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# Physics Core Course

Basic Questions
Table of Contents

I.

ELECTRICITY:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

II.

## Electric Charge And Electric Field

Gausss Law
Electric Potential
Capacitance and Dielectrics
Current, Resistance and E.M.F.
Direct-Current Circuits
Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Forces
Sources of Magnetic Fields

RELATIVITY:

1
5
10
13
17
20
24
27
31

Mechanics Part 2
Mechanics Part 3
Mechanics Part 4
Mechanics Part 5
Mechanics Part 6
Mechanics Part 7
Mechanics Part 8

35
38
41
50
53
57
60
62

## IV. Chapter 21 (Student Kinematics)

65

V.

WAVES:
Chapter 15 (Mechanical Waves)
Chapter 16 (Sound and Hearing)

SABIS Proprietary

71
76

Chapter 21:
Electric Charge and Electric Field

## B 1. (a) State Coulombs law and give its mathematical expression.

[chap 21-page 717]

Solution:

The magnitude of the electric force between two point charges is directly
proportional to the product of the charges and is inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between them.

F
(b)

k q1q2
r2

Two point charges, q1 = -3.0 nC and q2 = +5.0 nC are separated by a distance of 2.0
cm. Find the magnitude of the electric force that q1 exerts on q2.
[chap 21-page 720]

Solution:

(c)

9
9
k q1q2 k 3.0 10 5.0 10
F

3.37 104 N
2
2
r

2 m
2.0 cm 10

cm

## Define electric field.

[chap 21-page 722]

Solution:

## The electric field is defined as the electric force F experienced by a test

charge q0 placed in the field divided by the charge q0 (providing q0 is small
enough so as not to disturb the charges generating the field).

B 2. (a) Find the magnitude of the electric field at a field point 4.0 m from a point charge
q = 2.0 nC.
[chap 21-page 724]

Solution:
(b)

9
k q k 2.0 10
E E 2
1.12 N/C
r
(4.0)2

The electric field caused by a certain charge at a distance 2.0 cm from the charge is
4.5 x 105 NC-1 away from the charge. What is the charge?
[chap 21-page 725]

SABIS Proprietary

Solution:

## E r 2 (2.0cm 102 m/cm)2 4.5 105

kq
E E 2 q

2.0 108 C
r
k
k
Since the field is away from the charge, the charge is positive
q 2.0 108 C

B 3. (a) Find the distance from a charge of 16 nC where the electric field due to the charge has
a magnitude of 4.0 x 104 NC-1.

Solution:

9
k q k 16 10
E 2
4.0 109
r
r2

k .(16 109 )
r
6.00 102 m
4
4.0 10
(b)

A point charge q = 6.00 nC is located at the origin. What is the magnitude of the
electric field vector at the point of coordinates (- 15.0 cm, - 20.0 cm)?
[chap21-page 725]

Solution:

## Since q is positive, the electric field is away from it.

+y

15
P

kq
E 2
r

Q = 6.00 nC
+x
20

k 6.00 109

(0.15) 2 (0.20) 2

## E 8.63 102 N/C

B 4. Three charges lie along the x-axis as shown in the diagram. The positive charge q1 = 4.00
C is at x = 4.00 m, and the positive charge q2 = 8.00 C is at the origin. A negative charge
q3 is placed on the x-axis such that the resultant force on it is zero. What is the x-coordinate
of q3?
O
q3

q1

q2
[chap 21-page 720]

Solution:

The changes q1 and q2 exert forces on q3: F13 and F23 since the resultant force
is zero.

SABIS Proprietary

Fx 0 F13 F23
k . q1 q3 k . q2 q3

(r13 ) 2
(r23 ) 2
q
q
8 106 4 106
12 22

(r13 )
(r23 )
x2
(4 x) 2

x2
32 16 x 2 x 2 x 2
2
16 8 x x
2
x 16 x 32 0

## b 2 4ac (16) 2 4(1)(32) 128

b
16 128
x
x 13.66 or x 2.34
2a
2
x is a distance so it must be positive, x is also between 0 and 4 as given in the
figure:
16 128
x
2.34 m
2
x

BG 5.
y
q2 -

+ q3

a
q1 +

Consider three point charges located at the corners of a triangle, as shown in the diagram,
where q1 = q3 = 3.00 C, q2 = - 8.00 C, and a = 0.120 m.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

## Find the magnitude of the resultant force on q3.

(f)

Calculate the angle the resultant force makes with the positive x-axis.
[chap 21-page 721]

Solution:

## Since q1 and q3 are both positive, the force F1 by q1 on q3 is a repulsive force.

Since q2 and q3 are of opposite sign, the force F2 by q2 on q3 is an attractive
force.

SABIS Proprietary

tan 1

a
tan 1 1 450
a

(a)

6
6
k q1 q3 k 3.00 10 3.00 10
F1

2.81N
2
(r13 )2
a2 a2

(b)

F2

(c)

## Rx F1x F2 x F1 cos 45 i F2 x i 2.81cos 45i 15i 13.01i N

(d)

Ry F1 y F2 y F1 sin 45 i 0 1.99i N

(e)

## R Rx2 Ry2 13.16 N

(f)

tan 1

6
6
k q2 q3 k 8.00 10 3.00 10

15 N
(r23 )2
a2

1.99
0
tan 1
8.7 with the positive x-axis
Rx
13.01

Ry

B 6.
y
P

+
q1

q2

A charge q1 = 8.00 C is located at the origin, and a second charge q2 = -3.00 C is located
on the x-axis 0.800 m from the origin, as shown in the diagram. Point P has coordinates
(0, 0.600) m.
SABIS Proprietary

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

## Find the magnitude of the resultant electric field at point P.

(f)

Calculate the angle the resultant electric field makes with the positive x-axis.
[chap 21-page 728]

Solution:

## Since q1 is positive, the electric field at P due to q1 is away from q1.

Since q2 is negative, the electric field at P due to q2 is towards q2.

tan 1

0.6
3
tan 1 36.870
0.8
4

(a)

6
k q1 k 8.00 10
E1

2
2
(r1 )
0.6

(b)

k 3.00 106
k q2
E2

2
2
2
(r2 )
0.6 0.8

(c)

(d)

(e)

## E Ex2 E y2 1.84 105 N/C

SABIS Proprietary

(f)

## tan 1 tan 1 y 83.30 above the +ve x-axis

x
E
x

BG 7.

--------------------

v0
E
+ +| + + + + + + + + + + +

An electron of mass 9.11 x 10-31 kg enters the region of a uniform electric field as shown
in the diagram, with v0 = 2.00 x 106 m/s and E = 300 N/C. The width of the plates is l =
0.250 m.
G

(a)

## Find the acceleration of the electron while in the electric field.

(b)

Find the time it takes the electron to travel through the region of the electric field.

(c)

What is the vertical displacement y of the electron while it is in the electric field?

(d)

Calculate the speed of the electron as it emerges from the electric field.

Solution:

## Since the electron e is negatively charged, the electric force on it is in a

direction opposite to the direction of the electric field.

