Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s

Review Questions
11.1 Define the term facility layout.
Answer: Facility layout refers to the size and shape of a facility, and the relative locations
and shapes of the functional areas (e.g., departments), equipment, workstations, storage
spaces, aisles, and common areas (e.g., rest rooms, cafeteria) in it.
11.2 What are the objectives in layout planning?
Answer: The objectives listed in the text are (1) efficient movement of materials and
people, (2) logical work flow and minimum travel distances between operations, (3)
efficient utilization of space, (4) safety and satisfaction of workers and others who use the
facility, (5) flexibility to meet changing future requirements, and (6) advancing the
operational mission of the facility.
11.3 What is the difference between a process layout and a product layout?
Answer: A process layout is a layout in which the equipment is arranged according to
function. A product payout is a layout in which the equipment and workers are arranged
along the line of flow of the work units.
11.4 What are some of the principal advantages of a process layout over a product layout?
Answer: Advantages of a process layout include (1) versatility to cope with product
variety, (2) general purpose equipment, (3) higher-skilled labor, and (4) less risk of
equipment obsolescence.
11.5 What are some of the principal advantages of a product layout over a process layout?
Answer: Advantages of a product layout include (1) higher efficiency, (2) higher
production rates, (3) lower-cost labor, and (4) lower work-in-process.
11.6 What is a fixed-position layout?
Answer: A fixed-position layout is a layout in which the product remains in one location in
the plant during its fabrication, and the equipment and workers are brought to the product
to work on it.
11.7 Identify the typical application areas of the three basic layout types in terms of production
quantity and product variety.
Answer: A process layout is suited to low and medium production quantities where
product variety is medium or high. A product layout is suited to high production and low
product variety. In addition, it must be possible to divide the total work content of the
product into much smaller work elements that can be assigned to workstations along the
line of flow. A fixed-position layout is suited to low production quantities and high product
variety, and the product is large and heavy and therefore cannot be easily moved.
11.8 What is a cellular layout?
Answer: In a cellular layout, the work units flow between workstations, roughly as in a
production line, but each workstation is equipped to deal with a variety of part or product
1

11. cafeteria. O = ordinary.11 What are the differences between a site layout. such as utilities. such as how many shifts the plant will operate and the schedule for the plant layout project. entrances. what do P. S stands for supporting services.13 What are some of the charting techniques used to analyze material flows? Answer: Charting techniques mentioned in the text for layout planning are the operation chart. I = important. and part routing matrix.12 In systematic layout planning. and a detailed layout? Answer: A site layout shows how the building is located on the property.  . indicating position and orientation relative to roads and rail sidings. P stands for product. (5) 2 .14 What do the closeness ratings A. 11. a block layout. 11.9 What are the similarities and differences between a construction project layout and a fixedposition layout? Answer: In both layouts. and U mean? Answer: A = absolutely necessary for the departments to be next to each other. it is transported away from the site and the workers and equipment remain. O. (3) use of the same equipment. What product(s) will be produced? Q stands for quantity. the product is large and heavy and so the workers and equipment are brought to the product.15 Identify some of the factors that may influence the assignment of a particular closeness rating to a pair of departments. The difference between them is that when the product is completed in a fixed-position layout. 11. and U = unimportant. Q. from-to chart. R. which identifies the manufacturing processes that will be required in the plant. and T stand for? Answer: P-Q-R-S-T data requirements refer to the data that are needed in order to design the plant layout.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s styles without the need for time-consuming changeovers. And a detailed layout shows how workstations and equipment are arranged in each department. E. How many units of each product will be produced annually? R stands for routing data. T stands for time issues. Answer: The factors mentioned in the text are (1) material flow. rest rooms. lockers. I. flow process chart. what are the P-Q-R-S-T data requirements? Specifically. S. the workers and equipment are transported away from the site and the product remains. 11. whereas when the product is completed in a project layout. A block layout shows the arrangement and sizes of departments in the building. (2) need for contact between personnel. The open office concept refers to an office layout that consists of large open areas in which modular furniture and partitions are used rather than permanent walls to designate and separate workstations. (4) sharing of common records. 11. and exits. The cellular layout attempts to combine the efficiency of a product layout with the versatility of a process layout.10 What is the difference between the traditional office layout and the open office concept? Answer: The traditional office layout uses permanent walls to define private offices. E = especially important. 11.

