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Question 4 See this video on the basics of blended learning.

In higher education EDUCAUSE

has reports on ways to develop and use it. K-12 there are multiple blended learning
models. The International Association for K-12 Online Learning has several reports
and webinars on blended learning, as well. Read the section on "Course
characteristics that affect success" , choose one research topic (Table 7.2 on p. 210
of the Integrating book), choose a level - higher ed or K-12, and give two
suggestions on how to use the research to support this topic in a blended course.
Cong-Kai (Black)
Ryan (Blue)

What is Blended Learning:

"Blended Learning" combines traditional face-to-face classroom instruction with
online learning. According to Roblyer, any instructional units that included
combinations of online and in-person activities are actually blended courses
(Roblyer, 2015, p. 228).

Blended Learning Models:

Three major categories of Blended Learning models: (Roblyer, 2015, p.212)
1. Traditional classroom with online activities;
2. Online classroom with in-person events; and,
3. Flipped classroom model.

Six Models of Blended Learning: (Dreambox Learning, 2013)

1. Face-to-Face Driver Model: Of all the blended learning models, face-to-face
driver is the closest to a typical school structure. With this approach, the
introduction of online instruction is decided on a case-by-case basis, meaning
only certain students in a given class will participate in any form of blended
learning. The face-to-face driver approach allows students who are struggling
or working above their grade level to progress at their own pace using
technology in the classroom.
2. Rotation Model: In this form of blended learning, students rotate between
different stations on a fixed schedule either working online or spending
face-to-face time with the teacher. The rotational model is more widely used
in elementary schools 80 percent of elementary schools in California that





use blended learning follow the rotational model because many are already
set up to have students rotate between stations.
Flex Model: With this approach, material is primarily delivered online.
Although teachers are in the room to provide on-site support as needed,
learning is primarily self-guided, as students independently learn and practice
new concepts in a digital environment.
Online Lab Model: As schools face increasingly tighter resource constraints,
the online lab model of blended learning is a viable option for helping
students complete courses, including those not offered at the specific school
site. In this scenario, students learn entirely online but travel to a dedicated
computer lab to complete their coursework. Adults supervise the lab, but they
are not trained teachers. This not only allows schools to offer courses for
which they have no teacher or not enough teachers, but also allows students
to work at a pace and in a subject area that suits them without affecting the
learning environment of other students.
Self-Blend Model: Popular in high schools, the self-blend model of blended
learning gives students the opportunity to take classes beyond what is
already offered at their school. While these individuals will attend a
traditional school environment, they also opt to supplement their learning
through online courses offered remotely. In order for this method of blended
learning to be successful, students must be highly self-motivated. Self-blend
is ideal for the student who wants to take additional Advanced Placement
courses, or who has interest in a subject area that is not covered in the
traditional course catalog.
Online Driver Model: At the opposite end of the spectrum from face-to-face
driver we have online driver, which is a form of blended learning in which
students work remotely and material is primarily delivered via an online
platform. Although face-to-face check-ins are optional, students can usually
chat with teachers online if they have questions. This model of blended
learning is ideal for students who need more flexibility and independence in
their daily schedules. This approach is becoming increasingly popular.

Blended Learning Models (Watson et al. 2015)

Clayton Christensens research on blended learning schools and programs found
that the majority of blended programs fall into one of four models: rotation, Flex, A
La Carte, and/or Enriched Virtual.
1. Rotation Model Any course or subject in which students rotateeither on a
fixed schedule or at the teachers discretionamong learning modalities, at
least one of which is online learning. Often students rotate among online
learning, small-group instruction, and pencil-and-paper assignments at their
desks. Or they may rotate between online learning and some type of wholegroup class discussion or project. The key is that the clock or the teacher

announces that the time has arrived to rotate, and everyone shifts to their
next assigned activity in the course. The rotation model includes four submodels: Station rotation, Lab rotation, Flipped Classroom, and Individual
a. Station Rotation A course or subject in which students experience the
rotation Model within a contained classroom or group of classrooms.
The Station rotation Model differs from the Individual rotation Model
because students rotate through all of the stations, not only those on
their custom schedules.
b. Lab Rotation A course or subject in which students rotate to a
computer lab for the online learning station.
c. Flipped Classroom A course or subject in which students participate in
online learning off-site, in place of traditional homework, and then
attend the brick-and-mortar school for face-to-face, teacher-guided
practice or projects. The primary delivery of content and instruction is
online, which differentiates a Flipped Classroom from students who are
merely doing homework practice online at night.
d. Individual Rotation A course or subject in which each student has an
individualized playlist and does not necessarily rotate to each available
station or modality. An algorithm or teacher(s) sets individual student

2. Flex Model A course or subject in which online learning is the backbone of

student learning, even if it directs students to offline activities at times. The
teacher of record is on-site, and students learn mostly on a brick-and-mortar
campus, except for any homework. Students move through a Flex course
according to their individual needs. Face-to-face teachers are on hand to offer
help, and in many programs they initiate projects and discussions to enrich
and deepen learning, although in other programs they are less involved.
3. A La Carte Model A course that a student takes entirely online to accompany
other experiences that the student is having at a brick-and-mortar school or
learning center. The teacher of record for the A La Carte course is the online
teacher. Students may take the A La Carte course either on the brick-andmortar campus or off-site. This differs from full-time online learning because
it is not a whole-school experience. Students take some courses A La Carte
and others face-to-face at a brick-and-mortar campus.
4. Enriched Virtual Model A course or subject in which students have required
face-to-face learning sessions with their teacher of record and then are free
to complete their remaining coursework remotely from the face-to-face
teacher. Many Enriched Virtual programs began as full-time online schools
and then developed blended programs to provide students with brick-andmortar school experiences. The Enriched Virtual Model differs from the

Flipped Classroom Model because in Enriched Virtual programs, students

seldom meet face-to-face with their teachers every weekday. It differs from a
fully online course because face-to-face learning sessions are more than
optional office hours or social events; they are required

Four pillars of F-L-I-P: (Hamdan, Mcknight, and Arfstrom, 2013, pp. 5-6)

Flexible learning environments;

Learning culture shift;
Intentional content;
Professional educators.