(a)

(b)

Fe
Fe E.e (300 j )(1.60 1019 ) 4.8 1017 N j
q0
F mg
Fy ma Fe mg ma a e
5.27 1013 j m/s 2
m
a 5.27 1013 m/s 2 vertically downwards
E

## X VX t V0 cos t V0 cos 0 t V0t

SABIS Proprietary

(c)

(d)

X
0.250

t 1.25 107 s
6
V0 2.00 10

1
1
y at 2 Voy t at 2 0
2
2
1
y (5.27 1013 j )(1.25 107 ) 2 0.412 m j
2

## Vx Vox 2.00 106 m/si

V
V Vx2 Vy2 6.88 106 m/s; tan 1 y 73.10
Vx
V 6.88 106 m/s at an angle of 73.10 below the +ve x-axis

B 8. (a) In a thundercloud there may be an electric charge of + 30.0 C near the top and 30.0
C near the bottom. These charges are separated by approximately 3.00 km. Find the
magnitude of the electric force between them.
[chap 21-page 720]

Solution:
(b)

k q1 q2 k 30 30

8.99 105 N
r2
(3 103 )2

What are the magnitude and direction of the electric field that will balance the weight
of three protons, of mass 1.67 x 10-27 kg each?
[chap 21-page 725]

Solution:

+y

Fy 0

Fe

Fe mg
E q0 m.g
E

3.m proton .g
3 q proton

3 1.60 10

19

mg

## Since the protons are positively charged, for Fe to be vertically upwards, E

must also be vertically upwards:

## E 1.02 107 N/C j

B 9. A 45.0-g insulating sphere carries a charge Q = - 40.0 C and is suspended by a silk thread
from a fixed point. An external electric field which is uniform and vertical downward is
applied.
(a)

The applied electric field has a magnitude of 2.00 x 103 N/C. What is the tension in the
thread?

Solution:

## Since E is vertically downwards and Q is negative, Fe is vertically upwards:

SABIS Proprietary

+y

Fy 0 T Fe mg
T mg Fe

T (0.045)(9.8) E q0
T (0.045)(9.8) (2.00 103 )(40.0 10 6 )
T 0.361N
(b)

T
Fe
Q = 40.0 C

The applied electric field holds the sphere in place above the fixed point of suspension,
and the tension in the thread is 0.450 N. Find the magnitude of the electric field.
[chap 21-page 722]

Solution:

## Since Q is negative and Fe is vertically upwards, E must be vertically

downwards:
+y
Fy 0 Fe T 0 E.q0 j (mg ) j (0.450) j
Fe
(9.8)(0.045) j (0.450) j
E
40.0 106
Q = 40.0 C
4
E 2.23 10 N/C j

## E 2.23 104 N/C j

T

SABIS Proprietary

Chapter 22:
Gausss Law

BG 1.
G

(a)

## State Gausss law in words and give its mathematical expression.

[chap 22-page 759]

Solution:

The total electric flux through any closed surface is directly proportional to
the net electric charge enclosed within the surface.

E E.dA
(b)

## When excess charge is placed on a solid conductor, where does it reside?

[chap 22-page 761]

Solution:
G

(c)

## Write the three forms of the general definition of electric flux.

[chap 22-page755]

Solution:
G

(d)

## E E.dA E .dA E cos dA

Give the expression of the magnitude of the electric field outside a charged conducting
sphere.
[chap 22- page 762]

Solution:

Let the Gaussian surface be a sphere with radius R larger than that of the
conducting sphere.

## E is radially outward and perpendicular to the Gaussian surface at every

point.

E E.dA

qenc

E .dA

0;cos 1 E.dA

qenc

qenc

E cos dA

E.4 R 2

SABIS Proprietary

qenc

qenc

qenc
4 R 2 0

10

BG 2.
G

(a)

What Gaussian surface is used to find the electric field outside an infinitely long
charged wire?
[chap 22-page 763]

Solution:
G

(b)

A cylinder with the wire as its axis and with ends perpendicular to the wire.
The radius of the cylinder is R and the length is L.

## What is the magnitude of the field of an infinite sheet of charge?

[chap 22-page 764]

Solution:

## Take as Gaussian surface a cylinder bisected by the sheet of charge.

E = E since E points perpendicularly away from the sheet at every point.

E E.dA
but E 1 2 3 ; 3 0 since E 0
1 E.dA E .dA E dA EA
& 2 E.dA E .dA E dA EA
E 1 2 2 EA

0
.A

2 EA
E
0
2 0

(c)

qenc
1

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

E
2

## Surfaces 1 & 2 are the ends of the cylinder; surface

3 represents the lateral area of the cylinder.
q
Surface charge density =
A

What is the magnitude of the field between oppositely charged parallel conducting
plates?
[chap 22-page 765]

Solution:

(d)

The shaded conductor shown in the figure carries a total charge of Q = +7.0 nC. The
charge within the cavity, insulated from the conductor, is q = -2.0 nC. What is the
charge on the inner surface of the conductor?
SABIS Proprietary

11

Solution:

## Induced charge on inner surface = +2.0 nC

B 3.
S!

S3

S2
q2

q4

q3

q1

q5

S4
Four closed surfaces S1 through S4, together with the charges q1, q2, q3, q4 and q5 are
sketched in the figure. q1 = -4Q, q2 = +Q, q3 = -2Q, q4 = -3Q, q5 = -Q
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

## Find the electric flux through surface S4.

[chap 22-page 759]

Solution:

4Q

(a)

qenc

(b)

qenc

q1 q2 q3 q5

(c)

qenc

q3 q4 q5

(d)

qenc

q5

q1

4Q Q 2Q Q

2Q 3Q Q

6Q

6Q

B 4. (a) A point charge Q = 7.00 C is located at the centre of a cube of side L = 0.150 m. Six
other point charges, each carrying a charge q = -1.50 C, are positioned symmetrically
around Q, inside the cube. What is the electric flux through one face of the cube?
(permittivity of free space = 8.85 x 10-12)

Solution:

## Total E through all 6 faces: E

qenc

Q 6q

0
E through one face = E 6 3.77 104 b
SABIS Proprietary

22.6 104 b

12

(b)

The total electric flux through a closed surface in the shape of a cylinder is
4.80 x 104 Wb. What is the net charge within the cylinder?
(permittivity of free space = 8.85 x 10-12)
[chap 22-page 759]

Solution:

qenc

## qenc E . 0 4.8 104 0 4.25 107 C

B 5. A thin square conducting plate 35.0 cm on a side lies in the xy plane. A total charge of
1.96 x 10-8 C is placed on the plate. (permittivity of free space = 8.85 x 10-12).
(a)

## Find the charge density on the plate.

(b)

What is the magnitude of the electric field just above the plate?
[chap 22-page 764]

Solution:

q 1.96 108

A (0.35)(0.35)

(a)

(b)

## for a thin plate (sheet): E

1.6 10

2 0
2 0

9.04 10 N/C
3

BG 6. A conducting spherical shell of radius 13.0 cm carries a net charge of 5.07 C uniformly
distributed on its surface.
G

(a)

Find the magnitude of the electric field just outside the shell.

(b)

## Find the magnitude of the electric field inside the shell.

(c)

What is the magnitude of the electric field at a point very far away from the shell?
[chap 22-page 762]

Solution:

qenc
5.07 106

## 2.7 106 N/C

2
2
4 r 0 4 (0.13) . 0

(a)

(b)

E = 0 since qenc = 0

(c)

qenc
;as r , E 0
4 r 2 0

B 7. A conducting spherical shell having an inner radius of 5.00 cm and outer radius of 6.00 cm

carries a net charge of 9.00 C. If a +4.00 C point charge is placed at the centre of the
shell, determine the surface charge density on:

SABIS Proprietary

13

(a)

(b)

## the outer surface.

[chap 22-page 767]

Solution:

## Since Q = +4.00 C in the cavity, a charge of 4.00 C is induced on the

inner surface of the shell. Consequently the charge on the outer surface of the
shell is +13.00 mC (since 13 + (4) = 9)

(a)

inner

2
2
Ainner
4 r
4 (0.05)

(b)

outer

## 2.87 104 C/m2

2
2
Aouter
4 r
4 (0.06)

B 8.