11. Problems Activity Relationship Charts 11.18 What is a space relationship diagram? Answer: The space relationship diagram is an extension of the activity relationship diagram in which the blocks representing departments have areas proportional to the areas computed in the previous space determination step of SLP. floor load capability. (6) use of same utilities. etc. (2) material handling methods. (2) building codes. (6) building features such as ceiling height. and (7) site conditions. (b) Develop the activity relationship chart for these five departments.  . and (4) whether the layout must fit into an existing building. 11. (3) safety requirements such as those defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). and the blocks are connected by lines indicating the closeness ratings. construct the from-to chart. (a) Based on these data.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s sharing of supervision or technical support staff. support column locations. provision of parking space. Product Quantities per day Sequence 1 25 M-D-G 2 5 T-G-F 3 10 T-F 3 . (3) storage facilities. The closeness ratings in the diagram are identified either by color or by number of lines and type of lines. (5) offices. food services. G (grinding). T (turning).1 A factory has five production departments: M (milling). given that the from-to chart is the only basis for it. 11. 11. locker rooms. (4) aisle space. (7) high noise level. and F (finishing). and (8) emission of fumes. 11. It uses blocks (or nodes) to represent the activities. and landscaping. including the placement and direction of the building on the property.19 What are some of the modifying considerations that are likely to influence the layout design? Answer: The modifying considerations mentioned in the text are (1) personnel requirements such as space for rest rooms.17 What is an activity relationship diagram? Answer: The activity relationship diagram is a graphical means of displaying the closeness ratings among pairs of activities. and plant entrances and exits.20 What are some of the practical limitations that may influence the layout design? Answer: The practical limitations mentioned in the text are (1) the budget that has been established for designing and constructing the facility. D (drilling). odors. Products are routed for processing through these departments in the quantities and sequences indicated in the table below.16 What is an activity relationship chart? Answer: The activity relationship chart is a tabular display of the closeness ratings among all pairs of activities or departments.

T (turning). D (drilling). To determine the closeness ratings in (b). (a) Based on these data. (a) Construct the from-to chart for the data. C (credit department). F (finishing). (a) From\To A B C D E From-to chart A B C 50 25 18 48 13 25 10 D E 50 31 25 18 (b) Activity-relationship chart A B C A A I B O C D E - D E A U - E O A E O - 11. B (bursar’s office). and “U” = zero trips. (a) From\To M D T G F From-to chart M D T 75 25 50 - G 15 75 5 - (b) Activity-relationship chart M D T M A I D U T G F F 35 55 - G O E O - F U U I E - 11. and “U” = zero trips. 4 . (b) Develop the activity relationship chart for these five departments.3 A manufacturing plant has six production departments: M (milling). Paper forms are routed for processing through these departments in the quantities and sequences indicated in the table below. “I” = number of trips = 20 to 34. G (grinding). Products are routed for processing through these departments in the quantities and sequences indicated in the table below. “I” = number of trips = 25 to 49.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s 4 50 D-M-D-G-F 5 25 M-T-F 6 15 M-G Solution: (a) From-to chart and (b) activity-relationship chart. given that the from-to chart is the only basis for it. “O” = number of trips = 1 to 19. and A (assembly). (b) Develop the activity relationship chart for the six departments.2 A college office building has five departments: A (accounting office). “E” = number of trips = 35 to 49. To determine the closeness ratings in (b).  . “E” = number of trips = 50 to 75. the following divisions were used: “A” = number of trips > 75. construct the from-to chart. the following divisions were used: “A” = number of trips ≥ 50. “O” = number of trips = 1 to 24. Product Quantities per day Sequence 1 20 A-B-D 2 13 B-E-A 3 10 E-C 4 30 D-A-B-D 5 25 A-C-E-B 6 18 C-B-E-D-A Solution: (a) From-to chart and (b) activity-relationship chart. and E (educational support services). D (data processing department). given that the from-to chart is the only basis for it.

perhaps resulting in reliability and maintainability problems. 65. and C. (c) The same total number of workers is required (approximately) for the two alternatives. 5 . Work flow should also be improved because distances are less. The production will consist exclusively of labor-intensive assembly. and 70.shift operation.000 sq ft building (single-story) and will use a three. (b) flexibility to adapt to the ups and downs in product demand. The first alternative is a 300. To determine the closeness ratings in (b). Sales forecasts for these products are: 52. and “U” = zero trips. its construction costs will be significantly less. “O” = number of trips = 1 to 44.000. but its utilization will be much greater. Compare the two alternatives in terms of the following criteria: (a) construction costs. (b) The one-shift building will be more flexible in coping with increases in demand. Labor is sometimes more difficult to hire for these less desirable shift hours. the production capacities of the two plants will theoretically be equal.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s Product Quantities per day Sequence 1 40 M-D-F-A 2 50 T-G-F 3 20 T-D-F 4 60 G-F-A 5 70 M-D-M-G-F 6 30 T-M-F-A 7 10 M-T-G Solution: (a) From-to chart and (b) activity-relationship chart.5 A certain type of machine will be used to produce three products: A.  . (d) Theoretically.000 units per year. (d) work flow and material handling? Answer: (a) Because the three-shift building is one-third the size of the one-shift building. From\To M D T G F A M 70 30 D 110 - T 10 20 - G 70 60 - F 30 60 180 - A 130 - M D T G F A M - D A - T O O - G I U I - F O I U A - A U U U U E - Workstation and Area Requirements 11. respectively. The following divisions were used: “A” = number of trips = 135 to 180. the largest total number of trips (180) was divided by 4 to specify divisions. “E” = number of trips = 90 to 134. less material handling equipment will be required for the three-shift operation.000. Building costs are often estimated largely on the basis of area. The second alternative is a 100. The three-shift building will be more flexible in dealing with decreases in demand. 11. However. (c) labor availability. B.4 Two alternative plant layout designs are being proposed to produce a new product. the three-shift building will have to operate evening and late night shifts. Under these assumptions. “I” = number of trips = 45 to 89.000 sq ft building (single-story) and will use a one-shift operation.