Tips on Implementing flipped classroom: (Roblyer, 2015, p.214)


Starting small
Getting student and parent buy-in
Teaching students how to watch videos for instructional purposes
Keeping video short (usually between five and right minutes).

Benefits of Blended Learning: (Smith & Suzuki, 2015)


Ability to control the pace of instruction;

New role of the classroom teacher;
Lack of distraction in the blended learning environment; and
Accessibility of the embedded multimedia lessons outside the classroom

Suggestion on implementing Blended Learning: (Henrie, Bodily, Manwaring &

Graham, 2015)
1. Learners perception on the effectiveness of Blended Learning differ from
subject matter.
2. Clarity of instruction and relevance of activities influenced student
satisfaction more than the medium of instruction.
3. Exploring learning tools and previewing upcoming assignments and learning
activities can be useful indicators of a successful learning experience.

Other suggestions for implementing Blended Learning: (Roscorla 2015)

1. Start with clear education goals.
2. Use well-researched instructional models.

3. Personalize learning so that students can improve their academic

achievement, make up or move on to more advanced work, and direct their
own learning.
4. Help teachers transition to this different environment by providing
professional development in a blended, personalized format.

"Blended learning is not about the technology itself; it is about the shift in the
instructional model to personalized, student-centered learning to ensure each
students success. However, it is difficult to navigate this shift and close
achievement gaps without the effective implementation of technology to transform
learning and support teachers in personalizing instruction. " (Watson et al. 2015)
"True blended learning requires that teachers approach their roles differentlyas
coaches, concierges, guides, and mentors, instead of purveyors of information.
Classrooms will be structured differently as flexible learning environments, in which
students learn in a variety of ways while communicating and collaborating with
others who are outside their schooland perhaps outside their country." (Watson et
al. 2015)
The major takeaway to me is that Blended Learning could be very effective,
but the premises for that are the instructor must be fully prepared and the lesson
must be well-designed. The evidence of researches in the field already
demonstrated that clarity of instruction and relevance of activities influenced
student satisfaction more than the medium of instruction. On the other hand,
learners in the Blended Learning environment could have the opportunity to pace
their own learning and the flexibility to emerge in the learning style they preferred,
instead of being forced to take the one-size-fit-all instruction format. Therefore, I
believe the most valuable point of implementing Blended Learning is this: Blended
Learning creates the ideal environment that it is possible to individualize and
customize students learning experience, so the instruction could effectively meet
the point of students needs. But, once again, the bottom line is that the instructor
must be professional enough with sufficient knowledge and abilities in technology
so as to create that ideal Blended Learning environment in the first place, then the
effective and individualized learning we talked about could really take place.
As society progresses with deeper uses of technology on a daily and personal
basis, so does teaching need to find a balance in the pedagogical utilization of these
and other contemporary technologies. As there are clear drawbacks and benefits to
teaching a traditional classroom, there are also drawbacks and benefits to teaching
distanced, or online learning. Bridging the gap between these two methods of
teaching and learning is the approach of blended instruction. Although varied in it's
applications, blended teaching / learning can find ways to supplement the
weaknesses of one approach with the strengths of the other. I'm interested in how

current and future research can deepen our understanding of effective

implementations of blended instruction, and thus broadening the understanding of
motivation and the process of learning as a whole. This is really spring-boarding off
the topic of coarse quality and the characteristics of an effective blended course.

6 Models of Blended Learning. (2013). Retrieved from
Roblyer, M. D. (2015). Integrating educational technology into teaching (7th ed.).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Hamdan, N., McKnight, P., McKnight, K., & Arfstrom, K. (2013). A review of flipped
learning. A report of the Flipped Learning Networks Research committee.
Retrieved from
Henrie, C. R., Bodily, R., Manwaring, K. C., & Graham, C. R. (2015). Exploring
intensive longitudinal measures of student engagement in blended learning.
International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(3),
Gleason, J. (2013). Dilemmas of blended language learning: Learner and teacher
experiences. CALICO Journal, 30(3), 323-341.
Kim, H. (2015). A blended learning scenario to enhance learners' oral production
skills. The EUROCALL Review, 23(1), 17-23.
Roscorla, Tanya (2015). The Evolution of Blended Learning: A mash-up of online and
face-to-face learning methods is changing the way schools educate students.
Center for Digital Education. Retrieved from
Smith, G. J., & Suzuki, S. (2015). Embedded blended learning within an algebra
classroom: A multimedia capture experiment. Journal of Computer Assisted
Learning, 31(2), 133-147.
Watson et al. (2015). Blending Learning: The Evolution of Online and Face-to-Face
Education from 20082015. Promising Practices in Blended and Online
Learning, July 2015. Retrieved from