendulum

A uniform

rectangular metallic

bar (~1m long), with

holes drilled along

its length (~5 cm

apart)

CG in the middle of

the bar

2 knife edges

symmetrically placed

on either side of CG

to suspend it at

various distances

from CG

According to the theorem of parallel axes, if IG is the moment of inertia of the

pendulum about an axis through C.G., then the moment of inertia I about a

parallel axis at a distance l from center of gravity (C.G.) is given by

I I G Ml 2

(2)

Mk 2 Ml 2

where k is the radius of gyration of the pendulum about the axis through C.G.

Using Equation (2) in Equation (1), we get

Mk 2 Ml 2

T 2

Mgl

k 2 l2

gl

k2

l

g

(3)

L

,

g

2

L k

(4)

Therefore,

g 4 2

L

T2

(5)

The point at a distance L from the centre of suspension along a line passing

through the centre of suspension and C.G. is known as the centre of oscillation.

BAR PENDULUM

Time period T will have minimum value when l = k (using Equation (3)). Hence

PQ = 2k (refer to Figure1).

Time

C period

T

C

A

P

D

Q

C.G.

Distance from C.G.

Figure 1:

suspension from center of gravity (C.G.)

l 2 lL k 2 0 .

(6)

Equation (6) is a quadratic equation in l having two roots. If l1 and l2 are the two

values of l, then by the theory of quadratic equations

l1 l 2 L ,

(7)

and

l1l2 k 2

(8)

l l1 ,

k2

l l2

l1

(9)

Since both the sum and the product of the two roots are positive, for any

particular value of l, there is a second point on the same side of C.G. and at a

distance k2/l from it, about which the pendulum will have the same time period.

If a graph is plotted with the time period as ordinate and the distance of the point

of suspension from C.G. as abscissa, it is expected to have the shape shown in

Figure 1, with two curves which are symmetrical about the C.G. of the bar.

To find the length L of a simple pendulum with the same period, a horizontal line

ABCDE can be drawn which cuts the graph at points A, B, D and E, all of which

read the same time period. For A as the center of suspension, D is the center of

BAR PENDULUM

oscillation (D is at distance of

The measurements can also be used to determine g using Fergusons method as

explained below.

Fergusons method for determination of g

Using Equations (5) and (6) we get

l2

A graph between l

and lT

g

4

lT 2 k 2 .

g

4 2

Radius of gyration, k = (intercept)

I

n

L

a2

bl

I

n

L

0

aI

lT2

X

2

kb

I

n

I

n

n

L

L

a

L

a

b

a 2: Expected form of the graph between l 2 and lT 2.

Figure

b

b

Learning Outcomes

This experiment will enable you

1. To determine the acceleration due to gravity (g) using a bar pendulum.

2. To verify that there are two pivot points on either side of the centre of gravity

(C.G.) about which the time period is the same.

BAR PENDULUM

time

period of oscillation against the distance of the point of suspension

from C.G.

4. To determine the length of the equivalent simple pendulum.

Pre-lab Assessment

Now to know whether you are ready to carry out the experiment in the

lab, answer the following questions. If you score at least 80%, you are

ready, otherwise read the preceding text again. (Answers are given at

the end of this experiment.)

Choose the correct answer from the following:

(1)

a) displacement

b) velocity

(2) A simple pendulum is

a) a heavy mass suspended with light and inextensible thread

b) a mass suspended with spring

(3) A compound pendulum is

a) a bar supported at two knife edges

b) a rigid body capable of oscillating in vertical plane

(4) Acceleration due to gravity is

a) rate of change of velocity along vertical direction

b) rate of change of velocity towards the centre of earth

(5) Least count of any instrument is

a) minimum distance measured by any instrument

b) smallest measurement that can be made by the instrument

(6) The centre of gravity is

a) the point at which total mass of the body is concentrated

b) the point at the centre of the instrument

(7) A rigid body is

a) a solid body

b)

one in which the distance between any two points of the body always

remains fixed

(8) At the point of suspension, the glass surface is used

a) to minimize the frictional effects at the point of contact of knife edge

and glass surface

b) to minimize the effect of viscosity of air

(9) The limiting value of angle of displacement for simple harmonic motion a

pendulum is approximately

a) 20 degrees

b) 5 degrees

(10) Are the centre of suspension and centre of oscillation in a compound

pendulum interchangeable?

a) yes

b) no

BAR PENDULUM

Procedure

1. Balance the bar on a sharp wedge and mark the position of its C.G.

2. Fix the knife edges in the outermost holes at either end of the bar pendulum.

The knife edges should be horizontal and lie symmetrically with respect to

centre of gravity of the bar.

3. Check with spirit level that the glass plates fixed on the suspension wall

bracket are horizontal. The support should be rigid.

4. Suspend the pendulum vertically by resting the knife edge at end A of the bar

on the glass plate.

5. Adjust the eye piece of the telescope so that the cross wires are clearly visible

through it. Focus the telescope on the lower end of the bar and put a

reference mark on the wall behind the bar to denote its equilibrium position.

6. Displace the bar slightly to one side of the equilibrium position and let it

oscillate with the amplitude not exceeding 5 degrees. Make sure that there is

no air current in the vicinity of the pendulum.