The plant will operate 50 weeks per year. and 10 pc/hr. The machines are expected to be 95% reliable. 12.97 + (40. The product consists of two major components: A and B (one of each component goes into each unit of product).  Scrap rate 3% . and the scrap rate is 3%. Proportion uptime is expected to be 90% during each 8-hour shift.30) = 2047.5 m2 11. thus eliminating the need for setup changes. Component A Operation 1 Machine Production time Lathe 7.4 hr + 4659.0 min C 50. Annual quantities and cycle times for the three parts are given in the table below. It is anticipated that production machines of this type will be down for repairs on average 10 percent of the time.95) = 1.550 hr/yr Available time per machine AT = 8(250)(0. B.3 hr = 16.95 + (65.866 + 288.25) = 187. as are the associated standard time and scrap rates. respectively.913.660 + 515. Therefore.990 min/yr = 15. respectively.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s Production rates for the three products are.6 Future production requirements in a machine shop call for several automatic bar machines to be acquired to produce three new parts (A. (a) How many automatic bar machines will be required to meet the specified annual demand for the three new parts? (b) If each bar machine requires a floor area of 175 ft2.7 A one-product plant will operate 250 days per year using a single 8-hour shift each day. 15.000/15)/0.2 hr/yr Available time per machine AT = 50(10)(8)(0.000 units per year.91 WL = 4561.000)(7)/0. and 9%. assuming that a product layout will be used. 5%.000 7.0 min/pc 6 . 7%.000/12)/0. and 8 hours per shift.600 hr/yr Number of machines n = 16.97 + (50.000 5.900 hr/yr Number of machines n = 15. and C) that have been added to the product line. and there is a 25% aisle allowance that must be added to the total machine space. what is the total plant area that must be planned for these three new products? Solution: (a) Workload WL = (52.97 WL = 128.913.7 rounded up to 5 machines (b) Total plant area for three new products TA = 5(30)(1 + 0.000/10)/0. The operations required to produce each component are given in the table below.2 rounded up to 9 bar machines (b) Total plant area for three new products TA = 9(175)(1 + 0.5 hr + 7692.93 + (70.2/3600 = 4. and scrap rates are. Sales requirements are 100. 10 shifts per week.0 min B 40. and there is a 30% aisle allowance that must be added to the total machine space.550/1900 = 8.5 ft2 11.0 min Solution: (a) Workload WL = (25. (a) How many machines will be required to meet demand? (b) If each machine requires a floor area of 30 m2.90) = 3. The machine shop operates one 8-hour shift for 250 days per year.464 = 932. Determine how many machines are required of each type. no machine will be shared between operations.000)(10)/0.000)(5)/0. what is the total machine shop area that must be added for the three parts? Part Annual demand Machining cycle time A 25.000 10.

684 + 347.97 = 8.90) = 1.283/3600 = 6. The machine costs $200.8 A machine shop must acquire several CNC horizontal milling machines to produce three new parts (A.8 rounded up to 5 machines Workload for operation 4 = WL4 = 100.9 rounded up to 4 machines 11.544/1800 = 9.000(10/60)/0.028/1800 = 6.90) = 3. cycle times.96 = 6.92 + (50. and 7 . what is the total shop area that must be planned? Part A B C Annual demand 30.30) = 3185 ft2 11.544 hr Number of machines for operation 1 = n2 = 17.974 min/yr = 22.050/1800 = 12. B.000(5/60)/0.8 rounded up to 13 machines Workload for operation 5 = WL5 = 100.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s A 2 Milling machine 10.464 = 1. 50 weeks/year) just for production of this part.000.7 rounded up to 10 machines Workload for operation 3 = WL3 = 100.0 min Scrap rate 5% 8% 3% Solution: (a) Workload WL = (30.000(13/60)/0.2 rounded up to 7 machines (b) Total plant area for three new products TA = 7(350)(1 + 0. The part will be made on a processing machine designed specifically for the part.0 min 8.944/1800 = 3.028 hr Number of machines for operation 1 = n1 = 12.0 min/pc 5% B 3 Lathe 5.000 units of a certain part annually.591 hr Number of machines for operation 1 = n3 = 8.0 min/pc 3% B 4 Milling machine 13. Assume scrap rate = 2% and worker efficiency = 100%.000(4/60)/0.000)(8)/0.050 hr Number of machines for operation 1 = n4 = 23.5 min.7 rounded up to 7 machines Workload for operation 2 = WL2 = 100.0 min/pc 4% Solution: Available time AT = 250(8)(0. 50 weeks/year). (a) How many machines will be needed to meet production requirements? (b) If the plant were to operate a second shift (40 hours/week.95 = 17.800 hr/yr per machine Workload for operation 1 = WL1 = 100. The standard time for each unit is 16.000)(15)/0.000 50. (a) How many CNC milling machines will be required to meet the specified annual demand for the three new parts? (b) If each CNC machine requires a floor area of 350 ft2. and its reliability (availability) is estimated at 95%.0 min 10.000)(10)/0.600 hr/yr Number of machines n = 22. and there is a 30% allowance that must be added to the total machine space for aisles and parts storage. The plant normally operates one shift (40 hours/week.97 WL = 473.9 A factory has just signed a contract with one if its best customers to produce 40.000 Machining cycle time 15.95 + (40.283 hr/yr Available time per machine AT = 2(8)(250)(0.826 + 515.336.944 hr Number of machines for operation 1 = n5 = 6. and C) that have been added to the shop’s product line. The machines are expected to be 90% reliable.94 = 23.0 min/pc 6% B 5 Drill 4.97 = 12. and scrap rates for the parts are given in the table below.591/1800 = 4. The machine shop operates two 8-hour shifts for 250 days/year. Annual quantities.  .000 40.000(7/60)/0.