Two infinite, nonconducting sheets of charge are parallel to each other as shown in the
figure.
(a)

Both sheets have positive uniform charge densities 1 = 2 = 5.31 x 10-4 C/m2. What is
the electric field at point A?

Solution:

## Diagram for parts (a), (b) & (c):

E1 E2

+
+
+
+
+
E2
+
+
+
+
+
+
1
Plate 1

+
+
+
+
E1 + C
+
+
+
+
+
+
2
Plate 2

E1

E2

+x
SABIS Proprietary

14

* Note:

(a)

## 1) the electric field caused by a positively charged plate always

points away from it.
2) the electric field caused by a negatively charged plate always
points towards it.

## At A we must consider the two electric fields E1 and E2 caused by

plates 1 and 2 respectively:

Etotal E1 E2

(5.31104 )

2 0 2 0
0
0

## EA 6.0 107 N/Ci

(b)

Both sheets have positive uniform charge densities 1 = 2 = 5.31 x 10-4 C/m2. What is
the electric field at point B?

Solution:

(c)

At B, the two electric fields E1 and E2 are equal in magnitude and opposite
in direction; they cancel so: EB 0 N/C .

Both sheets have positive uniform charge densities 1 = 2 = 5.31 x 10-4 C/m2. What is
the electric field at point C?

Solution:

## At C, we must consider the two electric fields E1 and E2 caused by plates 1

and 2 respectively:

5.31104
Etotal E1 E2

2 0 2 0
0
0
EC 6.0 107 N/Ci

## [thus could also be done using symmetry from part (a)]

(d)

The sheet on the left has a uniform surface density 1 = 5.31 x 10-4 C/m2, and the one
on the right has a uniform charge density 2 = -5.31 x 10-4 C/m2. What is the electric
field at point A?

Solution:

## Diagram for parts (d), (e) & (f):

E1

A E2

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

1
Plate 1

SABIS Proprietary

E1

E2
E2

2
Plate 2
+x

E1

15

(d)

## At A, the two electric fields E1 and E2 (caused by plates 1 & 2

respectively) are equal in magnitude
but opposite in
2
0

## direction; they cancel so: EA 0 N/C

(e)

The sheet on the left has a uniform surface density 1 = 5.31 x 10-4 C/m2, and the one
on the right has a uniform charge density 2 = -5.31 x 10-4 C/m2. What is the electric
field at point B?

Solution:

## At B, we must consider the two electric fields E1 and E2 caused by plates 1

and 2 respectively:

5.31104
Etotal E1 E2

2 0 2 0
0
0

## EB 1.2 108 N/Ci

(f)

The sheet on the left has a uniform surface density 1 = 5.31 x 10-4 C/m2, and the one
on the right has a uniform charge density 2 = -5.31 x 10-4 C/m2. What is the electric
field at point C?
[chap 22-page 765]

Solution:

## By a similar argument to that in (d), we can show that:

EC 0 N/C

B 9.

E1

E2

A non-uniform electric field is directed along the x-axis at all points in space. The
magnitude of the field varies with x, but not with respect to y and z. The axis of a cylindrical
surface, 1.00 m long and 0.500 m in diameter, is aligned parallel to the x-axis. The electric
fields E1 and E2, at the ends of the cylindrical surface, have magnitudes 5.00 x 103 N/C and
1.50 x 103 N/C respectively, and are directed as shown in the diagram.
(a)

Find the electric flux entering the cylindrical surface at the left end.

(b)

Find the electric flux leaving the cylindrical surface at the right end.

(c)

## Find the net electric flux through the cylindrical surface.

[chap 22-page 755]

(d)

## What is the net charge enclosed by the cylindrical surface?

[chap 22-page 760]

Solution:

(a)

E E1.dA E .dA E . dA E A
left

SABIS Proprietary

16

## This flux is into the surface, therefore: Eleft 312.5 b

(b)

right

E2 .dA E .dA E2 . dA E2 A

1.5 10

r 1.5 10 0.25
2

## E (right ) 93.75 Nm 2 /C 93.75 b

This flux is out of the surface, therefore: Eright 93.75 b
(c)

(d)

total

total

qenc

## qenc Etotal . 0 (218.75 )( 0 ) 6.08 109 C

qenc 6.08nC

BG 10.

Three hollow, concentric spherical conductors are charged as follows: The inner sphere
carries -2Q, the middle sphere carries +3Q and the outer sphere carries -Q.

(a)

(b)

## Find the charge on the outer surface of the outer sphere.

[chap 22-page 767]

Solution:

## Since there is no charge in the innermost cavity, the charge of 2Q rests

entirely on the outer surface of the innermost sphere. This induces a charge
of +2Q on the inner surface of the middle sphere. Since the total charge on
the middle sphere is +3Q, we conclude that the charge on the outer surface of
SABIS Proprietary

17

the middle sphere is +Q. This induces a charge of Q on the inner surface of
the outermost sphere. The net charge on the outermost sphere is Q, so the
charge on the outer surface of the outermost sphere is 0.
(a)

+Q

(b)

SABIS Proprietary

18

Chapter 23:
Electric Potential

BG 1.
G

(a)

What is the electric potential energy of two point charges q and q0 a distance r apart?
[chap 23-page 784]

Solution:
(b)

1
4 0

qq0
r

A pair of charged metal plates (the top is negative and the bottom is positive) sets up
a uniform electric field with magnitude E. What are the direction and magnitude of
the force exerted on a positive charge q placed in that field?
[chap 23-page 782]

Solution:

(c)

## magnitude of force: F = q.E

direction: vertically upwards

The potential at a certain distance from a point charge is 720 V, and the electric field
is 180 NC-1. What is the charge?
[chap 23-page 788]

Solution:

V E.x x 4m
V

kq
rV xV
q

3.20 107 C
r
k
k

BG 2.
G

(a)

The potential difference between two oppositely charged parallel metal plates is 120
V and the distance between them is 3.0 cm. Find the magnitude of the electric field
between the plates.
[chap 23-page 796]

Solution:

V 120

## 4.0 103 N/C

d 0.02

SABIS Proprietary

19

(b)

The potential difference between two oppositely charged parallel metal plates is 450
V. Find the work done on a charge of 40 mC as it moves from the higher potential
plate to the lower.
[chap 23-page 788]

Solution:
(c)

## When a charge of 20 C is moved between two points M and N, in a uniform

electric field, 240 J of work is done. What is the potential difference between M
and N?
[chap 23-page 788]

Solution:
BG 3.
G

(a)

VMN

## WMN 240 106

12.0V
q0
20 106

A positive charge of 4.0 C is moved through an electric field to a point where the
potential is +250 V higher than before. Find the increase in the potential energy of
the system.
[chap 23-page 788]

Solution:

## U q0 .V 4.0 106 (250) 1.0 103 J

A proton, of mass 1.67 x 10-27 kg, is released from rest in a uniform electric field of
magnitude 7.50 x 104 V/m directed along the positive x-axis. The proton undergoes a
displacement of 0.600 m in the direction of E.
G

(b)

## What is the change in the electric potential?

[chap 23-page 796]

(c)

Find the change in potential energy of the proton for this displacement.
[chap 23-page 781]

(d)

What is the speed of the proton after it has moved 0.600 m, starting from rest?
[chap 23-page 783]

Solution:

(b)

(c)

## U q0 .V 1.602 1019 (4.5 104 ) 7.211015 J

(d)

k.e q.V
1
1
mV 2 mV0 2 q(4.5 104 )
2
2
1
(1.67 1027 )V 2 0 (1.602 1019 )(4.5 104 )
2

