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Bearing Failure Analysis

2013-09-13 SKF Slide 1 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]

Bearing failure analysis


Overview:

Load path patterns


Failure mode classification
How to secure evidence
Hands-on exercises
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SKF [Organisation]

Bearing failure analysis


The best way to become expert is to examine damaged bearings. Evidence will emerge
to allow root cause analysis and hence corrective action. Many of ball and roller bearings
never attain their calculated life expectancy. .

The calculated life expectancy of any bearing is based on four assumptions:

1.Good lubrication in proper quantity will always be available to the bearing.


2.The bearing will be mounted without damage.
3.Dimensions of parts related to the bearing will be correct.
4.There are no defects inherent in the bearing.

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SKF [Organisation]

Bearing failure analysis


Even if all the four conditions are met, the bearing may still
fail due to fatigue of bearing material.
Three major classifications of premature spalling are
lubrication, mechanical damage, and material defects.

2013-09-13 SKF Slide 4 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]

Bearing failure analysis


Most bearing failures can be attributed to one or more of the
following causes:
1. Defective bearing seats on shafts and in housings.
2. Misalignment.
3. Faulty mounting practice
4. Incorrect shaft and housing fits.
5. Inadequate lubrication.
6. Ineffective sealing.
7. Vibration while the bearing is not rotating
8. Passage of electric current through the bearing.
9. Transportation, storage and handling.
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Load paths

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Normal radial load zones

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Normal radial load zones


Stationary outer ring
Rotating inner ring
Constant unidirectional loads

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Normal radial load zones


Stationary inner ring
Rotating outer ring
Constant unidirectional load

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Combined (radial and axial) load


Stationary outer ring
Rotating inner ring
Constant unidirectional radial and axial loads

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Pure Axial load

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Misalignment of outer ring

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Ovalised outer ring

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Out of round housing

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Tight fit - preloading

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Eccentric radial load

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Imbalance

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Failure mode classification

Causes of failures have identifiable characteristics


Failure mechanisms have identifiable failure modes
Observed damage can identify failure causes

2013-09-13 SKF Slide 20 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]

Failure modes
Fatigue
Wear
Corrosion
Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation

Subsurface fatigue
Surface initiated fatigue
Abrasive wear
Adhesive wear
Moisture corrosion
Fretting corrosion

Excessive voltage
Current leakage
Overload
Indentation
Forced fracture

Fracture

Fatigue fracture
Thermal cracking

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Indents from debris


Indents by handling

Subsurface fatigue
Subsurface fatigue
Fatigue
Surface initiated fatigue
Wear
Corrosion
Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation
Fracture

Repeated stress changes


Material structural
Micro cracks under the surface changes
Crack propagation
Flaking and peeling

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Fatigue spall

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Edge loading

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True brinelling

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Surface initiated fatigue


Subsurface fatigue
Fatigue

Surface initiated fatigue

Wear
Corrosion
Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation
Fracture

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SKF [Organisation]

Surface distress
Reduced lubrication
Sliding motion
Severity micro cracks

40 m

Abrasive wear
Progressive removal of material
Accelerating process
Inadequate lubrication
Ingress of dirt particles Fatigue
Wear
Corrosion
Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation
Fracture

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SKF [Organisation]

Abrasive wear
Adhesive wear

Wear

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Adhesive wear
Fatigue
Abrasive wear

Wear
Corrosion
Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation
Fracture

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Adhesive wear

Smearing / skidding / galling


Material transfer / friction heat
Tempering / rehardening with stress

concentrations and cracking or flaking


Low loads
Accelerations

Adhesive wear
Fatigue
Wear
Corrosion
Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation
Fracture

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SKF [Organisation]

Abrasive wear
Adhesive wear

It is a material transfer from one

surface to another high temperature


resulting in tempering and
rehardening of material

Temperature discoloration
150 - 177 C (300 - 350 F)
177 - 205 C (350 - 400 F)
205 - 260 C (400 - 500 F)
+ 260 C

(+ 500 F)

+ 540 C

(+ 1000 F)

SKF Bearings can be used at temperatures up to


125 C (~ 250 F)

Higher temperatures may cause loss of Hardness


Loss of 2-4 points of Rockwell Hardness reduces life 50%
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Corrosion
Fatigue

Rust will form if water or corrosive agents reach the in side of the bearing In
such quantities that the lubricant can not provide adequate protection.