five days per week.000(0. the average batch size = 2. to save the price of the eleventh molding machine.224.000 = $600.224. and there is a 35% allowance that must be added to the total machine space for aisles and work-in-process.224.000. what is the total plant area that must be planned? Solution: (a) AT = 3(40)(50)(0. five days per week. The number of production workers in the plant each shift is equal to the number of machines. For planning purposes.5 hrs.000 No labor savings because the number of hours of operation (workload) remains the same 11.5/60)/(1 – 0.000 thermoformed parts. In addition to production workers.35) = 4050 ft2 If 11 machines are installed.200 + 51.35) = 4455 ft2 11. There would also be a savings in floor space required.52 hr/order Setup time/order Tsu = 6. Production workers perform both setups and production runs. average changeover time between batches = 1. average changeover time between orders = 6 hrs.004 rounded up to 11 molding machines However. Assume scrap rate = 2%. and average molding cycle time per part = 30 sec.024 hr/yr Annual setup workload WLsu = 1200(6. Assume scrap rate = 2 %. TA = 11(300)(1 + 0.5 hr/yr n = 11.5/3800 = 2. how much money would the company save by reducing the number of machines required? Solution: (a) AT = 40(50)(0.0 hr/order (given) Annual production run workload WLrun = 1200(42.0) = 7.224/5820 = 10.0) = 3800 hr/yr per machine WL is the same as in (a) n = 11.000(16. 50 weeks per year.200 hr/yr Total annual workload WL = 7.5 million parts per year.  .02) = 11. the average order size = 5.95)(1.000 = 1200 orders/yr Run time/order = 5.0) = 1900 hr/yr per machine WL = 40. and average uptime proportion (reliability) per molding machine = 97 %. the plant manager might authorize a small amount of overtime to work some Saturdays to accomplish the small amount of the workload that would be accomplished by the eleventh machine.024 = 58.9 rounded up to 6 machines (b) AT = 2(40)(50)(0.5/60)/(1-0. (b) Plant floor area for the 10 machines TA = 10(300)(1 + 0. The plant will run three 8-hour shifts per day.95)(1.97) = 5820 hr/yr per machine Number of orders per year = 6.52) = 51. and average thermoforming cycle time per part = 60 sec. For planning purposes. (a) How many molding machines are required in the new plant? (b) If each molding machine requires a floor area of 300 ft2.5/1900 = 5. 50 weeks per year. and average uptime proportion (reliability) per thermoforming machine = 90 %.224 hr/yr n = 58.000/5.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s direct labor cost for the operation = $10/hour. which applies to both run time and changeover time. The plant will run two 8-hour shifts per day.10 A plastic injection molding plant will be built to produce 6 million molded parts per year.11 A plastic thermoforming plant will be built to produce 5.95 rounded up to 3 machines Savings = 3 machines x $200. Each thermoforming machine 8 . supervisors and material handling workers add 20% more personnel each shift.02) = 42. which applies to both run time and changeover time.000 moldings.