SABIS Proprietary

20

## V 2.94 106 m/s

BG 4.
G

A 3.00-C point charge is located at the origin, and a second point charge of 6.00 C is
located on the y-axis at the position (0,2.00) m.
(a) Find the total electric potential due to these charges at the point P, whose coordinates
are (1.50,0) m.
(b) What is the work required to bring a -3.00-C point charge from infinity to the point
P?
[chap 23-page 792]

Solution:

q2 =-6.00 C

2.02 1.52
2.02 +1.52

2.00 m

P
q1 =3.00 C

1.50 m

qi
1 3 106 6.0 106
3

3.60 10 V
2
2
ri 4 0 1.50
1.5 2

(a)

VP

(b)

W qV
. P 3.0 106 3.6 103 1.08 102 J

4 0

.
i

B 5. (a) What is the change in potential energy a 16.0-C charge experiences when it is moved
between two points for which the potential difference is 75.0 V?
[chap 23-page 790]

Solution:
(b)

## U q0 .V 16.0 106 75 1.2 103 J

The gap between the electrodes in a spark plug is 0.0800 cm. To produce an electric
spark in a gasoline-air mixture, an electric field of 4.50 x 106 V/m must be achieved.
When starting the car, what is the minimum voltage that must be applied by the
ignition circuit?
[chap 23-page 789]

Solution:

## V Ed (4.50 106 )(0.08 cm

1m
3.6 103 V
102 cm

B 6. What is the speed of a proton, of mass 1.67 x 10-27 kg, that is accelerated from rest through a
potential difference of 105 V?
[chap 23-page 788]

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Solution:

k.e q.V

1
1
mV 2 mV02 1.602 1019 105
2
2
V (1.42 105 ) m/s
*Note: the proton will accelerate from +ve to ve: V = Vfinal Vinitial since V
decreases as the proton moves from +ve to ve: V = 0 105 = 105

B 7. An electron, of mass 9.11 x 10-31 kg, moving parallel to the x-axis has an initial speed of

3.00 x 106 m/s at the origin O. Its speed is reduced to 2.10 x 105 m/s at point A. Find the
potential difference VAO of point A relative to the origin O.
[chap 23-page 788]

Solution:

k.e q.V
1
1
mVA2 mV02 q. VA V0 * Note :VA0 VA V0
2
2
1
(9.111031 ) VA2 V02 (1.602 1019 )(VA0 )
2
VA0 25.5 V

BG 8.

A q1

B q2

C
q3

The three charges in the figure are at the vertices of an isosceles triangle ABC, where
AB = AC = 5.00 cm, and BC = 4.0 cm. q1 = +4.00 C, q2 = q3 = -4.00 C. O is the
midpoint of BC.
(a)

(b)

(c)

## Find the total electric potential at O.

(d) A point charge q0 = 3.00 C is placed at O. Find the electric potential energy
associated with qo.
[chap 23-page 788]

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Solution:

## AO (0.05)2 (0.02)2 2.1103

kq1
q
1
1 4.00 106

. 1
.
Vq1 7.85 105 V
r
4 0 AO 4 0 2.1103

(a)

Vq1

(b)

kq2
1 q2
1 4.00 106
Vq2

.
Vq2 1.80 106 V
r
4 0 OB 4 0
0.02

(c)

## By symmetry: Vq2 Vq3 1.80 106 V

VTotal Vq1 Vq2 Vq3

## 7.85 105 1.80 106 + 1.80 106 = 2.82 106 V

(d)

q0
q
q q q q
. i 0 1 2 3 q0 .Vtotal
4 0 i ri 4 0 r1 r2 r3

## (3.00 106 )(2.82 106 )

U 8.45J

B 9. Two point charges Q1 = +7.00 nC and Q2 = -2.00 nC, are separated by 36.0 cm.
(a)

## What is the potential energy of the pair?

[chap 23-page 785]

(b)

## Find the electric potential at a point midway between the charges.

[chap 23-page 788]

Solution:

(a)
(b)

## kQ1Q2 (9 109 )(7.00 109 )(2.00 109 )

3.5 107 J
2
r
(36.0 10 )

kQ1 kQ2 2k
2 (9 109 )
V V1 V2

(Q1 Q2 )
(7.00 2.00) 109
2
r
r
r
36.0 10
2
2
2
V 2.50 10 V 250V

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Chapter 24:
Capacitance and Dielectrics

BG 1.

(a)

## What is the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor? Define all its terms.

[chap 24-page 816]

Solution:

A
d

0 kA
d

## C: capacitance; A: area of the plates; d: distance between the plates

k: relative permittivity of the dielectric dielectric constant
permittivity of the dielectric; 0: permittivity of free space
(b)

## Give the expression of the capacitance C of a parallel-plate capacitor with common

plate area A and plates separated by a layer of dielectric constant K and thickness d.
[chap 24-page 830]

Solution:
G

(c)

(a)

A
d

0 kA
d

## A capacitor acquires a charge of 156 C when it is connected to a potential

difference of 24.0V, find its capacitance.
[chap 24-page 817]

Solution:
BG 2.

Q 156 106

6.5 106 F
V
24.0

The plates of a parallel-plate capacitor in vacuum are 3.54 mm apart and 4.00 m2 in
area. Permittivity of free space = 8.85 x 10-12 F/m. Calculate its capacitance.
[chap 24-page 817]

Solution:
G

(b)

0 A
d

0 4.00
3.54 103

1.0 108 F

## Find the equivalent capacitance of the following combination.

2.0 F

4.0 F

SABIS Proprietary

9.0 F
24

Solution:
BG 3.

(a)

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

## Ceq 1.16 106 F

6
6
6
Ceq C1 C2 C3 2.0 10
4.0 10
9.0 10

2.0 F

4.0 F

9.0 F

## [chap 24-page 822]

Solution:
(b)

Ceq C1 C2 C3 (2.0 106 ) (4.0 106 ) (9.0 106 ) Ceq 1.5 105 F

A 0.25-F capacitor is charged so that the potential difference between its plates is
400 V. What is the stored energy?
[chap 24-page 824]

Solution:

1
1
U CV 2 0.25 106 (400) 2 2.0 102 J
2
2

B 4. (a) A capacitor of capacitance 25.0 F has a charge of 12.5 C. Find the stored energy.
6
Q 2 12.5 10
U

3.125 106 J
6
2C 2(25.0 10 )
2

Solution:
(b)

The potential difference across a capacitor is 60 V and its charge is 3.5 C. Calculate
the stored energy.
[chap 24-page 824]

Solution:

1
1
U QV 3.5 106 (60) 1.05 104 J
2
2

## B 5. A parallel-plate capacitor has plates of dimensions 1.50 cm x 5.00 cm separated by a 1.40-

mm thickness of bakelite of relative permittivity 4.90 and dielectric strength 2.40 x 107 V/m.
Permittivity of free space 8.85 x 10-12.

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(a)

## Find the capacitance of the device.

[chap 24-page 830]

(b)

## What is the maximum energy that can be stored in the capacitor?

[chap 24-page 833]

Solution:

(a)

C
0
2.32 1011 F
3
d
d
1.40 10

(b)

## Vmax Emax d 2.40 107 1.40 103 3.36 104 V

12

2
1
1
U max C.Vmax 2 2.32 1011 3.36 104 1.31102 J
2
2

BG 6.
(a)

## When a potential difference of 175 V is applied to the plates of a parallel-plate

capacitor, the plates carry a surface charge density of 35.0 nC/cm2. What is the
spacing between the plates?

