You are on page 1of 67

CAR BODY

By Bhargav Patel
Assistant Professor, MED
CGPIT, UTU

TYPES OF CAR BODY

SEDAN or SALOON

A sedan or saloon car is a passenger car in a three-box configuration


with A, B & C-pillars and principal volumes articulated in separate
compartments for engine, passenger and cargo
The passenger compartment features two rows of seats and adequate
passenger space in the rear compartment for adult passengers

TYPES OF CAR BODY

NOTCHBACK

Notchback is a styling term describing a car body style, a variation of


three-box styling where the third distinct volume or Third box is short
The rear window is upright
Generally, the notchback refers to the distinct angle of the rear window
in relation to the vehicle's more horizontal roofline and its rear decklid

TYPES OF CAR BODY

HATCHBACK

A Hatchback is a car body style incorporating a shared passenger and


cargo volume
With rearmost accessibility via a rear third or fifth door, typically a tophinged lift gate
Features such as fold-down rear seats to enable flexibility within the
shared passenger/cargo volume
As a two-box design, the body style typically includes an A, B & C-pillar,
and may include a D pillar

TYPES OF CAR BODY

FASTBACK

A fastback is a car body style whose roofline slopes continuously


down at the back
Fastbacks provide an advantage in developing aerodynamic vehicles
with a low drag coefficient

TYPES OF CAR BODY

CONVERTIBLE

A convertible is a type of automobile in which the roof can retract and


fold away, converting it from an enclosed to an open-air vehicle
Potentially reduced safety
Poor break-in protection
Deterioration and shrinkage of the sun-exposed textile fabric over time
Diminished rear visibility, from a large roof structure, small rear window,
or obstructed rear window

TYPES OF CAR BODY

VAN

A van is a kind of vehicle used for transporting goods or groups of


people
It is usually a box-shaped vehicle on four wheels, about the same width
and length, but taller and usually higher off the ground
Also referred to as a light commercial vehicle or LCV

TYPES OF CAR BODY

COUPE

Coupes are often hardtopped sports cars or sporty variants of sedan


body styles
Doors commonly reduced from four to two
Incorporates a close-coupled interior
Offers either two seats or 2+2 seating

TYPES OF CAR BODY

LIMOUSINE

A limousine (or limo) is a luxury vehicle sedan or saloon car,


especially one with a lengthened wheelbase
The limousine body style has a divider separating the driver from the
rear passenger compartment

TYPES OF CAR BODY

SUV

A sport utility vehicle (SUV) built on a light-truck chassis


Usually equipped with four-wheel drive for on- or off-road ability, and
with some pretension or ability to be used as an off-road vehicle
SUVs are known for high ground clearance, upright, boxy body

CAR BODY DETAILS


Tail Gate
Floor

Roof
Rear
Bumper

Bonnet

Rear
Quarter
Panel
Front
Bumper
Door
Front
Quarter
Panel

CAR BODY
DETAILS
Front
Compartment
Or
Engine
Compartment

Rear
Compartment

Main
Buck

CAR BODY DETAILS- Front Compartment


Headlight
Plate
Front side
Members

Cross
Member

Crumple
Plates

Shocker
Housing

CAR BODY DETAILS- Front Compartment


Bonnet
- Upper Plate
- Lower Plate
Venting
Plate

Deck Panel

Bonnet
Hinge
Mounting

CAR BODY DETAILS- Main Buck


Roof Cross
Bars

A Pillar
Assembly

Tunnel

C Pillar
Assembly

B Pillar
Assembly

Seat
Reinforcement
Rail
Shield Bar

CAR BODY DETAILS

CAR BODY DETAILS

CAR BODY DETAILS

CAR BODY DETAILS

CAR BODY DETAILS

CAR BODY DETAILS

CAR BODY DETAILS

CAR BODY DETAILS

VISIBILITY
Driver Visibility is the maximum distance at which the driver of a
vehicle can see and identify prominent objects around the vehicle
The parts of a vehicle that influence visibility include the
windshield, the dashboard and the pillars
Visibility is primarily determined by weather conditions and by a
vehicle's design
Blind spots, are the areas of the road that cannot be seen while
looking forward
Blind spots may occur in the front of the driver when the A-pillar,
side-view mirror, and interior rear-view mirror block a driver's view
of the road

VISIBILITY
Blind spots Area
The rear quarter blind spots
Areas towards the rear of the vehicle on both sides
Areas to the left or right
Rear area behind trunk lead
Front area below bonnet

VISIBILITY

VISIBILITY

VISIBILITY

VISIBILITY

VISIBILITY

Front-end blind spots are influenced by the following design

criteria:
Distance between the driver and the pillar
Thickness of the pillar
The angle of the pillar in a vertical plane side view
The angle of the pillar in a vertical plane front view
The form of the pillar straight or arc-form
Angle of the windshield
Height of the driver in relation to the dashboard