710 hr/yr Production workload WLprod = 700(20) + 400(30) + 250(40) = 36. and the operations must be managed more like a production plant. 250. (2) storage for raw materials and finished parts of 2000 sq ft.537.01 hr/order Setup time/order Tsu = 1. 7%. (2) paint shop. Accordingly. and C.500.000 + 795 = 36.0/60)/(1-0. for which 10 sq ft is allowed per employee in the plant. and 7.5 rounded up to 22 work teams (b) Plant area TA = 22(350)(1 + 0.01) = 93.11)(20)(0.  . Three models will be produced: A.1 rounded up to 28 molding machines Total area TA = 28(270)(1 + 0. What is the total area of the thermoforming plant.5 hr/order (given) Annual production run workload WLrun = 2750(34. (3) rest rooms and locker space.662. Although the defect rates are given.5) = 4. (4) office space of 500 sq ft. It will be divided into three departments: (1) body shop. no truck is permitted to leave the plant with any quality defects. B.12 A small company that specializes in converting pickup trucks into rear-cabin vehicles has just received a long-term contract and must expand. two shifts/day. B. and C. and the average time to correct the defect is 25% of the initial conversion time. B. 700.537.90) = 1.795 hr/yr n = 36.4 hr/yr Annual setup workload WLsu = 2750(1.125 hr/yr Total annual workload WL = 4.000 = 2750 batches/yr Run time/order = 2.000(1. B.08) (40)(0. and (5) utility space of 250 sq ft. The same work teams will accomplish this rework. 40 hr. 20 hr. all of the defects must be corrected.5 hours/shift.25) + 250(0.90) = 3600 hr/yr per machine Number of batches per year = 5. how many work teams will be required? (b) If the total floor space in the building must include additional space for aisles and offices. not counting the area taken up by walls? Solution: AT = 2(40)(50)(0. 5 days/week.258 ft2 11.662/3600 = 27. 30 hr.95)(0. and C. Annual quantities for the three models are as follows: A.02) = 34.750 + 10(68) = 13. 11%.25) + 400(0. Conversion times are as follows: A.4 = 97. Additional space requirements in the facility include (1) aisle space allowance of 30% must be added to the total area required for machines. Work teams of three workers each will accomplish the conversions.010 ft2 11.4 hr/yr n = 97.000 hr/yr Defect correction workload WLcor = 700(0.30) + 2. Defect rates are as follows: A. Heretofore. respectively.07)(30)(0. (3) 9 .25) = 795 hr/yr Total workload WL = 36. The plant will operate 50 weeks/yr. and C.2 rounded up to 68 workers TA = 9.000 units annually. 8%.20) = 67.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s requires a floor space 15 ft wide by 18 ft long. Now a larger building must be occupied. what is the total area of the building? Solution: (a) AT = 2000(0. and the allowance that is added to the working space is 30%.000/2.30) = 10. Reliability (availability) and worker efficiency of the work teams are expected to be 95% and 90%.828 + 2.13 A final assembly plant for a certain automobile model is to have a capacity of 225.795/1710 = 21. the conversion jobs were customized and performed in a garage.125 + 93. 400. (a) If the plant is run as a one shift (2000 hr/yr) operation.000 + 500 + 250 + 10w w = 2 shifts(28 machines)(1 + 0. Each work team will require a space of 350 ft2 in the plant.

ET = 2592/7. (d) If an aisle allowance of 20% is added to the area occupied by the actual production line. Total line length L = 360(7. Assuming that tolerance time Tt = Tc.000/50(2)(5)(7.80(. The body shop welds the car bodies using robots. Using Eq. Thus. using the closeness ratings for Example 11. The relationship is that DLH includes the lost time due to repositioning.95)/60 = 0.0 = 900 workers and n = 900/2.1 m wide.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s general assembly department. General assembly has no automation.15 = 0.0 hours of direct labor content on each car in this third department.1 m.19) from our assembly line chapter. and n = 360 workstations.2/0. w = Minimum Integer  R pTwc = (c) Given that Ls = 7.1) = 65. then vc = Ls/Tc = 7. proportion uptime = 95%.2 m.52 m2 Plant area TA = 360(65. Solution: Adjacency score AS = CR14 + CR13 + CR24 + CR25 + CR15 + CR56 + CR36 AS = 1 + 3 + 0 + 3 + 4 + 2 + 3 = 16 ASmax = 22 Layout efficiency rating LER = 16/22 = 0.80/0. the average manning level is 2.5.2(9. find the total area in the department.0 car/min (b) Tc = 60(0. (c) If each workstation in the general assembly department is 7. and the paint shop coats the bodies. which is the same number of workers as before using direct labor hours. Twc = 900(0.727 10 .52)(1 + 0. (4. determine the length of the production line and the elapsed time a car spends in the department.20) = 28. balancing efficiency = 90%. where cars are transported through workstations by a continuous conveyor. Ws = 9.7 hr (d) Workstation area As = 7.  . There are 15. line balancing. Solution: (a) Production rate Rp = 225.80 min Direct labor content or direct labor hours per car DLH = 15 hr = 900 min w = 900/1.90)(0.95 = 7.2) = 2592 m Elapsed time on the line ET = L/vc where vc = conveyor speed of the line.13 Determine the adjacency score and layout efficiency rating for the block layout in Figure 11. and a repositioning time of 0.9 min = 5.95 min and Ts = 0. Determine (a) hourly production rate of the plant.5 = 360 workstations Note the important technical difference between direct labor hours per car DLH and total work content Twc.95)(0. Total work content time is just the time actually required to build the car.15 min is allowed for each worker.8.5) = 60 cars/hr = 1.8 hr/car.95) = 648 min = 10.2 m long (parallel to the workflow) and 9.58 = 341.5 and the numerical values in Table 11.1 given in Table 11.95 – 0.90) = 900 workers.305 m2 Adjacency Scores 11.15(b). (b) number of workers and workstations required in general assembly if no automated stations are used. Twc Twc = Er EbTc EbTs 60 EEr Eb w = 648/0.58 m/min Thus. Both of these departments are highly automated. and proportion uptime.