Q .A

V
0 (175)
V
V A 0 A

d 0
4.43 106 m

9
4
A
d

35.0 10 10
V
C 0

Solution:

A small object with a mass of 300 g carries a charge of 20.0 nC and is suspended by a
thread between the vertical plates of a parallel-plate capacitor. The plates are separated by
5.00 cm. The thread makes an angle of 18.0 with the vertical.

(b)

(c)

(d)

## Find the potential difference between the plates.

[chap 24-page 817]

Solution:

(b)

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## Fy 0 Ty mg T cos18 (0.3)(9.8) T 3.09 N

(c)

(d)

Fx 0 Fe Tx T sin18
F
T sin18
E E e
4.78 107 N/C
q0 20.0 109
V Ed 4.78 107 5.0 102 = 2.39 106 V

B 7.

C2

C1

C3
V
In the capacitor network shown in the figure: C1 = 4.00 F, C2 = 6.00 F, C3 = 3.60 F, V =
15.0V.
(a)

## Find the equivalent capacitance C4 of C1 and C2.

[chap 24-page 823]

(b)

## Find the equivalent capacitance Ceq of C3 and C4.

[chap 24-page 823]

(c)

## What is the potential difference across C1?

[chap 24-page 823]

(d)

## Find the charge on C3.

[chap 24-page 817]

Solution:

(a)

1
1
1
1
1

C4 2.4 106 F
6
6
C4 C1 C2 4.00 10
6.00 10

(b)

## C3 & C4 are in parallel:

Ceq C3 C4 3.60 106 2.4 106 6.0 106 F

(c)

## Voltage in each branch is the same = 15 V

C1 & C2 are in series Q1 = Q2

## C1V1 C2V2 C1V1 C2 15 V1

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## 4.00 106 V1 6.00 106 15 V1

V1 9.0 V
(d)

V3 = 15 V
Q
C3 3 Q3 C3V3 (3.60 106 )(9) 5.4 105 C
V3

BG 8. A 4.00-F capacitor and a 16.0-F capacitor are connected in series across a 50.0-V
supply line.

(a)

(b)

## Find the charge on each capacitor.

[chap 24-page 821]

G.

The charged capacitors are disconnected from the line and from each other and then
reconnected to each other, with terminals of like sign together.
(c)

## What is the final voltage across each?

[chap 24-page 821]

(d)

## Find the final charges on C1 and C2 respectively.

[chap 24-page 817]

Solution:

(a)

In series

1
1
1
1
1

6
Ceq C1 C2 4.00 10
16.0 106

(b)

(c)

## Qtotal = Q1 + Q2 (charge is conserved)

* since C1 & C2 have two points in common, they are in parallel and V1
= V2 = V
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V 16.0 V
(d)

## Q2 C2V 16.00 106 16.0 2.56 105 C

BG 9. The square plates of a 7.50-nF capacitor measure 50.0 mm by 50.0 mm and are separated
by a dielectric which is 0.250 mm thick. The voltage rating of the capacitor is 400 V.
Permittivity of free space = 8.85 x 10-12.
G

(a)

## What is the maximum energy that can be stored in the capacitor?

[chap 24-page 832]

(b)

## Find the dielectric constant of the dielectric.

[chap 24-page 830]

(c)

## Calculate the dielectric strength of the dielectric.

[chap 24-page 833]

Solution:

(a)

1
1
2
U max C.Vmax 2 7.50 109 400 6.0 1014 J
2
2

(b)

(c)

k 0 A
d .c
k
84.7
d
0 A

Vmax
400

## 1.6 106 V/m

3
d
0.25 10

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Chapter 25:
Current, Resistance and E.M.F.

B 1. (a) A current of 3.20 A flows through a bulb. How many coulombs of charge flow through
the bulb in 7.50 h?

Solution:
(b)

A wire of cross-sectional area 1.40 mm2 has 8.20 x 1027 free electrons per cubic metre.
The electrons, each of charge 1.60 x 10-19 C, drift at an average speed of 1.10 mm/s.
Find the current in the wire.
[chap 25-page 849]

Solution:
BG 2.
G

(a)

## I nAve 8.2 1027 1.4 106 1.1103 1.6 1019 2.02 A

A wire of resistivity 9.42 x 10-8 m is 15.0 m long and has a radius of 2.00 mm. What
is its resistance?
[chap 25-page 853]

Solution:
(b)

l
A

l 9.42 108 15

0.112
r2
4 106

## The resistivity of a certain metal is 2.30 x 10-7 m at 20.0C. Its temperature

coefficient is 0.00600 (C)-1. Calculate its resistivity at 35.0 C.
[chap 25- page 852]

Solution:

BG 3.
G

(a)

2.51107 m

## A resistance of 3.20 is connected to the terminals of a cell of e.m.f. 10.8 V and

internal resistance 0.400 . What is the p.d across the 3.20- resistor?

Solution:

Rr

10.8
10.8

3A
3.2 0.4 3.6

V IR 3 3.2 9.60 V

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(b)

A cell of e.m.f. 12.0 V and internal resistance 1.50 is connected across a 2.50-
resistor. Find the charge which passes any point in the circuit in three minutes.
[chap 25-page 858]

Solution:
BG4.
G

(a)

Rr

12
12
3A
2.5 1.5 4

Q It 3 3 60 540 C

## The resistance of a certain length of copper wire is 3.00 at 20.0 C. If the

temperature coefficient of copper is 4.00 x 10-3 K-1, what is its resistance at 65.0 C ?
[chap 25-page 854]

Solution:
(b)

R R0 1 T T0 3 1 4 103 65 20 3.54

A cell of e.m.f. 6.4 V and internal resistance 0.10 is connected across a 1.5-
resistor. Find the net output of the battery.
[chap 25-page 864]

Solution:

Rr

6.4
6.4

4A
1.5 0.1 1.6

V Ir IR 4 1.5 6 V

P VI 6 4 24 W

BG 5.

1.5 ,14 V

3.3

4.0

1.2 ,10 V

(a)

## Calculate the current in the circuit.

[chap 25-page 862]

(b)

(c)

(d)

## Find the rate of conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy.

[chap 25-page 865]

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Solution:

e
14 10
4

0.40 A
R
1.5 3.3 1.2 4 10

(a)

(b)

P I 2R 0.42 10 1.6 W

(c)

P eI 10 0.4 4.0 W

(d)

P I 14 0.4 5.6 W

## B 6. A resistance thermometer, which measures temperature by measuring the change in

resistance of a conductor, is made from silver, of temperature coefficient of resistivity 3.80 x
10-3 (C)-1, and has a resistance of 40.0 at 31.0C. When immersed in a vessel containing
melting lead, its resistance increases to 85.0 . Calculate the melting point of lead.
[chap 25-page 854]

Solution:

R R0 1 T T0

R
1
1
85
T 1 T0 1
31 327 C
3
R

40
3
.
8

10

## B 7. (a) An electric heater is constructed by applying a potential difference of 150 V to a

Nichrome wire of total resistance 10.0 . Find the power rating of the heater, in kW.
[chap 25-page 864]

Solution:
(b)

V 2 1502

2250 W 2.25 kW
R
10

A 20.0- metal wire is cut into four pieces that are then connected side by side to form
a new wire the length of which is equal to one-fourth the original wire. What is the
resistance of this new wire?
[chap 25-page 853]

Solution:

l'

l
A' 4A
4

l
A

R'

l '
A'

R' l ' A 1 1 1
R 20
R'
1.25
R l A ' 4 4 16
16 16

B 8. (a) A 2.10-V potential difference is maintained across a 2.00-m length of tungsten wire of
resistivity 5.60 x 10-8 m, that has a cross-sectional area of 0.500 mm2. Find the
current in the wire.
[chap 25-page 853]

Solution:

## V V VA 2.1 0.5 106

9.375 9.38 A
R l l
5.6 108 2
A
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(b)

## A segment of Aluminum wire of temperature coefficient of resistivity 3.90 x 10-3 (C)1

is initially at 21.0C. To which temperature must the wire be heated to quadruple its
resistance?
[chap 25-page 854]

Solution:

R R0 1 T T0 4 R0 T T0

21

3
790 C
3.9 103

B 9. A wire with resistance 6.00 is lengthened 1.50 times its original length by pulling it
through a small hole. Find the resistance of the wire after it is stretched.
[chap 25-page 853]

Solution:

## V V ' lA l ' A '

R

l
A

R'

l '
A'

B 10.