7. Use the stop watch to measure the time for 30 oscillations. The time should

be measured after the pendulum has had a few oscillations and the

oscillations have become regular.

8. Measure the distance l from C.G. to the knife edge.

9. Record the results in Table 1. Repeat the measurement of the time for 30

oscillations and take the mean.

10. Suspend the pendulum on the knife edge of side B and repeat the

measurements in steps 6 -9 above.

11. Fix the knife edges successively in various holes on each side of C.G. and in

each case, measure the time for 30 oscillations and the distance of the knife

edges from C.G.

Observations

Table 1: Measurement of T and l

Least count of stop-watch = sec.

S.

No.

Time for 30

oscillations

(t)

1

2

Side A up

t

T=t/3

(mea

0

n)

(sec)

l

(cm

)

Time for 30

oscillations

(t)

1

2

Side B up

t

T=t/3

(mea

0

n)

(sec)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

l

(cm

)

BAR PENDULUM

Calculations

Plot a graph showing how the time period T depends on the distance from the

center of suspension to C.G. (l). Figure 1 shows the expected variation of time

period with distance of the point of suspension from C.G.

Draw horizontal lines on the graph corresponding to two periods, T1 and T2 , as

shown in Figure 1.

For the line ABCDE

L1

AD BE

= cm.

2

T1 = ..sec.(corresponding to point C)

Hence, using the formula for g as given in Equation (5),

g = ...cm/sec2.

For the line A'B'C'D'E'

L2

AD BE

= . cm.

2

Hence, g = ...cm/sec2.

Mean value of g = .. cm/sec2

Radius of gyration (k)

Let

and

k l1l 2 = cm.

Calculate another value for k from the line A'B'C'D'E':

k' = cm.

Hence, the mean value for radius of gyration about C.G. is

kmean = (k + k') = ..cm.

Also, the mean length corresponding to minimum time period is PQ 2k .

If M is the mass of the bar pendulum, the moment of inertia of the bar pendulum

is obtained using the equation

I Mk 2

Make the following table for calculated values of l2 and lT2 corresponding to all the

measurements recorded in Table 1.

BAR PENDULUM

Table 2: Calculated values of l2 and lT2

S. No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Side A up

l2

lT2

2

(cm )

(cm sec2)

Side B up

l2

lT2

2

(cm ) (cm sec2)

Mean values

l2

lT2

2

(cm )

(cm sec2)

Plot a graph of l2 against lT2 (as shown in Figure2) and determine the values of

the slope and the intercept on the l2 axis.

Slope of the graph = cm/sec2.

Intercept = .. cm2.

Acceleration due to gravity g = 42 x slope = cm/sec2.

Radius of gyration, k = (intercept) . cm2.

Estimation of error

Maximum log error

Using Equation (5)

g 4 2

L

T2

g L 2T

g

L

T

L 2T

g g

,

T

L

where L and T are the least counts of distance and period axes of the graph

between time period and distance from C.G.

Results

The acceleration due to gravity, g = -------- cm/s2

Actual value = ---------

cm/s2

Maximum log error = --------- cm/s2

The radius of gyration about the axis of rotation = ------- cm.

The M.I. of the pendulum about the axis of rotation = ---- gcm2.

10

BAR PENDULUM

Glossary

Acceleration: The rate of change of velocity with time.

Acceleration due to gravity: The acceleration imparted to freely moving bodies

towards the center of earth by the attractive gravitational force of the earth; its

value varies with latitude and elevation.

Center of gravity: The point in a material body through which the resultant

force of gravitational attraction acts.

Center of mass: The point in a material body or system of bodies which moves

as though the systems total mass was concentrated at that point and all external

forces were applied at the point. It is also known as the center of inertia.

Center of oscillation: The point in a physical pendulum, on the line through the

point of suspension and the center of mass, which moves as if all the mass of the

pendulum were concentrated there.

Center of suspension: The intersection of the axis of rotation of a pendulum

with a plane perpendicular to the axis that passes through the center of mass.

Compound pendulum: A rigid body of any shape capable of oscillating about a

horizontal axis passing through it.

Gravitational force: The attractive force between any two objects that have

mass.

Least count: The smallest measurement which can be accurately made using an

instrument.

Moment of inertia: The sum of the products formed by multiplying the mass of

each element of an object by the square of the distance of the element from a

specified axis.

Oscillation: Any effect that varies periodically back and forth between two

values.

Radius of gyration: The square root of the ratio of the moment of inertia of a

body about a given axis to its mass.

Rigid body: A solid body in which the particles are arranged so that the interparticle distances remain fixed and are not disturbed by any external forces

applied

Simple pendulum: A device consisting of a small massive body suspended by an

inextensible object of negligible mass from a fixed horizontal axis about which the

body and suspension are free to rotate.

Simple harmonic motion: A periodic motion about an equilibrium position for

which the displacement is a sinusoidal function of time. The acceleration of the

object is always directed towards the equilibrium position and is proportional to

the displacement from that point.

Telescope: An assemblage of lenses or mirrors or both that enhances the ability

of the eye to see distant objects with greater resolution.

Time period: Time taken to complete one oscillation of a periodic motion.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

a

a

b

b

b

a

b

a

b

a

11

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