682 11. 5 6 To 2 From 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 - O E I O U - X I U U - I A U - A E - U 2 3 1 4 4 3 5 6 - Solution: AS = CR56 + CR26 + CR14 + CR34 + CR15 + CR45 + CR46 + CR24 + CR23 AS = 0 + 0 + 2 + 2 + 1 + 4 + 3 + 2 .000 sq ft). but departments can be relocated within the existing building shape. what changes in the locations of the departments can be made to improve the layout efficiency rating? All departments must retain their current shape and orientation in the layout.8. (a) Determine the layout efficiency rating for the current layout.14 Determine the layout efficiency rating for the block layout shown below. all of equal size at 100 ft on a side (department area = 10.16 The block layout shown below consists of seven departments.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s 11. Use the numerical values for closeness ratings in Table 11. given that the building shape must remain the same. 11 . but the departments can be moved around within the building.409 11. (b) It is desired to improve the efficiency rating by rearranging departments. given the closeness ratings between pairs of departments in the table at the right of the layout. The table at the right indicates the closeness ratings between the seven departments.15 In the preceding problem.5 = 9 ASmax = 22 Layout efficiency rating LER = 9/22 = 0.  .0. Solution: Rearrange departments as follows: 5 1 6 3 2 4 AS = CR56 + CR26 + CR13 + CR34 + CR15 + CR35 + CR46 + CR24 AS = 0 + 0 + 3 + 2 + 1 + 4 + 3 + 2 = 15 ASmax = 22 as in the previous problem Layout efficiency rating LER = 15/22 = 0. Determine a revised layout that obtains a layout efficiency rating = 1.

333 (b) Two layouts that provide 100% layout efficiency ratings are the following: 4 1 2 5 3 7 4 6 1 5 2 3 7 6 AS = CR12 + CR15 + CR23 + CR35 + CR37 + CR67 For both layouts. It will operate one 8-hour shift per day.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s 3 1 2 4 5 6 To From 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 - O U U I U U - O U U U U - U A U E - U U U - U U - A 2 3 4 7 5 6 7 - Solution: (a) AS = CR12 + CR67 = 1 + 4 = 5 ASmax = 1 + 2 + 1 + 4 + 3 + 4 = 15 LER = 5/15 = 0. 12 . LU is considering the construction of a new plant. operator breaks. Its product line is highly regarded by the leisure boat industry. sheet metal stamping. material flows. These are very similar to the current processes and so reliable data are available on operation times. Because of equipment downtime. and other aspects of the plant operations. AS = 1 + 2 + 1 + 4 + 3 + 4 = 15 ASmax = 15 LER = 15/15 = 1. its manufacturing plant is in need of modernization. Inc. The current facility is an old dilapidated building on the south side of town. and mechanical assembly. machining. However.00 = 100% Case Problem: Process Layout 11. including the corporate office. Principal manufacturing processes performed in the new LU plant will be sand casting.17 Landlubber Ultramarine (LU). 5 days per week. and you have been called in to participate in the layout planning of the new facility.  . The new plant will consist of 10 departments. is a manufacturer of metal products for the maritime industry.