A l'
1.5
A' l
R' l ' A
1.5 1.5 R ' 2.25 6 13.5
R l A'

E1

r1

B
R

D
r2

E2

(a)

(c)

## Find the potential VDC of point D relative to point C.

[chap 25-page 865]

## (d) What is the total rate of dissipation of energy in the circuit?

[chap 25-page 865]

Solution:

14 10 24

2.40 A
R 3 2 5 10

(a)

(b)

## VAB 1 Ir1 14 2.4 3 6.80 V

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(c)

## VDC 2 Ir2 10 2.4 2 5.20 V

(d)

P I 2R 2.42 10 57.6 W

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Chapter 26:
Direct-Current Circuits

B 1. (a) Three resistors of resistances R1 = 1.00 , R2 = 3.00 and R3 = 5.00 are connected
in series. Find their equivalent resistance.
[chap 26-page 882]

Solution:
(b)

Req R1 R2 R3 1 3 5 9.00

## Three resistors of resistances R1 = 1.00 , R2 = 3.00 and R3 = 5.00 are connected

in parallel. Find their equivalent resistance.
[chap 26-page 883]

Solution:

1
1 1
1 1 1 1 23
15

Req
0.652
Req R1 R2 R3 1 3 5 15
23

## B 2. (a) What is the current from a to b ?

1.20 A

0.920 A

2.00 A

b
[chap 26-page 888]

Solution:

## Junction rule: I ab 2 0.92 2.92 A Iba 2.92 A

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(b)

Applying Kirchhoffs loop rule for the loop abcdefa, find the resistance x.
0.450 A
2.00
b

4.00

0.505 A

1.50 A

(1 mark)

Solution:

## 0.45 2 0.505 4 1.5 x 0 x

0.45 2 0.505 4
1.946 1.95
1.5

B 3. (a) A galvanometer has coil resistance RC and f.s.d. current Ifs. If it is to be converted to an
ammeter of f.s.d. current Ia ,what is the shunt resistance required?
[chap 26-page 892]

Solution:
(b)

I a I fs Rsh I fs RC Rsh

I fs RC
I a I fs

## A galvanometer has coil resistance RC and f.s.d. current Ifs. If it is to be converted to a

voltmeter of f.s.d. VV , find the resistance required.
[chap 26-page 892]

Solution:

VV I fs Rs RC Rs

VV
RC
I fs

B 4. (a) An ammeter of 48.5 resistance gives a full scale deflection for 3.0 mA. What must
the meter have added to it to give a full scale deflection for 100 mA?
[chap 26-page 892]

Solution:

Rsh

I fs RC
3 48.5

1.5 in parallel
I a I fs 100 3

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(b)

## A galvanometer of coil resistance 20.0 and f.s.d. current 2.00 mA is to be converted

to a voltmeter with a maximum range of 16.0 V. What is the series resistance to be
used?
[chap 26-page 892]

Solution:

Rs

VV
16
RC
20 7980
I fs
2 103

## Rs 7.98 103 in series

BG 5. (a) In the R-C circuits, give the formulae of current and charge in terms of time:
(i)

while charging

(ii)

while discharging
[chap 26-page 897]

Solution:

(i)
(ii)

q QF 1 e RC

q Q0e

t
RC

t
RC

t
RC

i I 0e
i I 0e

## A resistor with resistance 12.0 M is connected in series with a capacitor with

capacitance 2.00 F and a battery with e.m.f. 12.0 V. Before the switch is closed at t = 0,
the capacitor is uncharged.
(b)

## Find the time constant.

[chap 26-page 898]

(c)

(d)

## Find the final charge on the capacitor.

[chap 26-page 897]

Solution:

(b)

RC 12 2 24.0 s

(c)

I0

(d)

QF C 2 12 24.0 C

12
1.00 A
12

B 6. A resistor with resistance 12.0 M is connected in series with a capacitor with capacitance
2.00 F and a battery with e.m.f. 12.0 V. Before the switch is closed at t = 0, the capacitor is
uncharged.
(a)

(b)

## Calculate the charge at one time constant.

[chap 26-page 897]

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Solution:

(a)

RC 12 2 24.0 s

i I 0e

t
RC

I0

12
1 A
12

i 1 e1 0.368 A

(b)

q QF 1 e RC
QF C 2 12 24 C

1
q 24 1 e 15.2 C

B 7.
R3

R2

R1

R4
Four resistors are connected as shown. R1 = 3.00 , R2 = 4.00 , R3 = 24.0 , R4 = 12.0 .
Vac = 22.5 V
(a)

(b)

## Find the current through R3.

[chap 26-page 882]

Solution:

(a)

R5 R1 R2 3 4 7

1
1
1
1 1 1

R6 8
R6 R3 R4 24 12 8

Req R5 R6 7 8 15.0
(b)

VAC 22.5

1.5 A
Req
15

Vbc IR6 I 3 R3 I 3

IR6 1.5 8

0.500 A
R3
24

B 8. (a) The currrent in a loop circuit that has a resistance R1 is 4.0 A. The current is reduced to
3.0 A when an additional resistor R2 = 2.5 is added in series with R1. What is the
value of R1?

Solution:

I1R1 I 2 R1 R2 I 2 R1 I 2 R2 R1 I1 I 2 I 2 R2 R1
R1

I 2 R2
I1 I 2

3 2.5
7.5
43

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(b)

## A battery with an e.m.f. of 15.0 V and internal resistance of 0.800 is connected

across a load resistor R. If the current in the circuit is 2.50 A, find the power dissipated
in R.
[chap 26-page 882]

Solution:

rR

15
0.8 5.2
2.5

## P I 2 R 2.52 5.2 32.5 W

B 9. The current in a circuit is quadrupled by connecting a 600- resistor in parallel with the
resistance R of the circuit. Calculate the resistance R.
[chap 26-page 883]

Solution:

1
1
1 R 600
600 R

Req
Req 600 R
600 R
R 600
I R 4 I Req R 4

600 R
2400 R 600 R 1800 1.80 k
R 600

BG 10. Three resistors each having resistance R = 3.0 are connected as in the figure. Each can
dissipate a maximum power of 48 W without being excessively heated. Find the
maximum power the network can dissipate.
R
R

R
[chap 26-page 883]

Solution:

R
I /2

1
R

I /2

3
48 W
2
R

P3 48 W

1
P1 P2 48 12 W
4

PT P1 P2 P3 12 12 48 72 W
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BG 11. Initially, for the circuit shown, the switch S is open and the capacitor, of capacitance
20.0 F, has a voltage of 120 V, and R = 3.00 M. The switch is closed at time t = 0.
S

(a)

Calculate the charge on the capacitor, when the current in the circuit is 35.0 A.
[chap 26-page 898]

Solution:
G

(b)

VR VC iR

q
q iRC 35 3 20 2100 2.10 103 C
C

## Find the capacitor voltage when the time is equal to 75.0 s.

[chap 26-page 897]

Solution:

q Q0e

t
RC

t
75
5

q Q0 RCt
RC
203

e
v V0e
120e
120e 4
C C

SABIS Proprietary

34.4 V

40

Chapter 27:
Magnetic Field and Magnetic Forces

BG 1. (a) An electron of charge 1.6 x 10-19 C moves with a speed of 4.0 x 106 m/s along the x
axis. It enters a region where there is a magnetic field of magnitude 1.5 T, directed at
an angle of 30 to the x-axis and lying in the xy plane. Find the magnitude and
direction of the magnetic force on the electron.
[chap 27-page 919]

Solution:

A
B
37

F qv B

## F qvB sin 1.6 1019 4 106 1.5 sin 30 4.8 1013 N

F 4.8 10
G

(b)

13

N,()ve z direction.