VISIBILITY
Effects of Pillars on visibility

VISIBILITY
Effect of vehicle type

Sedan

SUV

VISIBILITY
Effect of Height of the driver
An A-pillar that is split up and haves a small triangle window
(Front Quarter glass) can give a short driver visibility problems

VISIBILITY
Effect of Height of the driver
The B-pillar (car) can block the vision of a tall driver in small 4
door cars
A driver may reduce the size of a blind spot or eliminate it
completely by turning their head in the direction of the obstruction

VISIBILITY
Blind spots can be eliminated
By overlapping side and rear-view mirrors
Checked by turning one's head briefly
By adding another mirror with a larger field of view
By eliminating B pillar
By introducing cameras
By introducing Distance Sensors

VISIBILITY
Ford B-MAX

VISIBILITY
Nissan Maxima

VISIBILITY
Rear View Camera

VISIBILITY
Rear View Camera

DRIVER SEAT DESIGN


COMPONENTS OF SEAT

DRIVER SEAT DESIGN


TYPES OF SEATS
Anti-submarine seat

Bucket seat

DRIVER SEAT DESIGN


TYPES OF SEATS
Bench seat

Power seats

DRIVER SEAT DESIGN


SEAT CURVE

DRIVER SEAT DESIGN


REQUIRENMENTS OF SEATS
Most Comfortable Position

Seat

Cushion

should

be

rigid

with

shock

absorbing qualities
Back rest should support drivers spine
Good driving posture to reduce fatigue on long
journeys
Seat must be adjustable

DRIVER SEAT DESIGN


REQUIRENMENTS OF SEATS

SEAT & STEERING ARRANGEMENT FOR HEAVY


VEHICLES

DRIVER SEAT DESIGN


REQUIRENMENTS OF SEATS

SEAT & STEERING ARRANGEMENT FOR MEDIUM


VEHICLES

DRIVER SEAT DESIGN


REQUIRENMENTS OF SEATS

SEAT & STEERING ARRANGEMENT FOR SMALL


PASSANGER VEHICLES

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR CAR


Vehicle should not be designed to withstand safely collision with
an obstacle or another vehicle at high speed but much can be
done to reduce the effects of collisions
Careful design of the overall shape, the selection of materials
and design of components can reduce the effect of collision
nowadays emphasize is given to the next generation techniques
to guide the driver for safe driving

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR CAR


SHAPE OF THE VEHICLE
Romans were using chariots with wheel spokes to crush their
opponents in the war

To ensure the minimum injury to pedestrians, designer should


avoid sharp ornaments, edged and projecting elements

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR CAR


SHAPE OF THE VEHICLE
Careful design not only reduces the injury but also effects a
reduction in aerodynamic drag

Sharp edges should be avoided in the interior design of the


bodywork and trim

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR CAR


DESIGN OF BODY FOR SAFETY
The kinetic energy of vehicle destroyed during a collision may be
expressed as
E = (m m) v2 / 2
Where,
m is the total mass of vehicle
m is the moveable mass in vehicle (passenger, luggage etc.)
v is the velocity

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR CAR


DESIGN OF BODY FOR SAFETY
This energy is absorbed by work done on the materials of vehicle
by elastic deformation and this relation can be written as
(m m) v2 / 2 = P . s = ( 2 / 2E) A l
Where,
P is the force generated during the collision on vehicle
structure
s is the distance travelled during collision
is the local stress in the material
E is the Youngs modulus
A is the cross sectional area of the structure material
l is the deformation in cm

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR CAR


DESIGN OF BODY FOR SAFETY
This expression shows that the force generated during a collision
is inversely proportional to
The distance travelled by the vehicle in coming to rest
Youngs modulus of the material
This indicate that Bumpers and other collision absorbing parts
should be made of materials with high elasticity
Energy absorbing distance depends on vehicle design, and parts
of the structure used for this purpose should have lower stiffness
than the central section

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR CAR


DESIGN OF BODY FOR SAFETY
To ensure passenger safety in a case of overturning a stiff roof
construction must be used , local reinforcement or antiroll bars
should be used
For a side impact, a designer should choose side rails with some
elasticity in lateral direction

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR CAR


CRUMPLE ZONES
They are designed to absorb the energy from the impact during
an accident by controlled deformation

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR CAR


CRUMPLE ZONES

SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR CAR

CRASH TEST
A crash test is a form of destructive testing usually performed in
order to ensure safe design standards in crashworthiness and
crash compatibility for automobiles
Frontal-impact tests
Offset tests
Side-impact tests
Roll-over tests

CRASH TEST
Frontal-impact tests

CRASH TEST
Frontal-impact tests

CRASH TEST
Offset tests

CRASH TEST
Offset tests

CRASH TEST
Side-impact tests

CRASH TEST
Side-impact tests

CRASH TEST
Roll-over tests

CRASH TEST
Roll-over tests

CRASH TEST
Roll-over tests