grand total area in the plant. you should submit the following as your solution to this problem: (a) Activity relationship chart based on the from-to chart. (iii) The overall dimensions for the building should be shown on the drawing. State any assumptions and show the computations you must make to solve the problem. personnel. and Die Shop. milling. showing how the floor space of each department is determined. mold-making. which packs the products and ships them to the company's distribution outlets. production workers. no assembly lines are used due to the variety of products and small lot sizes produced. which performs turning. 3. (c) Table showing calculated values of numbers of work cells. The table should indicate the total areas of departments.. where products are assembled for shipment. All materials and supplies shipped to LU come in and are inspected here. which makes patterns for Dept. Operations include pattern and core making. 6 Packaging and Shipping. No. and other machining operations. fixtures for Dept. material handling workers. Use a spreadsheet program to make the computations. Exhibit 1: LU departments Dept. and number of workers in the plant. 9 Storage Department. 2 Forming Department. and painted before assembly. 5. All materials and parts will be moved by fork-lift trucks in these aisles. 8 Receiving and Receiving Inspection. 3 Machine Shop. (f) A brief report detailing your procedure and justifying your design. 10 Office. 1 2 3 4 13 . 3. (b) Activity relationship diagram. Company officers. To Dept.5 hours per shift. (ii) Show locations of worker locker and washroom facilities. Name and brief description 1 Foundry.g. The attached exhibits provide the necessary data for completing a block layout design for the plant. each work center is only expected to operate 7. 7 Tool.  5 6 7 8 9 . and numbers of workers of each type (e. supervisors. other data provided. used for raw materials and some finished product. fork-lift truckloads per week. Individual operators assemble the products. Do not include details of machine and equipment locations within departments except for the following: (i) Show locations of aisles in the plant. drilling. The plant is shut down two weeks per year for vacation. (d) Space relationship diagram. The report should be prepared using a word processor. accounting. etc. and other business functions are located here. plated. This department includes a tool crib mainly used by Dept. pouring. Exhibit 2: From-to Chart between LU departments. and assembly tools and workholders for Dept. sales.). 1. dies for Dept. and your own judgment. Electronics subassemblies used in the product are not made at LU but are purchased from a vendor and assembled here. Mold. 4 Finishing Department.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s etc. Metal parts are cleaned. department areas. which should locate the 10 departments into the most logical arrangement.. 2. trimming and cleaning. From the information provided together with your engineering judgment. work cell areas for each work cell type. Work in progress (WIP) is stored on the shop floor. Operations include: forging and extrusion. (e) Block layout for the plant. 5 Assembly Department.

(b) Only trips in which materials are moved are counted here. Future product flow is expected to be similar. 1 - 0 180 12 0 0 8 0 21 2 0 - 25 238 0 0 9 0 15 3 0 2 - 90 15 22 6 0 30 4 2 1 4 - 300 45 0 0 33 5 0 0 2 3 - 250 2 0 41 6 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 18 7 50 14 30 3 9 0 - 0 0 8 30 126 92 11 237 8 5 - 350 9 160 68 120 0 60 12 9 0 - Notes: (a) Trips to and from the Office (Dept. 7 Boring Turning Operation time Annual demand Scrap rate 8. Only current products are included in the data.0 min per 40 parts 3. 5 Assembly Dept.000 parts 300.0 min per part 2. (c) All trips are made by forklift trucks that are the only mechanized materials handling equipment used by the company. Demand Rates. Exhibit 3: Production Rates.0 min per part 1.000 parts 5% 5% 2% 0% 7% 4% 1.5 min per part 3.000 parts 10% 10% 10.  .0 min per part 1.0 min per product 45. 10) are not included in the chart.000 parts 55.0 min per 40 parts 10.000 parts 0% 4% 6% 40 min per product 45. and Scrap Allowances for current and anticipated future business.0 min per part 450.0 min per part 6.000 parts 3% 2% 4% 6% 5.000 parts 55.000 parts 300. 4) should be segregated from other departments to the extent possible because of fumes and odors. This is why the number of trips "to" a department may not equal the number of trips "from".0 min per part 15. (e) The Finishing Department (Dept.000 parts 150.5 min per part 30.0 hr per 50 parts 1. Return trips or trips in which no materials are moved are not included in the from-to chart.000 parts 25.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s From Dept. (d) Numbers in the chart represent average trips per week. 3 Turning Drilling Milling Sawing Dept. 4 Cleaning Electroplating Painting Dept.000 parts 55.0 min per part 3.000 parts 55.0 min per part 200.000 parts 42. 1 Core making Mold making Melting and pouring Cooling Mold removal Trimming and cleaning Dept.0 min per part 35. 2 Forging Extrusion Dept.0 hr per 50 parts 4.000 products 0% 60 min per tool 20 min per tool 1000 tools 700 tools 0% 0% 14 .000 parts 55.000 parts 40. 6 Packaging Dept. Process Dept.000 products 0% 4.