Wear
Moisture corrosion
Corrosion

Fretting corrosion

Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation
Fracture

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Oxidation / rust
Chemical reaction
Etching (water / oil
mixture)

Ineffective sealing

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False brinelling
Fatigue
Wear
Corrosion
Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation
Fracture

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Moisture corrosion
Fretting corrosion

Rolling element / raceway


Micro movements / elastic deformations
Vibrations
Corrosion / wear: shiny or reddish depressions
Stationary: Damage at rolling element spacing
Rotating: Damage exhibits parallel flutes

Fretting corrosion
Fatigue
Wear
Corrosion

Moisture corrosion
Fretting corrosion

Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation
Fracture

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Rolling element / raceway


Micro movements / elastic deformations
Vibrations
Corrosion / wear: shiny or reddish depressions
Stationary: Damage at rolling element spacing
Rotating: Damage exhibits parallel flutes

Advanced fretting

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Advanced fretting

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Electrical erosion
High current = sparking
Instant localized heating
leads to melting and/or
welding

Craters up to 100 m

Fatigue
Wear
Corrosion
Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation

Fracture

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SKF [Organisation]

Excessive voltage
Current leakage

Electrical erosion excessive voltage

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Electrical erosion
Fatigue

Low current intensity

Wear

Shallow craters

Corrosion
Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation
Fracture

Excessive voltage
Current leakage

closely positioned

Development of

flutes on raceways
and rollers, parallel
to rolling axis

Dark gray

discoloration

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Vibration

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Current leakage

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Electric current passage solutions

Hybrid deep groove


ball bearing
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Insocoat

Overload
Fatigue
Wear
Corrosion

Static or shock loads


Plastic deformations
Depressions at rolling element spacing
Handling damage

Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation
Fracture

2013-09-13 SKF Slide 47 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]

Overload
Indentation

Indents from debris


Indents by handling

Installation damage

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Debris denting
Fatigue
Wear
Corrosion

Localized overloading
Over-rolling of particles = dents
Caused by soft / hardened steel / hard mineral
particles

Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation
Fracture

2013-09-13 SKF Slide 49 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]

Overload
Indentation

Indents from debris

Indents by handling

Handling damage
Localized overloading
Nicks caused by hard /
sharp objects

Fatigue

Wear
Corrosion
Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation
Fracture

2013-09-13 SKF Slide 50 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]

Overload
Indentation

Indents from debris


Indents by handling

Handling damage

2013-09-13 SKF Slide 51 [Code]


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CRB roller damage

2013-09-13 SKF Slide 52 [Code]


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Forced fracture
Fatigue
Wear
Corrosion

Stress concentration exceeds tensile strength


Impact / overstressing

Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation

Forced fracture

Fracture

Fatigue fracture
Thermal cracking

2013-09-13 SKF Slide 53 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]

Forced fracture

2013-09-13 SKF Slide 54 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]

Fatigue fracture
Exceeding fatigue

Fatigue

strength under
bending

Wear
Corrosion

Crack initiation /
propagation

Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation

Forced fracture

Finally forced fracture

Fracture

Fatigue fracture

Rings and Cages

Thermal cracking

2013-09-13 SKF Slide 55 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]

Thermal cracking

Fatigue

High sliding and / or

Wear

Corrosion

insufficient lubrication
High friction heat
Cracks at right angle to
sliding direction

Electrical erosion
Plastic deformation

Forced fracture

Fracture

Fatigue fracture
Thermal cracking

2013-09-13 SKF Slide 56 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]

Securing evidence
Collect operating data, monitoring data
Collect lubricant samples
Check bearing environment(s)
Assess bearing(s) in mounted condition
Mark mounting position(s)
Remove, mark and bag bearing(s) and parts
Check bearing seats

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Conducting the analysis


Examine Bearing(s) and Parts

Record visual observations


Use the Failure Modes to eliminate improbable possible causes and
determine the original cause of the failure.

Contact external resources for assistance, if needed


Initiate corrective action, if desired

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False brinelling

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