A disc of radius 1.5 cm is found in a region of uniform magnetic field of 4.0 T making
an angle of 37 with the plane of the disc. Calculate the magnetic flux through the
disc.
[chap 27-page 924]

Solution:

A
B
37

BA cos B r 2 cos
4 1.5 102 cos53 1.7 103 Wb
2

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B 2. (a) A proton of mass 1.67 x 10-27 kg and charge 1.60 x 10-19 C moving with a speed of
2.50 x 105 m/s enters a region of uniform magnetic field perpendicular to its direction
of motion and of magnitude 0.800 T. Find the radius of its trajectory.
[chap 27-page 926]

Solution:
(b)

mv 2
mv 1.67 1027 2.5 105
qvB r

## 3.26 103 m 3.26 mm

r
qB
1.6 1019 0.8

In a velocity selector of crossed electric and magnetic fields, the magnitude of the
electric field is 5.0 x 106 V/m and that of the magnetic field is 0.80 T. What is the
speed of the particle?
[chap 27-page 929]

Solution:

E 5 106
FE FB q E q vB v
6.25 106
B
0.8

## 6.3 106 m/s

BG 3. (a) A wire carries a steady current of 2.5 A. A straight section of the wire is 0.60 m long
and lies along the x axis within a uniform magnetic field, B = (2.4 T) k. If the current
is in the + x direction, find the magnetic force on the section of the wire.
[chap 27-page 933]

Solution:

## F Il B 2.5 0.6i 2.4k 3.6 N j

(b)

A circular coil 6.0 cm in radius, with 60 turns of wire, carries a current of 5.0 A . The
coil is in a uniform magnetic field with magnitude 4.0 T making an angle of 60 with
the plane of the coil. Find the torque on the coil.
[chap 27-page 936]
A

Solution:

B
60

90 60 30

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42

## NIAB sin 60 5 36 104 4 sin 30 6.78584 6.8 Nm

BG 4. (a) The Earths magnetic field at a certain place is 3.2 x 10-5 T at an angle of 30 with the
horizontal. Calculate the flux through the horizontal ceiling of a rectangular room 6.0
m by 8.0 m.
[chap 27-page 924]

Solution:

30

90 30 60
BA cos 3.2 105 48 cos 60 7.68 104 7.7 104 Wb
G

(b)

## A particle with a charge of 6.0 x 10-8 C is moving with instantaneous velocity of

(4.5 x 104 m/s )j Find the force exerted on the particle by a magnetic field (5.0T)k.
[chap 27-page 919]

Solution:

## F qv B 6 108 4.5 104 j 5k 0.0135 N i

0.014 N i

B 5. (a) An electron experiences a magnetic force of magnitude 6.7 x 10-15 N when moving at
an angle of 37 with respect to a magnetic field of magnitude 3.5 x 10-3 T. What is the
speed of the electron ?
[chap 27-page 919]

Solution:

(b)

F
6.7 1015
F qvB sin v

1.988 107
19
3
qB sin 1.6 10 3.5 10 sin 37
7
v 2.0 10 m/s

A circular area with a radius of 5.0 cm lies in the xy plane. Find the magnitude of the
magnetic flux through this circle due to a uniform magnetic field of magnitude 0.60 T
in the +z direction.
[chap 27-page 924]

Solution:

z
B
A

x
SABIS Proprietary

43

## BA cos 0.6 5 102 1 4.7 103 Wb

2

BG 6.
G

(a)

A singly charged ion moving with a speed of 3.9 x 105 m/s enters a region of uniform
magnetic field of magnitude 0.52 T, perpendicular to the direction of motion of the
ion, and describes a circular arc of radius 50 cm. What is the mass of the ion?
[chap 27-page 926]

Solution:
G

(b)

mv
rqB 0.5 1.6 1019 0.52
m

5
qB
v
3.9 10

## A horizontal rod 35 cm long is mounted on a balance and carries a current. At the

location of the rod a uniform horizontal magnetic field has magnitude 0.020 T and
direction perpendicular to the rod. The magnetic force on the rod is measured by the
balance and is found to be 0.21 N. Find the current.
[chap 27-page 933]

Solution:

F IlB sin I

F
0.21

30 A
lB 0.35 0.02

B 7. A wire having a mass per unit length of 0.600 g/cm carries a 3.00-A current horizontally to
the north. What are the magnitude and direction of the minimum magnetic field needed to
lift this wire vertically upward?
[chap 27-page 933]

Solution:

I
West

East

mg
m
mg m g 0.6 103 9.8
0.6 g/cm F mg IlB mg B

l
Il
l I
102
3
B 0.196 T, West

B 8. Alpha particles (charge =+2e, mass = 6.68 x 10-27 kg) are accelerated in a cyclotron to a
final orbit radius of 0.800 m. The magnetic field in the cyclotron is 0.600 T.
(a)

## Find the period of circular motion of the alpha particles.

(b)

What is the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of the alpha particles in the final
orbit?
[chap 27-page 926]
SABIS Proprietary

44

Solution:

(a)

(b)

mv
rqB
2 r 2 m
v
T

qB
m
qB
r qB
m
27
2 6.68 10
T
2.186 107 s 0.2186 s
2 1.6 1019 0.6

2 r
v

a 2r

4 2
4 2
r

2
2
T
2.186 107

0.219 s
6.611014 m/s 2

## B 9. A uniform magnetic field of magnitude 0.60 T in the positive z-direction is present in a

region of space. A uniform electric field is also present. An electron projected with an initial
velocity v0 = 2.5 x 104 m/s in the positive x-direction, traverses the region without
deflection. What is the electric field vector?
[chap 27-page 929]

Solution:

FB

j
B

v0
i

FE

## Right-hand rule q 0 FB along +j FE along j

q 0 E along j Fy 0 FE FB q E q vB
E vB 2.5 104 0.6 1.5 104

E 15 kV/m j

B 10. A 12-m length of wire carrying a current of 5.6 A lies on a horizontal table with a
rectangular top of dimensions 180 x 240 cm2. The ends of the wire are attached to opposite
ends of a diagonal of the rectangle. A vertical magnetic field of 0.25 T is present. Find the
magnitude of the magnetic force acting on this segment of wire.
[chap 27-page 933]

Solution:
l

180

240
l 2402 1802 300 cm

SABIS Proprietary

45

F Il B

## F IlB sin 5.6 3 0.25 4.2 N

B 11. (a) A circular coil of wire of 250 turns and diameter 2.50 cm carries a current of 4.50 A. It
is placed in a magnetic field of 0.400 T with the plane of the coil making an angle of
37.0 with the magnetic field. Find the torque on the coil.
[chap 27-page 936]

Solution:

A
B
37

90 37 53
NIAB sin 250 4.5 1.25 102 0.4 sin 53
2

0.176 Nm
(b)

A particle of charge -5.00 C and mass 3.50 x 10-12 kg has velocity 4.00 km/s as it
enters a region of uniform magnetic field. The particle is observed to travel in a
circular path of radius 7.50 cm. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field in the
region?
[chap 27-page 937]

Solution:

mv
mv 3.5 1012 4 103
B

0.0373 T
qB
rq 7.5 102 5 106

SABIS Proprietary

46

Chapter 28:
Sources of Magnetic Field

BG 1. (a) What is the constant current flowing in a straight wire required to give a magnetic field
of 2.0 x 10-5 T at 2.5 cm from the wire?