Mold. (b) Annual demand rates apply for the current and anticipated future product mixes. Finishing 5. Exhibit 4: Production and Support Space Requirements Department 1. temporary storage space for work-in. Assembly 6. (b) Each operating department (Depts. 4. 1. (c) In Departments 1 through 5. To obtain the total area in the department needed for this work center type. Exhibit 5: Non-production Space Requirements Dept. and 5) should be provided with an enclosed supervisor's office to afford desk space for the supervisor. Description and space requirements 7 Tool crib should be allocated 300 sq m. rounded to the nearest minute.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s Drilling Milling Shaping Miscellaneous 15 min per tool 45 min per tool 15 min per tool 20 min per tool 2500 tools 2000 tools 100 tools 3000 tools 0% 0% 0% 0% Notes: (a) Operation times are average standard time values in minutes. Machine shop 4. 3. 8 Receiving/Receiving Inspection should be allotted 500 sq m of floor space. This space should be 100 sq m. and include an allowance for setup times. multiply by the (closest larger integer) number of work centers.  . the shape of the workspace is somewhat flexible so long as the total area is provided. 15 . Forming 3. department secretary. and Die Shop Process Core making Mold making Melting Cooling Mold removal Trimming and cleaning Forging Extrusion Turning Drilling Milling Sawing Cleaning Electroplating Painting Assembly Packaging Boring Turning Drilling Milling Shaping Miscellaneous Facility type Sand box Sand box Melting furnace Cooling bays Sand box Bench Forging press Extrusion press Lathe Drill press Milling machine Saw Cleaning tank Electroplating tank Painting booth Assembly bench Packaging bench Boring machine Lathe Drill press Milling machine Shaper Bench Space (a) 4mx5m 3mx5m 5mx5m 7mx8m 4mx5m 3mx5m 6mx8m 5mx7m 4mx8m 4mx5m 4mx5m 2mx4m 2mx8m 3 m x 10 m 6mx5m 3mx5m 4mx5m 5mx8m 4mx8m 4mx3m 5mx5m 3mx5m 4mx4m Notes: (a) Space indicated represents dimensions of area needed per machine or work center. Foundry 2. (e) One production worker per cell unless otherwise noted. and files. (f) Number of material handling workers = 20% of production workers. 2. Tool. Packaging & Shipping 7.progress should be provided: 120 sq m in each department. (d) Although precise dimensions are given in the "space needed" column.

However.09 0. (f) No provision is to be made for food service for the employees.06 32 20 20 8 3.2 55 Cooling 4. washroom and lockers for the labor force should be approx. 10 Office space should be provided as follows: Activity Space Area (sq m) Lobby 50 Main offices 1000 Sales offices 100 Secretarial/typing pool 60 Rest rooms 100 Hallways 20% of above total Notes: (a) The Storage Room (Dept.21 0.69 4. 8) for easy access. and lockers should be in two rooms (for men and women).76 M(Int) 3 4 1 3 1 1 0.8 55 Mold removal 1 55 Trim & clean 1.25 300 Paint 3 150 q 0. prepared on an Excel spread sheet.96 8.5 200 Extrusion 3 300 Office WIP store 3 Machin’g Turning 10 35 Drilling 2 40 Milling 15 42 Sawing 3 25 Office WIP store 4 Finish’g Cleaning 0.1 0. The rooms should be next to each other and centrally located in the plant if possible. (e) Allowance for lavatories. To allow for this extra aisle space.04 A(cell) 20 15 25 56 20 15 M 2.25 3.02 0. 3 sq. Vending machines are to be located outside the locker room. per worker on day shift.02 0 0. 9).05 0.125 450 Electroplate 0. 1 through 7). Number of clerical staff per supervisor = one.8 12 4 1 6 1 496 620 12 1 1 5 . There is no single correct design solution. the calculations of areas and number of workers should agree fairly closely with the following tabulation. add 25% to each operating department (Depts. Solution: This is a design problem that requires individual analysis and creativity on the part of the student.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s 9 Storage Room should be allotted 1000 sq m.89 3 9 0. 8) and Packaging and Shipping (Dept.5 55 Office WIP store 2 Forming Forging 1.03 0. the inventory of finished product is to be maintained at the Company's Distribution Center. (g) Supervisor-to-worker ratio in the factory = 1:15.05 0.71 4 1 6 1 0 0.35 0.83 0. The space provided for lavatories.06 16 30 30 0.04 0.53 0.26 1 1 5 16 . (c) Except for a modest provision in the Storage Room (Dept.  TA 60 60 25 168 20 15 100 120 144 315 100 120 128 20 120 8 100 120 16 30 150 A/dept w AL 568 710 w 3 4 1 3 1 1 Tw 13 3 9 679 848. Dept 1 Foundry Process OpTime YrD(k) Coremaking 8 30 Moldmaking 6 55 Melting 1.50 0. (d) Aisles for Fork Lift trucks between departments are to be 3 m wide throughout (to allow for two-way travel). (b) Receiving (Dept. 6) should each be provided with at least one truck dock. washroom.60 2.04 0.1 48 35 2. 9) should be located adjacent to the Receiving and Receiving Inspection Department (Dept.73 5.07 0. m.

33 0. 40 45 0 15 16.1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 40 32 12 25 15 16 1.01 0.80 0.7 2.  100 120 240 100 120 40 40 32 12 25 15 16 416 520 7 16 460 40 575 50 300 500 1000 375 500 1000 1310 1572 276 276 6045 7047 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 2 6 68 68 13.00 16 4 60 20 15 45 15 20 45 1 0.53 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 Recving 9 Storage Total wrkrs 10 Office MH wrkrs Supervisrs Clerical Total wrkrs Rest room Total area 17 .53 0.Solutions Manual: Ch11-Plant Layout-s 5 Asby 6 Pack 7 Tool Rm Office WIP store Assembly Office WIP store Packaging Boring Turning Drilling Milling Shaping Misc.5 2 0.12 0.5 14 5 5 92 .6 4.60 0.

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