## [chap 28-page 963]

Solution:
G

(b)

0 I
2 rB 2 2.5 102 2 105
I

2.5 A
2 r
0
4 107

A circular coil of radius 4.0 cm and 200 turns lies in the plane of this paper and carries
a current of 2.5 A in an anticlockwise sense. Determine the field at the centre of the
coil.
[chap 28-page 968]

Solution:

## 2.5 103 T, page and out of the page.

2a
2 0.04

B 2.

(1)

(2)

S
(a)

Two long parallel conductors run North-South in the same horizontal plane as shown
in the diagram. (1) carries a current 20 A northward and (2) a current 20 A southward,
and they are 5.0 cm apart. Determine the force per unit length of (2) on (1).
[chap 28-page 966]

Solution:

F 0 II ' 4 107 20 20

## 1.6 103 N/m, West.

l
2 r
2 0.05

SABIS Proprietary

47

(b)

A solenoid with 800 turns, 75 cm long and 6.0 cm in diameter, lies with its axis NorthSouth and carries a current of 6.0 A in a clockwise sense when viewed from the South
end. Find the magnitude and direction of the field at the centre of the solenoid.
[chap 28-page 974]

Solution:
S

B 0 nI

0 NI
l

4 107 800 6
8.0 103 T, from south to north.
0.75

B 3. (a) What is the magnitude of the magnetic field produced by a straight long wire carrying
a current of 45 A at 18 cm from the wire?
[chap 28-page 963]

Solution:
(b)

0 I 4 107 45 90 107

5.0 105 T
2 r
2 0.18
0.18

Two long, parallel wires are separated by a distance of 3.5 cm. The force per unit
length that each wire exerts on the other is 6.0 x 10-5 N/m, and the wires attract each
other. If the current in one wire is 2.1 A, find the current in the second wire.
[chap 28-page 966]

Solution:

F 0 II '
2 r F 2 3.5 102

I'

6 105
7
l
2 r
0 I l 4 10 2.1

## I ' 5.0 A, same direction as first current.

B 4. (a) A closely wound circular coil with 600 turns carries a current of 2.5 A and produces at
its centre a magnetic field of magnitude 3.8 x 10-3 T. What is its diameter?

## [chap 28-page 968]

Solution:
(b)

N 0 I
N 0 I 600 4 107 2.5
B
2a D

0.496 m 50 cm
2a
B
3.8 103

## A solenoid is designed to produce a magnetic field of 0.06030 T at its centre and it

carries a current of 16.00 A. Find the number of turns per unit length?
[chap 28-page 974]

Solution:

B 0 nI n

B
0.0603

2999 turns/m
0 I 4 107 16
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48

B 5.
(a)

y
P
x

A long, straight conductor lies along the x-axis and carries a current of 200 A in the
positive x-direction. Determine the magnetic field at point P in the diagram, such that
OP = 1.50 m and = 40.0:
[chap 28-page 963]

Solution:

a OP sin

0 I 4 107 200

2 a 2 1.5sin 40

(b)

## Give the official SI definition of the ampere.

[chap 28-page 966]

Solution:

The ampere is that unvarying current that, if present in each of two parallel
conductors of infinite length and one meter apart in empty space, causes each
conductor to experience a force of exactly 2 107 newtons per meter of
length.

BG 6.

I
x

O
d

2d
The figure is an end view of two, long, straight, parallel wires perpendicular to the xy-plane,
each carrying a current I = 7.00 A but in opposite directions. d = 8.00 cm.
G

(a)

(b)

## Find the magnetic field at P.

[chap 28-page 963]

Solution:

(a)

B B1 B2 2B1

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49

B1 B2

0 I
2 4 107 7
B
3.5 105
2 d
2 0.08

B 3.5 10
(b)

B B2 B1

T j

0 I
I
B1
0
2 3d 6 d

B1

I
B2 0
2 d

B2

B2

0 I 1 2 0 I
I
B 0
1
2 d 3 3 2 d
3 d
7
4 10 7
B
1.17 105 T
3 0.08
B

B 1.17 10
B 7.

T j

B1

I1

I2

Two long, straight, parallel wires are 4.00 m apart. They carry currents in opposite direction,
as shown in the figure. I1 = 9.00 A, I2 = 16.0 A, AP = 2.40 m, CP = 3.20 m.
(a)

(b)

(c)

## Find the magnitude of the resultant magnetic field at P.

(d)

Find the acute angle the resultant magnetic field at P makes with the direction AP.
[chap 28-page 963]

Solution:

B
B2
B1

B
SABIS Proprietary

50

42 2.42 3.22

(a)

B1

0 I1 4 107 9

2 r1
2 2.4

(b)

B2

0 I 2 4 107 16

## 1.00 106 T, direction AP

2 r2
2 3.2

(c)

B B12 B2 2

(d)

7
B1
1 7.5 10
tan
tan
tan 2 0.75 36.9
6
B2
110

7.5 10 110
7 2

6 2

1.25 106 T

BG 8.
I1

P
z

I2

A coil consisting of 40.0 turns has a radius of 12.6 cm and carries a current I1 = 4.00 A as
shown in the figure. A long, straight conductor, which is in the plane of the coil, carries a
current I2 = 350 A at a distance of 17.5 cm from the centre P of the coil.

(a)

(b)

## What is the magnetic field B2 at P due to I2?

[chap 28-page 963]

(c)

## Find the net magnetic field at P.

(d)

If the current I2 were 350 A in the positive y direction, what would the net field at P
be?
[chap 28-page 968]

Solution:

(a)

B1

N10 I1 40 4 107 4

7.98 104 T
2a
2 0.126

(b)

B2

0 I 2 4 107 350

4 104 T
2 r2
2 0.175

(c)

## Net B B1 B2 7.98 4 104

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51

(d)

1.20 103 T

## Net B 1.20 103 T, in the positive z direction

B 9.
F
v

ex
Bext

A conducting ring of radius 6.28 cm carries a current of unknown magnitude and sense. A
uniform external magnetic field Bext = 150 T, directed into the plane, is applied as shown in
the figure. An electron is projected from the centre of the ring, with an initial velocity 4.00 x
105 m/s towards the right. The electron experiences an initial force 1.60 x 10-17 N in the upward
direction.
(a)

## What is the magnitude of the net magnetic field?

[chap 27-page 919]

(b)

(c)

Deduce the magnitude of the magnetic field produced by the current at the centre of the
ring.
[chap 28-page 9687]
Find the current in the ring.
[chap 28-page 968]

Solution:

(a)
(b)

F
1.6 1017

2.50 104 T
qv 1.6 1019 4 105
Right-hand rule B net is out of the page. But Bexternal is into the page,
F qvB

Bnet

net

## Bcurrent 2.5 104 1.5 104 4.00 104 T

(c)

Bcurrent

0 I
2a

2a Bcurrent

SABIS Proprietary

40.0 A
4 107

52